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Sample records for early b-type stars

  1. Fundamental properties of nearby single early B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, María-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    Aims: Fundamental parameters of a sample of 26 apparently slowly-rotating single early B-type stars in OB associations and in the field within a distance of ≲400 pc from the Sun are presented and compared to high-precision data from detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). Together with surface abundances for light elements the data are used to discuss the evolutionary status of the stars in context of the most recent Geneva grid of models for core hydrogen-burning stars in the mass-range ~6 to 18 M⊙ at metallicity Z = 0.014. Methods: The fundamental parameters are derived on the basis of accurate and precise atmospheric parameters determined earlier by us from non-LTE analyses of high-quality spectra of the sample stars, utilising the new Geneva stellar evolution models. Results: Evolutionary masses plus radii and luminosities are determined to better than typically 5%, 10%, and 20% uncertainty, respectively, facilitating the mass-radius and mass-luminosity relationships to be recovered for single core hydrogen-burning objects with a similar precision as derived from DEBs. Good agreement between evolutionary and spectroscopic masses is found. Absolute visual and bolometric magnitudes are derived to typically ~0.15-0.20 mag uncertainty. Metallicities are constrained to better than 15-20% uncertainty and tight constraints on evolutionary ages of the stars are provided. Overall, the spectroscopic distances and ages of individual sample stars agree with independently derived values for the host OB associations. Signatures of mixing with CN-cycled material are found in 1/3 of the sample stars. Typically, these are consistent with the amount predicted by the new Geneva models with rotation. The presence of magnetic fields appears to augment the mixing efficiency. In addition, a few objects are possibly the product of binary evolution. In particular, the unusual characteristics of τ Sco point to a blue straggler nature, due to a binary merger. Conclusions: The accuracy

  2. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star σ Lupi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Landstreet, J.D.; Wade, G.A.; Grunhut, J.H.; Oksala, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. Indirect indicators are needed to identify them before investing in time-intensive spectropolarimetric observations. Aims. We use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of ultraviolet (UV) stellar

  3. PROJECTED ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF 136 EARLY B-TYPE STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmany, C. D.; Glaspey, J. W. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bragança, G. A.; Daflon, S.; Fernandes, M. Borges; Cunha, K. [Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP: 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI: 48109-1107 (United States); Bensby, T., E-mail: garmany@noao.edu [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    We have determined projected rotational velocities, v sin i, from Magellan/MIKE echelle spectra for a sample of 136 early B-type stars having large Galactocentric distances. The target selection was done independently of their possible membership in clusters, associations or field stars. We subsequently examined the literature and assigned each star as Field, Association, or Cluster. Our v sin i results are consistent with a difference in aggregate v sin i with stellar density. We fit bimodal Maxwellian distributions to the Field, Association, and Cluster subsamples representing sharp-lined and broad-lined components. The first two distributions, in particular, for the Field and Association are consistent with strong bimodality in v sin i. Radial velocities are also presented, which are useful for further studies of binarity in B-type stars, and we also identify a sample of possible new double-lined spectroscopic binaries. In addition, we find 18 candidate Be stars showing emission at Hα.

  4. The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Bagnulo, S; Alecian, E; Grunhut, J; Kochukhov, O; Wade, G

    2009-01-01

    Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the "normal" A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. We wish to stablish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and pi Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled ...

  5. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star sigma Lupi

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichs, H F; Plaggenborg, B; Marsden, S C; Waite, I A; Landstreet, J D; Wade, G A; Grunhut, J H; Oksala, M E

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. To identify them, we use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of UV stellar wind lines occurring symmetric about the approximate rest wavelength. Probable magnetic candidates are targets for follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic field. From the UV wind line variability the B1/B2V star sigma Lupi emerged as a new magnetic candidate star. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. The longitudinal component of the magnetic field integrated over the visible surface of the star was determined with the Least-Squares Deconvolution method. The UV line variations of sigma Lupi are similar to what is known in magnetic B stars, but no periodicity could be determined. We detected a varying longitudinal magnetic field with amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G, which supports an oblique magnetic-rotator configuration. The EW variations of the UV lines, the magnetic and ...

  6. Improving stellar parameter and abundance determinations of early B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    In the past years we have made great efforts to reduce the statistical and systematic uncertainties in stellar parameter and chemical abundance determinations of early B-type stars. Both the construction of robust model atoms for non-LTE line-formation calculations and a novel self-consistent spectral analysis methodology were decisive to achieve results of unprecedented precision. They were extensively tested and applied to high-quality spectra of stars from OB associations and the field in the solar neighbourhood, covering a broad parameter range. Initially, most lines of hydrogen, helium and carbon in the optical/near-IR spectral range were reproduced simultaneously in a consistent way for the first time, improving drastically on the accuracy of results in published work.By taking additional ionization equilibria of oxygen, neon, silicon and iron into account, uncertainties as low as ~1% in effective temperature, ~10% in surface gravity and ~20% in elemental abundances are achieved - compared to ~5-10%, ~2...

  7. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star σ Lupi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, H. F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S. C.; Waite, I. A.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.; Grunhut, J. H.; Oksala, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. Indirect indicators are needed to identify them before investing in time-intensive spectropolarimetric observations. Aims: We use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of ultraviolet (UV) stellar wind lines occurring symmetric about the approximate rest wavelength. Our aim is to identify probable magnetic candidates which would become targets for follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic field. Methods: From the UV wind line variability the B1/B2V star σ Lupi emerged as a new magnetic candidate star. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. The longitudinal component of the magnetic field integrated over the visible surface of the star was determined with the least-squares deconvolution method. Results: The UV line variations of σ Lupi are similar to what is known in magnetic B stars, but no periodicity could be determined. We detected a varying longitudinal magnetic field with amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G, which supports an oblique magnetic-rotator configuration. The equivalent width variations of the UV lines, the magnetic and the optical-line variations are consistent with the photometric period of 3.02 d, which we identify with the rotation period of the star. Additional observations with ESPaDOnS attached to the CFHT confirmed this discovery, and allowed the determination of a precise magnetic period. Analysis revealed that σ Lupi is a helium-strong star, with an enhanced nitrogen abundance and an underabundance of carbon, and has a chemically spotted surface. Conclusions.σ Lupi is a magnetic oblique rotator, and is a He-strong star. Like in other magnetic B stars the UV wind emission appears to originate close to the magnetic equatorial plane, with maximum emission occurring when a magnetic pole points towards the Earth. The 3.01972 ± 0.00043 d magnetic rotation period is consistent with

  8. Early type stars at high galactic latitudes II. Four evolved B-type stars of unusual chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Ramspeck, M; Edelmann, H

    2001-01-01

    We present the result of differential spectral analyses of a further four apparently normal B-type stars. Abundance anomalies (e.g. He, C, N enrichment), slow rotation and/or high gravities suggest that the programme stars are evolved low-mass B-type stars. In order to trace their evolutionary status several scenarios are discussed. Post-AGB evolution can be ruled out. PG 0229+064 and PG 1400+389 could be horizontal branch (HB) stars, while HD 76431 and SB 939 have already evolved away from the extreme HB (EHB). The low helium abundance of HD 76431 is consistent with post-EHB evolution. The enrichment in helium, carbon and nitrogen of the remaining stars can be explained either by deep mixing of nuclearly processed material to the surface or by diffusion processes modified by magnetic fields and/or stellar winds. A kinematic study of their galactic orbits indicates that the stars belong to an old disk population.

  9. B fields in OB stars (BOB): on the detection of weak magnetic fields in the two early B-type stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Morel, T; Langer, N; Briquet, M; Carroll, T A; Hubrig, S; Nieva, M F; Oskinova, L M; Przybilla, N; Schneider, F R N; Scholler, M; Simon-Diaz, S; Ilyin, I; de Koter, A; Reisenegger, A; Sana, H

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60stars. For epsilon CMa we could only determine a lower limit on the dipolar magnetic field strength of 13 G. For this s...

  10. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; 10.1051/0004-6361/201118158

    2012-01-01

    Aims. A sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived. Methods. High-resolution and high-S/N spectra of early B-type stars are analysed in NLTE. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the hydrogen Balmer lines. Results. Teff is constrained to 1-2% and logg to less than 15% uncertainty. Absolute values for metal abundances are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Conclusions. A present-day cosmic abundance standard is established. Our results i) resolve the discrepancy between a chemical homogeneous local gas-phase ISM and a chemically inhomogeneous young stellar component, ii) facilitate the amount of heavy elements locked up in the interstel...

  11. B-type stars in eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Milena; Pigulski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    B-type stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique astrophysical tools to test several aspects of stellar evolution. Such objects can be used e.g. to determine the masses of Beta Cephei variable stars, as well as help to place tighter constraints on the value of the convective core overshooting parameter α. Both precise photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy with high SNR are required to achieve these goals, but since many of the targets are bright enough, the challenge is fair. Following this assumption, we shall explain how we plan to examine both the aforementioned aspects of stellar evolution using observations of B-type stars obtained with a wide range of spectrographs, as well as BRITE-Constellation satellites.

  12. Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars II: Simulating a Population of LMC early B-type Stars as a Test of Rotational Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Brott, Ines; Hunter, Ian; de Koter, Alex; Langer, Norbert; Dufton, Philip L; Cantiello, Matteo; Trundle, Carrie; Lennon, Danny J; de Mink, Selma E; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Anders, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Rotational mixing in massive stars is a widely applied concept, with far reaching consequences for stellar evolution. Nitrogen surface abundances for a large and homogeneous sample of massive B-type stars in the LMC were obtained by the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars. This sample is the first covering a broad range of projected stellar rotational velocities, with a large enough sample of high quality data to allow for a statistically significant analysis. We use the sample to provide the first rigorous test of the theory of rotational mixing in massive stars. We calculated a grid of stellar evolution models, using the FLAMES sample to calibrate some of the uncertain mixing processes. We developed a new population-synthesis code, which uses this grid to simulate a large population of stars with masses, ages and rotational velocity distributions consistent with those from the FLAMES sample. The synthesized population is then filtered by the selection effects in the observed sample, to enable a direct compar...

  13. The empirical metallicity dependence of the mass-loss rate of O- and early B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; de Koter, A.; Vink, J.S.; Puls, J.; Evans, C.J.; Smartt, S.J.; Crowther, P.A.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Najarro, F.; Villamariz, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Abridged] We present a comprehensive study of the metallicity dependence of the mass-loss rates in stationary stellar winds of hot massive stars. Assuming a power-law dependence of mass loss on metallicity, Mdot \\propto Z^{m}, and adopting a theoretical relation between the terminal velocity and met

  14. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Early B-type stars are ideal indicators for present-day cosmic abundances since they preserve their pristine abundances and typically do not migrate far beyond their birth environments over their short lifetimes, in contrast to older stars like the Sun. They are also unaffected by depletion onto dust grains, unlike the cold/warm interstellar medium (ISM) or H ii regions. Aims: A carefully selected sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Quantitative spectroscopy is used to characterise their atmospheric properties in a self-consistent way. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived in order to investigate whether a present-day cosmic abundance standard can be established. Methods: High-resolution and high-S/N FOCES, FEROS and ELODIE spectra of well-studied sharp-lined early B-type stars are analysed in non-LTE. Line-profile fits based on extensive model grids and an iterative analysis methodology are used to constrain stellar parameters and elemental abundances at high accuracy and precision. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer lines, and they are confirmed by reproduction of the stars' global spectral energy distributions. Results: Effective temperatures are constrained to 1-2% and surface gravities to less than 15% uncertainty, along with accurate rotational, micro- and macroturbulence velocities. Good agreement of the resulting spectroscopic parallaxes with those from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue is obtained. Absolute values for abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Three sample stars, γ Ori, o Per and θ1 Ori D, are

  15. Kepler observations of the variability in B-type stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, Luis A.; Pigulski, A.; De Cat, P.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies, characteristic of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be cons...

  16. Kepler observations of variability in B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Balona, L A; De Cat, P; Handler, G; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Engelbrecht, C A; Frescura, F; Briquet, M; Cuypers, J; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J; Degroote, P; Dukes, R J; Garcia, R A; Green, E M; Heber, U; Kawaler, S D; Ostensen, R; Pricopi, D; Roxburgh, I; Salmon, S; Smith, M A; Suarez, J C; Suran, M; Szabo, R; Uytterhoeven, K; Christensen-Dalsgaard,; Kjeldsen, H; Caldwell, D A; Girouard, F R; Sanderfer, D T

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies characteristic of SPB stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be considered as SPB/beta Cep hybrids. In all cases the frequency spectra are quite different from what is seen from ground-based observations. We suggest that this is because most of the low frequencies are modes of high degree which are predicted to be unstable in models of mid-B stars. We find that there are non-pulsating stars within the beta Cep and SPB instability strips. Apart from the pulsating stars, we can identify stars with frequency groupings similar to what is seen in Be stars but which are not Be stars. The origin of the groupings is not clear, but may be related to rotation. We find periodic variations in other stars which we attribute to proximity effects in binary systems or possibly rotational modulation. We find no evidence fo...

  17. Two spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Castro, N; Langer, N; Lorenz, D; Schneider, F R N; Kuschnig, R; Matthews, J M; Alecian, E; Wade, G A; Barnes, T G; Thoul, A A

    2014-01-01

    Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD47887 and HD47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination angles of the rotation axis. Because we found only small (<5 km/s) radial velocity variations, most likely caused by spots, we can rule out that HD47887 and HD47777 are close binaries. Finally, using the least-squares deconvolution technique, we found that both stars possess a large-scale magnetic field with an average longitudinal field strength of about 400 G. From a simultaneous f...

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey X: Evidence for a bimodal distribution of rotational velocities for the single early B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dufton, P L; Dunstall, P R; Evans, C J; Brott, I; de Mink, S E; Howarth, I D; Kennedy, M; McEvoy, C; Potter, A T; Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Sana, H; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W; Vink, J S

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Projected rotational velocities (\\vsini) have been estimated for 334 targets in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey that do not manifest significant radial velocity variations and are not supergiants. They have spectral types from approximately O9.5 to B3. The estimates have been analysed to infer the underlying rotational velocity distribution, which is critical for understanding the evolution of massive stars. Methods: Projected rotational velocities were deduced from the Fourier transforms of spectral lines, with upper limits also being obtained from profile fitting. For the narrower lined stars, metal and non-diffuse helium lines were adopted, and for the broader lined stars, both non-diffuse and diffuse helium lines; the estimates obtained using the different sets of lines are in good agreement. The uncertainty in the mean estimates is typically 4% for most targets. The iterative deconvolution procedure of Lucy has been used to deduce the probability density distribution of the rotational velocities. R...

  19. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  20. Synthetic spectra for O and B type subdwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nemeth, Peter; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Hubeny, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We present a grid of optical (3200--7200 \\AA) synthetic spectra calculated with Tlusty/Synspec. The new NLTE model atmospheres include the most recent hydrogen Stark broadening profiles; were calculated in opacity sampling and limited to pure H/He composition. The grid covers the observed parameter space of (He-)sdB and (He-)sdO stars, therefore it is suitable for the homogeneous spectral analyses of such evolved stars.

  1. The nature of the late B-type stars HD 67044 and HD 42035

    CERN Document Server

    Monier, R; Royer, F

    2016-01-01

    While monitoring a sample of apparently slowly rotating superficially normal bright late B and early A stars in the northern hemisphere, we have discovered that HD 67044 and HD 42035, hitherto classified as normal late B-type stars, are actually respectively a new chemically peculiar star and a new spectroscopic binary containing a very slow rotator HD 42035 S with ultra-sharp lines (vsini = 3.7 km/s) and a fast rotator HD 42035 B with broad lines. The lines of Ti, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba are conspicuous features in the high resolution SOPHIE spectrum of HD 67044. The HgII line at 3983.93 A is also present as a weak feature. The composite spectrum of HD 42035 is characterised by very sharp lines formed in HD 42035 S superimposed onto the shallow and broad lines of HD 42035 B. These very sharp lines are mostly due to light elements from C to Ni, the only heavy species definitely present are Sr and Ba. Selected lines of 21 chemical elements from He up to Hg have been synthesized using model atmospheres compute...

  2. Exploring Photometric Methods for Identifying Emission-Line B-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Amy; Whelan, David

    2017-06-01

    Emission-line B-type stars, or Be stars, are a mysterious class of stars defined by their unique behavior: These stars eject material from their surfaces, forming a disc of gas that surrounds them. Furthermore, the gaseous disc is not necessarily a permanent feature of its host star. Some Be stars’ discs vary in structure over time, and may even disappear only to be regenerated later. Other Be stars may never show appreciable changes in the natures of their discs once they have been formed. The disc’s existence causes the appearance of characteristic emission lines in Be stars’ spectra, making spectroscopy the traditional method for identifying Be stars. However, spectroscopy is an inefficient and time-consuming method of finding Be stars, because it allows for only a single star to be observed in each exposure, and each star may require multiple exposures for durations of many minutes. Photometry, on the other hand, can be used to observe many stars simultaneously, but at the cost of the greater detail afforded by spectroscopy. While photometry has been used to identify Be stars, its success has been limited. In this work, we present a novel photometric technique that enables efficient identification of Be stars.

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstall, P.R.; Dufton, P.L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.J.; Howarth, I.D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal

  4. Extracting Radial Velocities of A- and B-type Stars from Echelle Spectrograph Calibration Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Johnson, John Asher; Vanderburg, Andrew; Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-04-01

    We present a technique to extract radial velocity (RV) measurements from echelle spectrograph observations of rapidly rotating stars (V sin i≳ 50 km s-1). This type of measurement is difficult because the line widths of such stars are often comparable to the width of a single echelle order. To compensate for the scarcity of lines and Doppler information content, we have developed a process that forward-models the observations, fitting the RV shift of the star for all echelle orders simultaneously with the echelle blaze function. We use our technique to extract RV measurements from a sample of rapidly rotating A- and B-type stars used as calibrator stars observed by the California Planet Survey observations. We measure absolute RVs with a precision ranging from 0.5-2.0 km s-1 per epoch for more than 100 A- and B-type stars. In our sample of 10 well-sampled stars with RV scatter in excess of their measurement uncertainties, three of these are single-lined binaries with long observational baselines. From this subsample, we present detections of two previously unknown spectroscopic binaries and one known astrometric system. Our technique will be useful in measuring or placing upper limits on the masses of sub-stellar companions discovered by wide-field transit surveys, and conducting future spectroscopic binarity surveys and Galactic space-motion studies of massive and/or young, rapidly rotating stars.

  5. Emission from the Centrifugal Magnetospheres of Magnetic B-type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Rivinius, T.; Townsend, R.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 10% of B-type stars possess strong magnetic fields, and of these, 25% host centrifugal magnetospheres in which the radiative wind, magnetic field, and rotational support interact to form a dense circumstellar plasma visible in a variety of diagnostic lines. In this article we review the basic theory behind CMs, outline current theoretical and observational problems, compare the observational properties of CM host stars to those of classical Be stars, and finally present preliminary results of a population study aimed at clarifying the characteristics of this growing sub-class.

  6. Emission from the Centrifugal Magnetospheres of Magnetic B-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, Matt; Rivinius, Thomas; Townsend, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10% of B-type stars possess strong magnetic fields, and of these, 25% host centrifugal magnetospheres (CMs) in which the radiative wind, magnetic field, and rotational support interact to form a dense circumstellar plasma visible in a variety of diagnostic lines. In this article we review the basic theory behind CMs, outline current theoretical and observational problems, compare the observational properties of CM host stars to those of classical Be stars, and finally present preliminary results of a population study aimed at clarifying the characteristics of this growing sub-class.

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Evans, C J; Howarth, I D; Simón-Díaz, S; de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars ...

  8. Pulsating B-type stars in the open cluster NGC 884: frequencies, mode identification and asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Aerts, C; Miglio, A; Carrier, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field beta Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physics in the stellar structure and evolution models of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismology study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884. We describe a thorough investigation of the pulsational properties of all B-type stars in the cluster. Overall, our detailed frequency analysis resulted in 115 detected frequencies in 65 stars. We found 36 mono-periodic, 16 bi-periodic, 10 tri-periodic, and 2 quadru-periodic stars and one star with 9 independent frequencies. We also derived the amplitudes and phases of all detected frequencies in the U, B, V and I filter, if available. We achieved unambiguous identifications of the mode degree for twelve of the de...

  9. Searching for links between magnetic fields and stellar evolution. I. A survey of magnetic fields in open cluster A- and B-type stars with FORS1

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnulo, S; Landstreet, J D; Mason, E; Silaj, J; Wade, G A

    2006-01-01

    About 5% of upper main sequence stars are permeated by a strong magnetic field, the origin of which is still matter of debate. With this work we provide observational material to study how magnetic fields change with the evolution of stars on the main sequence, and to constrain theory explaining the presence of magnetic fields in A and B-type stars. Using FORS1 in spectropolarimetric mode at the ESO VLT, we have carried out a survey of magnetic fields in early-type stars belonging to open clusters and associations of various ages. We have measured the magnetic field of 235 early-type stars with a typical uncertainty of about 100 G. In our sample, 97 stars are Ap or Bp stars. For these targets, the median error bar of our field measurements was about 80 G. A field has been detected in about 41 of these stars, 37 of which were not previously known as magnetic stars. For the 138 normal A and B-type stars, the median error bar was 136 G, and no field was detected in any of them.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectrocopic Binarity of O and B type stars (Chini+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Nasseri, A.; Stahl, O.; Zinnecker, H.

    2013-05-01

    We have performed a comprehensive spectroscopic survey on a large representative sample of 249 O- and 581 B-type stars. Using the high-resolution spectrograph BESO at the Hexapod Telescope at the Universitatssternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile, we obtained 3632 multi-epoch optical spectra. The observing period started in 2009 January and is still going on. The spectra comprise a wavelength range from 3620 to 8530Å and provide a mean spectral resolution of R=50000. (1 data file).

  11. The chemical composition of the Orion star-forming region. III. C, N, Ne, Mg and Fe abundances in B-type stars revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Early B-type stars are invaluable indicators for elemental abundances of their birth environments. In contrast to the surrounding neutral interstellar matter (ISM) and HII regions their chemical composition is unaffected by depletion onto dust grains and by the derivation of different abundances from recombination and collisional lines. In combination with ISM or nebular gas-phase abundances they facilitate the dust-phase composition to be constrained. Precise abundances of C, N, Mg, Ne, Fe in early B-type stars in the Orion star-forming region are determined in order to: a) review previous determinations using a self-consistent quantitative spectral analysis based on modern stellar atmospheres and recently updated model atoms, b) complement results found in Paper I for oxygen and silicon, c) establish an accurate and reliable set of stellar metal abundances to constrain the dust-phase composition of the Orion HII region in Paper II of the series. A detailed, self-consistent spectroscopic study of a sample of...

  12. Oxygen abundance determination of B-type stars with the OI 7771-5A lines

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen abundances of 34 B-type stars in the effective temperature range of Teff~10000-28000K with diversified rotational velocities (vesini~ 0-250km/s) were determined from the OI triplet lines at 7771-5A, with an aim to examine whether this OI feature can be a reliable abundance indicator for such high-temperature stars including rapid rotators. It revealed that the required non-LTE abundance correction is distinctly large (ranging from ~-0.6dex to ~-1.7dex) and its consideration is indispensable. On the condition that the non-LTE effect is taken into account, this triplet is a useful O abundance indicator (with a precision of ~200mA). In contrast, it is not adequate for abundance derivation for stars at Teff >~25000K, where its strength rapidly drops down toward a hardly detectable level (except for sharp-lined stars) and its sensitivity to Teff or log g becomes considerably large. The resulting non-LTE oxygen abundances turned out to be almost normal (i.e., near-solar around ~8.7-8.8 within +/-~0.2dex) for...

  13. HE 0437-5439 -- an unbound hyper-velocity main-sequence B-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Christlieb, N; Reimers, D; Edelmann, Heinz; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Heber, Uli; Christlieb, Norbert; Reimers, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 16th magnitude star, HE0437-5439, with a heliocentric radial velocity of +723+-3km/s. A quantitative spectral analysis of high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the VLT and the UVES spectrograph shows that HE0437-5439 is a main sequence B-type star with Teff=20350K, log g=3.77, solar within a factor of a few helium abundance and metal content, rotating at v sin i=54km/s. Using appropriate evolutionary tracks we derive a mass of 8 Msun and a corresponding distance of 61 kpc. Its galactic rest frame velocity is at least 563km/s, almost twice the local Galactic escape velocity, indicating that the star is unbound to the Galaxy. Numerical kinematical experiments are carried out to constrain its place of birth. It has been suggested that such hyper-velocity stars can be formed by the tidal disruption of a binary through interaction with the super-massive black hole at the Galactic center (GC). HE0437-5439 needs about 100Myrs to travel from the GC to its presentposition, much lon...

  14. The IACOB project . III. New observational clues to understand macroturbulent broadening in massive O- and B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Godart, M.; Castro, N.; Herrero, A.; Aerts, C.; Puls, J.; Telting, J.; Grassitelli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The term macroturbulent broadening is commonly used to refer to a certain type of non-rotational broadening affecting the spectral line profiles of O- and B-type stars. It has been proposed to be a spectroscopic signature of the presence of stellar oscillations; however, we still lack a definitive confirmation of this hypothesis. Aims: We aim to provide new empirical clues about macroturbulent spectral line broadening in O- and B-type stars to evaluate its physical origin. Methods: We used high-resolution spectra of 430 stars with spectral types in the range O4 - B9 (all luminosity classes) compiled in the framework of the IACOB project. We characterized the line broadening of adequate diagnostic metal lines using a combined Fourier transform and goodness-of-fit technique. We performed a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the whole sample using automatic tools coupled with a huge grid of fastwind models to determine their effective temperatures and gravities. We also incorporated quantitative information about line asymmetries into our observational description of the characteristics of the line profiles, and performed a comparison of the shape and type of line-profile variability found in a small sample of O stars and B supergiants with still undefined pulsational properties and B main-sequence stars with variable line profiles owing to a well-identified type of stellar oscillations or to the presence of spots in the stellar surface. Results: We present a homogeneous and statistically significant overview of the (single snapshot) line-broadening properties of stars in the whole O and B star domain. We find empirical evidence of the existence of various types of non-rotational broadening agents acting in the realm of massive stars. Even though all these additional sources of line-broadening could be quoted and quantified as a macroturbulent broadening from a practical point of view, their physical origin can be different. Contrarily to the early- to

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Dufton, P L; Howarth, I D; Walborn, N R; Markova, N; Clark, J S; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Dunstall, P R; Hénault-Brunet, V; Apellániz, J Maíz; McEvoy, C M; Sana, H; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 +/- 12.2 km/s from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3-sigma criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (>345 km/s) or...

  16. The IACOB project: III. New observational clues to understand macroturbulent broadening in massive O- and B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Simón-Díaz, S; Castro, N; Herrero, A; Aerts, C; Puls, J; Telting, J; Grassitelli, L

    2016-01-01

    We aim to provide new empirical clues about macroturbulent spectral line broadening in O- and B-type stars to evaluate its physical origin. We use high-resolution spectra of ~430 stars with spectral types in the range O4-B9 (all luminosity classes). We characterize the line-broadening of adequate diagnostic metal lines using a combined FT and GOF technique. We perform a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the whole sample using automatic tools coupled with a huge grid of FASTWIND models. We also incorporate quantitative information about line asymmetries to our observational description of the characteristics of the line-profiles, and present a comparison of the shape and type of line-profile variability found in a small sample of O stars and B supergiants with still undefined pulsational properties and B main sequence stars with variable line-profiles. We present a homogeneous and statistically significant overview of the (single snapshot) line-broadening properties of stars in the whole O and B star doma...

  17. Modeling Circumstellar Disks of B-Type Stars with Observations from the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzenia, B. J.; Tycner, C.; Jones, C. E.; Rinehart, S. A.; vanBelle, G. T.; Sigut, T. A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical (uniform disk) and numerical models were calculated for a set of B-emission (Be) stars observed with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI). Physical extents have been estimated for the disks of a total of15 stars via uniform disk models. Our numerical non-LTE models used parameters for the B0, B2, B5, and B8spectral classes and following the framework laid by previous studies, we have compared them to infrared K-band interferometric observations taken at PTI. This is the first time such an extensive set of Be stars observed with long-baseline interferometry has been analyzed with self-consistent non-LTE numerical disk models.

  18. Time-resolved multicolour photometry of bright B-type variable stars in Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2013-01-01

    The first two of a total of six nano-satellites that will constitute the BRITE-Constellation space photometry mission have recently been launched successfully. In preparation for this project, we carried out time-resolved colour photometry in a field that is an excellent candidate for BRITE measurements from space. We acquired 117 h of Stromgren uvy data during 19 nights. Our targets comprised the Beta Cephei stars Kappa and Lambda Sco, the eclipsing binary Mu 1 Sco, and the variable super/hypergiant Zeta 1 Sco. For Kappa Sco, a photometric mode identification in combination with results from the spectroscopic literature suggests a dominant (l, m) = (1, -1) Beta Cephei-type pulsation mode of the primary star. The longer period of the star may be a rotational variation or a g-mode pulsation. For Lambda Sco, we recover the known dominant Beta Cephei pulsation, a longer-period variation, and observed part of an eclipse. Lack of ultraviolet data precludes mode identification for this star. We noticed that the spe...

  19. Oscillation modes in the rapidly rotating Slowly Pulsating B-type star $\\bmu$ Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J; Jerzykiewicz, M; Handler, G

    2014-01-01

    We present results of a search for identification of modes responsible for the six most significant frequency peaks detected in the rapidly rotating SPB star $\\mu$ Eridani. All published and some unpublished photometric data are used in our new analysis. The mode identification is carried out with the method developed by Daszy\\'nska-Daszkiewicz et al. employing the phases and amplitudes from multi-band photometric data and relying on the traditional approximation for the treatment of oscillations in rotating stars. Models consistent with the observed mean parameters are considered. For the five frequency peaks, the candidates for the identifications are searched amongst unstable modes. In the case of the third frequency, which is an exact multiple of the orbital frequency, this condition is relaxed. The systematic search is continued up to a harmonic degree $\\ell =6$. Determination of the angular numbers, $(\\ell,m)$, is done simultaneously with the rotation rate, $V_{\\rm rot}$, and the inclination angle, $i$,...

  20. Oxygen abundance determination of B-type stars with the O I 7771-5 Å lines*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen abundances of 34 B-type stars in the effective temperature range of Teff ˜ 10000-28000 K with diversified rotational velocities (vesin i ˜ 0-250 km s-1) were determined from the O I triplet lines at 7771-5 Å, with an aim of examining whether this O I feature can be a reliable abundance indicator for such high-temperature stars including rapid rotators. It revealed that the required non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance correction is distinctly large (ranging from ˜-0.6 dex to ˜-1.7 dex) and its consideration is indispensable. On the condition that the non-LTE effect is taken into account, this triplet is a useful O abundance indicator (with a precision of ≲ 0.2 dex) up to Teff ≲ 25000 K, since its total equivalent width is sufficiently large ( ≳ 200 mÅ). In contrast, it is not adequate for abundance derivation for stars at Teff ≳ 25000 K, where its strength rapidly drops down toward a hardly detectable level (except for sharp-lined stars) and its sensitivity to Teff or log g becomes considerably large. The resulting non-LTE oxygen abundances turned out to be almost normal (i.e., near-solar around ˜8.7-8.8 within ˜±0.2 dex) for most stars without any dependence upon projected rotational velocity as well as luminosity (or mass), which is consistent with the prediction of recent stellar evolution calculations.

  1. NLTE carbon abundance determination in selected A- and B-type stars and the interpretation of C I emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, S. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2016-10-01

    We constructed a comprehensive model atom for C I-C II using the most up-to-date atomic data available and evaluated the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for C I and C II in classical 1D models representing the atmospheres of A- and late B-type stars. Our NLTE calculations predict the emission that appears at effective temperature of 9250 to 10 500 K depending on log g in the C I 8335, 9405 Å singlet lines and at Teff> 15 000 K (log g = 4) in the C I 9061-9111 Å, 9603-9658 Å triplet lines. A pre-requisite of the emission phenomenon is the overionization-recombination mechanism resulting in a depopulation of the lower levels of C I to a greater extent than the upper levels. Extra depopulation of the lower levels of the transitions corresponding to the near-infrared lines, is caused by photon loss in the UV lines C I 2479, 1930, and 1657 Å. We analysed the lines of C I and C II in Vega, HD 73666, Sirius, 21 Peg, π Cet, HD 22136, and ι Her taking advantage of their observed high-resolution spectra. The C I emission lines were detected in the four hottest stars, and they were well reproduced in our NLTE calculations. For each star, the mean NLTE abundances from lines of the two ionization stages, C I and C II, including the C I emission lines, were found to be consistent. We show that the predicted C I emission phenomenon depends strongly on whether accurate or approximate electron-impact excitation rates are applied.

  2. Spectroscopic determination of the fundamental parameters of 66 B-type stars in the field-of-view of the CoRoT satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Lefever, K; Morel, T; Aerts, C; Decin, L; Briquet, M

    2009-01-01

    We aim to determine the fundamental parameters of a sample of B stars with apparent visual magnitudes below 8 in the field-of-view of the CoRoT space mission, from high-resolution spectroscopy. We developed an automatic procedure for the spectroscopic analysis of B-type stars with winds, based on an extensive grid of FASTWIND model atmospheres. We use the equivalent widths and/or the line profile shapes of continuum normalized hydrogen, helium and silicon line profiles to determine the fundamental properties of these stars in an automated way. After thorough tests, both on synthetic datasets and on very high-quality, high-resolution spectra of B stars for which we already had accurate values of their physical properties from alternative analyses, we applied our method to 66 B-type stars contained in the ground-based archive of the CoRoT space mission. We discuss the statistical properties of the sample and compare them with those predicted by evolutionary models of B stars. Our spectroscopic results provide a...

  3. WW Geminorum: An early B-type eclipsing binary evolving into the contact phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, 235000 Huaibei, Anhui Province (China); Yang, Y., E-mail: yygcn@163.com, E-mail: yangyg@chnu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangy818@yeah.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Information Science Technology, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China)

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q {sub ph} = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the period studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P {sub mod} = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10{sup –8} day yr{sup –1}, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.

  4. Strömgren and Hß photometry of O and B type stars in star-forming regions. II. Moneceros OB2, Canis Major OB1 and Collinder 121

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltcheva, N.T.; Olsen, Erik Heyn; Clausen, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    Stars: Early-type - Galaxy: Open clusters and associations: Individual: Mon OB2, CMa OB1, Col 121......Stars: Early-type - Galaxy: Open clusters and associations: Individual: Mon OB2, CMa OB1, Col 121...

  5. AO Vel: The role of multiplicity in the development of chemical peculiarities in late B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    González, J F; Castelli, F; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16061.x

    2010-01-01

    We present high-resolution, high signal-to-noise UVES spectra of AO Vel, a quadruple system containing an eclipsing BpSi star. From these observations we reconstruct the spectra of the individual components and perform an abundance analysis of all four stellar members. We found that all components are chemically peculiar with different abundances patters. In particular, the two less massive stars show typical characteristics of HgMn stars. The two most massive stars in the system show variable line profiles indicating the presence of chemical spots. Given the youth of the system and the notable chemical peculiarities of their components, this system could give important insights in the origin of chemical anomalies.

  6. DIRECT IMAGING DISCOVERY OF A 'SUPER-JUPITER' AROUND THE LATE B-TYPE STAR {kappa} And

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J.; Kozakis, T.; Stevens, L.; Wong, P.; Gainey, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Thalmann, C.; Bonnefoy, M.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Janson, M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Currie, T.; McElwain, M. [ExoPlanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Goto, M. [Young Stars and Star Formation Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Kandori, R.; Kuzuhara, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fukagawa, M.; Kuwada, Y. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); and others

    2013-02-01

    We present the direct imaging discovery of an extrasolar planet, or possible low-mass brown dwarf, at a projected separation of 55 {+-} 2 AU (1.''058 {+-} 0.''007) from the B9-type star {kappa} And. The planet was detected with Subaru/HiCIAO during the SEEDS survey and confirmed as a bound companion via common proper motion measurements. Observed near-infrared magnitudes of J = 16.3 {+-} 0.3, H = 15.2 {+-} 0.2, K{sub s} = 14.6 {+-} 0.4, and L' = 13.12 {+-} 0.09 indicate a temperature of {approx}1700 K. The galactic kinematics of the host star are consistent with membership in the Columba Association, implying a corresponding age of 30{sup +20}{sub -10} Myr. The system's age, combined with the companion photometry, points to a model-dependent companion mass {approx}12.8 M{sub Jup}. The host star's estimated mass of 2.4-2.5 M{sub Sun} places it among the most massive stars ever known to harbor an extrasolar planet or low-mass brown dwarf. While the mass of the companion is close to the deuterium burning limit, its mass ratio, orbital separation, and likely planet-like formation scenario imply that it may be best defined as a 'super-Jupiter' with properties similar to other recently discovered companions to massive stars.

  7. Direct Imaging Discovery of a "Super-Jupiter" around the Late B-type Star κ And

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, J.; et al., [Unknown; Thalmann, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the direct imaging discovery of an extrasolar planet, or possible low-mass brown dwarf, at a projected separation of 55 ± 2 AU (1.''058 ± 0.''007) from the B9-type star κ And. The planet was detected with Subaru/HiCIAO during the SEEDS survey and confirmed as a bound companion via common

  8. Direct Imaging Discovery of a `Super-Jupiter' Around the late B-Type Star Kappa And

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, J; Janson, M; Kozakis, T; Bonnefoy, M; Biller, B; Schlieder, J; Currie, T; McElwain, M; Goto, M; Henning, T; Brandner, W; Feldt, M; Kandori, R; Kuzuhara, M; Stevens, L; Wong, P; Gainey, K; Fukagawa, M; Kuwada, Y; Brandt, T; Kwon, J; Abe, L; Egner, S; Grady, C; Guyon, O; Hashimoto, J; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Hodapp, K; Ishii, M; Iye, M; Knapp, G; Kudo, T; Kusakabe, N; Matsuo, T; Miyama, S; Morino, J; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T; Serabyn, E; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Turner, E; Watanabe, M; Wisniewski, J; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2012-01-01

    We present the direct imaging discovery of an extrasolar planet, or possible low-mass brown dwarf, at a projected separation of 55 +/- 2 AU (1.058 +/- 0.007 arcsec) from the B9-type star Kappa And. The planet was detected with Subaru/HiCIAO during the SEEDS survey, and confirmed as a bound companion via common proper motion measurements. Observed near-infrared magnitudes of J = 16.3 +/- 0.3, H = 15.2 +/- 0.2, Ks = 14.6 +/- 0.4, and L' = 13.12 +/- 0.09 indicate a temperature of ~1700 K. The galactic kinematics of the host star are consistent with membership in the Columba association, implying a corresponding age of 30 +20 -10 Myr. The system age, combined with the companion photometry, points to a model-dependent companion mass ~12.8 MJup. The host star's estimated mass of 2.4-2.5 Msun places it among the most massive stars ever known to harbor an extrasolar planet or low-mass brown dwarf. While the mass of the companion is close to the deuterium burning limit, its mass ratio, orbital separation, and likely p...

  9. Abundance analysis of prime B-type targets for asteroseismology I. Nitrogen excess in slowly-rotating beta Cephei stars

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, T; Aerts, C; Neiner, C; Briquet, M

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed NLTE abundance study of nine beta Cephei stars, all of them being prime targets for theoretical modelling: gamma Peg, delta Cet, nu Eri, beta CMa, xi1 CMa, V836 Cen, V2052 Oph, beta Cep and DD (12) Lac. The following chemical elements are considered: He, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S and Fe. Our abundance analysis is based on a large number of time-resolved, high-resolution optical spectra covering in most cases the entire oscillation cycle of the stars. Nitrogen is found to be enhanced by up to 0.6 dex in four stars, three of which have severe constraints on their equatorial rotational velocity, \\Omega R, from seismic or line-profile variation studies: beta Cep (\\Omega R~26 km/s), V2052 Oph (\\Omega R~56 km/s), delta Cet (\\Omega R < 28 km/s) and xi1 CMa (\\Omega R sin i < 10 km/s). The existence of core-processed material at the surface of such largely unevolved, slowly-rotating objects is not predicted by current evolutionary models including rotation. We draw attention to ...

  10. CDK-1 and two B-type cyclins promote PAR-6 stabilization during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Rabilotta

    Full Text Available In the C. elegans embryo, formation of an antero-posterior axis of polarity relies on signaling by the conserved PAR proteins, which localize asymmetrically in two mutually exclusive groups at the embryonic cortex. Depletion of any PAR protein causes a loss of polarity and embryonic lethality. A genome-wide RNAi screen previously identified two B-type cyclins, cyb-2.1 and cyb-2.2, as suppressors of par-2(it5ts lethality. We found that the loss of cyb-2.1 or cyb-2.2 suppressed the lethality and polarity defects of par-2(it5ts mutants and that these cyclins act in cell polarity with their cyclin-dependent kinase partner, CDK-1. Interestingly, cyb-2.1; cyb-2.2 double mutants did not show defects in cell cycle progression or timing of polarity establishment, suggesting that they regulate polarity independently of their typical role in cell cycle progression. Loss of both cyclin genes or of cdk-1 resulted in a decrease in PAR-6 levels in the embryo. Furthermore, the activity of the cullin CUL-2 was required to achieve suppression of par-2 lethality when both cyclins were absent. Our results support a model in which CYB-2.1/2/CDK-1 antagonize CUL-2 activity to promote stabilization of PAR-6 levels during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of 341 bright A- and B-type stars (Gullikson+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullikson, K.; Kraus, A.; Dodson-Robinson, S.

    2016-09-01

    The sample is given in Table1. We use several high spectral resolution, cross-dispersed echelle spectrographs for this survey. We use the CHIRON spectrograph on the 1.5m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) for most southern targets. This spectrograph is an R=λ/Δλ=80000 spectrograph with wavelength coverage from 450-850nm, and is fed by a 2.7'' optical fiber. For the northern targets, we use a combination of the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET), and the Tull coude spectrograph (TS23) and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS), both on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith Telescope. All three northern instruments are at McDonald Observatory. For the HRS, we use the R=60000 setting with a 2'' fiber, and with wavelength coverage from 410-780nm. For the TS23 spectrograph, we use a 1.2'' slit in combination with the E2 echelle grating (53 grooves/mm, blaze angle 65°), yielding a resolving power of R=60000 and a wavelength coverage from 375-1020nm. IGRINS has a single setting with R=40000. It has complete wavelength coverage from 1475-2480nm, except in the telluric water band from 1810-1930nm. We give the spectroscopic observation log in Table2. As part of the follow-up effort, we used the NIRI instrument behind the Altair adaptive optics system on the Gemini North Telescope. For each star listed in Table3, we obtained 25 images in five dithering positions. We used the K-continuum band centered on 2.2718μm and a variety of exposure times and dates (listed in Table3). We list the companion detections in Table4. (4 data files).

  12. Isocurvature fluctuations induce early star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugiyama, N; Zaroubi, S; Silk, J

    2004-01-01

    The early reionization of the Universe inferred from the WMAP polarization results, if confirmed, poses a problem for the hypothesis that scale-invariant adiabatic density fluctuations account for large-scale structure and galaxy formation. One can only generate the required amount of early star for

  13. Isocurvature fluctuations induce early star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugiyama, N; Zaroubi, S; Silk, J

    2004-01-01

    The early reionization of the Universe inferred from the WMAP polarization results, if confirmed, poses a problem for the hypothesis that scale-invariant adiabatic density fluctuations account for large-scale structure and galaxy formation. One can only generate the required amount of early star

  14. NLTE carbon abundance determination in selected A- and B-type stars and the interpretation of C\\ione\\ emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeeva, S A; Mashonkina, L I

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive model atom for C\\ione\\ -- C\\ii\\ using the most up-to-date atomic data available and evaluated the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for C\\ione\\ and C\\ii\\ in classical 1D models representing the atmospheres of A and late B-type stars. Our NLTE calculations predict the emission that appears at effective temperature of 9250 to 10\\,500~K depending on log~$g$ in the C\\ione\\ 8335, 9405\\,\\AA\\ singlet lines and at \\Teff~$>$~15\\,000~K (log~$g$ = 4) in the C\\ione\\ 9061 -- 9111\\,\\AA\\,, 9603 -- 9658\\,\\AA\\, triplet lines. A prerequisite of the emission phenomenon is the overionization-recombination mechanism resulting in a depopulation of the lower levels of C\\ione\\ to a greater extent than the upper levels. Extra depopulation of the lower levels of the transitions corresponding to the near-infrared lines, is caused by photon loss in the UV lines C\\ione\\ 2479, 1930, and 1657\\,\\AA. We analysed the lines of C\\ione\\ and C\\ii\\ in Vega, HD~73666, Sirius, 21~Peg, $\\pi$~Cet,...

  15. Chemical surface inhomogeneities in late B-type stars with Hg and Mn peculiarity I Spot evolution in HD 11753 on short and long time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, H; Briquet, M; Soriano, M Flores; Hubrig, S; Savanov, I; Hackman, T; Ilyin, I V; Eulaers, E; Pessemier, W

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Time series of high-resolution spectra of the late B-type star HD 11753 exhibiting HgMn chemical peculiarity are used to study the surface distribution of different chemical elements and their temporal evolution. Methods: High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra were obtained using the CORALIE spectrograph at La Silla in 2000, 2009, and 2010. Surface maps of YII, SrII, TiII, and CrII were calculated using the Doppler imaging technique. The results were also compared to equivalent width measurements. The evolution of chemical spots both on short and long time scales were investigated. Results: We determine the binary orbit of HD 11753 and fine-tune the rotation period of the primary. The earlier discovered fast evolution of the chemical spots is confirmed by an analysis using both the chemical spot maps and equivalent width measurements. In addition, a long-term decrease in the overall YII and SrII abundances is discovered. A detailed analysis of the chemical spot configurations reveals som...

  16. Magnetic fields in early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grunhut, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    For several decades we have been cognizant of the presence of magnetic fields in early-type stars, but our understanding of their magnetic properties has recently (over the last decade) expanded due to the new generation of high-resolution spectropolarimeters (ESPaDOnS at CFHT, Narval at TBL, HARPSpol at ESO). The most detailed surface magnetic field maps of intermediate-mass stars have been obtained through Doppler imaging techniques, allowing us to probe the small-scale structure of these stars. Thanks to the effort of large programmes (e.g. the MiMeS project), we have, for the first time, addressed key issues regarding our understanding of the magnetic properties of massive (M > 8 M_sun) stars, whose magnetic fields were only first detected about fifteen years ago. In this proceedings article we review the spectropolarimetric observations and statistics derived in recent years that have formed our general understanding of stellar magnetism in early-type stars. We also discuss how these observations have fu...

  17. Very early stages of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the initial conditions and the early phases of the formation of high-mass stars by means of dedicated observational studies. We consider two object classes: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), and a subsequent stage characterized by the presence of young embedded (proto-)stellar clusters. First, we estimate masses and column densities for a completely new sample of southern IRDCs, utilizing our own millimeter continuum emission maps as well as Spitzer satellite data. The parameters we derive show that IRDCs from our sample have the potential to form not only low- and intermediate-mass stars, but can also be the birth places of massive stars. In particular, the comparison of our results with previously obtained data for low-mass starless cores shows a clear trend for IRDCs to have systematically higher column densities. The interpolated IRDC peak column densities exceed the threshold for the onset of massive star formation previously advocated by theoretical studies. We also critically evaluate the limitations of the applied emission and extinction methods. Second, we investigate the physical conditions and the chemical composition of the dense gas within the IRDCs of our sample by means of a multi-line molecular spectroscopy analysis. All the clouds have complex HCO+ line pro les, and we detect SiO emission in some clouds. These ndings mark the presence of infall and out ow motions in at least some parts of the IRDCs, and hence, ongoing star formation. In comparison with low-mass starless cores, the IRDCs have broader and more intense lines. Thus, they may be characterised by more turbulent conditions. Nevertheless, we nd a tendency for the IRDCs to have molecular abundances similar to the case of low-mass starless cores. This indicates similar chemical initial conditions for low- and high-mass star-forming regions. Finally, we study the stellar composition and environmental conditions in the young embedded cluster IRAS

  18. A comparison between observed Algol-type double stars in the Solar neighborhood and evolutionary computations of galactic case A binaries with a B-type primary at birth

    CERN Document Server

    Mennekens, N

    2016-01-01

    We first discuss a large set of evolutionary calculations of close binaries with a B-type primary at birth and with a period such that the Roche lobe overflow starts during the core hydrogen burning phase of the primary (intermediate mass and massive case A binaries). The evolution of both components is followed simultaneously allowing us to check for the occurrence of contact binaries. We consider various models to treat a contact system and the influence of these models on the predicted Algol-type system population is investigated. We critically discuss the available observations of Algol-type binaries with a B-type primary at birth. Comparing these observations with the predictions allows us to put constraints on the contact star physics.

  19. A comparison between observed Algol-type double stars in the solar neighborhood and evolutionary computations of galactic case A binaries with a B-type primary at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennekens, N.; Vanbeveren, D.

    2017-03-01

    We first discuss a large set of evolutionary calculations of close binaries with a B-type primary at birth and with a period such that the Roche lobe overflow starts during the core hydrogen burning phase of the primary (intermediate mass and massive case A binaries). The evolution of both components is followed simultaneously allowing us to check for the occurrence of contact binaries. We consider various models to treat a contact system and the influence of these models on the predicted Algol-type system population is investigated. We critically discuss the available observations of Algol-type binaries with a B-type primary at birth. Comparing these observations with the predictions allows us to put constraints on the contact star physics. We find that mass transfer in Algols is most probably not conservative, that contact during this phase does not necessarily lead to a merger, and that angular momentum loss must be moderate.

  20. Abundance analysis of 5 early-type stars in the young open cluster IC2391

    CERN Document Server

    Stuetz, C; Jehin, E; Ledoux, C; Cabanac, R A; Melo, C; Smoker, J V; Stuetz, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear whether chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence represent a class completely distinct from normal A-type stars, or whether there exists a continuous transition from the normal to the most peculiar late F- to early B-type stars. A systematic abundance analysis of open cluster early-type stars would help to relate the observed differences of the chemical abundances of the photospheres to other stellar characteristics, without being concerned by possible different original chemical composition. Furthermore, if a continuous transition region from the very peculiar to the so called normal A-F stars exists, it should be possible to detect objects with mild peculiarities. As a first step of a larger project, an abundance analysis of 5 F-A type stars in the young cluster IC2391 was performed using high resolution spectra obtained with the UVES instrument of the ESO VLT. Our targets seem to follow a general abundance pattern: close to solar abundance of the light elements and iron peak eleme...

  1. Abundance analysis of prime B-type targets for asteroseismology II. B6--B9.5 stars in the field of view of the CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Niemczura, E; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    The CoRoT satellite is collecting precise time-resolved photometry for tens of asteroseismology targets. To ensure a correct interpretation of the CoRoT data, the atmospheric parameters, chemical compositions, and rotational velocities of the stars must be determined. The main goal of the ground-based seismology support program for the CoRoT mission was to obtain photometric and spectroscopic data for stars in the fields monitored by the satellite. These ground-based observations were collected in the GAUDI archive. High-resolution spectra of more than 200 B-type stars are available in this database, and about 45% of them is analysed here. To derive the effective temperature of the stars, we used photometric indices. Surface gravities were obtained by comparing observed and theoretical Balmer line profiles. To determine the chemical abundances and rotational velocities, we used a spectrum synthesis method, which consisted of comparing the observed spectrum with theoretical ones based on the assumption of LTE....

  2. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

  3. The formation and early evolution of stars from dust to stars and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Norbert S

    2012-01-01

    Starburst regions in nearby and distant galaxies have a profound impact on our understanding of the early universe. This new, substantially updated and extended edition of Norbert Schulz’s unique book "From Dust to Stars" describes complex physical processes involved in the creation and early evolution of stars. It illustrates how these processes reveal themselves from radio wavelengths to high energy X-rays and gamma–rays, with special reference towards high energy signatures. Several sections devoted to key analysis techniques demonstrate how modern research in this field is pursued and new chapters are introduced on massive star formation, proto-planetary disks and observations of young exoplanets. Recent advances and contemporary research on the theory of star formation are explained, as are new observations, specifically from the three great observatories of the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory which all now operate at the same time and make high r...

  4. Forming an Early O-type Star Through Gas Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Luis A; HO, Paul; Schilke, Peter; Garrod, Robin T; Rodriguez, Luis F; Menten, Karl

    2007-01-01

    We present high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 3$''$) and sensitive 1.3 mm continuum, cyanogen (CN) and vinyl cyanide (C$_2$H$_3$CN) line observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward one of most highly obscured objects of the W51 IRS2 region, W51 North. We find that the CN line exhibits a pronounced inverse P-Cygni profile indicating that the molecular gas is infalling inwards this object with a mass accretion rate between 4 and 7 $\\times$ 10$^{-2}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. The C$_2$H$_3$CN traces an east-west rotating molecular envelope that surrounds either a single obscured (proto)star with a kinematic mass of 40 M$_{\\odot}$ or a small central cluster of B-type stars and that is associated with a compact high velocity bipolar outflow traced by H$_2$O masers and SiO molecular emission. We thus confirm that the W51 North region is part of the growing list of young massive star forming regions that have been associated with infalling motions and with large mass accretion rates ($\\sim$ 10$^{-2}$ -- 10$^...

  5. New magnetic field measurements of beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; De Cat, P; Schöller, M; Morel, T; Ilyin, I

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the continuation of our magnetic survey with FORS1 at the VLT of a sample of B-type stars consisting of confirmed or candidate beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B (hereafter SPB) stars, along with a small number of normal B-type stars. A weak mean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss was detected in three beta Cephei stars and two stars suspected to be beta Cephei stars, in five SPB stars and eight stars suspected to be SPB stars. Additionally, a longitudinal magnetic field at a level larger than 3sigma has been diagnosed in two normal B-type stars, the nitrogen-rich early B-type star HD52089 and in the B5 IV star HD153716. Roughly one third of beta Cephei stars have detected magnetic fields: Out of 13 beta Cephei stars studied to date with FORS1, four stars possess weak magnetic fields, and out of the sample of six suspected beta Cephei stars two show a weak magnetic field. The fraction of magnetic SPBs and candidate SPBs is found to be higher: roughl...

  6. Boson Stars Early History and Recent Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Schunck, Franz E.

    1998-01-01

    Boson stars are descendants of the so-called geons of Wheeler, except that they are built from scalar particles instead of electromagnetic fields. If scalar fields exist in nature, such localized configurations kept together by their self-generated gravitational field can form within Einstein's general relativity. In the case of complex scalar fields, an absolutely stable branch of such non-topological solitons with conserved particle number exists. Our present surge stems from the speculative possibility that these compact objects could provide a considerable fraction of the non-baryonic part of dark matter. In any case, they may serve as a convenient "laboratory" for studying numerically rapidly rotating bodies in general relativity and the generation of gravitational waves.

  7. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Ge; Qiu-Sheng Gu

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies.Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought.Widespread recent star formation,cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs.We make use of the radial profiles of g - r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores.By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data,we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus.From the results of stellar population synthesis,we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young,spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr.In 14 galaxies with H I observations,we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55.The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction,and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H l gas mass.The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment,e.g.in the denser environment the H 1 gas is less and the total SFR is lower.We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  8. Analyses of the early stages of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Christopher John

    This thesis presents a study of the physical and chemical properties of star forming regions, both in the Milky Way and in the distant Universe, building on the existing astrochem- ical models developed by the group at UCL. Observations of the nearby star-forming region, L134A, which were carried out with the James Clark Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawai'i are compared to the predictions of a model of star formation from gas rich in atomic (rather than molecular) hydrogen. A similar model is used to investigate the effect of non-equilibrium chemistry on the derivation of the cosmic-ray ionization rate, an important parameter in controlling both the chemistry and the physics of star forming clumps. A collapse faster than free-fall is proposed as an explanation for differences be tween the distribution of CS and N2H+ in such regions. Moving beyond the Milky Way, JCMT observations of sulphur-bearing species in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82, are presented and compared with existing molecular observations of similar systems. M82 is a local anlogue for star forming systems in the early Universe, many of which have star formation rates several thousand times that of the Milky Way. A model which treats the molecular gas in such systems as an assembly of 'hot cores' (protostellar cores which have a distinctive chemical signature) has been developed, and is used to predict the abundance of many species. An application of this model is used to explain the observed deviation in the early Universe from the otherwise tight relation between infrared and HCN luminosity via relatively recent star formation from near-primordial gas. Many of the stars formed in the early Universe must now be in massive elliptical systems, and work on the structure of these systems is presented. Data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is analysed to show that such galaxies have cores dominated by baryons rather than dark matter, and the dark matter profile is constrained by adiabatic contraction.

  9. Weak magnetic fields in early-type stars: failed fossils

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Weak magnetic fields have recently been detected in Vega and Sirius. Here, we explore the possibility that these fields are the remnants of some field inherited or created during or shortly after star formation and, unlike true fossil fields, are still evolving as we observe them. The timescale of this evolution is given in terms of the Alfven timescale and the rotation frequency by tau_evol ~ tau_A^2 Omega, which would be comparable to the age of the star. It is shown that it is likely that all intermediate- and high-mass stars contain fields of at least the order of the strength found so far in Vega and Sirius. Faster rotators are expected to have stronger magnetic fields. Stars may experience an increase in field strength during their early main-sequence, but for most of their lives field strength will decrease slowly. The length scale of the magnetic structure on the surface may be small in very young stars but should quickly increase to at least very approximately a fifth of the stellar radius.

  10. Total ankle replacement. Early experiences with STAR prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnaghan, J. M.; Warnock, D. S.; Henderson, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Early designs of Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) had a high failure rate. More recent experience with the 3-piece, meniscal bearing, total ankle replacement has been more promising. We report a review of the early results of our first 22 prostheses in 20 patients undergoing Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement (STAR) in Northern Ireland. There was a mean follow-up time of 26 months. Seventeen patients are pain-free at the ankle joint during normal daily activities. Two of the early cases have required revision surgery due to technical errors. Other complications have included malleolar fractures, poor wound healing and postoperative stiffness. These early results show high levels of patient satisfaction, and we are encouraged to continue with total ankle arthroplasty. There is a steep initial learning curve and use of TAR should be restricted to foot and ankle surgeons. Images Fig 1 Figs 2a and b Figs 2 c and d PMID:16022128

  11. Prognostic Value of Serum B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Early Mortality and Morbidity of Children with Congenital Heart Disease after Open Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozar Givtaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP is a cardiac hormone that is secreted mainly by the ventricles in response to volume expansion and pressure load. It can predict post-operative complications after heart surgery in adults. We sought to investigate the prognostic value of BNP in children after heart surgery. Methods: We measured the BNP serum levels in 96 children with congenital heart diseases before, immediately after, and 12 hours after open heart surgery. We studied the ability of the post-operative BNP serum level variations to predict mortality and morbidity in children. Results: In total, 96 patients, comprising 40 (41.7% females and 56 (58.3% males with a mean age of 4.1 years (range: 1 month to 17 years, with various congenital heart diseases were studied. The rise in the serum BNP level 12 hours post surgery was directly related to mortality before discharge from hospital (P value=0.004, congestive heart failure after surgery (P value<0.001 , patients' cyanosis (P value=0.045, duration of ICU stay (r=0.342, P value=0.004, and post-operative need for inotropic drugs (P value<0.001. Conclusion: The rise in the BNP serum level 12 hours after heart surgery is a good marker for predicting mortality, morbidity, and early diagnosis of heart failure in children.

  12. Non-thermal emission from early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Benaglia, P

    2006-01-01

    Massive, early-type stars deposit energy and momentum in the interstellar medium through dense, supersonic winds. These objects are one of the most important sources of ionising radiation and chemical enrichment in the Galaxy. The physical conditions in the winds give rise to thermal and non-thermal emission, detectable from radio to gamma rays. In this report the relevant radiation processes will be described and studies on particular systems will be presented, discussing the information provided by multifrequency observations. Future steps aiming at understanding the stellar wind phenomenon as a whole will be outlined.

  13. High Redshift Quasars and Star Formation in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2001-01-01

    In order to derive information on the star formation history in the early universe we observed 6 high-redshift (z=3.4) quasars in the near-infrared to measure the relative iron and \\mgii emission strengths. A detailed comparison of the resulting spectra with those of low-redshift quasars show essentially the same FeII/MgII emission ratios and very similar continuum and line spectral properties, indicating a lack of evolution of the relative iron to magnesium abundance of the gas since z=3.4 in bright quasars. On the basis of current chemical evolution scenarios of galaxies, where magnesium is produced in massive stars ending in type II SNe, while iron is formed predominantly in SNe of type Ia with a delay of ~1 Gyr and assuming as cosmological parameters H_o = 72 km/s Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, and Omega_Lambda = 0.7$, we conclude that major star formation activity in the host galaxies of our z=3.4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f ~= 10, when the age of the universe was less than 0....

  14. Kinematics of gas and stars in circumnuclear star-forming regions of early type spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Hagele, Guillermo F; Cardaci, Monica V; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    (Abbr.) We present high resolution (R~20000) spectra in the blue and the far red of cicumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) in three early type spirals (NGC3351, NGC2903 and NGC3310) which have allowed the study of the kinematics of stars and ionized gas in these structures and, for the first time, the derivation of their dynamical masses for the first two. In some cases these regions, about 100 to 150 pc in size, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 4.9 pc estimated from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The stellar dispersions have been obtained from the Calcium triplet (CaT) lines at $\\lambda\\lambda$ 8494,8542,8662 \\AA, while the gas velocity dispersions have been measured by Gaussian fits to the H$\\beta$ and [OIII] $\\lambda\\lambda$ 5007 \\AA lines on the high dispersion spectra. Values of the stellar velocity dispersions are between 30 and 68 km/s. We apply the virial theorem to estimate dynamical masses of the clusters, assuming that systems are grav...

  15. Ionization state of cosmic hydrogen by early stars and quasars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chun Mao

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic hydrogen is reionized and maintained in its highly ionized state by the ultraviolet emission attributed to an early generation of stars and quasars. The Lyα opacity observed in absorption spectra of high-redshift quasars permits more stringent constraints on the ionization state of cosmic hydrogen. Based on density perturbation and structure formation theory, we develop an analytic model to trace the evolution of the ionization state in the post-overlap epoch of reionization, in which the bias factor is taken into ac-count. For quasars, we represent an improved luminosity function by utilizing a hybrid approach for the halo formation rate that is in reasonable agreement with the published measurements at 2 z 6. Comparison with the classic Press-Schechter mass function of dark matter halos, we demonstrate that the biased mass distribution indeed enhances star formation efficiency in the overdense environment by more than 25 per cent following the overlap of ionized bubbles. In addition, an alternative way is introduced to derive robust estimates of the mean free path for ionizing photons. In our model, star-forming galax-ies are likely to dominate the ionizing background radiation beyond z = 3, and quasars contribute equally above a redshift of z ~ 2.5. From 5 ≤ z ≤ 6, the lack of evolution in photoionization rate can thus be explained by the relatively flat evolution in star formation efficiency, although the mean free path of ionizing photons increases rapidly. Moreover, in the redshift interval z ~ 2 - 6, the expected mean free path and Gunn-Peterson optical depth obviously evolve by a factor of ~ 500 and ~ 50 respectively. We find that the rel-ative values of critical overdensities for hydrogen ionization and collapse could be 430% at z ≈ 2 and 2% at z ≈ 6, suggesting a rapid overlap process in the overdense regions around instant quasars following reionization. We further illustrate that the absolute esti-mates of the fraction of neutral

  16. Magnetic field measurements and wind-line variability of OB-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnerr, R.S.; Henrichs, H.F.; Neiner, C.; Verdugo, E.; de Jong, J.; Geers, V.C.; Wiersema, K.; van Dalen, B.; Tijani, A.; Plaggenborg, B.; Rygl, K.L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Context. The first magnetic fields in O- and B-type stars that do not belong to the Bp-star class, have been discovered. The cyclic UV wind-line variability, which has been observed in a significant fraction of early-type stars, is likely to be related to such magnetic fields. Aims. We attempt to

  17. uvbybeta photometry of early type open cluster and field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2011-01-01

    The beta Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are massive main sequence variables. The strength of their pulsational driving strongly depends on the opacity of iron-group elements. As many of those stars naturally occur in young open clusters, whose metallicities can be determined in several fundamental ways, it is logical to study the incidence of pulsation in several young open clusters. To provide the foundation for such an investigation, Str\\"omgren-Crawford uvbybeta photometry of open cluster target stars was carried out to determine effective temperatures, luminosities, and therefore cluster memberships. In the course of three observing runs, uvbybeta photometry for 168 target stars was acquired and transformed into the standard system by measurements of 117 standard stars. The list of target stars also included some known cluster and field beta Cephei stars, as well as beta Cephei and SPB candidates that are targets of the asteroseismic part of the Kepler satellite mission. The uvbybeta phot...

  18. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    George, Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Context: Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disrupti...

  19. NIP of Stars: early results and new eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaque Arancibia, M.; Barba, R.; Morrell, N.; Roman Lopes, A.; Torres Robledo, S.; Gunthardt, G.; Soto, M.; Ferrero, G.; Arias, J. I.; Gamen, R.; Fernadez Lajus, E.

    2014-10-01

    We have performed a near-infrared photometric monitoring of 39 galactic young star clusters and star-forming regions, known as NIP of Stars, between the years 2009-2011, using the Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile) and the RetroCam camera, in H- and Y-bands. This monitoring program is complementary to the Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV), as the brightest sources observed in NIP of Stars are saturated in VVV. The aim of this campaign is to perform a census of photometric variability of such clusters and star-forming regions, with the main goal of discovering massive eclipsing binary stars. In this work, we present a preliminary analysis of this photometric monitoring program with the discovery of tens of candidates for variable stars, among them candidates for massive eclipsing binaries. We included also to the analysis of variability, a small set of images obtained in the Ks with the VISTA telescope in the framework of VVV survey (Minniti et al. 2010). In special, we announce the infrared discovering of four massive eclipsing binaries in the massive young cluster NGC 3603. The stars have been classified spectroscopically as O-type stars, and one of them, MTT 58, has a rare star with a spectral type of O2 If*/WN6, as one of its components. We present a preliminary analysis of the light-curves of these binaries.

  20. Origin of the Lyman excess in early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cesaroni, R; Beltrán, M T; Molinari, S; Olmi, L; Treviño-Morales, S P

    2016-01-01

    Ionized regions around early-type stars are believed to be well-known objects, but until recently, our knowledge of the relation between the free-free radio emission and the IR emission has been observationally hindered by the limited angular resolution in the far-IR. The advent of Herschel has now made it possible to obtain a more precise comparison between the two regimes, and it has been found that about a third of the young HII regions emit more Lyman continuum photons than expected, thus presenting a Lyman excess. With the present study we wish to distinguish between two scenarios that have been proposed to explain the existence of the Lyman excess: (i) underestimation of the bolometric luminosity, or (ii) additional emission of Lyman-continuum photons from an accretion shock. We observed an outflow (SiO) and an infall (HCO+) tracer toward a complete sample of 200 HII regions, 67 of which present the Lyman excess. Our goal was to search for any systematic difference between sources with Lyman excess and ...

  1. Berkeley Prize: Mapping the Fuel for Star Formation in Early Universe Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas, which is relatively rare in galaxies like the Milky Way, which form only a few new stars per year. Massive galaxies in the distant universe formed stars much more rapidly. Was star formation more efficient in the past, and/or were early galaxies richer in molecular gas? The answer was elusive when our instruments could probe molecules only in the most luminous and rare objects such as mergers and quasars. But a new survey of molecular gas in typical massive star-forming galaxies at redshifts from about 1.2 to 2.3 (corresponding to when the universe was 24% to 40% of its current age) reveals that distant star-forming galaxies were indeed molecular-gas rich and that the star-formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch.

  2. A Superwind from Early Post-Red Giant Stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, N; Rood, R T; Harpaz, A; Soker, Noam; Catelan, Marcio; Rood, Robert T.; Harpaz, Amos

    2001-01-01

    We suggest that the gap observed at 20,000 K in the horizontal branches of several Galactic globular clusters is caused by a small amount of extra mass loss which occurs when stars start to "peel off" the red giant branch (RGB), i.e., when their effective temperature starts to increase, even though they may still be on the RGB. We show that the envelope structure of RGB stars which start to peel off is similar to that of late asymptotic giant branch stars known to have a super-wind phase. An analogous super-wind in the RGB peel-off stars could easily lead to the observed gap in the distribution of the hottest HB stars.

  3. Circumnuclear Regions of Star Formation in Early Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Angeles I; Hagele, Guillermo F; Castellanos, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Circumnuclear star forming regions, also called hotspots, are often found in the inner regions of some spiral galaxies where intense processes of star formation are taking place. In the UV, massive stars dominate the observed circumnuclear emission even in the presence of an active nucleus, contributing between 30 and 50% to the H$\\beta$ total emission of the nuclear zone. Spectrophotometric data of moderate resolution (3000 < R < 11000) are presented from which the physical properties of the ionized gas: electron density, oxygen abundances, ionization structure etc. have been derived.

  4. Wind Circulation in Selected Rotating Magnetic Early-B Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M A; Smith, Myron A.; Groote, Detlef

    2001-01-01

    The rotating magnetic B stars have oblique dipolar magnetic fields and often anomalous helium and metallic compositions. These stars develop co-rotating torus-shaped clouds by channelling winds from their magnetic poles to an anchored planar disk over the magnetic equator. The line absorptions from the cloud can be studied as the complex rotates and periodically occults the star. We describe an analysis of the clouds of four stars (HD184927, beta Cep, sigma Ori E, and HR6684). From line synthesis models, we find that the metallic compositions are spatially uniform over the stars' surfaces. Next, using the Hubeny CIRCUS code, we demonstate that periodic UV continuum fluxes can be explained by the absorption of low-excitation lines. The analysis also quantifies the cloud temperatures, densities, and turbulences, which appear to increase inward toward the stars. The temperatures range from about 12,000K for the weak Fe lines up to temperatures of 33,000K for N V absorptions, which is in excess of temperatures ex...

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of metal-poor stars from LAMOST: early results

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai-Ning; Christlieb, Norbert; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Yuan, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan~II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars...

  6. Nitrogen enrichment, boron depletion and magnetic fields in slowly-rotating B-type dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, T; Briquet, M

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary models for massive stars, accounting for rotational mixing effects, do not predict any core-processed material at the surface of B dwarfs with low rotational velocities. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we present a detailed and fully-homogeneous, NLTE abundance analysis of 20 early B-type dwarfs and (sub)giants that reveals the existence of a population of nitrogen-rich and boron-depleted, yet intrinsically slowly-rotating objects. The low-rotation rate of several of these stars is firmly established, either from the occurrence of phase-locked UV wind line-profile variations, which can be ascribed to rotational modulation, or from theoretical modelling in the pulsating variables. The observational data presently available suggest a higher incidence of chemical peculiarities in stars with a (weak) detected magnetic field. This opens the possibility that magnetic phenomena are important in altering the photospheric abundances of early B dwarfs, even for surface field strengths at the one hund...

  7. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2003-01-01

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  8. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  9. Kinematical fingerprints of star cluster early dynamical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Vesperini, Enrico; McMillan, Stephen L W; Zepf, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of the external tidal field on the violent relaxation phase of star clusters dynamical evolution, with particular attention to the kinematical properties of the equilibrium configurations emerging at the end of this phase.We show that star clusters undergoing the process of violent relaxation in the tidal field of their host galaxy can acquire significant internal differential rotation and are characterized by a distinctive radial variation of the velocity anisotropy. These kinematical properties are the result of the symmetry breaking introduced by the external tidal field in the collapse phase and of the action of the Coriolis force on the orbit of the stars. The resulting equilibrium configurations are characterized by differential rotation, with a peak located between one and two half-mass radii. As for the anisotropy, similar to clusters evolving in isolation, the systems explored in this Letter are characterized by an inner isotropic core, followed by a region of increasing radial a...

  10. Copernicus observations of the N v resonance doublet in 53 early-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. C.; Bohlin, R. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    UV spectra in the wavelength interval 1170-1270 A are presented for 53 early-type stars ranging in spectral type from O6.5 V to B2.5 IV. The sample includes four Wolf-Rayet stars, seven known Oe-Be stars, and six galactic halo OB stars. A qualitative analysis of the stellar N v doublet reveals that: (1) N v is present in all stars hotter and more luminous than type B0 for the main sequence, B1 for giants, and B2 for supergiants; (2) shell components of N v and an unidentified absorption feature at 1230 A are present in about half of the stars; (3) the column density of N v is well correlated with bolometric luminosity over the spectral range O6 to B2; and (4) the ratio of emission to absorption equivalent width is a factor of 2 smaller in the main sequence stars than in supergiants, which suggests that the wind structure changes as a star evolves. For several stars, this ratio is too small to be explained by traditional wind models.

  11. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  12. Metal Transport and Chemical Heterogeneity in Early Star Forming Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Jeremy S; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljevic, Milos; Bromm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    To constrain the properties of the first stars with the chemical abundance patterns observed in metal-poor stars, one must identify any non-trivial effects that the hydrodynamics of metal dispersal can imprint on the abundances. We use realistic cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to quantify the distribution of metals resulting from one Population III supernova and from a small number of such supernovae. Overall, supernova ejecta remain highly inhomogeneous throughout the simulations. When the supernova bubbles collapse, quasi-virialized metal-enriched clouds, fed by fallback from the bubbles and by streaming of metal-free gas from the cosmic web, grow in the centers of the dark matter halos. Partial turbulent homogenization on scales resolved in the simulation is observed in the clouds, and the vortical time scales are short enough to ensure true homogenization on subgrid scales. However, the abundances in the clouds differ from the gross yields of the supernovae. Continuing the simulations until the clou...

  13. The magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Wade, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star σ Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. W

  14. A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of beta Cephei pulsations in bright stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telting, J.H.; Schrijvers, C.; Ilyin, I.V.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Ridder, J. de; Aerts, C.C.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B type near-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed a total of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA), William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coud�uxiliary Telescope (ESO). Our sample contains 7

  15. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hailong [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100012 (China); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui, E-mail: lhn@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.

  16. Probing Spin-Orbit Misalignment Processes Around Early-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-10-01

    Planets in early-type systems seem to frequently misalign from their host star's spin axis. These spin-orbit misaligned systems challenge conventional planet-formation theories because planets probably do not form with initially misaligned orbits -- their angular momenta must be conserved with the stellar nursery in which they formed. In such a case, planets must migrate to their misaligned positions. However, very few transiting exoplanets have had their spin-orbit alignment angles measured. Our model constrains spin-orbit alignment angles via photometry and asteroseismology while accounting for the brightness effects of stellar variability and rapid rotation that commonly occur in early-type stars, making the analysis of hundreds of Kepler transit light curves possible for the first time. We will employ these techniques to probe spin-orbit misalignment theories by empirically testing the spin-orbit state of exoplanets orbiting early-type stars.

  17. r-Process Elements in EMP stars: Indicators of Inhomogeneous Early Halo Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Thidemann Hansen, Terese

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars with [Fe/H] below ~ -3 are considered to be fossil records of conditions in the early halo. In the simplest picture where iron is a proxy for overall metallicity and indirectly for time, EMP stars formed before the oldest and most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. High-resolution spectroscopy with 8m-class telescopes has shown the detailed abundance pattern of these stars to be surprisingly uniform (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012) and essentially Solar, apart from the α-enhancement typical of SN II nucleosynthesis. A small fraction (~3%) of EMP stars, however, is strongly enhanced in the heaviest (r-process) neutron-capture elements, highlighting that the periodic system of elements was fully populated already this early.These striking departures from the general chemical homogeneity could be produced by local or distant sources. The former case is simple - mass transfer from a binary companion that evolved to produce a highly neutron-rich environment (one or more NS). Alternatively, the r-process elements were formed in a site at interstellar distance and preferentially seeded into the natal clouds of the present-day EMP-r stars. Our long-term, precise monitoring of the radial velocities of a sample of such stars (Hansen+ 2011) disproved the binary hypothesis, which would in fact also fail to explain the existence of r-process poor stars, such as HD 122653. We thus conclude that the chemical enrichment of the early halo was far more complex, patchy and likely anisotropic than assumed in current models of Galactic chemical evolution: The EMP-r stars are not just peculiarities to be ignored, but indicate that a new level of complexity must be invoked. That r-process elements have not (yet) been observed in high-redshift DLA systems is readily explained by their low abundance relative to the lighter species and the rarity of strong enrichment events.

  18. An atlas of 2.4 to 4.1 microns ISO/SWS spectra of early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lenorzer, A; Morris, P; De Koter, A; Geballe, T R; Waters, L B F M; Hony, S; Kaper, L

    2002-01-01

    We present an atlas of spectra of O- and B-type stars, obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) during the Post-Helium program of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This program is aimed at extending the Morgan & Keenan classification scheme into the near-infrared. Later type stars will be discussed in a seperate publication. The observations consist of 57 SWS Post-Helium spectra from 2.4 to 4.1 microns, supplemented with 10 spectra acquired during the nominal mission with a similar observational setting. For B-type stars, this sample provides ample spectral converage in terms of subtype and luminosity class. For O-type stars,the ISO sample is coarse and therefore is complemented with 8 UKIRT L'-band observations. In terms of the presence of diagnostic lines, the L'-band is likely the most promising of the near-infrared atmospheric windows for the study of the physical properties of B stars. Specifically, this wavelength interval contains the Brackett alpha, Pfund gamma, and other Pfund li...

  19. DD 13 - A very young and heavily reddened early O star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter S.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the Large Magellanic Cloud star DD 13, which is likely the major ionizing source of the nebula N159A. New optical spectroscopy and new estimates of the broadband photometric properties of DD 13 are obtained. A spectral type of O3-O6 V, E(B-V) = 0.64, and M(V) = -6.93 is found. The spectral type cannot be more precisely defined due to contamination of the spectral data by nebular emission, obliterating the important He I classification lines. These results, plus a published estimate of the Lyman continuum photon injection rate into N159A, suggest that DD 13 actually consists of about 2-4 young, early O stars still enshrouded by their natal dust cloud. The star DD 13 may be a younger example of the type of tight cluster represented by the LMC 'star' Sk-66 deg 41, recently revealed to be composed of six or more components.

  20. WASP-26b: A 1-Jupiter-mass planet around an early-G-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J; Wood, P L; Bento, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-26b, a moderately over-sized Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 11.3-magnitude early-G-type host star (1SWASP J001824.70-151602.3; TYC 5839-876-1) every 2.7566 days. A simultaneous fit to transit photometry and radial-velocity measurements yields a planetary mass of 1.02 +/- 0.03 M_Jup and radius of 1.32 +/- 0.08 R_Jup. The host star, WASP-26, has a mass of 1.12 +/- 0.03 M_sun and a radius of 1.34 +/- 0.06 R_sun and is in a visual double with a fainter K-type star. The two stars are at least a common-proper motion pair with a common distance of around 250 +/- 15 pc and an age of 6 +/- 2 Gy.

  1. Quantifying Star Formation in Early-Type Galaxies using Spatially-Resolved UV-Optical Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, Sugata

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of star formation in nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) has evolved rapidly in recent years, due to new UV data from GALEX and HST. Contrary to the classical notion of them being old, passively-evolving systems, recent work has demonstrated widespread late-epoch star formation in ETGs, which builds ~20% of their stellar mass after 1, via minor mergers between ETGs and gas-rich dwarfs. While survey data from GALEX has indicated the average properties of star formation in the ETG population as a whole, I demonstrate how spatially-resolved UV studies can offer detailed insights into the star formation histories of individual galaxies, using an HST-WFC3 case study of NGC 4150. Using a pixel-by-pixel analysis in 5 WFC3 filters, spanning UV to i-band, reveals a central 0.9 Gyr old young stellar population, with a median metallicity of 0.5 solar, that contributes around 3% of the stellar mass and coincides spatially with a small, kinematically-decoupled core (indicating a recent minor merger). Assuming that the metallicity of the young stars traces the gas-phase metallicity of the satellite that fuels the star formation, we use the mass-metallicity relation to estimate the mass ratio of the merger to be ~1:20. An WFC3 study of globular clusters reveals a substantial population of young star clusters coincident with the central region of star formation and indicates that the bulk of the stellar mass in this galaxy probably formed 6-8 Gyrs in the past. This study demonstrates the utility of high-resolution imaging from future instruments such as the extremely large telescopes. (Based on Early Release Science observations by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program.)

  2. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  3. Research on Non-radial Oscillations of the Sun and Stars in the Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    I describe some historical background of helio- and astero-seismology research in the early 1970s from my personal recollection, particularly on how our Tokyo research group on non-radial oscillations of stars got started. I also describe my recent research on the super-outburst mechanism of SU UMa-type dwarf novae.

  4. Early star-forming galaxies and the reionization of the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E; Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; McLure, Ross J; Stark, Daniel P

    2010-11-04

    Star-forming galaxies trace cosmic history. Recent observational progress with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope has led to the discovery and study of the earliest known galaxies, which correspond to a period when the Universe was only ∼800 million years old. Intense ultraviolet radiation from these early galaxies probably induced a major event in cosmic history: the reionization of intergalactic hydrogen.

  5. Do AGN suppress star formation in early-type galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The observation that AGN host galaxies preferentially inhabit the "green valley" between the blue cloud and the red sequence has significant consequences for our understanding of the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes via accretion events. I discuss the interpretation of green valley AGN host galaxy colours with particular focus on early-type galaxies.

  6. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. III. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars -- CEMP-s stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordström, B; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2016-01-01

    Detailed spectroscopic studies of metal-poor halo stars have highlighted the important role of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in understanding the early production and ejection of carbon in the Galaxy and in identifying the progenitors of the CEMP stars among the first stars formed after the Big Bang. Recent work has also classified the CEMP stars by absolute carbon abundance, A(C), into high- and low-C bands, mostly populated by binary and single stars, respectively. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binary systems among the CEMP-s stars, which exhibit strong enhancements of neutron-capture elements associated with the s-process. This allows us to test whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their dramatic carbon excesses. Eighteen of the 22 stars exhibit clear orbital motion, yielding a binary frequency of 82+-10%, while four stars appear to be single (18+-10%). We thus confirm that the binary frequency of CEMP-s stars...

  7. Improving the surface-brightness color relation for early-type stars using optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Challouf, M; Mourard, D; Graczyk, D; Aroui, H; Chesneau, O; Delaa, O; Pietrzyński, G; Gieren, W; Ligi, R; Meilland, A; Perraut, K; Tallon-Bosc, I; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Farrington, C; Vargas, N; Scott, N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the SBC relation for early-type stars in the $-1 \\leq V-K \\leq 0$ color domain, using optical interferometry. Observations of eight B- and A-type stars were secured with the VEGA/CHARA instrument in the visible. The derived uniform disc angular diameters were converted into limb darkened angular diameters and included in a larger sample of twenty four stars, already observed by interferometry, in order to derive a revised empirical relation for O, B, A spectral type stars with a V-K color index ranging from -1 to 0. We also take the opportunity to check the consistency of the SBC relation up to $V-K \\simeq 4$ using 100 additional measurements. We determined the uniform disc angular diameter for the eight following stars: $\\gamma$ Ori, $\\zeta$ Per, $8$ Cyg, $\\iota$ Her, $\\lambda$ Aql, $\\zeta$ Peg, $\\gamma$ Lyr and $\\delta$ Cyg with V-K color ranging from -0.70 to 0.02 and typical precision of about $1.5\\%$. Using our total sample of 132 stars with $V-K$ colors index ranging f...

  8. CEMP stars: possible hosts to carbon planets in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mashian, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of planet formation in the carbon-rich protoplanetary disks of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, possible relics of the early Universe. The chemically anomalous abundance patterns ([C/Fe] $\\geq$ 0.7) in this subset of low-mass stars suggest pollution by primordial core-collapsing supernovae (SNe) ejecta that are particularly rich in carbon dust grains. By comparing the dust-settling timescale in the protoplanetary disks of CEMP stars to the expected disk lifetime (assuming dissipation via photoevaporation), we determine the maximum distance $r_{max}$ from the host CEMP star at which carbon-rich planetesimal formation is possible, as a function of the host star's [C/H] abundance. We then use our linear relation between $r_{max}$ and [C/H], along with the theoretical mass-radius relation derived for a solid, pure carbon planet, to characterize potential planetary transits across host CEMP stars. Given that the related transits are detectable with current and upcoming space-base...

  9. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Local Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bureau, M; Alatalo, K; Crocker, A F; Blitz, L; Young, L M; Combes, F; Bois, M; Bournaud, F; Cappellari, M; Davies, R L; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, P -A; Emsellem, E; Khochfar, S; Krajnovic, D; Kuntschner, H; Lablanche, P -Y; McDermid, R M; Morganti, R; Naab, T; Oosterloo, T; Sarzi, M; Scott, N; Serra, P; Weijmans, A

    2011-01-01

    The molecular gas content of local early-type galaxies is constrained and discussed in relation to their evolution. First, as part of the Atlas3D survey, we present the first complete, large (260 objects), volume-limited single-dish survey of CO in normal local early-type galaxies. We find a surprisingly high detection rate of 22%, independent of luminosity and at best weakly dependent on environment. Second, the extent of the molecular gas is constrained with CO synthesis imaging, and a variety of morphologies is revealed. The kinematics of the molecular gas and stars are often misaligned, implying an external gas origin in over a third of the systems, although this behaviour is drastically diffferent between field and cluster environments. Third, many objects appear to be in the process of forming regular kpc-size decoupled disks, and a star formation sequence can be sketched by piecing together multi-wavelength information on the molecular gas, current star formation, and young stars. Last, early-type gala...

  10. Gamma-ray emission from early-type stars interacting with AGN jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araudo Anabella T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction of early-type stars with the jets of active galactic nuclei. A bow-shock will form as a consequence of the interaction of the jet with the winds of stars and particles can be accelerated up to relativistic energies in these shocks. We compute the non-thermal radiation produced by relativistic electrons from radio to gamma-rays. This radiation may be significant, and its detection might yield information on the properties of the stellar population in the galaxy nucleus, as well as on the relativistic jet. This emission is expected to be relevant for nearby non-blazar sources.

  11. Short-lived radioactivity in the early Solar System: the Super-AGB star hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn; Karakas, A. I.; Maddison, S. T.; Liffman, K.; Garc'ia-Hernández, D.A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that short-lived radionuclides (SLR), e.g. 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11M⊙. These stars ev...

  12. Relations between forbidden line Fe/H and delta Mone for F and early-G stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. H.; Powell, J. M.

    1985-11-01

    The new catalog of forbidden line Fe/H determinations of Cayrel de Strobel et al. (1985) have been used to calibrate forbidden line Fe/H in terms of the metal abundance parameter delta mone. Three relations were found corresponding to F1-F5 stars, F5-F8 stars, and F8-G2 stars. Quadratic equations were found necessary to represent the data of the two early groups. Serious errors in forbidden line Fe/H determinations of early metal-poor F stars can result if the previous linear calibrations are used.

  13. Women in Early British and Irish Astronomy Stars and Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Brück, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Careers in astronomy for women (as in other sciences) were a rarity in Britain and Ireland until well into the twentieth century. The book investigates the place of women in astronomy before that era, recounted in the form of biographies of about 25 women born between 1650 and 1900 who in varying capacities contributed to its progress during the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There are some famous names among them whose biographies have been written before now, there are others who have received less than their due recognition while many more occupied inconspicuous and sometimes thankless places as assistants to male family members. All deserve to be remembered as interesting individuals in an earlier opportunity-poor age. Placed in roughly chronological order, their lives constitute a sample thread in the story of female entry into the male world of science. The book is aimed at astronomers, amateur astronomers, historians of science, and promoters of women in science, but being writte...

  14. Early-type massive stars in Carina Nebula within the Gaia-ESO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanas, S. R.; Herrero, A.; Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Mahy, L.; Blomme, R.; GES WG-13

    2017-03-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) is obtaining high quality spectra of ˜ 10^5 stars in our Galaxy, providing an homogeneous and unique overview of all the main components of the Milky Way, its formation history and the evolution of young, mature and ancient Galactic populations. Our group is in charge of the early-type massive stars that define the youngest population in the survey. In this contribution, we present the results of the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of O-type stars in the Carina Nebula within the Gaia-ESO Survey. For this aim, we have used FASTWIND and CMFGEN stellar atmosphere codes, providing stellar parameters for the current sample (GES data release iDR4).

  15. EARLY-STAGE MASSIVE STAR FORMATION NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: Sgr C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Johnston, K.; Beuther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [CASA, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cyganowski, C. J., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved H II region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object (EGO) measuring ∼10'' in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C H II region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H{sub 2} and Brackett γ emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ∼10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}, with column densities of 1-2 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favorable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star formation outside of the EGO, indicating that the cloud is predominantly quiescent. Given its mass, density, and temperature, the cloud is comparable to other remarkable non-star-forming clouds such as G0.253 in the eastern CMZ.

  16. Mid- to Far-IR Emission and Star Formation in Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Young, L M; Lucero, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Many early-type galaxies have been detected at wavelengths of 24 to 160 micron, but the emission is usually dominated by heating from an AGN or from the evolved stellar population. Here we present Spitzer MIPS observations of a sample of elliptical and lenticular galaxies that are rich in cold molecular gas, and we investigate whether the MIR to FIR emission could be associated with star formation activity. The 24 micron images show a rich variety of structures, including nuclear point sources, rings, disks, and smooth extended emission. Comparisons to matched-resolution CO and radio continuum images suggest that the bulk of the 24 micron emission can be traced to star formation with some notable exceptions. The 24 micron luminosities of the CO-rich galaxies are typically a factor of 15 larger than what would be expected from the dust associated with their evolved stars. In addition, FIR/radio flux density ratios are consistent with star formation. We conclude that the star formation rates in z=0 elliptical a...

  17. Green Peas emit X-rays: Extreme Star Formation in Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Luminous compact galaxies (LCGs), Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), and Lyman Break Analog galaxies (LBAs) are all used as proxies for star-forming galaxies in the early Universe (z ≥ 6). The X-ray emission from such galaxies has been found to be elevated compared to other star-forming galaxies in our local Universe. It has been suggested that this may be due to the lower metallicity seen in these proxies to high-redshift galaxies and the elevated X-ray emission may affect the heating and Reionization evolution of the early Universe. Our previous studies have suggested the existence of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for all star-forming galaxies. We present these results in the context of our newest Joint Chandra/HST study containing the first X-ray detection of the Green Pea galaxies, a population of compact starburst galaxies discovered by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo Project (Cardamone+2009). The galaxies were given the name Green Peas due to their compact size and green appearance in the gri composite images from SDSS. The green color is caused by a strong [OIII]λ5007Å emission line, an indicator of recent star formation. We observed a few of the most promising candidates with joint Chandra/HST observation and discuss our findings here.

  18. High star formation rates as the origin of turbulence in early and modern disk galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew W; Glazebrook, Karl; McGregor, Peter J; Abraham, Roberto G; Poole, Gregory B; Damjanov, Ivana; McCarthy, Patrick J; Colless, Matthew; Sharp, Robert G

    2010-10-07

    Observations of star formation and kinematics in early galaxies at high spatial and spectral resolution have shown that two-thirds are massive rotating disk galaxies, with the remainder being less massive non-rotating objects. The line-of-sight-averaged velocity dispersions are typically five times higher than in today's disk galaxies. This suggests that gravitationally unstable, gas-rich disks in the early Universe are fuelled by cold, dense accreting gas flowing along cosmic filaments and penetrating hot galactic gas halos. These accreting flows, however, have not been observed, and cosmic accretion cannot power the observed level of turbulence. Here we report observations of a sample of rare, high-velocity-dispersion disk galaxies in the nearby Universe where cold accretion is unlikely to drive their high star formation rates. We find that their velocity dispersions are correlated with their star formation rates, but not their masses or gas fractions, which suggests that star formation is the energetic driver of galaxy disk turbulence at all cosmic epochs.

  19. 血清 B 型钠尿肽水平评估早期慢性阻塞性肺疾病对左心功能的影响%Serum level of B-type natriuretic peptide and its impact on left ventricular function in patients with early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖砲能

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨血清 B 型钠尿肽水平评估早期慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)对左心功能的影响。方法选取我院2013年1月~2015年7月收治的32例早期 COPD 患者(观察组)以及同期在本院进行健康体检的32例健康人(对照组),对比两组血清 B 型钠尿肽水平与左心室射血分数间的关系。结果本研究中,观察组血清 B 型钠尿肽水平高于对照组(P <0.05),左心室射血分数低于对照组(P <0.05);观察组患者血清 B 型钠尿肽水平与左心室射血分数间呈负相关(P <0.01)。结论早期 COPD 患者随着血清 B 型钠尿肽水平的升高,其左心室射血分数逐渐降低,两者间具有显著相关性。血清 B 型钠尿肽水平可作为早期 COPD 对左心功能影响的评估指标,轻症 COPD 患者左心功能已受影响,在早期治疗 COPD 的同时应及时对患者给予保护左心的治疗。%Objective To explore the impact of serum level of B-type natriuretic peptide on left ventricular function in patients with early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).Methods Thirty two patients with early COPD in our hospital from January 2013 to July 2015 were selected as the observation group and 32 healthy persons were chosen as the control group.The relationship be-tween serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels and left ventricular ejection fraction in the two groups were analyzed.Results Serum B-type natriuretic peptide of patients in the observation group was higher than that of the control group(P <0.05)and left ventricular ejec-tion fraction in the observation group was lower than that in the control group(P <0.05).There was a negative correlation between the levels of serum B natriuretic peptide and left ventricular ejection fraction in the observation group(P <0.01).Conclusion With the increase of serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels of patients with early COPD,their left ventricular ejection fraction

  20. The SAURON project - XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    2010-01-01

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star for

  1. The SAURON project : XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    2010-01-01

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star for

  2. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  3. ALFALFA HI Content and Star Formation in Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koopmann, R A; Haynes, M P; Brosch, N

    2009-01-01

    The ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind survey is providing a census of HI in galaxies of all types in a range of environments. Here we report on ALFALFA results for Virgo Cluster early-type dwarfs between declinations of 4 and 16 degrees. Less than 2% of the Virgo early-type dwarf population is detected, compared to 70-80% of the Im/BCD dwarf population. Most of the dwarfs detected in HI show evidence for ongoing or recent star formation. Early-type galaxies with HI tend to be located in the outer regions of the cluster and to be brighter. Early-type dwarfs with HI may be undergoing morphological transition due to cluster environmental effects.

  4. WASP-26b: a 1-Jupiter-mass planet around an early-G-type star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Bentley, S. J.; Enoch, B.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Udry, S.; Wheatley, P. J.; Wood, P. L.; Bento, J.

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-26b, a moderately over-sized Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 11.3-mag early-G-type host star (1SWASP J001824.70-151602.3; TYC 5839-876-1) every 2.7566 days. A simultaneous fit to transit photometry and radial-velocity measurements yields a planetary mass of 1.02 ± 0.03 MJup and radius of 1.32 ± 0.08 RJup. The host star, WASP-26, has a mass of 1.12 ± 0.03 M⊙ and a radius of 1.34 ± 0.06 R⊙ and is in a visual double with a fainter K-type star. The two stars are at least a common-proper motion pair with a common distance of around 250 ± 15 pc and an age of 6 ± 2 Gy. RV and photometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/520/A56

  5. Early stage massive star formation near the Galactic Center: Sgr C

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, Sarah; Johnston, Katharine; Beuther, Henrik; Bally, John; Cyagnowski, Claudia J; Battersby, Cara

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved HII region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object measuring ~10" in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C HII region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H2 and Brackett gamma emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ~10^3 Msun, with column densities of 1-2 x 10^24 cm-2. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ~10^5 Msun of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favourable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star f...

  6. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  7. Magnetic fields during the early stages of massive star formation I: Accretion and disk evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Klessen, R S; Duffin, D; Pudritz, R E

    2011-01-01

    We present simulations of collapsing 100 M_\\sun mass cores in the context of massive star formation. The effect of variable initial rotational and magnetic energies on the formation of massive stars is studied in detail. We focus on accretion rates and on the question under which conditions massive Keplerian disks can form in the very early evolutionary stage of massive protostars. For this purpose, we perform 12 simulations with different initial conditions extending over a wide range in parameter space. The equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are solved under the assumption of ideal MHD. We find that the formation of Keplerian disks in the very early stages is suppressed for a mass-to-flux ratio normalised to the critical value \\mu below 10, in agreement with a series of low-mass star formation simulations. This is caused by very efficient magnetic braking resulting in a nearly instantaneous removal of angular momentum from the disk. For weak magnetic fields, corresponding to \\mu > 10, large-scale, cent...

  8. Mathematical Assessment of Physical and Chemical Processes from the middle B to the early F Type Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Kutluay; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-07-01

    The middle B to the early F main sequence stars are thought to have some of the most quiet atmospheres. In this part of the HR diagram we find stars with atmospheres in radiative equilibrium. They lack the convective circulations of the middle F and cooler stars and the massive stellar winds of hotter stars. Diffusion theory requires the Chemically Peculiar stars to have relatively quiet atmospheres and if there are no magnetic fields they should lack abundance spots. If we look at stars evolving off the Main Sequence in this part of the HR diagram, we see that the evolutionary paths of stars of different mass do not cross. So if we compare stars with the same effective temperature and surface gravity, we are studying stars of the same luminosity and mass. By comparing their elemental abundances, we might be able to identify physical processes which cause their abundances to be different. In this work we begin with stars whose effective temperatures and surface gravities are similar, and which has been analyzed by us using spectra obtained from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  10. Suppression of star formation in early-type galaxies by feedback from supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kaviraj, Sugata; Yi, Sukyoung K; Boselli, Alessandro; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Tim; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alex

    2006-08-24

    Detailed high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of nearby galaxies have revealed the presence of supermassive black holes. These black holes may interact with their host galaxies by means of 'feedback' in the form of energy and material jets; this feedback affects the evolution of the host and gives rise to observed relations between the black hole and the host. Here we report observations of the ultraviolet emissions of massive early-type galaxies. We derive an empirical relation for a critical black-hole mass (as a function of velocity dispersion) above which the outflows from these black holes suppress star formation in their hosts by heating and expelling all available cold gas. Supermassive black holes are negligible in mass compared to their hosts but nevertheless seem to play a critical role in the star formation history of galaxies.

  11. Star formation associated with neutral hydrogen in the outskirts of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yldz, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2016-09-01

    About 20 percent of all nearby early-type galaxies (M⋆ ≳ ~6~ × 109~M⊙) outside the Virgo cluster are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (H I) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much larger than the stellar body. In order to understand the impact of these gas reservoirs on the host galaxies, we analyse the distribution of star formation out to large radii as a function of H I properties using GALEX UV and SDSS optical images. Our sample consists of 18 H I-rich galaxies as well as 55 control galaxies where no H I has been detected. In half of the H I-rich galaxies the radial UV profile changes slope at the position of the H I radial profile peak. To study the stellar populations, we calculate the FUV-NUV and UV-optical colours in two apertures, 1-3 and 3-10 Reff. We find that H I-rich galaxies are on average 0.5 and 0.8 mag bluer than the H I-poor ones, respectively. This indicates that a significant fraction of the UV emission traces recent star formation and is associated with the H I gas. Using FUV emission as a proxy for star formation, we estimate the integrated star formation rate in the outer regions (R > 1Reff) to be on average ˜ 6× 10-3 M⊙~yr-1 for the H I-rich galaxies. This rate is too low to build a substantial stellar disc and, therefore, change the morphology of the host. We find that the star formation efficiency and the gas depletion time are similar to those at the outskirts of spirals.

  12. Star formation associated with neutral hydrogen in the outskirts of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    About 20 per cent of all nearby early-type galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 6 × 109 M⊙) outside the Virgo cluster are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (H I) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much larger than the stellar body. In order to understand the impact of these gas reservoirs on the host galaxies, we analyse the distribution of star formation out to large radii as a function of H I properties using GALEX UV and SDSS optical images. Our sample consists of 18 H I-rich galaxies as well as 55 control galaxies where no H I has been detected. In half of the H I-rich galaxies, the radial UV profile changes slope at the position of the H I radial profile peak. To study the stellar populations, we calculate the FUV-NUV and UV-optical colours in two apertures, 1-3 and 3-10 Reff. We find that H I-rich galaxies are on average 0.5 and 0.8 mag bluer than the H I-poor ones, respectively. This indicates that a significant fraction of the UV emission traces recent star formation and is associated with the H I gas. Using FUV emission as a proxy for star formation, we estimate the integrated star formation rate in the outer regions (R > 1Reff) to be on average ˜6 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 for the H I-rich galaxies. This rate is too low to build a substantial stellar disc and, therefore, change the morphology of the host. We find that the star formation efficiency and the gas depletion time are similar to those at the outskirts of spirals.

  13. Star formation in early-type galaxies: the role of stellar winds and kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, S; Ciotti, L

    2015-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) host a hot ISM produced mainly by stellar winds, and heated by Type Ia supernovae and the thermalization of stellar motions. High resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations showed that ordered rotation in the stellar component results in the formation of a centrifugally supported cold equatorial disc. In a recent numerical investigation we found that subsequent generations of stars are formed in this cold disc; this process consumes most of the cold gas, leaving at the present epoch cold masses comparable to those observed. Most of the new stellar mass formed a few Gyrs ago, and resides in a disc.

  14. The ATLAS3D project - XXII. Low-efficiency star formation in early-type galaxies: hydrodynamic models and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Martig, Marie; Bournaud, Frederic; Emsellem, Eric; Gabor, Jared M; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; Dekel, Avishai; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; McDermid, Richard M; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Griffin, Kristen Shapiro; Teyssier, Romain; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    We study the global efficiency of star formation in high resolution hydrodynamical simulations of gas discs embedded in isolated early-type and spiral galaxies. Despite using a universal local law to form stars in the simulations, we find that the early-type galaxies are offset from the spirals on the large-scale Kennicutt relation, and form stars 2 to 5 times less efficiently. This offset is in agreement with previous results on morphological quenching: gas discs are more stable against star formation when embedded in early-type galaxies due to the lower disc self-gravity and increased shear. As a result, these gas discs do not fragment into dense clumps and do not reach as high densities as in the spiral galaxies. Even if some molecular gas is present, the fraction of very dense gas (above 10^4 cm-3) is significantly reduced, which explains the overall lower star formation efficiency. We also analyse a sample of local early-type and spiral galaxies, measuring their CO and HI surface densities and their star...

  15. Short-lived radioactivity in the early Solar System: the Super-AGB star hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria; Karakas, Amanda I; Maddison, Sarah T; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D A; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the most primitive Solar System condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that short-lived radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early Solar System. Their abundances require a local origin, which however is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range roughly 7-11 Msun. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (~ 10^8 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios ~ 0.02 - 0.26. The...

  16. New Insights on Late-A and Early-F Star Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Catalano, S.; Marilli, E.; Gouttebroze, P.; Talavera, A.; Bruhweiler, F.

    The onset of chromospheric activity in late-A and early-F stars is here discussed. The detection of Ly- emission core in several A and F atars with the IUE satellite, gives evidence for the presence of chromospheric layers in these stars up to B - V = 0m.19 (Marilli et al., 1996). Semiempirical chromospheric models for Altair allowed us (Freire Ferrero et al., 1995) to explain the observed emission profiles taking into account normal H I interstellar (IS) absorption. However, due to the very high rotational velocity, we analysed alternative hypotheses to explain the observed emissions: (1) circumstellar or shell matter; (2) co-rotating expanding optically thin wind. We ruled out these hypotheses because their effects are negligible and as a consequence, this result reinforces the chromospheric origin of the observed Ly- core in Altair. The stars of our sample, having observed Ly- profilies similar to Altair's and similar stellar and IS properties, should reproduce similar chromospheric behaviour. Here we discuss several important questions that are raised by these results.

  17. Star formation associated with neutral hydrogen in the outskirts of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yıldız, Mustafa K; Peletier, Reynier F; Oosterloo, Tom A; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2016-01-01

    About 20 percent of all nearby early-type galaxies ($M_{\\star} \\gtrsim 6 \\times 10^{9}$ M$_{\\odot}$) outside the Virgo cluster are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (HI) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much larger than the stellar body. In order to understand the impact of these gas reservoirs on the host galaxies, we analyse the distribution of star formation out to large radii as a function of HI properties using GALEX UV and SDSS optical images. Our sample consists of 18 HI-rich galaxies as well as 55 control galaxies where no HI has been detected. In half of the HI-rich galaxies the radial UV profile changes slope at the position of the HI radial profile peak. To study the stellar populations, we calculate the FUV-NUV and UV-optical colours in two apertures, 1-3 and 3-10 R$_{eff}$ . We find that HI -rich galaxies are on average 0.5 and 0.8 mag bluer than the HI-poor ones, respectively. This indicates that a significant fraction of the UV emission traces recent star...

  18. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  19. Properties of the ionized gas of circumnuclear star-forming regions in early type spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Angeles I; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    (Abbr.) A study of cicumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) in several early type spirals has been made in order to investigate their main properties: stellar and gas kinematics, dynamical masses, ionising stellar masses, chemical abundances and other properties of the ionised gas. Both high resolution (R$ \\sim $20000) and moderate resolution (R ~ 5000) have been used. In some cases these regions, about 100 to 150 pc in size, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 4.9 pc estimated from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Stellar and gas velocity dispersions are found to differ by about 20 to 30 km/s with the H$\\beta$ emission lines being narrower than both the stellar lines and the [OIII] $\\lambda$ 5007 \\AA lines. The twice ionized oxygen, on the other hand, shows velocity dispersions comparable to those shown by stars. We have applied the virial theorem to estimate dynamical masses of the clusters, assuming that systems are gravitationally bounded and spheri...

  20. Targeting Young Stars with Kepler: Planet Formation, Migration Mechanisms and the Early History of Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, James P; Mamajek, Eric; Spiegel, David S; Covey, Kevin R; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Chavez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele; Aguilar, Jose Manuel Olmedo

    2013-01-01

    This white paper discusses a repurposed mission for the Kepler spacecraft that focusses on solving outstanding problems in planet formation and evolution by targeting the study of the hot Jupiter population of young stars. This mission can solve the question of the mode of migration of hot Jupiters, address the problem of whether Jupiters form by hot-start (gravitational instability) or cold-start (core accretion) mechanisms, and provide a wealth of data on the early stages of planetary system evolution during the active phases of stars which impact planetary habitability. In one year of observations of three weeks dwell time per field, Kepler would increase by more than an order of magnitude the number of known hot Jupiters, which can be followed up with fast cadence observations to to search for transit timing variations and to perform asteroseismological characterization of the host stars. This mission scenario continues to operate Kepler in the photometric monitoring mode for which it was designed, and is...

  1. Low-mass galaxy assembly in simulations: regulation of early star formation by radiation from massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Colin, Pedro; Ceverino, Daniel; Arraki, Kenza; Primack, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent success in forming realistic disc galaxies at redshift zero, simulations still form the bulk of their stars prematurely. We investigate the process of stellar mass assembly in low-mass simulated galaxies, a dwarf and a typical spiral, focusing on the effects of radiation from young stellar clusters. We employ a novel model of star formation in which stars form deterministically with a small efficiency per free-fall time, as observed in molecular clouds. Stellar feedback includes radiation pressure from massive stars and energy from supernova explosions and stellar winds. In galaxies with masses up to those of typical spirals, radiation efficiently suppresses star formation by dispersing and heating high density gas, mostly in the central regions, preventing the formation of a massive bulge. Once the galaxies reach this radiation-regulated growth regime, their global properties are robust to the specific choice of model parameters. Only when radiative feedback is included, do galaxies exhibit co...

  2. Star formation and nuclear activity in the blue early-type galaxy NGC 5373

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Alfvin, Erik; Martinkus, Charlotte; Molter, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical and X-ray observations of NGC 5373, an isolated star-forming elliptical that has a stellar mass of 7e10 solar and lies at a distance of 175 Mpc. Our B and R band Magellan IMACS imaging substantially improves on SDSS resolution and sensitivity, enabling accurate modeling of the galaxy surface brightness profile. As expected from its mass, NGC 5373 is a core galaxy with a best-fit Sersic profile of n~3.8; no prominent tidal tails or shells are found, although there are slight residual asymmetries. The H-alpha emission in the SDSS spectrum is narrow, and the line ratios confirm a star-forming classification in the BPT diagram, near the transition/composite line. The star formation rate is about 6 solar masses per year, making NGC 5373 an extreme outlier relative to typical local early-type galaxies of similar mass. Our 50 ks Chandra ACIS-S exposure provides a clear detection of a central X-ray source, with a hardness ratio consistent with a power-law photon index of 2.0+/-0.5. The unabsorbed luminosity is Lx = 2e40 erg/s over 0.3-8 keV. Comparison with a MARX simulated point spread function suggests the central source may be extended, for example due to contributions from one or more unresolved high-mass X-ray binaries, as might be present given the high star formation rate. For a black hole of 1.6e8 solar masses as predicted from scaling relations, Lx/Ledd is then around 1e-6 (or potentially lower).

  3. Tracking the Distribution of 26Al and 60Fe during the Early Phases of Star and Disk Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küffmeier, Michael; Mogensen, Troels Frostholm; Haugbølle, Troels;

    2016-01-01

    that the 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe ratios of accreting gas within a vicinity of 1000 au of the stars follow the predicted decay curves of the initial abundances at the time of star formation without evidence of spatial or temporal heterogeneities for the first 100 kyr of star formation. Therefore, the observed...... the admixing of the 26Al nuclides during the early formative phase of the Sun. We use giant molecular cloud scale adaptive mesh-refinement numerical simulations to trace the abundance of 26Al and 60Fe in star-forming gas during the early stages of accretion of individual low-mass protostars. We find...... system formation....

  4. Hypervelocity Stars: Young and Heavy or Old and Light?

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, Uli; Edelmann, Heinz; Napiwotzki, Ralf; O`Toole, Simon; Brown, Warren; Altmann, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The first three hyper-velocity stars (HVS) unbound to the Galaxy were serendipitously discovered in 2005. The only suggested origin of hyper-velocity stars is the Galactic Centre as it hosts a super-massive black hole capable of accelerating stars to such high velocities. Only one HVS, the sdO star US 708, is known to be an old low mass star, while HE 0437$-$5439 is an apparently normal early-type B-star, too short-lived to originate from the Galactic Centre, but could possibly come from the LMC. A systematic survey has led to the discovery of seven new HVS of late B-type (similar to the prototype HVS1), which can either be massive stars 3 M(sun) or horizontal branch stars, sufficiently long-lived to have travelled from the Galactic Centre. We present new spectral analyses of five known HVS as well as of a newly discovered candidate. It is possible that the late B-type HVS are a mix of main sequence and evolved BHB stars. In view of the time scale problem we revisit HE 0437$-$5439 and discuss a possible sublu...

  5. The local luminosity function of star-forming galaxies derived from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Negrello, Mattia; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Bonavera, Laura; Cosco, Giorgio; Guarese, Gianpaolo; Boaretto, Luca; Serjeant, Stephen; Toffolatti, Luigi; Lapi, Andrea; Bethermin, Matthieu; Castex, Guillaume; Clements, Dave L; Delabrouille, Jacques; Dole, Herve'; Franceschini, Alberto; Mandolesi, Reno; Marchetti, Lucia; Partridge, Bruce; Sajina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalog (ERCSC) has offered the first opportunity to accurately determine the luminosity function of dusty galaxies in the very local Universe (i.e. distances ~ L_star our results agree with previous estimates, derived from the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey (SLUGS), but are higher than the latter at L <~ L_star. We also find good agreement with estimates at 350 and 500 microns based on preliminary Herschel survey data.

  6. The SAURON project - XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, K L; van de Ven, G; de Zeeuw, P T; Sarzi, M; Bacon, R; Bolatto, A; Cappellari, M; Croton, D; Davies, R L; Emsellem, E; Fakhouri, O; Krajnovic, D; Kuntschner, H; McDermid, R M; Peletier, R F; Bosch, R C E van den; van der Wolk, G

    2009-01-01

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/IRAC imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star formation, as traced by PAH emission, with measured star formation rates that compare well to those estimated from other tracers. This star formation proceeds according to established scaling relations with molecular gas content, in surface density regimes characteristic of disk galaxies and circumnuclear starbursts. We find that star formation in early-type galaxies happens exclusively in fast-rotating systems and occurs in two distinct modes. In the first, star formation is a diffuse process, corresponding to widespread young stellar populations and high molecular gas content. The equal presence of co- and counter-rotating components in these systems strongly implies an external origin for the star-forming gas, and we argue that the...

  7. COMPACT STELLAR BINARY ASSEMBLY IN THE FIRST NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND r-PROCESS SYNTHESIS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; MacLeod, Morgan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trenti, Michele [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lee, William H.; Saladino-Rosas, Martha I. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Investigations of elemental abundances in the ancient and most metal deficient stars are extremely important because they serve as tests of variable nucleosynthesis pathways and can provide critical inferences of the type of stars that lived and died before them. The presence of r-process elements in a handful of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP-r) stars, which are assumed to be closely connected to the chemical yield from the first stars, is hard to reconcile with standard neutron star mergers. Here we show that the production rate of dynamically assembled compact binaries in high-z nuclear star clusters can attain a sufficient high value to be a potential viable source of heavy r-process material in CEMP-r stars. The predicted frequency of such events in the early Galaxy, much lower than the frequency of Type II supernovae but with significantly higher mass ejected per event, can naturally lead to a high level of scatter of Eu as observed in CEMP-r stars.

  8. The impact of ionizing radiation on the formation of a supermassive star in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Sunmyon

    2016-01-01

    A massive primordial halo near an intensely star forming galaxy may collapse into a supermassive star (SMS) and leave a massive black hole seed of about $10^5~M_{sun}$. To investigate the impact of ionizing radiation on the formation of an SMS from a nearby galaxy, we perform three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations by selecting a pair of massive dark matter halos forming at $z >10$. We find that rich structures such as clumps and filaments around the source galaxy shield the cloud from ionizing radiation. In fact, in some cases cloud collapse is accelerated under ionizing radiation. This fact suggests that the ionization of the cloud's surroundings helps its collapse. Only strong radiation at the early stage of structure formation can halt the cloud collapse, but this is much stronger than observationally allowed value. We also explored the effect of ionizing radiation on a sample of 68 halos by employing an analytical model and found that increase in the mean density of the gas between the SMS...

  9. Star Formation in Nearby Early-Type Galaxies: The Radio Continuum Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nyland, Kristina; Wrobel, Joan M; Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Alatalo, Katherine; Morganti, Raffaella; Duc, Pierre-Alain; de Zeeuw, P T; McDermid, Richard M; Crocker, Alison F; Oosterloo, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We present a 1.4 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) study of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the volume- and magnitude-limited ATLAS-3D survey. The radio morphologies of these ETGs at a resolution of 5" are diverse and include sources that are compact on sub-kpc scales, resolved structures similar to those seen in star-forming spiral galaxies, and kpc-scale radio jets/lobes associated with active nuclei. We compare the 1.4 GHz, molecular gas, and infrared (IR) properties of these ETGs. The most CO-rich ATLAS-3D ETGs have radio luminosities consistent with extrapolations from H_2-mass-derived star formation rates from studies of late-type galaxies. These ETGs also follow the radio-IR correlation. However, ETGs with lower molecular gas masses tend to have less radio emission relative to their CO and IR emission compared to spirals. The fraction of galaxies in our sample with high IR-radio ratios is much higher than in previous studies, and cannot be explained by a systematic underestimation o...

  10. Methanol masers Reliable tracers of the early stages of high-mass star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P

    2006-01-01

    The GLIMPSE and MSX surveys have been used to examine the mid-infrared properties of a statistically complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. The GLIMPSE point sources associated with methanol masers are clearly distinguished from the majority, typically having extremely red mid-infrared colors, similar to those expected of low-mass class 0 young stellar objects. The intensity of the GLIMPSE sources associated with methanol masers is typically 4 magnitudes brighter at 8.0 micron than at 3.6 micron. Targeted searches towards GLIMPSE point sources with [3.6]-[4.5] > 1.3 and an 8.0 micron magnitude less than 10 will detect more than 80% of class II methanol masers. Many of the methanol masers are associated with sources within infrared dark clouds (IRDC) which are believed to mark regions where high-mass star formation is in its very early stages. The presence of class II methanol masers in a significant fraction of IRDC suggests that high-mass star formation is common in these regions. Different maser specie...

  11. AGN-driven quenching of star formation: morphological and dynamical implications for early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sébastien; Silk, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms at work during the formation of massive early-type galaxies, we performed six zoomed hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of halos in the mass range 4.3 10^12 < M_vir < 8.0 10^13 M_sun at z=0, using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code RAMSES. These simulations explore the role of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), through jets powered by the accretion onto supermassive black holes on the formation of massive elliptical galaxies. In the absence of AGN feedback, large amounts of stars accumulate in the central galaxies to form overly massive, blue, compact and rotation-dominated galaxies. Powerful AGN jets transform the central galaxies into red extended and dispersion-dominated galaxies. This morphological transformation of disc galaxies into elliptical galaxies is driven by the efficient quenching of the in situ star formation due to AGN feedback, which transform these galaxies into systems built up by accretion. For galaxies mainly formed by accretion, the pro...

  12. The Near-Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of Young, Early M-Type Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; Mann, Andrew W; Lepine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Riddle, Reed; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina

    2014-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magneto-hydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lepine & Gaidos (2011) catalog of bright M dwarfs with the GALEX catalog of NUV (1771-2831A) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (> 2.5 sigma) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated ...

  13. LONG-ORBITAL-PERIOD PREPOLARS CONTAINING EARLY K-TYPE DONOR STARS. BOTTLENECK ACCRETION MECHANISM IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 877, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800 México (Mexico); Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Miroshnichenko, A. S., E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: dgonzalez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: zhar@astro.unam.mx [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems.

  14. Early Advanced LIGO binary neutron-star sky localization and parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, C P L; Farr, W M; Haster, C-J; Mandel, I; Middleton, H; Singer, L P; Urban, A L; Vecchio, A; Vitale, S; Cannon, K; Graff, P B; Hanna, C; Mohapatra, S; Pankow, C; Price, L R; Sidery, T; Veitch, J

    2016-01-01

    2015 will see the first observations of Advanced LIGO and the start of the gravitational-wave (GW) advanced-detector era. One of the most promising sources for ground-based GW detectors are binary neutron-star (BNS) coalescences. In order to use any detections for astrophysics, we must understand the capabilities of our parameter-estimation analysis. By simulating the GWs from an astrophysically motivated population of BNSs, we examine the accuracy of parameter inferences in the early advanced-detector era. We find that sky location, which is important for electromagnetic follow-up, can be determined rapidly (~5 s), but that sky areas may be hundreds of square degrees. The degeneracy between component mass and spin means there is significant uncertainty for measurements of the individual masses and spins; however, the chirp mass is well measured (typically better than 0.1%).

  15. Modelling multi-wavelength observational characteristics of bow shocks from runaway early type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Acreman, David M; Harries, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    We assess the multi-wavelength observable properties of the bow shock around a runaway early type star using a combination of hydrodynamical modelling, radiative transfer calculations and synthetic imaging. Instabilities associated with the forward shock produce dense knots of material which are warm, ionised and contain dust. These knots of material are responsible for the majority of emission at far infra-red, H alpha and radio wavelengths. The large scale bow shock morphology is very similar and differences are primarily due to variations in the assumed spatial resolution. However infra-red intensity slices (at 22 microns and 12 microns) show that the effects of a temperature gradient can be resolved at a realistic spatial resolution for an object at a distance of 1 kpc.

  16. Discovering Massive Runaway Stars with Infrared Bow Shock Nebulae: Four OB Stars Found in WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernke, Heather N.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.; Povich, Matthew S.; Andrews, Julian E.; Chick, William T.; Munari, Stephan; Olivier, Grace M.; Schurhammer, Danielle; Sorber, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Supernovae, pulsars, and gamma-ray bursts are examples of the result of the death of massive (late-O and early-B type) stars. Determining stellar mass loss rates can help us predict the type of death the star will endure. We focus on stars that are located at the center of an infrared bow shock nebula, indicating that the star was flung from its birthplace at supersonic speed. Observing these massive, high-velocity, runaway stars with bow shock nebulae to determine their spectral type will help in the measurements of their stellar mass loss rates. The spectra of four OB stars driving bow shock candidates are presented. These four candidates were found by searching through the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Data Release and were the most visible in the WISE 21µm band. The spectrum for each star was obtained with the Longslit Spectrograph at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO). The spectral types of G077.3617+01.16 (HD 229159), G079.8219+00.096 ([CPR2002]A10), G092.7265+00.18, and G076.0752-02.2044 (TYC 2697-1046-1) were found to be B1.0I, O9.0V, B0.0V, and B0.0V respectively. As predicted, the candidates are all either late-O or early-B type stars. Now that the spectral types of these stars are known, further analysis can be done to determine the velocities, temperatures, masses, and stellar mass loss rates.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1063146 (REU), AST-1411851 (RUI), and AST-1412845.

  17. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, σe, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M⊙), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  18. On the telescopic disks of stars - a review and analysis of stellar observations from the early 17th through the middle 19th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    Since the dawn of telescopic astronomy astronomers have observed and measured the "spurious" telescopic disks of stars, generally reporting that brighter stars have larger disks than fainter stars. Early observers such as Galileo Galilei interpreted these disks as being the physical bodies of stars; later observers such as William Herschel understood them to be spurious; some, such as Christian Huygens, argued that stars show no disks at all. In the early 19th century George B. Airy produced a theoretical explanation of star images sufficient to explain all historical observations, but astronomers were slow to fully recognize this. Even today conventional wisdom concerning stars and telescopes stands at odds to both historical observations and Airy's theory. We give a detailed analysis of both historical observations and Airy's theory, illustrating how Airy's theory explains the historical observations, from Galileo to Huygens to Herschel. We argue that the observations themselves appear in all cases to be va...

  19. Challenges to Understand Stellar Chromospheres and Stellar Activity: The Limit Case of Late-A and Early-F Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Gouttebroze, P.

    The onset of chromospheric activity appears at late-A and early-F stars where theories predict atmospheres in radiative equilibrium and shallow or non-existent convective zones. The detection of Ly-α emission cores in several A and F stars, first with the IUE satellite and then with the HST, gives evidence for the presence of chromospheric layers in these stars up to B - V = 0. ^m19 (Catalano et al. [CITE]). Semiempirical chromospheric models for Altair allowed us (Freire et al. [CITE]) to explain the observed emission profiles taking into account normal HI IS absorption. However, due to the very high rotational velocity we analyzed alternative hypotheses like the formation of Ly-α emissions into a corotating expanding wind, but we ruled out this alternative because we obtained inconsistent results. In addition, X-ray emission (originated surely in a corona) strengthen the presence of a chromosphere. Here we place the problem of chromospheric activity of late-A and early-F stars in the general context of the formation of over-photospheric stellar layers, comparing them with late-type star and solar cases.

  20. Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Early Star-Formation History - GRBs and z>4 Star-Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, R.; Petitjean, P.; Robertson, B.; Trenti, M.; Vangioni, E.

    2016-10-01

    We review the uncertainties in high-z star-formation rate (SFR) measures and the constraints that one obtains from high-z gamma-ray burst (GRB) rates on them. We show that at the present time, the GRB rates per unit star-formation at z>3 are higher than at lower redshift. There could be a multitude of reasons for this: a stellar metallicity bias for GRB production, a top-heavy initial mass function (IMF) and/or missing a significant fraction of star-formation in field galaxy surveys due to incompleteness, surface brightness limitations and cosmic variance. We also compare metallicity predictions made using a hierarchical model of cosmic chemical evolution based on two recently proposed SFRs, one based on the observed galaxy luminosity function at high redshift and one based on the GRB rate and find that within the considerable scatter in metal abundance measures, they both are consistent with the data. Analyzing the ensemble of different measurements together, we conclude that despite metallicity biases, GRBs may be a less biased probe of star-formation at z>3 than at z 25 M_{⊙} which are likely GRB progenitors. We also find that to reconcile these measurements with the Thomson scattering cross section of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons measured by Planck, the escape fraction of Lyman-continuum photons from galaxies must be low, about ˜15 % or less and that the clumping factor of the IGM is likely to be small, ˜3. Finally, we demonstrate that GRBs are unique probes of metallicity evolution in low-mass galaxy samples and that GRB hosts likely lost a significant fraction of metals to the intergalactic medium (IGM) due to feedback processes such as stellar winds and supernovae.

  1. Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Early Star-Formation History. GRBs and z>4 Star-Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, R.; Petitjean, P.; Robertson, B.; Trenti, M.; Vangioni, E.

    2016-12-01

    We review the uncertainties in high-z star-formation rate (SFR) measures and the constraints that one obtains from high-z gamma-ray burst (GRB) rates on them. We show that at the present time, the GRB rates per unit star-formation at z>3 are higher than at lower redshift. There could be a multitude of reasons for this: a stellar metallicity bias for GRB production, a top-heavy initial mass function (IMF) and/or missing a significant fraction of star-formation in field galaxy surveys due to incompleteness, surface brightness limitations and cosmic variance. We also compare metallicity predictions made using a hierarchical model of cosmic chemical evolution based on two recently proposed SFRs, one based on the observed galaxy luminosity function at high redshift and one based on the GRB rate and find that within the considerable scatter in metal abundance measures, they both are consistent with the data. Analyzing the ensemble of different measurements together, we conclude that despite metallicity biases, GRBs may be a less biased probe of star-formation at z>3 than at z}25 M_{⊙} which are likely GRB progenitors. We also find that to reconcile these measurements with the Thomson scattering cross section of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons measured by Planck, the escape fraction of Lyman-continuum photons from galaxies must be low, about ˜15 % or less and that the clumping factor of the IGM is likely to be small, ˜3. Finally, we demonstrate that GRBs are unique probes of metallicity evolution in low-mass galaxy samples and that GRB hosts likely lost a significant fraction of metals to the intergalactic medium (IGM) due to feedback processes such as stellar winds and supernovae.

  2. Early-type stars observed in the ESO UVES Paranal Observatory Project - V. Time-variable interstellar absorption

    CERN Document Server

    McEvoy, Catherine M; Dufton, Philip L; Smith, Keith T; Kennedy, Michael B; Keenan, Francis P; Lambert, David L; Welty, Daniel E; Lauroesch, James T

    2015-01-01

    The structure and properties of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) on small scales, sub-au to 1 pc, are poorly understood. We compare interstellar absorption-lines, observed towards a selection of O- and B-type stars at two or more epochs, to search for variations over time caused by the transverse motion of each star combined with changes in the structure in the foreground ISM. Two sets of data were used: 83 VLT- UVES spectra with approximately 6 yr between epochs and 21 McDonald observatory 2.7m telescope echelle spectra with 6 - 20 yr between epochs, over a range of scales from 0 - 360 au. The interstellar absorption-lines observed at the two epochs were subtracted and searched for any residuals due to changes in the foreground ISM. Of the 104 sightlines investigated with typically five or more components in Na I D, possible temporal variation was identified in five UVES spectra (six components), in Ca II, Ca I and/or Na I absorption-lines. The variations detected range from 7\\% to a factor of 3.6 in co...

  3. No compelling evidence of significant early star cluster disruption in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Goodwin, Simon P.; Anders, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Whether or not the rich star cluster population in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is affected by significant disruption during the first few × 108 yr of its evolution is an open question and the subject of significant current debate. Here, we revisit the problem, adopting a homogeneous data set of broad-band imaging observations. We base our analysis mainly on two sets of self-consistently determined LMC cluster ages and masses, one using standard modelling and one which takes into account the effects of stochasticity in the clusters' stellar mass functions. On their own, the results based on any of the three complementary analysis approaches applied here are merely indicative of the physical conditions governing the cluster population. However, the combination of our results from all three different diagnostics leaves little room for any conclusion other than that the optically selected LMC star cluster population exhibits no compelling evidence of significant disruption - for clusters with masses, Mcl, of log (Mcl/M⊙) ≳ 3.0-3.5 - between the age ranges of [3-10 and 30-100] Myr, either `infant mortality' or otherwise. In fact, there is no evidence of any destruction beyond that expected from simple models just including stellar dynamics and stellar evolution for ages up to 1 Gyr. It seems, therefore, that the difference in environmental conditions in the Magellanic Clouds on the one hand and significantly more massive galaxies on the other may be the key to understanding the apparent variations in cluster disruption behaviour at early times.

  4. ALE OF TWO CLUSTERS YIELDS SECRETS OF STAR BIRTH IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image shows rich detail, previously only seen in neighboring star birth regions, in a pair of star clusters 166,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), in the southern constellation Doradus. The field of view is 130 light-years across and was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. HST's unique capabilities -- ultraviolet sensitivity, ability to see faint stars, and high resolution -- have been utilized fully to identify three separate populations in this concentration of nearly 10,000 stars down to the 25th magnitude (more that twice as many as can be seen over the entire sky with the naked eye on a clear night on Earth). The field of view is only 130 light-years across. Previous observations with ground-based telescopes resolve less than 1,000 stars in the same region. About 60 percent of the stars belong to the dominant yellow cluster called NGC 1850, which is estimated to be 50 million years old. A scattering of white stars in the image are massive stars that are only about 4 million years old and represent about 20 percent of the stars in the image. (The remainder are field stars in the LMC.) Besides being much younger, the white stars are much more loosely distributed than the yellow cluster. The significant difference between the two cluster ages suggests these are two separate star groups that lie along the same line of sight. The younger, more open cluster probably lies 200 light-years beyond the older cluster. If it were in the foreground, then dust contained in the white cluster would obscure stars in the older yellow cluster. To observe two well-defined star populations separated by such a small gap of space is unusual. This juxtaposition suggests that supernova explosions in the older cluster might have triggered the birth of the younger cluster. This color composite image is assembled from exposures taken in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared light. Yellow stars correspond to Main

  5. The O- and B-Type Stellar Population in W3: Beyond the High-Density Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Kiminki, Megan M; Bagley, Micaela B; Sherry, William H; Rieke, George H

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from our survey of the star-forming complex W3, combining VRI photometry with multiobject spectroscopy to identify and characterize the high-mass stellar population across the region. With 79 new spectral classifications, we bring the total number of spectroscopically-confirmed O- and B-type stars in W3 to 105. We find that the high-mass slope of the mass function in W3 is consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and that the extinction toward the region is best characterized by an Rv of approximately 3.6. B-type stars are found to be more widely dispersed across the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) than previously realized: they are not confined to the high-density layer (HDL) created by the expansion of the neighboring W4 HII region into the GMC. This broader B-type population suggests that star formation in W3 began spontaneously up to 8--10 Myr ago, although at a lower level than the more recent star formation episodes in the HDL. In addition, we describe a method of optimizing sky subtr...

  6. THE O- AND B-TYPE STELLAR POPULATION IN W3: BEYOND THE HIGH-DENSITY LAYER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Bagley, Micaela B.; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sherry, William H., E-mail: mbagley@email.arizona.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    We present the first results from our survey of the star-forming complex W3, combining VRI photometry with multiobject spectroscopy to identify and characterize the high-mass stellar population across the region. With 79 new spectral classifications, we bring the total number of spectroscopically confirmed O- and B-type stars in W3 to 105. We find that the high-mass slope of the mass function in W3 is consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and that the extinction toward the region is best characterized by an R{sub V} of approximately 3.6. B-type stars are found to be more widely dispersed across the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) than previously realized: they are not confined to the high-density layer (HDL) created by the expansion of the neighboring W4 H ii region into the GMC. This broader B-type population suggests that star formation in W3 began spontaneously up to 8–10 Myr ago, although at a lower level than the more recent star formation episodes in the HDL. In addition, we describe a method of optimizing sky subtraction for fiber spectra in regions of strong and spatially variable nebular emission.

  7. The Role for the Inner Disk in Mass Accretion to the Star in the Early Phase of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtani, Takuya; Tsuribe, Toru; Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2014-01-01

    A physical mechanism that drives FU Orionis-type outbursts is reconsidered. We study the effect of inner part of a circumstellar disk covering a region from near the central star to the radius of approximately $5$ AU (hereafter, the inner disk). Using the fluctuated mass accretion rate onto the inner disk $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$, we consider the viscous evolution of the inner disk and the time variability of the mass accretion rate onto the central star $\\dot{M}_{\\rm in}$ by means of numerical calculation of an unsteady viscous accretion disk in a one-dimensional axisymmetric model. First, we calculate the evolution of the inner disk assuming an oscillating $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$. It is shown that the time variability of $\\dot{M}_{\\rm in}$ does not coincide with $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$ due to viscous diffusion. Second, we investigate the properties of spontaneous outbursts with temporally constant $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$. Outburst occur only in a limited range of mass accretion rates onto the inner disk $10^{-10}<\\dot{M}...

  8. X-ray emission from an FU Ori star in early outburst: HBC 722

    CERN Document Server

    Liebhart, Armin; Skinner, Stephen; Green, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We conducted the first X-ray observations of the newly erupting FU~Ori-type outburst in HBC~722 (V2493 Cyg) with the aim to characterize its X-ray behavior and near-stellar environment during early outburst. Methods: We used data from the \\XMM\\ and \\CXO\\ X-ray observatories to measure X-ray source temperatures and luminosities as well as the gas column densities along the line of sight toward the source. Results: We report a \\CXO\\ X-ray detection of HBC~722 with an X-ray luminosity of $L_{\\rm X}\\approx 4\\times 10^{30}~\\mathrm{ergs~s}^{-1}$. The gas column density exceeds values expected from optical extinction and standard gas-to-dust ratios. We conclude that dust-free gas masses are present around the star, such as strong winds launched from the inner disk, or massive accretion columns. A tentative detection obtained by \\XMM\\ two years earlier after an initial optical peak revealed a fainter X-ray source with only weak absorption.

  9. The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. XII. Diffuse Star Clusters in Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yiqing; Lim, Sungsoon; Jordán, Andrés; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse star clusters (DSCs) are old and dynamically hot stellar systems that have lower surface brightness and more extended morphology than globular clusters (GCs). Using the images from HST/ACS Fornax Cluster Survey, we find that 12 out of 43 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Fornax cluster host significant numbers of DSCs. Together with literature data from the HST/ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, where 18 out of 100 ETGs were found to host DSCs, we systematically study the relationship of DSCs with GCs, and their host galaxy environment. Two DSC hosts are post-merger galaxies, with most of the other hosts either having low mass or showing clear disk components. We find that while the number ratio of DSCs to GCs is nearly constant in massive galaxies, the DSC-to-GC ratio becomes systematically higher in lower mass hosts. This suggests that DSCs may be more efficient at forming (or surviving) in low density environments. DSC hosts are not special either in their position in the cluster, or in the galactic color-m...

  10. The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. XII. Diffuse Star Clusters in Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; Peng, Eric W.; Lim, Sungsoon; Jordán, Andrés; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara

    2016-10-01

    Diffuse star clusters (DSCs) are old and dynamically hot stellar systems that have lower surface brightness and more extended morphology than globular clusters (GCs). Using the images from Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS Fornax Cluster Survey, we find that 12 out of 43 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Fornax Cluster host significant numbers of DSCs. Together with literature data from the HST/ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, where 18 out of 100 ETGs were found to host DSCs, we systematically study the relationship of DSCs with GCs and their host galaxy environment. Two DSC hosts are post-merger galaxies, with most of the other hosts either having low mass or showing clear disk components. We find that while the number ratio of DSCs to GCs is nearly constant in massive galaxies, the DSC-to-GC ratio becomes systematically higher in lower-mass hosts. This suggests that DSCs may be more efficient at forming (or surviving) in low-density environments. DSC hosts are not special either in their position in the cluster or in the galactic color-magnitude diagram. Why some disk and low-mass galaxies host DSCs while others do not is still a puzzle, however. The mean ages of DSC hosts and nonhosts are similar at similar masses, implying that formation efficiency rather than survival is the reason behind different DSC number fractions in ETGs.

  11. Spiral-like star-forming patterns in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, J M; Vílchez, J M; Kehrig, C; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Breda, I; Lehnert, M D; Sánchez, S F; Ziegler, B; Reis, S N dos; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Galbany, L; Bomans, D J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Walcher, C J; García-Benito, R; Márquez, I; del Olmo, A; Mollá, M; Marino, R A; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Delgado, R M González; López-Sánchez, Á R

    2015-01-01

    Based on a combined analysis of SDSS imaging and CALIFA integral field spectroscopy data, we report on the detection of faint (24 < {\\mu}$_r$ mag/arcsec$^2$ < 26) star-forming spiral-arm-like features in the periphery of three nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). These features are of considerable interest because they document the still ongoing inside-out growth of some local ETGs and may add valuable observational insight into the origin and evolution of spiral structure in triaxial stellar systems. A characteristic property of the nebular component in the studied ETGs, classified i+, is a two-radial-zone structure, with the inner zone that displays faint (EW(H\\alpha)$\\simeq$1{\\AA}) low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) properties, and the outer one (3{\\AA}

  12. The history of star formation and mass assembly in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Clemens, M S; Nikolic, B; Rampazzo, R

    2008-01-01

    We define a volume limited sample of over 14,000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from data release six of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The density of environment of each galaxy is robustly measured. By comparing narrow band spectral line indices with recent models of simple stellar populations (SSPs) we investigate trends in the star formation history as a function of galaxy mass (velocity dispersion), density of environment and galactic radius. We find that age, metallicity and alpha-enhancement all increase with galaxy mass and that field ETGs are younger than their cluster counterparts by ~2 Gyr. We find negative radial metallicity gradients for all masses and environments, and positive radial age gradients for ETGs with velocity dispersion over 180 km/s. Our results are qualitatively consistent with a relatively simple picture for ETG evolution in which the low-mass halos accreted by a proto-ETG contained not only gas but also a stellar population. This fossil population is preferentially found at la...

  13. Early Phases Of Galaxy Assembly Revealed By Young Star-Forming Dwarfs At Z 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorín, Ricardo; VUDS Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Studying lower-redshift analogs of the first galaxies is essential to scrutinize the details of galaxy formation and cosmic reionization, paving the way for a better interpretation of observations of primeval galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope. In this talk I will present a thorough study of a recently discovered population of small, sub-L* star-forming galaxies at redshift z 2-4 that exhibit all the rest-frame properties expected for early galaxies in their first epoch of assembling and chemical enrichment. Selected by their strong nebular emission in the UV (including emission lines such as CIII]1908, CIV1550 and OIII]1664) from thousands of galaxies in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey, these young low mass systems are extremely metal-deficient galaxies that are likely experiencing their first significant starburst episode. I will discuss their rest-frame properties, hard radiations fields, strong Lyman-alpha emission, HST morphologies and strongly sub-solar chemical abundances. Finally, I will compare their properties with that of galaxies observed at the edge of the reionization epoch, which pose interesting prospects for JWST studies.

  14. Magnetic grain trapping and the hot excesses around early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rieke, George H; Ballering, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    A significant fraction of main sequence stars observed interferometrically in the near infrared have slightly extended components that have been attributed to very hot dust. To match the spectrum appears to require the presence of large numbers of very small (< 200 nm in radius) dust grains. However, particularly for the hotter stars, it has been unclear how such grains can be retained close to the star against radiation pressure force. We find that the expected weak stellar magnetic fields are sufficient to trap nm-sized dust grains in epicyclic orbits for a few weeks or longer, sufficient to account for the hot excess emission. Our models provide a natural explanation for the requirement that the hot excess dust grains be smaller than 200 nm. They also suggest that magnetic trapping is more effective for rapidly rotating stars, consistent with the average vsini measurements of stars with hot excesses being larger (at about 2 sigma) than those for stars without such excesses.

  15. Two-dimensional models of early-type fast rotating stars: the ESTER project

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In this talk I present the latest results of the ESTER project that has taken up the challenge of building two dimensional (axisymmetric) models of stars rotating at any rotation rate. In particular, I focus on main sequence massive and intermediate mass stars. I show what should be expected in such stars as far as the differential rotation and the associated meridional circulation are concerned, notably the emergence of a Stewartson layer along the tangent cylinder of the core. I also indicate what may be inferred about the evolution of an intermediate-mass star at constant angular momentum and how Be stars may form. I finally give some comparisons between models and observations of the gravity darkening on some nearby fast rotators as it has been derived from interferometric observations. In passing, I also discuss how 2D models can help to recover the fundamental parameters of a star.

  16. MAGNETIC GRAIN TRAPPING AND THE HOT EXCESSES AROUND EARLY-TYPE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, G. H.; Gáspár, András; Ballering, N. P., E-mail: grieke@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: agaspar@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: ballerin@email.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    A significant fraction of main sequence stars observed interferometrically in the near-infrared have slightly extended components that have been attributed to very hot dust. To match the spectrum appears to require the presence of large numbers of very small (<200 nm in radius) dust grains. However, particularly for the hotter stars, it has been unclear how such grains can be retained close to the star against radiation pressure force. We find that the expected weak stellar magnetic fields are sufficient to trap nm-sized dust grains in epicyclic orbits for a few weeks or longer, sufficient to account for the hot excess emission. Our models provide a natural explanation for the requirement that the hot excess dust grains be smaller than 200 nm. They also suggest that magnetic trapping is more effective for rapidly rotating stars, consistent with the average vsini measurements of stars with hot excesses being larger (at ∼2σ) than those for stars without such excesses.

  17. Long orbital period pre-polars containing an early K-type donor stars. Bottleneck accretion mechanism in action

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, G; Zharikov, S; Reichart, D E; Haislip, J B; Ivarsen, K M; LaCluyze, A P; Moore, J P; Miroshnichenko, A S

    2016-01-01

    We studied two objects identified as a Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche lobe filling ZAMS secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with 20.82 h orbital period, an object that shows low luminosity state, when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K- star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shut-offs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 h binary system. They both have early K-type stars as a donor star. We argue, that similar to the shorter period pre-polars containing M-dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar ...

  18. On the new late B- and early A-type periodic variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, Nami; Barblan, Fabio; Eyer, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the properties of the new periodic, small amplitude, variable stars recently discovered in the open cluster NGC 3766. They are located in the region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between \\delta\\ Sct and slowly pulsating B stars, a region where no sustained pulsation is predicted by standard models. The origin of their periodic variability is currently unknown. We also discuss how the Gaia mission, to be launched at the end of 2013, can contribute to our knowledge of those stars.

  19. B-type natriuretic peptide secretion following scuba diving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passino, Claudio; Franzino, Enrico; Giannoni, Alberto;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the neurohormonal effects of a scuba dive, focusing on the acute changes in the plasma concentrations of the different peptide fragments from the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) precursor....

  20. The difficult early stages of embedded star clusters and the importance of the pre-gas expulsion virial ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, J. P.; Smith, R; Fellhauer, M.; Goodwin, S.; Candlish, G. N.; Blaña, M.; R. Dominguez

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of gas-expulsion on initially substructured distributions of stars. We perform N-body simulations of the evolution of these distributions in a static background potential to mimic the gas. We remove the static potential instantaneously to model gas-expulsion. We find that the exact dynamical state of the cluster plays a very strong role in affecting a cluster's survival, especially at early times: they may be entirely destroyed or only weakly affected. We show that know...

  1. Torsional oscillations and observed rotational period variations in early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Krticka, J; Henry, G W; Kurfurst, P; Karlicky, M

    2016-01-01

    Some chemically peculiar stars in the upper main sequence show rotational period variations of unknown origin. We propose these variations are a consequence of the propagation of internal waves in magnetic rotating stars that lead to the torsional oscillations of the star. We simulate the magnetohydrodynamic waves and calculate resonant frequencies for two stars that show rotational variations: CU Vir and HD 37776. We provide updated analyses of rotational period variations in these stars and compare our results with numerical models. For CU Vir, the length of the observed rotational-period cycle, $\\mathit\\Pi=67.6(5)$ yr, can be well reproduced by the models, which predict a cycle length of 51 yr. However, for HD 37776, the observed lower limit of the cycle length, $\\mathit\\Pi\\geq100$ yr, is significantly longer than the numerical models predict. We conclude that torsional oscillations provide a reasonable explanation at least for the observed period variations in CU Vir.

  2. Abundance Profiling of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and Supernova Properties in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The first metal enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star and chemical evolution of the universe is recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Increasing number of the EMP stars are now being discovered. This allows us to statistically constrain properties of SNe of Pop III stars (Pop III SNe). We investigate the properties of Pop III SNe by comparing their nucleosynthetic yields with the abundance patterns of the EMP stars. We focus on the most metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] $\\lsim-3.5$ and present Pop III SN models that reproduce well their individual abundance patterns. From these models we derive relations between abundance ratios and properties of Pop III SNe: [(C+N)/Fe] vs. an ejected Fe mass, and [(C+N)/Mg] vs. a remnant mass. Using fitting formulae, distribution of the abundance ratios of EMP stars is converted to those of the properties of Pop III SNe, which can be compared with SNe in the present day. Large samples of EMP ...

  3. A rare early-type star revealed in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Oskinova, L M; Gallagher, J S; Chu, Y -H; Gruendl, R A; Hamann, W -R; Hénault-Brunet, V; Todt, H

    2012-01-01

    Sk 183 is the visually-brightest star in the N90 nebula, a young star-forming region in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We present new optical spectroscopy from the Very Large Telescope which reveals Sk 183 to be one of the most massive O-type stars in the SMC. Classified as an O3-type dwarf on the basis of its nitrogen spectrum, the star also displays broadened He I absorption which suggests a later type. We propose that Sk 183 has a composite spectrum and that it is similar to another star in the SMC, MPG 324. This brings the number of rare O2- and O3-type stars known in the whole of the SMC to a mere three. We estimate physical parameters for Sk 183 from analysis of its spectrum. For a single-star model, we estimate an effective temperature of 46+/-2 kK, a low mass-loss rate of ~10^-7 Msun yr^-1, and a spectroscopic mass of 46^+9_-8 Msun (for an adopted distance modulus of 18.7 mag to the young population in the SMC Wing). An illustrative binary model requires a slightly hotter temperature (~...

  4. Spectral classification of stars based on LAMOST spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Wan, Jun-Chen; Deng, Li-Cai; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we select the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of stars from the LAMOST data andmap theirMK classes to the spectral features. The equivalentwidths of the prominent spectral lines, playing the similar role as the multi-color photometry, form a clean stellar locus well ordered by MK classes. The advantage of the stellar locus in line indices is that it gives a natural and continuous classification of stars consistent with either the broadly used MK classes or the stellar astrophysical parameters. We also employ a SVM-based classification algorithm to assignMK classes to the LAMOST stellar spectra. We find that the completenesses of the classification are up to 90% for A and G type stars, while it is down to about 50% for OB and K type stars. About 40% of the OB and K type stars are mis-classified as A and G type stars, respectively. This is likely owe to the difference of the spectral features between the late B type and early A type stars or between the late G and early K type stars are very we...

  5. Two new SB2 binaries with main sequence B-type pulsators in the Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papics, P. I.

    2013-06-01

    OB stars are important in the chemistry and evolution of the Universe, but the sample of targets well understood from an asteroseismological point of view is still too limited to provide feedback on the current evolutionary models. Our study extends this sample with two spectroscopic binary systems. Aims. Our goal is to provide orbital solutions, fundamental parameters and abundances from disentangled high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra, as well as to analyse and interpret the variations in the Kepler light curve of these carefully selected targets. This way we continue our efforts to map the instability strips of β Cep and slowly pulsating B stars using the combination of high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy and uninterrupted space-based photometry. Methods. We fit Keplerian orbits to radial velocities measured from selected absorption lines of high-resolution spectroscopy using synthetic composite spectra to obtain orbital solutions. We use revised masks to obtain optimal light curves from the original pixel-data from the Kepler satellite, which provided better long term stability compared to the pipeline processed light curves. We use various time-series analysis tools to explore and describe the nature of variations present in the light curve. Results. We find two eccentric double-lined spectroscopic binary systems containing a total of three main sequence B-type stars (and one F-type component) of which at least one in each system exhibits light variations. The light curve analysis (combined with spectroscopy) of the system of two B stars points towards the presence of tidally excited g modes in the primary component. We interpret the variations seen in the second system as classical g mode pulsations driven by the κ mechanism in the B type primary, and explain the unexpected power in the p mode region as a result of nonlinear resonant mode excitation.

  6. The ATLAS3D Project - XXVIII. Dynamically-driven star formation suppression in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Timothy A; Crocker, Alison F; Bureau, Martin; Blitz, Leo; Alatalo, Katherine; Emsellem, Eric; Naab, Thorsten; Bayet, Estelle; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) in the early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D sample, based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22um and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-ultraviolet emission. We combine these with gas masses estimated from 12CO and HI data in order to investigate the star formation efficiency (SFE) in a larger sample of ETGs than previously available. We first recalibrate (based on WISE data) the relation between old stellar populations (traced at Ks-band) and 22um luminosity, allowing us to remove the contribution of 22um emission from circumstellar dust. We then go on to investigate the position of ETGs on the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. Molecular gas-rich ETGs have comparable star formation surface densities to normal spiral galaxy centres, but they lie systematically offset from the KS relation, having lower star formation efficiencies by a factor of ~2.5 (in agreement with other authors). This effect is driven by galaxies where a substantia...

  7. The C/O ratio at low metallicity: constraints on early chemical evolution from observations of Galactic halo stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbian, D; Asplund, M; Pettini, M; Akerman, C

    2008-01-01

    We present new measurements of the abundances of carbon and oxygen derived from high-excitation C I and O I absorption lines in metal-poor halo stars, with the aim of clarifying the main sources of these two elements in the early stages of the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. We target 15 new stars compared to our previous study, with an emphasis on additional C/O determinations in the crucial metallicity range -3<[Fe/H]<-2. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium were accounted for in the line formation for both carbon and oxygen. The non-LTE effects are very strong at the lowest metallicities but, contrary to what has sometimes been assumed in the past due to a simplified assessment, of different degrees for the two elements. In addition, for the 28 stars with [Fe/H]<-1 previously analysed, stellar parameters were re-derived and non-LTE corrections applied in the same fashion as for the rest of our sample, giving consistent abundances for 43 halo stars in total. The new observations and n...

  8. Explosion of red-supergiant stars: Influence of the atmospheric structure on shock breakout and early-time supernova radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; John Hillier, D.; Audit, Edouard

    2017-09-01

    Early-time observations of Type II supernovae (SNe) 2013cu and 2013fs have revealed an interaction of ejecta with material near the star surface. Unlike Type IIn SN 2010jl, which interacts with a dense wind for 1 yr, the interaction ebbs after 2-3 d, suggesting a dense and compact circumstellar envelope. Here, we use multi-group radiation hydrodynamics and non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium radiative transfer to explore the properties of red-supergiant (RSG) star explosions embedded in a variety of dense envelopes. We consider the cases of an extended static atmosphere or a steady-state wind, adopting a range of mass loss rates. The shock breakout signal, luminosity and color evolution up to 10 d, and ejecta dynamics are strongly influenced by the properties of this nearby environment. This compromises the use of early-time observations to constrain R⋆. For dense circumstellar envelopes, the time-integrated luminosity over the first 10-15 d can be boosted by a factor of a few. The presence of narrow lines for 2-3 d in 2013fs and 2013cu require a cocoon of material of 0.01 M⊙ out to 5-10 R⋆. Spectral lines evolve from electron scattering to Doppler broadened with a growing blueshift of their emission peaks. Recent studies propose a super-wind phase with a mass loss rate from 0.001 up to 1 M⊙ yr-1 in the last months or years of the life of a RSG, although there is no observational constraint that this external material is a steady-state outflow. Alternatively, observations may be explained by the explosion of a RSG star inside its complex atmosphere. Indeed, spatially resolved observations reveal that RSG stars have extended atmospheres, with the presence of downflows and upflows out to several R⋆, even in a standard RSG such as Betelgeuse. Mass loading in the region intermediate between star and wind can accommodate the 0.01 M⊙ needed to explain the observations of 2013fs. Signatures of interaction in early-time spectra of RSG star explosions may

  9. The Atlas3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McDermid, Richard M; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the Atlas3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star-formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation timescales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically-determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (M_JAM, Sigma_e, R_maj), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star-formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass obje...

  10. NLTE strontium abundance in a sample of extremely metal poor stars and the Sr/Ba ratio in the early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Francois, P; Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V

    2011-01-01

    Heavy element abundances in extremely metal-poor stars provide strong constraints on the processes of forming these elements in the first stars. We attempt to determine precise abundances of strontium in a homogeneous sample of extremely metal-poor stars. The abundances of strontium in 54 very or extremely metal-poor stars, was redetermined by abandoning the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis, and fitting non-LTE (NLTE) profiles to the observed spectral lines. The corrected Sr abundances and previously obtained NLTE Ba abundances are compared to the predictions of several hypothetical formation processes for the lighter neutron-capture elements. Our NLTE abundances confirm the previously determined huge scatter of the strontium abundance in low metallicity stars. This scatter is also found (and is even larger) at very low metallicities (i. e. early in the chemical evolution). The Sr abundance in the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars is compatible with the main r-process involved in other processe...

  11. The difficult early stages of embedded star clusters and the importance of the pre-gas expulsion virial ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Farias, J P; Fellhauer, M; Goodwin, S; Candlish, G N; Blaña, M; Dominguez, R

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of gas-expulsion on initially substructured distributions of stars. We perform N-body simulations of the evolution of these distributions in a static background potential to mimic the gas. We remove the static potential instantaneously to model gas-expulsion. We find that the exact dynamical state of the cluster plays a very strong role in affecting a cluster's survival, especially at early times: they may be entirely destroyed or only weakly affected. We show that knowing both detailed dynamics and relative star-gas distributions can provide a good estimate of the post-gas expulsion state of the cluster, but even knowing these is not an absolute way of determining the survival or otherwise of the cluster.

  12. Inferring the star formation histories of the most massive and passive early-type galaxies at z<0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Citro, Annalisa; Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Massive galaxies are key probes to understand how the baryonic matter evolves within the dark matter halos. We use the "archaeological" approach to infer the stellar population properties and star formation histories of the most massive (M > 10^10.75 Msun) and passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at 0 350-400 Msun yr^-1) at z ~ 4 - 5, and are quiescent by z ~ 1.5 -2. Our results represent an attempt to demonstrate quantitatively the evolutionary link between the most massive ETGs at z < 0.3 and the properties of suitable progenitors at high redshifts, also showing that the full-spectrum fitting is a powerful approach to reconstruct the star formation histories of massive quiescent galaxies.

  13. Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, K; Brott, I; Langer, N; de Koter, A

    2012-01-01

    Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity, effective temperature, projected rotational velocity and surface nitrogen abundance. This method relies on stellar evolution models for different metallicities, masses and rotation rates. We use the population synthesis code STARMAKER to show the range of applicability of our method. We apply this method to 79 early B-type main sequence stars near the LMC clusters NGC 2004 and N 11 and the SMC clusters NGC 330 and NGC 346. From all stars within the sample, 17 were found to be suitable for an age analysis. For ten of them, which are rapidly rotating stars without a strong nitrogen enhancement, it has been previously concluded that they did not evolve as rotationally mixed single stars. This is confirmed by our analysis, which fla...

  14. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars in the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Marsteller, B; Rossi, S; Christlieb, N; Bessell, M; Rhee, J

    2004-01-01

    Very metal-deficient stars that exhibit enhancements of their carbon abundances are of crucial importance for understanding a number of issues -- the nature of stellar evolution among the first generations of stars, the shape of the Initial Mass Function, and the relationship between carbon enhancement and neutron-capture processes, in particular the astrophysical s-process. One recent discovery from objective-prism surveys dedicated to the discovery of metal-deficient stars is that the frequency of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars increases with declining metallicity, reaching roughly 25% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. In order to explore this phenomenon in greater detail we have obtained medium-resolution (2 A) spectroscopy for about 350 of the 413 objects in the Christlieb et al. catalog of carbon-rich stars, selected from the Hamburg/ESO objective prism survey on the basis of their carbon-enhancement, rather than metal deficiency. Based on these spectra, and near-IR JHK photometry from the 2MASS Point Sourc...

  15. Circumnuclear star-forming regions in early type spiral galaxies: dynamical masses

    CERN Document Server

    Hagele, G F; Bosch, G L; Diaz, A I; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R

    2012-01-01

    We present the measurements of gas and stellar velocity dispersions in 17 circumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) and the nuclei of three barred spiral galaxies: NGC2903, NGC3310 and NGC3351 from high dispersion spectra. The stellar dispersions have been obtained from the CaII triplet (CaT) lines at 8494, 8542, 8662A, while the gas velocity dispersions have been measured by Gaussian fits to the Hbeta and to the [OIII]5007A\\ lines. The CNSFRs, with sizes of about 100 to 150pc in diameter, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 6.2pc on HST images. Using the stellar velocity dispersions, we have derived dynamical masses for the entire star-forming complexes and for the individual star clusters. Values of the stellar velocity dispersions are between 31 and 73 km/s. Dynamical masses for the whole CNSFRs are between 4.9x10^6 and 1.9x10^8 Mo and between 1.4x10^6 and 1.1x10^7 Mo for the individual star clusters. We have found indications for the presence of two dif...

  16. Low prevalence of B-type natriuretic peptide levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenhuis, J; Voors, AA; Jaarsma, T; Hillege, HL; Hoes, AW; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2006-01-01

    Background In patients with acute heart failure (HF) presenting at the emergency department, a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level <100 pg/mL was found in only 10% of the patients. However, in a more stable outpatient HF population from another study, a BNP level <100 pg/mL was found in as many a

  17. B-type natriuretic peptides and mortality after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Berrocoso, Teresa; Giralt, Dolors; Bustamante, Alejandro;

    2013-01-01

    To measure the association of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal fragment of BNP (NT-proBNP) with all-cause mortality after stroke, and to evaluate the additional predictive value of BNP/NT-proBNP over clinical information....

  18. Early optical follow-up of the nearby active star DG CVn during its 2014 superflare

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Garcia, M D; Jelinek, M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cwiek, A; Claret, A; Opiela, R; Zarnecki, A F; Gorosabel, J; Oates, S R; Cunniffe, R; Jeong, S; Hudec, R; Sokolov, V V; Makarov, D I; Tello, J C; Lara-Gil, O; Kubanek, P; Guziy, S; Bai, J; Fan, Y; Wang, C; Park, I H

    2015-01-01

    DG CVn is a binary system in which one of the components is an M type dwarf ultra fast rotator, only three of which are known in the solar neighborhood. Observations of DG CVn by the Swift satellite and several ground-based observatories during its super-flare event on 2014 allowed us to perform a complete hard X-ray - optical follow-up of a super-flare from the red-dwarf star. The observations support the fact that the super-flare can be explained by the presence of (a) large active region(s) on the surface of the star. Such activity is similar to the most extreme solar flaring events. This points towards a plausible extrapolation between the behaviour from the most active red-dwarf stars and the processes occurring in the Sun.

  19. Observational Effects of Magnetism in O Stars: Surface Nitrogen Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J. F.; Bouret, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the surface nitrogen content of the six magnetic O stars known to date as well as of the early B-type star Tau Sco.. We compare these abundances to predictions of evolutionary models to isolate the effects of magnetic field on the transport of elements in stellar interiors. Methods. We conduct a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the ample stars with state-of-the-art atmosphere models. We rely on high signal-to-noise ratio, high resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPADONS at CFHT and NARVAL at TBL. Atmosphere models and synthetic spectra are computed with the code CMFGEN. Values of N/H together with their uncertainties are determined and compared to predictions of evolutionary models. Results. We find that the magnetic stars can be divided into two groups: one with stars displaying no N enrichment (one object); and one with stars most likely showing extra N enrichment (5 objects). For one star (Ori C) no robust conclusion can be drawn due to its young age. The star with no N enrichment is the one with the weakest magnetic field, possibly of dynamo origin. It might be a star having experienced strong magnetic braking under the condition of solid body rotation, but its rotational velocity is still relatively large. The five stars with high N content were probably slow rotators on the zero age main sequence, but they have surface N/H typical of normal O stars, indicating that the presence of a (probably fossil) magnetic field leads to extra enrichment. These stars may have a strong differential rotation inducing shear mixing. Our results shOuld be viewed as a basis on which new theoretical simulations can rely to better understand the effect of magnetism on the evolution of massive stars.

  20. Star Wreck

    OpenAIRE

    Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Tkachev, Igor I.

    1998-01-01

    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the or...

  1. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies: scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Brok, Mark den; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200 early-type dwarf galaxies in the magnitude range $16.0 < m_{F814W} < 22.6 $ mag, corresponding to $-19.0 < M_{F814W} < -12.4 $ mag. Nuclear star clusters are detected in 80% of the galaxies, thus doubling the sample of HST-observed early-type dwarf galaxies with nuclear star clusters. \\changed{We confirm that the} nuclear star cluster detection fraction decreases strongly toward faint magnitudes. The luminosities of nuclear star clusters do not scale linearly with host galaxy luminosity. A linear fit yields L$_{nuc} \\sim $L$_{gal}^{0.57\\pm0.05}$. The nuclear star cluster-host galaxy luminosity scaling relation for low-mass early-type dwarf galaxies is consistent with formation by globular cluster accre...

  2. Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars and Chemical Evolution of the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Wasserburg, G J

    2008-01-01

    We have attributed the elements from Sr through Ag in stars of low metallicities ([Fe/H] -0.32 for all metal-poor stars. This is in direct conflict with the high-resolution data now available, which show that there is a great shortfall of Sr relative to Fe in many stars with [Fe/H] < -3. The same conflict also exists for the CPR elements Y and Zr. We show that the data require a stellar source leaving behind black holes and that hypernovae (HNe) from progenitors of ~ 25 to 50 M_sun are the most plausible candidates. If we expand our previous model to include three components (low-mass and normal SNe and HNe), we find that essentially all of the data are very well described by the new model. The HN yield pattern for the low-A elements from Na through Zn (including Fe) is inferred from the stars deficient in Sr, Y, and Zr. We estimate that HNe contributed ~ 24% of the bulk solar Fe inventory while normal SNe contributed only ~ 9% (not the usually assumed ~ 33%). This implies a greatly reduced role of normal...

  3. Massive star populations in I Zw 18 A probe of stellar evolution in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schärer, D; Leitherer, C; Heldmann, J; Schaerer, Daniel; Mello, Duilia de; Leitherer, Claus; Heldmann, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    We present a study of the gaseous and stellar emission in I Zw18, the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy known. Archival HST WFPC2 and FOS data have been used to analyze the spatial distribution of [OIII], Halpha, and HeII 4686. The latter is used to identify Wolf-Rayet stars found by ground-based spectroscopy and to locate nebular HeII emission. Most of the HeII emission is associated with the NW stellar cluster, displaced from the surrounding shell-like [OIII] and Halpha emission. We found evidence for HeII sources compatible with 5-9 WNL stars and/or compact nebular HeII emission as well as residual diffuse emission. New evolutionary tracks and synthesis models at the appropriate metallicity predict a mass limit M_WR ~90 Msun for WR stars to become WN and WC/WO. The observed equivalent widths of the WR lines are in good agreement with an instantaneous burst model with a Salpeter IMF extending up to M_up ~ 120-150 Msun. Our model is also able to fully reproduce the observed equivalent widths of nebular HeI...

  4. Heavy elements abundances in turn-off stars and early subgiants in NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    James, G; Bonifacio, P; Bragaglia, A; Carretta, E; Centurion, M; Clementini, G; Desidera, S; Gratton, R G; Grundahl, F; Lucatello, S; Molaro, P; Pasquini, L; Sneden, C; Spite, F

    2004-01-01

    High resolution spectra (R > 40 000) for 9 main sequence turn-off stars and 9 subgiants in the globular cluster NGC 6752 were acquired with UVES on the VLT-Kueyen (UT2). These data have been used to determine the abundances of some heavy elements (strontium, yttrium, barium and europium). This paper presents for the first time accurate results for heavy elements in this globular cluster. We did not find any systematic effect between the abundances found in turn-off stars, subgiants, and giants. We obtain the following mean abundances for these elements in our sample (turn-off stars and subgiants): [Sr/Fe] = 0.06 +/- 0.16, [Y/Fe] = -0.01 +/- 0.12, [Ba/Fe] = 0.18 +/- 0.11, and [Eu/Fe] = 0.41 +/- 0.09. The dispersion in the abundance ratios of the different elements is low and can be totally explained by uncertainties in their derivation. These ratios are in agreement with the values found in field halo stars with the same metallicity. We did not observe any correlation between the [n-capture/Fe] ratios and the ...

  5. KMOS3D: Dynamical Constraints on the Mass Budget in Early Star-forming Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Genzel, Reinhard; Burkert, Andreas; Bandara, Kaushala; Beifiori, Alessandra; Belli, Sirio; Bender, Ralf; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Ric; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Kulkarni, Sandesh K.; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Mendel, J. Trevor; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Naab, Thorsten; Nelson, Erica J.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Seitz, Stella; Tacconi, Linda J.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Übler, Hannah; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wilman, David J.; Wuyts, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We exploit deep integral-field spectroscopic observations with KMOS/Very Large Telescope of 240 star-forming disks at 0.6\\lt z\\lt 2.6 to dynamically constrain their mass budget. Our sample consists of massive (≳ {10}9.8 {M}⊙ ) galaxies with sizes {R}e≳ 2 {kpc}. By contrasting the observed velocity and dispersion profiles with dynamical models, we find that on average the stellar content contributes {32}-7+8 % of the total dynamical mass, with a significant spread among galaxies (68th percentile range {f}{star}˜ 18 % {--}62 % ). Including molecular gas as inferred from CO- and dust-based scaling relations, the estimated baryonic mass adds up to {56}-12+17 % of the total for the typical galaxy in our sample, reaching ˜ 90 % at z\\gt 2. We conclude that baryons make up most of the mass within the disk regions of high-redshift star-forming disk galaxies, with typical disks at z\\gt 2 being strongly baryon-dominated within R e . Substantial object-to-object variations in both stellar and baryonic mass fractions are observed among the galaxies in our sample, larger than what can be accounted for by the formal uncertainties in their respective measurements. In both cases, the mass fractions correlate most strongly with measures of surface density. High-{{{Σ }}}{star} galaxies feature stellar mass fractions closer to unity, and systems with high inferred gas or baryonic surface densities leave less room for additional mass components other than stars and molecular gas. Our findings can be interpreted as more extended disks probing further (and more compact disks probing less far) into the dark matter halos that host them. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, and 096.A-0025.

  6. The challenge of measuring magnetic fields in strongly pulsating stars: the case of HD 96446

    CERN Document Server

    Järvinen, S P; Ilyin, I; Schöller, M; Briquet, M

    2016-01-01

    Among the early B-type stars, He-rich Bp stars exhibit the strongest large-scale organized magnetic fields with a predominant dipole contribution. The presence of $\\beta$ Cep-like pulsations in the typical magnetic early Bp-type star HD 96446 was announced a few years ago, but the analysis of the magnetic field geometry was hampered by the absence of a reliable rotation period and a sophisticated procedure for accounting for the impact of pulsations on the magnetic field measurements. Using new spectropolarimetric observations and a recently determined rotation period based on an extensive spectroscopic time series, we investigate the magnetic field model parameters of this star under more detailed considerations of the pulsation behaviour of the line profiles.

  7. Early Star Formation and Chemical Evolution in Proto-Galactic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, L; Mathews, G J; Saleh, Lamya; Beers, Timothy C.; Mathews, Grant J.

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical simulations to describe the evolution of pre-Galactic clouds in a model which is motivated by cold dark matter simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation. We adopt a SN-induced star-formation mechanism within a model that follows the evolution of chemical enrichment and energy input to the clouds by Type II and Type Ia supernovae. We utilize metallicity-dependent yields for all elements at all times, and include effects of finite stellar lifetimes. We derive the metallicity distribution functions for stars in the clouds, their age-metallicity relation, and relative elemental abundances for a number of alpha- and Fe-group elements. The stability of these clouds against destruction is discussed, and results are compared for different initial mass functions. We find that the dispersion of the metallicity distribution function observed in the outer halo is naturally reproduced by contributions from many clouds with different initial conditions. The predicted relative abundances of some alph...

  8. Modeling the early evolution of massive OB stars with an experimental wind routine

    CERN Document Server

    Keszthelyi, Zsolt; Wade, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Stellar evolution models of massive stars are very sensitive to the adopted mass-loss scheme. The magnitude and evolution of mass-loss rates significantly affect the main sequence evolution, and the properties of post-main sequence objects, including their rotational velocities. Driven by potential discrepancies between theoretically predicted and observationally derived mass-loss rates in the OB star range, we particularly aim to investigate the response to mass-loss rates that are lower than currently adopted, in parallel with the mass-loss behavior at the "first" bi-stability jump. We perform 1D hydrodynamical model calculations of single $20 - 60 \\, M_{\\odot}$ Galactic ($Z = 0.014$) stars where the effects of stellar winds are already significant during the main sequence phase. We develop an experimental wind routine to examine the behavior and response of the models under the influence of different mass-loss rates. This observationally guided, simple and flexible wind routine is not a new mass-loss descr...

  9. Gamma-ray Bursts and the Early Star-formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Chary, R; Robertson, B; Trenti, M; Vangioni, E

    2016-01-01

    We review the uncertainties in high-z star-formation rate (SFR) measures and the constraints that one obtains from high-z gamma-ray burst (GRB) rates on them. We show that at the present time, the GRB rates per unit star-formation at z>3 are higher than at lower redshift. We also compare metallicity predictions made using a hierarchical model of cosmic chemical evolution based on two recently proposed SFRs, one based on the observed galaxy luminosity function at high redshift and one based on the GRB rate and find that within the considerable scatter in metal abundance measures, they both are consistent with the data. Analyzing the ensemble of different measurements together, we conclude that despite metallicity biases, GRBs may be a less biased probe of star-formation at z>3 than at z$25Msun which are likely GRB progenitors. We also find that to reconcile these measurements with the Thomson scattering cross section of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons measured by Planck, the escape fraction of Lyman-...

  10. KMOS^3D: Dynamical constraints on the mass budget in early star-forming disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wuyts, S; Wisnioski, E; Genzel, R; Burkert, A; Bandara, K; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Bender, R; Brammer, G B; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Kulkarni, S K; Lang, P; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I G; Naab, T; Nelson, E J; Saglia, R P; Seitz, S; Tacconi, L J; Tadaki, K; Übler, H; van Dokkum, P G; Wilman, D J; Wuyts, E

    2016-01-01

    We exploit deep integral-field spectroscopic observations with KMOS/VLT of 240 star-forming disks at 0.6 2 being strongly baryon-dominated within $R_e$. Substantial object-to-object variations in both stellar and baryonic mass fractions are observed among the galaxies in our sample, larger than what can be accounted for by the formal uncertainties in their respective measurements. In both cases, the mass fractions correlate most strongly with measures of surface density. High $\\Sigma_{star}$ galaxies feature stellar mass fractions closer to unity, and systems with high inferred gas or baryonic surface densities leave less room for additional mass components other than stars and molecular gas. Our findings can be interpreted as more extended disks probing further (and more compact disks probing less far) into the dark matter halos that host them. However, a non-negligible tail of the derived baryonic mass fraction distribution reaching into the unphysical $f_{bar} > 1$ regime may in addition hint at more effi...

  11. Star formation history in early-type galaxies. I. The line absorption indices diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiosi, R T C

    2004-01-01

    The bottom line of this study is (i) to check whether normal (quiescent) and interacting EGs have a different behavior in the popular diagnostic planes such as Hb vs. [MgFe] (and others); (ii) to seek whether the signature of mergers and/or interactions may mirror in some specific changes of the indices that could un-equivocally hint for burts of stellar activity; (iii) to evaluate the intensity of those bursts or secondary episodes of star formation; (iv) to explore whether other alternatives can exist, i.e. distinct from obvious ones resting on large age range. The data show that both normal, field and interacting galaxies have the same scattered but smooth distribution in the Hb vs. [MgFe] diagnostic plane. There are two interpretations for this: (1) EGs span larges ranges of ages and metallicities. (2) The bulk population of stars is old but subsequent episodes of star formation scatter the object in the diagnostic planes. Both these interpretation are not able to reproduce the observed distribution. The ...

  12. The Schmidt-Kennicutt Law of Matched-Age Star Forming Regions; Pa-alpha Observations of the Early-Phase Interacting Galaxy Taffy I

    CERN Document Server

    Komugi, S; Motohara, K; Takagi, T; Iono, D; Kaneko, H; Ueda, J; Saitoh, T R; Kato, N; Konishi, M; Koshida, S; Morokuma, T; Takahashi, H; Tanabe, T; Yoshii, Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to test a recent hypothesis that the dispersion in the Schmidt-Kennicutt law arises from variations in the evolutionary stage of star forming molecular clouds, we compared molecular gas and recent star formation in an early-phase merger galaxy pair, Taffy I (UGC\\ 12915/UGC\\ 12914, VV\\ 254) which went through a direct collision 20 Myr ago and whose star forming regions are expected to have similar ages. Narrow-band Pa-alpha image is obtained using the ANIR near-infrared camera on the mini-TAO 1m telescope. The image enables us to derive accurate star formation rates within the galaxy directly. The total star formation rate, 22.2 M_sun/yr, was found to be much higher than previous estimates. Ages of individual star forming blobs estimated from equivalent widths indicate that most star forming regions are ~7 Myr old, except for a giant HII region at the bridge which is much younger. Comparison between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for the regions with the same age exhibits a surprisingly...

  13. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the H-R diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briquet, M.; Hubrig, S.; Cat, P. de; Aerts, C.; North, P.; Schöller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods: We carry out a comparative study

  14. Abundances of the elements in sharp-lined early-type stars from IUE high-dispersion spectrograms; 2, the nitrogen deficiency in mercury- manganese stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roby, S W; Adelman, S J

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.419, no.1, p.276-85 (1993). The authors determine nitrogen abundances from co-added IUE high-dispersion SWP spectrograms of four HgMn stars and five normal or superficially normal main-sequence B and A stars. They find N deficiencies in the HgMn stars greater than previously reported (depletion factors of 135-400 relative to the Sun). N abundance discrepancies from UV and IR studies of normal stars are discussed in light of possible non-LTE effects. Their data set for their sample of HgMn stars (observed with a consistent strategy to maximize the benefits of co-additions) is an improvement over the single or few images previously used to derive N abundances for most of these stars. (37 refs).

  15. Deuterium Fractionation in Massive Clumps in Early Evolutionary Stages of High-Mass Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Sakai, N.; Furuya, K.; Aikawa, Y.; Hirota, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2011-05-01

    To understand the initial conditions of star formation, it is useful to observe deuterated species, because the deuterium fractionation can be enhanced in cold starless phase. We have observed the HN13C J=1--0 and DNC J=1--0 lines toward 18 massive clumps, including infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the HN13C emission is stronger than the DNC emission toward all the observed sources. The averaged DNC/HNC ratio of the observed sources is found to be 0.007, which is lower than that of the low-mass cores. The DNC/HNC ratio is found to be roughly anti-correlated with the kinetic temperature derived from NH_3 (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2). We have also found that the DNC/HNC ratio of some IRDCs is lower than that of HMPOs, although the kinetic temperature of the IRDCs is lower than that of the HMPOs. With the aid of chemical model simulations, we discuss how the deuterium fractionation decreases after the onset of star formation. We suggest that the DNC/HNC ratio of star forming cores may reflect the timescale of starless phase. In addition to the above results, we report the current status of some instruments, which we have developed for observations of deuterated species. We have developed the 70 GHz receiver for the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) 45 m telescope. By using this receiver, we can observe the J=1-0 lines of various fundamental deuterated species such as DCN, DCO^+, and C_2D. For observations of the H_2D^+ line at 372 GHz, we have improved the 350 GHz receiver for the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. We will also report the observation plans of deuterated species with these receivers.

  16. Discovery of a strong magnetic field in the rapidly rotating B2Vn star HR 7355

    CERN Document Server

    Oksala, M E; Marcolino, W L F; Grunhut, J; Bohlender, D A; Manset, N; Townsend, R H D

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detection of a strong, organized magnetic field in the helium-variable early B-type star HR 7355 using spectropolarimetric data obtained with ESPaDOnS on CFHT by the MiMeS large program. We also present results from new V-band differential photometry obtained with the CTIO 0.9m telescope. We investigate the longitudinal field, using a technique called Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), and the rotational period of HR 7355. These new observations strongly support the proposal that HR 7355 harbors a structured magnetosphere similar to that in the prototypical helium-strong star, sigma Ori E.

  17. The influence of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on star formation in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, E O; Shchekinov, Yu.A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) results in an increase in the degree of ionization in the post-recombination Universe, which stimulates the efficiency of the production of H$_2$ molecules and the formation of the first stellar objects. As a result, the onset of the formation of the first stars is shifted to higher redshifts, and the masses of the first stellar systems decrease. As a consequence, a sufficient increase in the ionizing radiation providing the reionization of the Universe can take place. We discuss possible observational manifestations of these effects and their dependence on the parameters of UHECR.

  18. Zooming in on star formation in the brightest galaxies of the early Universe discovered with the Planck and Herschel satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canameras, Raoul

    2016-09-01

    Strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies offer an outstanding opportunity to characterize the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the high-redshift universe. In the most extreme cases, one can probe the mechanisms that underlie the intense star formation on the scales of individual star-forming regions. This requires very fortuitous gravitational lensing configurations offering magnification factors >>10, which are particularly rare toward the high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies. The Planck's Dusty GEMS (Gravitationally Enhanced subMillimeter Sources) sample contains eleven of the brightest high-redshift galaxies discovered with the Planck submillimeter all-sky survey, with flux densities between 300 and 1000 mJy at 350 microns, factors of a few brighter than the majority of lensed sources previously discovered with other surveys. Six of them are above the 90% completeness limit of the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS), suggesting that they are among the brightest high-redshift sources on the sky selected by their active star formation. This thesis comes within the framework of the extensive multi-wavelength follow-up programme designed to determine the overall properties of the high-redshift sources and to probe the lensing configurations. Firstly, to characterize the intervening lensing structures and calculate lensing models, I use optical and near/mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. I deduce that our eleven GEMS are aligned with intervening matter overdensities at intermediate redshift, either massive isolated galaxies or galaxy groups and clusters. The foreground sources exhibit evolved stellar populations of a few giga years, characteristic of early-type galaxies. Moreover, the first detailed models of the light deflection toward the GEMS suggest magnification factors systematically >10, and >20 for some lines-of-sight. Secondly, we observe the GEMS in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter domains in order to characterize the background

  19. HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Barman, Travis S., E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu, E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a 'saturated' level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t {sup –1}. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emission levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models.

  20. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars - CEMP-no stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordström, B; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon - the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds, or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocit variation...

  1. Regarding the Potential Impact of Double Star Observations on Conceptions of the Universe of Stars in the Early 17TH Century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    Galileo Galilei believed that stars were distant suns whose sizes measured via his telescope were a direct indication of distance -- fainter stars (appearing smaller in the telescope) being farther away than brighter ones. Galileo argued in his Dialogue that telescopic observation of a chance alignment of a faint (distant) and bright (closer) star would reveal annual parallax, if such double stars were found. This would provide support both for Galileo's ideas concerning the nature of stars and for the motion of the Earth. However, Galileo actually made observations of such double stars, well before publication of the Dialogue. We show that the results of these observations, and the likely results of observations of any double star that was a viable subject for Galileo's telescope, would undermine Galileo's ideas, not support them. We argue that such observations would lead either to the more correct idea that stars were sun-like bodies of varying sizes which could be physically grouped, or to the less correc...

  2. Early Star Formation, Nucleosynthesis, and Chemical Evolution in Proto-Galactic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, L; Mathews, G J

    2006-01-01

    We present numerical simulations to describe the nucleosynthesis and evolution of pre-Galactic clouds in a model which is motivated by cold dark matter simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation. We adopt a SN-induced star-formation mechanism and follow the chemical enrichment and energy input by Type II and Type Ia SNe. We utilize metallicity-dependent yields and include finite stellar lifetimes. We derive the metallicity distribution functions, the age-metallicity relation, and relative elemental abundances for a number of alpha- and Fe-group elements. We find that the dispersion of the metallicity distribution function of the outer halo is reproduced by contributions from clouds with different initial conditions. Clouds with initial masses greater than that of present globular clusters are found to survive the first 0.1 Gyr, suggesting that such systems may have contributed to the formation of the first stars, and could have been self-enriched. More massive clouds are only stable when one assumes an init...

  3. Empirical mass-loss rates for 25 O and early B stars, derived from Copernicus observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathier, R.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Ultraviolet line profiles are fitted with theoretical line profiles in the cases of 25 stars covering a spectral type range from O4 to B1, including all luminosity classes. Ion column densities are compared for the determination of wind ionization, and it is found that the O VI/N V ratio is dependent on the mean density of the wind and not on effective temperature value, while the Si IV/N V ratio is temperature-dependent. The column densities are used to derive a mass-loss rate parameter that is empirically correlated against the mass-loss rate by means of standard stars with well-determined rates from IR or radio data. The empirical mass-loss rates obtained are compared with those derived by others and found to vary by as much as a factor of 10, which is shown to be due to uncertainties or errors in the ionization fractions of models used for wind ionization balance prediction.

  4. Early-Age Evolution of the Milky Way Related by Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2009-01-01

    We exploit the recent observations of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galactic halo and investigate the constraints on the IMF of the stellar population that left these low-mass survivors of [Fe/H]<-2.5 and the chemical evolution that they took part in. A high-mass IMF with the typical mass~10Msun and the overwhelming contribution of low-mass members of binaries to the EMP survivors are derived from the statistics of carbon-enriched EMP stars with and without the enhancement of s-process elements (Komiya et al. 2007). We first examine the analysis to confirm their results for various assumptions on the mass-ratio distribution function. As compared with the uniform distribution, the increase or decrease function of the mass ratio gives a higher- or lower-mass IMF, and a lower-mass IMF results for the independent distribution with the both members in the same IMF, but the derived ranges of typical mass differ less than by a factor of two and overlap for the extreme cases. Furthermore, we prove that t...

  5. Chemical evolution in the early phases of massive star formation II: Deuteration

    CERN Document Server

    Gerner, Th; Beuther, H; Semenov, D; Linz, H; Abertsson, T; Henning, Th

    2015-01-01

    The chemical evolution in high-mass star-forming regions is still poorly constrained. Studying the evolution of deuterated molecules allows to differentiate between subsequent stages of high-mass star formation regions due to the strong temperature dependence of deuterium isotopic fractionation. We observed a sample of 59 sources including 19 infrared dark clouds, 20 high-mass protostellar objects, 11 hot molecular cores and 9 ultra-compact HII regions in the (3-2) transitions of the four deuterated molecules, DCN, DNC, DCO+ and N2D+ as well as their non-deuterated counterpart. The overall detection fraction of DCN, DNC and DCO+ is high and exceeds 50% for most of the stages. N2D+ was only detected in a few infrared dark clouds and high-mass protostellar objects. It can be related to problems in the bandpass at the frequency of the transition and to low abundances in the more evolved, warmer stages. We find median D/H ratios of ~0.02 for DCN, ~0.005 for DNC, ~0.0025 for DCO+ and ~0.02 for N2D+. While the D/H ...

  6. Weak and Compact Radio Emission in Early High-Mass Star Forming Regions: I. VLA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosero, V; Claussen, M; Kurtz, S; Cesaroni, R; Araya, E D; Carrasco-González, C; Rodríguez, L F; Menten, K M; Wyrowski, F; Loinard, L; Ellingsen, S P

    2016-01-01

    We present a high sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3$\\,$cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array towards a sample of 58 high-mass star forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC-IRs, CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the $1\\,$mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the VLA, this survey achieved map rms levels of $\\sim$ 3-10 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 centimeter continuum sources associated with 1.2$\\,$mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and are prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the mm dust clumps for CMCs, CMC-IRs and HMCs are 6$\\%$, 53$\\%$ and 100$\\%$, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs...

  7. Stars were born in significantly denser regions in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, M; Rahmati, A

    2013-01-01

    The density of the warm ionized gas in high-redshift galaxies is known to be higher than what is typical in local galaxies on similar scales. At the same time, the mean global properties of the high- and low-redshift galaxies are quite different. Here, we present a detailed differential analysis of the ionization parameters of 14 star forming galaxies at redshift 2.6-3.4, compiled from the literature. For each of those high-redshift galaxies, we construct a comparison sample of low-redshift galaxies closely matched in specific star formation rate and stellar mass, thus ensuring that their global physical conditions are similar to the high-redshift galaxy. We find that the median log [OII] 3727/[OIII] 5007 line ratio of the high-redshift galaxies is 0.5 dex higher than their local counterparts. We construct a new calibration between the [OII] 3727/[OIII] 5007 emission line ratio and ionization parameter to estimate the difference between the ionization parameters in the high and low-redshift samples. Using thi...

  8. Optical Interferometry of early-type stars with PAVO@CHARA. I. Fundamental stellar properties

    CERN Document Server

    Maestro, V; Huber, D; Ireland, M J; Monnier, J D; White, T R; Kok, Y; Robertson, J G; Schaefer, G H; Brummelaar, T A Ten; Tuthill, P G

    2013-01-01

    We present interferometric observations of 7 main-sequence and 3 giant stars with spectral types from B2 to F6 using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA array. We have directly determined the angular diameters for these objects with an average precision of 2.3%. We have also computed bolometric fluxes using available photometry in the visible and infrared wavelengths, as well as space-based ultraviolet spectroscopy. Combined with precise \\textit{Hipparcos} parallaxes, we have derived a set of fundamental stellar properties including linear radius, luminosity and effective temperature. Fitting the latter to computed isochrone models, we have inferred masses and ages of the stars. The effective temperatures obtained are in good agreement (at a 3% level) with nearly-independent temperature estimations from spectroscopy. They validate recent sixth-order polynomial (B-V)-$T_\\mathrm{eff}$ empirical relations \\citep{Boyajian2012a}, but suggest that a more conservative third-order solution \\citep{vanBelle2009} could ...

  9. No compelling evidence of significant early star cluster disruption in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Anders, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not the rich star cluster population in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is affected by significant disruption during the first few x 10^8 yr of its evolution is an open question and the subject of significant current debate. Here, we revisit the problem, adopting a homogeneous data set of broad-band imaging observations. We base our analysis mainly on two sets of self-consistently determined LMC cluster ages and masses, one using standard modelling and one which takes into account the effects of stochasticity in the clusters' stellar mass functions. On their own, the results based on any of the three complementary analysis approaches applied here are merely indicative of the physical conditions governing the cluster population. However, the combination of our results from all three different diagnostics leaves little room for any conclusion other than that the optically selected LMC star cluster population exhibits no compelling evidence of significant disruption -- for clusters with masses, M_cl,...

  10. The structure and early evolution of massive star forming regions - Substructure in the infrared dark cloud SDC13

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire, Catherine; Peretto, Nicolas; Zhang, Qizhou; Traficante, Alessio; Avison, Adam; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    Investigations into the substructure of massive star forming regions are essential for understanding the observed relationships between core mass distributions and mass distributions in stellar clusters, differentiating between proposed mechanisms of massive star formation. We study the substructure in the two largest fragments (i.e. cores) MM1 and MM2, in the infrared dark cloud complex SDC13. As MM1 appears to be in a later stage of evolution than MM2, comparing their substructure provides an insight in to the early evolution of massive clumps. We report the results of high resolution SMA dust continuum observations towards MM1 and MM2. Combining these data with Herschel observations, we carry out RADMC-3D radiative transfer modelling to characterise the observed substructure. SMA continuum data indicates 4 sub-fragments in the SDC13 region. The nature of the second brightest sub-fragment (B) is uncertain as it does not appear as prominent at the lower MAMBO resolution or at radio wavelengths. Statistical a...

  11. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe: Probing the Star Formation History of Galaxies by Their Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Two distinct scenarios for the origin of the approximately 4 x 10(exp 8) Solar Mass of dust observed in the high-redshift (z = 6.4) quasar J1148+5251 have been proposed. The first assumes that this galaxy is much younger than the age of the universe at that epoch so that only supernovae, could have produced this dust. The second scenario assumes a significantly older galactic age, so that the dust could have formed in lower-mass AGB stars. Presenting new integral solutions for the chemical evolution of metals and dust in galaxies, we offer a critical evaluation of these two scenarios. ^N;"(,, show that the AGB scenario is sensitive to the details of the galaxy's star formation history (SFH), which must consist of an early intense starburst followed by a period of low stellar activity. The presence or absence of massive amounts of dust in high-redshift galaxies can therefore be used to infer their SFH. However, a problem with the AGB scenario is that it produces a stellar mass that is significantly larger than the inferred dynamical mass of J1148+5251, an yet unresolved discrepancy. If this problem persists, then additional sites for the growth or formation of dust, such as molecular clouds or dense clouds around active galactic nuclei, must be considered.

  12. STAR POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. von Ferber; Yu.Holovatch

    2002-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to present a collection of papers devoted to theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies in the field of star polymers. Since its introduction in the early 80-ies, this field has attracted increasing interest and has become an important part of contemporary polymer physics. While research papers in this field appear regularly in different physical and chemical journals, the present collection is an attempt to join together the studies of star polymers showing the...

  13. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies: scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, Mark den; Peletier, Reynier F.; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijsbert; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200

  14. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies : scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200

  15. The STAR Program: A Description and Analysis of a Multifaceted Early Intervention for Young Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, John; Reitman, David; de Back, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the first 2 years of a comprehensive early intervention program for young children with a diagnosis of ADHD--the "STAR (Summer Treatment and Research) Program." Following the program rationale and overview, case examples are presented to illustrate the use of various program components and some typical outcomes. In addition…

  16. Star formation in nearby early-type galaxies: the radio continuum perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M.; Wrobel, Joan M.; Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Alatalo, Katherine; Morganti, Raffaella; Duc, Pierre-Alain; de Zeeuw, P. T.; McDermid, Richard M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Oosterloo, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We present a 1.4 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) study of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey. The radio morphologies of these ETGs at a resolution of θFWHM ≈ 5 arcsec include sources that are compact on sub-kpc scales, resolved structures similar to those seen i

  17. The evolution of single B-type stars with a large angular momentum content

    CERN Document Server

    Granada, Anahí

    2014-01-01

    The database of intermediate mass rotating stellar models presented in the past years by the Geneva Stellar Evolution Group can be used to build synthetic stellar populations that fully account for the effects of stellar rotation. However, up to now we still lacked stellar evolutionary tracks that rotate close to the critical limit during the whole MS phase. This occurs because the flat internal profile of rotation imposed at the Zero-Age MS (ZAMS) is modified by the action of meridional currents immediately after the ZAMS, causing the surface rotational velocity to decrease abruptly until it reaches a quasi-stationary state. We compute stellar models with non-solid rotation at the ZAMS to obtain stellar evolutionary tracks with a larger content of angular momentum, that attain rotational equatorial velocities close to the critical limit throughout their MS phase. These models have a longer MS lifetime and a higher surface chemical enrichment already at the end of the MS, particularly at Z=0.002. Stellar mode...

  18. Tracking the distribution of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe during the early phases of star and disk evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffmeier, Michael; Haugboelle, Troels; Bizzarro, Martin; Nordlund, Aake

    2016-01-01

    The short-lived $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe radionuclides are synthesized and expelled in the interstellar medium by core-collapse supernova events. The solar system's first solids, calcium-aluminium refractory inclusions (CAIs), contain evidence for the former presence of the $^{26}$ Al nuclide defining the canonical $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$ Al ratio of $\\sim5 \\times10^{-5}$. A different class of objects temporally related to canonical CAIs are CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs), which record a low initial $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$Al of $10^{-6}$. The contrasting level of $^{26}$Al between these objects is often interpreted as reflecting the admixing of the $^{26}$Al nuclide during the early formative phase of the Sun. We use giant molecular cloud (GMC) scale adaptive mesh-refinement numerical simulations to trace the abundance of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe in star-forming gas during the early stages of accretion of individual low mass protostars. We find that the $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$Al and $^{60}$Fe...

  19. Atrial secretion of B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2006-01-01

    In the normal heart, the endocrine capacity resides in the atria. Atrial myocytes express and secrete natriuretic hormones that regulate fluid homeostasis and blood pressure. But in ventricular disease, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene expression is also...... understanding of the endocrine atria during ventricular dysfunction is still scarce. Although ventricular disease and increased circulating concentrations are associated, it does not entail that the ventricle is the sole or even the main source in all types of heart disease. Clearly, the endocrine atria...... are also active in heart failure. Plasma measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors can perhaps help us to discriminate when, where and how....

  20. Early star catalogues of the southern sky: De Houtman, Kepler (Second and Third Classes), and Halley

    CERN Document Server

    Verbunt, Frank

    2011-01-01

    De Houtman in 1603, Kepler in 1627 and Halley in 1679 published the earliest modern catalogues of the southern sky. We provide machine-readable versions of these catalogues, make some comparisons between them, and briefly discuss their accuracy on the basis of comparison with data from the modern Hipparcos Catalogue. We also compare our results for De Houtman with those by Knobel (1917) finding good overall agreement. About half of the about 200 new stars (with respect to Ptolemaios) added by De Houtman are in twelve new constellations, half in old constellations like Centaurus, Lupus and Argo. The right ascensions and declinations given by De Houtman have error distributions with widths of about 40 arcmin, the longitudes and latitudes given by Kepler have error distributions with widths of about 45 arcmin. Halley improves on this by more than an order of magnitude to widths of about 3 arcmin, and all entries in his catalogue can be identified. The measurement errors of Halley are due to a systematic deviatio...

  1. Multiplicity of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Preibisch, T; Zinnecker, H; Preibisch, Thomas; Weigelt, Gerd; Zinnecker, Hans

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the observed multiplicity of massive stars and implications on theories of massive star formation. After a short summary of the literature on massive star multiplicity, we focus on the O- and B-type stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, which constitute a homogenous sample of very young massive stars. 13 of these stars have recently been the targets of a bispectrum speckle interferometry survey for companions. Considering the visual and also the known spectroscopic companions of these stars, the total number of companions is at least 14. Extrapolation with correction for the unresolved systems suggests that there are at least 1.5 and perhaps as much as 4 companions per primary star on average. This number is clearly higher than the mean number of about 0.5 companions per primary star found for the low-mass stars in the general field population and also in the Orion Nebula cluster. This suggests that a different mechanism is at work in the formation of high-mass multiple systems in the dense Orion Nebu...

  2. Magnetic fields in beta Cep, SPB, and Be stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeller, M; Briquet, M; Ilyin, I

    2013-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical results emphasize the potential significance of magnetic fields for structure, evolution, and environment of massive stars. Depending on their spectral and photometric behavior, the upper main-sequence B-type stars are assigned to different groups, such as beta Cep stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, He-rich and He-deficient Bp stars, Be stars, BpSi stars, HgMn stars, or normal B-type stars. All these groups are characterized by different magnetic field geometry and strength, from fields below the detection limit of a few Gauss up to tens of kG. Our collaboration was the first to systematically study the magnetic fields in representative samples of different types of main-sequence B stars. In this article, we give an overview about what we have learned during the last years about magnetic fields in beta Cep, SPB, and Be stars.

  3. The Gamma-ray burst 050904 a star in the early sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendre, B; Corsi, A; Klotz, A; Piro, L; Stratta, G; Boër, M; Damerdji, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present optical and X-ray observations of GRB 050904 obtained with TAROT and SWIFT. We perform temporal and spectral analysis of the XRT and optical data. We find evidence for a variable absorption in the early phase of the afterglow and we interpret this as a progressive photo-ionization. The spectral properties of the early X-ray flare observed about 460 seconds after the burst are similar to those of the following afterglow. In the optical band, we observe a flare simultaneous with the X-ray one. We use the temporal and spectral information to interpret the data. The overall behavior of the early afterglow is compatible with a fireball expanding in a wind environment, and the late optical flattening might be explained by the effect of a termination shock. To explain the simultaneous X-ray and optical flares we consider the hypothesis of delayed external shock from a thick shell, inverse Compton emission from reverse shock, reverse shock from synchrotron emission, inverse Compton emission from late inter...

  4. KMOS view of the Galactic centre. I. Young stars are centrally concentrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier-Krause, A.; Neumayer, N.; Schödel, R.; Seth, A.; Hilker, M.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Kuntschner, H.; Walcher, C. J.; Lützgendorf, N.; Kissler-Patig, M.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The Galactic centre hosts a crowded, dense nuclear star cluster with a half-light radius of 4 pc. Most of the stars in the Galactic centre are cool late-type stars, but there are also ≳100 hot early-type stars in the central parsec of the Milky Way. These stars are only 3-8 Myr old. Aims: Our knowledge of the number and distribution of early-type stars in the Galactic centre is incomplete. Only a few spectroscopic observations have been made beyond a projected distance of 0.5 pc of the Galactic centre. The distribution and kinematics of early-type stars are essential to understand the formation and growth of the nuclear star cluster. Methods: We cover the central >4 pc2 (0.75 sq. arcmin) of the Galactic centre using the integral-field spectrograph KMOS (VLT). We extracted more than 1000 spectra from individual stars and identified early-type stars based on their spectra. Results: Our data set contains 114 bright early-type stars: 6 have narrow emission lines, 23 are Wolf-Rayet stars, 9 stars have featureless spectra, and 76 are O/B type stars. Our wide-field spectroscopic data confirm that the distribution of young stars is compact, with 90% of the young stars identified within 0.5 pc of the nucleus. We identify 24 new O/B stars primarily at large radii. We estimate photometric masses of the O/B stars and show that the total mass in the young population is ≳12 000 M⊙. The O/B stars all appear to be bound to the Milky Way nuclear star cluster, while less than 30% belong to the clockwise rotating disk. We add one new star to the sample of stars affiliated with this disk. Conclusions: The central concentration of the early-type stars is a strong argument that they have formed in situ. An alternative scenario, in which the stars formed outside the Galactic centre in a cluster that migrated to the centre, is refuted. A large part of the young O/B stars is not on the disk, which either means that the early-type stars did not all form on the same disk or

  5. Investigation of the magnetic field characteristics of Herbig Ae/Be stars: Discovery of the pre-main sequence progenitors of the magnetic Ap/Bp stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Bagnulo, S; Landstreet, J D; Mason, E; Silvester, J; Alecian, E; Böhm, T; Bouret, J C; Catala, C; Donati, J F; Folsom, C; Bale, K

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating the magnetic characteristics of pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars, with the aim of (1) understanding the origin and evolution of magnetism in intermediate-mass stars, and (2) exploring the influence of magnetic fields on accretion, rotation and mass-loss at the early stages of evolution of A, B and O stars. We have begun by conducting 2 large surveys of Herbig Ae/Be stars, searching for direct evidence of photospheric magnetic fields via the longitudinal Zeeman effect. From observations obtained using FORS1 at the ESO-VLT and ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we report the confirmed detection of magnetic fields in 4 pre-main sequence A- and B-type stars, and the apparent (but as yet unconfirmed) detection of fields in 2 other such stars. We do not confirm the detection of magnetic fields in several stars reported by other authors to be magnetic: HD 139614, HD 144432 or HD 31649. One of the most evolved stars in the detected sample, HD 72106A, shows clear evidence of stron...

  6. [CII] At 1 Star Formation in the Early Universe with Zeus (1 and 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G.; Benford, D.; staguhn, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the [CII] 158 micron fine structure line from six submillimeter galaxies with redshifts between 1.12 and 1.73. This more than doubles the total number of [CII] 158 micron detections reported from high redshift sources. These observations were made with the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer(ZEUS) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii between December 2006 and March 2009. ZEUS is a background limited submm echelle grating spectrometer (Hailey-Dunsheath 2009). Currently we are constructing ZEUS-2. This new instrument will utilize the same grating but will feature a two dimensional transition-edge sensed bolometer array with SQUID multiplexing readout system enabling simultaneous background limited observations in the 200, 340,450 and 650 micron telluric windows. ZEUS-2 will allow for long slit imaging spectroscopy in nearby galaxies and a [CII] survey from z 0.25 to 2.5.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117... Systems § 862.1117 B-type natriuretic peptide test system. (a) Identification. The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) test system is an in vitro diagnostic device intended to measure BNP in whole blood...

  8. The stars and the state: Astronomy, astrology, and the politics of natural knowledge in early medieval Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Kristina Mairi

    This dissertation examines the social factors involved in the practices of observational astrology (Ch. tianwen, Jp. tenmon ) and calendrical astronomy (Ch. lifa, Jp. rekihō) at the Japanese court. The production and monopolization of astrological and astronomical knowledge had, from the time of the Han Dynasty in China, been part of the state bureaucracy and one of the signs of legitimate rule. In the seventh century, Japan too had imported and implemented these state sciences of the Chinese-style imperium. However, by the twelfth century, while state control of astronomical knowledge continued to operate at a surface level, within the Japanese court bureaucracy dissent and debate reigned. A number of lineages and factions cooperated or competed over astronomical and astrological facts, which resulted in a situation where there was no unified "truth" about the stars accepted by the majority of elite members of the court. The political fragmentation and factionalism that characterized the early medieval Japanese state was also to be found in knowledge about the natural world circulating at court. The major reason for this fragmentation of knowledge was the diversity of the population that produced this same knowledge, a population that did not share either a common identity or definition of practice. Astrological and astronomical knowledge was no longer produced solely by the technical bureaucrats whose offices had been established in the eighth-century Chinese-style law codes (Jp. ritsuryō)—instead, these officials contested with other legitimate but non-official purveyors of natural knowledge: Buddhist monks and court scholars and mathematicians prominent among them. Furthermore, the statements of fact produced by all three of these factions were subject to critique and revision by members of the top echelon of the court bureaucracy, the elite nobility. Clearly there were no independent professional fields of astrology or astronomy in late classical or early

  9. Calibration of Strömgren-Crawford photometry for Ap-stars compared to Hipparcos results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Nikolaus; Paunzen, Ernst; Maitzen, Hans M.

    25 years ago Bidelman and MacConnell (1973) published a list of nearly 800 Ap-stars which they had identified on objective prism plates collected at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory as kind of a precursor work for the huge Michigan project of two-dimensional spectral classification. This list has been used as basis for 3 different photometric projects carried out at ESO-La Silla with limiting magnitude V = 8.5: 1. uvby photometry by Vogt and Faúndez (1979); 2. δa photometry by Maitzen and Vogt (1983) in the system of Maitzen (1976) demonstrating the very high agreement of photometric Ap-detections with the spectroscopic results of Bidelman and MacConnell; 3. Hβ photometry of 226 objects which were observed at the Danish 50cm telescope on La Silla in 1982. The latter work was intended not only to formally complete Strögren-Crawford data for a significantly large set of chemically peculiar stars (excluding Am and HgMn objects) but also to yield their galactic locations. Reddening corrections mattered only for the hot peculiars. Absolute magnitudes were derived according to the calibrations worked out by Crawford two decades ago for normal main sequence AB stars. The Hipparcos catalogue which appeared in 1997 offers an independent way to check whether these calibrations derived for normal stars do apply also for chemically peculiar stars. Fortunately, we identified Hipparcos parallaxes for two thirds of our sample. We divided our objects according to 3 calibration groups: early (= B type stars), intermediate (A0-A2 type stars), late (other A type stars). First of all we consider normal stars with published β-values in order to compare their photometric absolute magnitudes to those based on the Hipparcos catalogue. The degree of correlation between both quantities is not excellent for the normal B-type stars, but no systematic trend is visible. For the stars around the Balmer maximum (intermediate group) we also do not recognize a significant systematic

  10. Regional coordination of the ENERGY STAR{reg{underscore}sign} residential fixture program: Design, implementation, and early observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.; Gordon, L.; Latham, L.

    1998-07-01

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance and a group of California utilities are implementing a unique market transformation initiative to promote the use of energy-efficient residential light fixtures. This effort is based on the current ENERGY STAR{reg{underscore}sign} specification for residential fixtures, and combines manufacturer rebates with aggressive education and marketing efforts in order to stimulate increased sales of these products. The initiative was developed in 1997, and has been underway in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and California since early 1998. Program efforts are designed to increase the availability of qualified fixtures in the retail and electric wholesale channels throughout the five-state area, and to stimulate direct sales to large homebuilders active in the region. An RFP process was used to select six lighting manufacturers, who are now eligible to receive rebate payments of $7 to $10 for each qualified fixture shipped during 1998. A similar process will be employed in late 1998 to select the eligible manufacturers for 1999. As of May 1998, participating manufacturers have shipped over 37,000 qualifying fixtures throughout the five states covered by the program, with most units being delivered to retain stores such as Home Depot, Home Base, Eagle Hardware and Garden, and Costco. These shipments represent 10% of the 1998 program goal.

  11. The central dark matter content of early-type galaxies: scaling relations and connections with star formation histories

    CERN Document Server

    Napolitano, Nicola R; Tortora, Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    We examine correlations between the masses, sizes, and star formation histories for a large sample of low-redshift early-type galaxies, using a simple suite of dynamical and stellar populations models. We confirm an anti-correlation between size and stellar age, and survey for trends with the central content of dark matter (DM). An average relation between central DM density and galaxy size of ~ Reff^-2 provides the first clear indication of cuspy DM haloes in these galaxies -- akin to standard LCDM haloes that have undergone adiabatic contraction. The DM density scales with galaxy mass as expected, deviating from suggestions of a universal halo profile for dwarf and late-type galaxies. We introduce a new fundamental constraint on galaxy formation by finding that the central DM fraction decreases with stellar age. This result is only partially explained by the size-age dependencies, and the residual trend is in the opposite direction to basic DM halo expectations. Therefore we suggest that there may be a con...

  12. Early-stage star forming cloud cores in GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs) as traced by organics pecies

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Jixing; Chen, Xi; Takahashi, S

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the physical and chemical properties of massive star forming cores in early stages, we analyse the excitation and abundance of four organic species, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3 and CH3CH2CN, toward 29 Extended Green Object (EGO) cloud cores that were observed by our previous single dish spectral line survey. The EGO cloud cores are found to have similar methanol J_3-J_2 rotation temperatures of ~44 K, a typical linear size of ~0.036 pc, and a typical beam averaged methanol abundance of several 10^(-9) (the beam corrected value could reach several 10^(-7)). The abundances of the latter three species, normalized by that of methanol, are found to be correlated also across a large variety of clouds such as EGO cloud cores, hot corinos, massive hot cores and Galactic Center clouds. The chemical properties of the EGO cloud cores lie between that of hot cores and hot corinos. However, the abundances and abundance ratios of the four species can not be satisfactorily explained by recent chemical mo...

  13. Visible Stars as Apparent Observational Evidence in Favor of the Copernican Principle in the Early 17th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    The Copernican Principle (which says the Earth and sun are not unique) should have observational consequences and thus be testable. Galileo Galilei thought he could measure the true angular diameters of stars with his telescope; according to him, stars visible to the naked eye range in diameter from a fraction of a second to several seconds of arc. He used this and the Copernican Principle assumption that stars are suns as a method of determining stellar distances. The expected numbers of naked eye stars brighter than a given magnitude can be calculated via Galileo's methods; the results are consistent with data obtained from counting naked eye stars. Thus the total number of stars visible to the naked eye as a function of magnitude would appear to Galileo to be data supporting the Copernican Principle.

  14. Star formation histories of early-type galaxies. I Higher order Balmer lines as age indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, N; Concannon, K D; Caldwell, Nelson; Rose, James A.; Concannon, Kristi Dendy

    2003-01-01

    (shortened) We have obtained blue integrated spectra of 175 nearby early-type galaxies, covering a wide range in galaxy velocity dispersion, and emphasizing those with sigma < 100 km/s. Galaxies have been observed both in the Virgo cluster and in lower-density environments. The main goals are the evaluation of higher order Balmer lines as age indicators, and differences in stellar populations as a function of mass, environment and morphology. In this first paper our emphasis is on presenting the evolutionary population synthesis models. Lower-sigma galaxies exhibit a substantially greater intrinsic scatter, in a variety of line strength indicators, than do higher-sigma galaxies, with the large intrinsic scatter setting in below a sigma of 100 km/s. Modeling of the observed spectral indices indicates that the strong Balmer lines found primarily among the low-sigma galaxies are caused by young age, rather than by low metallicity. Thus we find a trend between the population age and the velocity dispersion, su...

  15. On Discovering Electromagnetic Emission from Neutron Star Mergers: The Early Years of Two Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kasliwal, Mansi M

    2013-01-01

    We present the first simulation addressing the prospects of finding an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart to gravitational wave detections (GW) during the early years of only two advanced interferometers. The perils of such a search may have appeared insurmountable when considering the coarse ring-shaped GW localizations spanning thousands of deg^2 using time-of-arrival information alone. We show that leveraging the amplitude and phase information of the predicted GW signal narrows the localization to arcs with a median area of only ~250 deg^2, thereby making an EM search tractable. Based on the locations and orientations of the two LIGO detectors, we find that the GW sensitivity is limited to one polarization and thus to only two sky quadrants. Thus, the rates of GW events with two interferometers is only ~40% of the rate with three interferometers of similar sensitivity. Another important implication of the sky quadrant bias is that EM observatories in North America and Southern Africa would be able to system...

  16. Star Formation History of Early-Type Galaxies in Low Density Environments; 5, Blue line-strength indices for the nuclear region

    CERN Document Server

    Longhetti, M; Chiosi, C; Rampazzo, R

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the star formation properties of a sample of 21 shell galaxies and 30 early-type galaxies members of interacting pairs, located in low density environments (Longhetti et al 1998a, 1998b). The study is based on new models developed to interpret the information coming from `blue' H$\\delta$/FeI, H+K(CaII) and \\D4000 line-strength indices proposed by Rose (1984; 1985) and Hamilton (1985). We find that the last star forming event that occurred in the nuclear region of shell galaxies is statistically old (from 0.1 up to several Gyr) with respect to the corresponding one in the sub-sample of pair galaxies (<0.1 Gyr or even ongoing star formation). If the stellar activity is somehow related to the formation of shells, as predicted by several dynamical models of galaxy interaction, shells have to be considered long lasting structures. Since pair members show evidence of very recent star formation, we suggest that either large reservoirs of gas have to be present to maintain active star formation, if thes...

  17. The Green Valley is a Red Herring: Galaxy Zoo reveals two evolutionary pathways towards quenching of star formation in early- and late-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D; Fortson, Lucy; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris J; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Sarzi, Marc; Ramin,; Skibba,; Treister, Ezequiel; Willett, Kyle W; Wong, O Ivy; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2014-01-01

    We use SDSS+\\textit{GALEX}+Galaxy Zoo data to study the quenching of star formation in low-redshift galaxies. We show that the green valley between the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies and the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the colour-mass diagram is not a single transitional state through which most blue galaxies evolve into red galaxies. Rather, an analysis that takes morphology into account makes clear that only a small population of blue early-type galaxies move rapidly across the green valley after the morphologies are transformed from disk to spheroid and star formation is quenched rapidly. In contrast, the majority of blue star-forming galaxies have significant disks, and they retain their late-type morphologies as their star formation rates decline very slowly. We summarize a range of observations that lead to these conclusions, including UV-optical colours and halo masses, which both show a striking dependence on morphological type. We interpret these results in terms of the evolution of co...

  18. Strong C+ emission in galaxies at z~1-2: Evidence for cold flow accretion powered star formation in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Stacey, Gordon J; Spoon, Henrik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Verma, Aprajita

    2014-01-01

    We have recently detected the [CII] 157.7 micron line in eight star forming galaxies at redshifts 1 to 2 using the redshift(z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS). Our sample targets star formation dominant sources detected in PAH emission. This represents a significant addition to [CII] observations during the epoch of peak star formation. We have augmented this survey with observations of the [OI] 63 micron line and far infrared photometry from the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments as well as Spitzer IRS spectra from the literature showing PAH features. Our sources exhibit above average gas heating efficiency, many with both [OI]/FIR and [CII]/FIR ~1% or more. The relatively strong [CII] emission is consistent with our sources being dominated by star formation powered PDRs, extending to kpc scales. We suggest that the star formation mode in these systems follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law similar to local systems, but at a much higher rate due to molecular gas surface densities 10 to 100 times that of local s...

  19. On the interpretation of new late B- and early A-type periodic variable stars in NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Barblan, F; Eyer, L

    2013-01-01

    We investigate possible interpretations of the new periodic B- and A-type variable stars discovered in NGC 3766. They lie in the region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between slowly pulsating B and delta Sct stars, a region where no pulsation is predicted by standard models of pulsating stars. We show that the two other possible causes of periodic light curve variations, rotational modulation and binarity, cannot provide a satisfactory explanation for all the properties observed in those stars either. The question of their origin is thus currently an open issue.

  20. Two new SB2 binaries with main sequence B-type pulsators in the Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pápics, P. I.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Briquet, M.; Marcos-Arenal, P.; Beck, P. G.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Triviño Hage, A.; Southworth, J.; Clubb, K. I.; Bloemen, S.; Degroote, P.; Jackiewicz, J.; McKeever, J.; Van Winckel, H.; Niemczura, E.; Gameiro, J. F.; Debosscher, J.

    2013-05-01

    Context. OB stars are important in the chemistry and evolution of the Universe, but the sample of targets that is well understood from an asteroseismological point of view is still too limited to provide feedback on the current evolutionary models. Aims: We extend this sample with two spectroscopic binary systems. Our goal is to provide orbital solutions, fundamental parameters, and abundances from disentangled high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra, as well as to analyse and interpret the variations in the Kepler light curve of these carefully selected targets. This way we continue our efforts to map the instability strips of β Cep and slowly pulsating B stars using the combination of high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy and uninterrupted space-based photometry. Methods: We fit Keplerian orbits to radial velocities measured from selected absorption lines of high-resolution spectroscopy using synthetic composite spectra to obtain orbital solutions. We used revised masks to obtain optimal light curves from the original pixel-data from the Kepler satellite, which provided better long-term stability compared to the pipeline-processed light curves. We used various time-series analysis tools to explore and describe the nature of variations present in the light curve. Results: We find two eccentric double-lined spectroscopic binary systems containing a total of three main sequence B-type stars (and one F-type component), of which at least one in each system exhibits light variations. The light curve analysis (combined with spectroscopy) of the system of two B stars points towards the presence of tidally excited g modes in the primary component. We interpret the variations seen in the second system as classical g mode pulsations driven by the κ mechanism in the B type primary, and explain the unexpected power in the p mode region as the result of nonlinear resonant mode excitation. Based on observations made with the Mercator telescope, operated by the

  1. Using ALMA to Resolve the Nature of the Early Star-Forming Large-Scale Structure G073

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Kneissl, R.; Polletta, M.; Clarenc, B.; Dole, H. A.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Scott, D.; Béthermin, M.; Lagache, G.; Montier, L.

    2017-07-01

    Galaxy clusters at large redshift are key targets for understanding the nature of the early Universe, yet locating them has proven to be very challenging. Recently, a large sample of over 2000 high-z candidate structures have been found using Planck's all-sky submillimetre maps, and a subset of 234 have been followed up with Herschel-SPIRE, which showed that the emission can be attributed to large far-infrared overdensities. However, the individual galaxies giving rise to the emission seen by Planck and Herschel have not yet been resolved nor characterized, so we do not yet know whether these sources are the progenitors of present-day, massive galaxy clusters. In an attempt to address this, we targeted the eight brightest Herschel-SPIRE peaks in the centre of the Planck peak G073.4-57.5 using ALMA at 1.3 mm, and complemented these observations with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm and from CFHT-WIRCam at 1.2 and 2.2 μm. We also utilize data on G073.4-57.5 at 850 μm from JCMT's SCUBA-2 instrument. We detect a total of 18 millimetre galaxies brighter than 0.3mJy in 2.4arcmin2. In every case we are able to match these to their NIR counterparts, and while the most significant SCUBA-2 sources are not included in the ALMA pointings, we find an 8σ detection when stacking the ALMA source positions in the 850 μm data. We derive photometric redshifts, IR luminosities, star-formation rates, stellar masses, dust temperatures, and dust masses; the photometric redshifts are concentrated around z ≃ 1 and z ≃ 2 and the NIR colours show a "red" sequence, while the star-formation rates indicate that three of the galaxies are "starbursts". Serendipitous CO line detections of two of the galaxies appear to match their photometric redshifts with z = 2.05. We find that the ALMA source density is 8-30 times higher than average background estimates, and thus also larger than seen in typical "proto-cluster" fields. The evidence seems to be indicating the

  2. Early-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 2244 and in the Mon OB2 association I. The multiplicity of O-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mahy, L; Rauw, G; Gosset, E; De Becker, M; Sana, H; Eenens, P

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We present the results obtained from a long-term spectroscopic campaign devoted to the multiplicity of O-type stars in the young open cluster NGC2244 and in the Mon OB2 association. Methods. Our spectroscopic monitoring was performed over several years, allowing us to probe different time-scales. For each star, several spectral diagnostic tools are applied, in order to search for line shifts and profile variations. We also measure the projected rotational velocity and revisit the spectral classification. Results. In our sample, several stars were previously considered as spectroscopic binaries, though only a few scattered observations were available. Our results now reveal a more complex situation. Our study identifies two new spectroscopic binaries (HD46149 in NGC2244 and HD46573 in MonOB2). The first object is a long-period double-lined spectroscopic binary, though the exact value of its period remains uncertain and the second object is classified as an SB1 system with a period of about 10.67 days but...

  3. Evolution of solitary density waves in stellar winds of early-type stars: A simple explanation of discrete absorption component behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Klein, Larry; Altner, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    We model the evolution of a density shell propagating through the stellar wind of an early-type star, in order to investigate the effects of such shells on UV P Cygni line profiles. Unlike previous treatments, we solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, using an explicit time-differencing scheme, and present a parametric study of the density, velocity, and temperature response. Under the assumed conditions, relatively large spatial scale, large-amplitude density shells propagate as stable waves through the supersonic portion of the wind. Their dynamical behavior appears to mimic propagating 'solitary waves,' and they are found to accelerate at the same rate as the underlying steady state stellar wind (i.e., the shell rides the wind). These hydrodynamically stable structures quantitatively reproduce the anomalous 'discrete absorption component' (DAC) behavior observed in the winds of luminous early-type stars, as illustrated by comparisons of model predictions to an extensive International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) time series of spectra of zeta Puppis (O4f). From these comparisons, we find no conclusive evidence indicative of DACs accelerating at a significantly slower rate than the underlying stellar wind, contrary to earlier reports. In addition, these density shells are found to be consistent within the constraints set by the IR observations. We conclude that the concept of propagating density shells should be seriously reconsidered as a possible explanation of the DAC phenomenon in early-type stars.

  4. HD 164492C: a rapidly rotating, Hα-bright, magnetic early B star associated with a 12.5 d spectroscopic binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, G. A.; Shultz, M.; Sikora, J.; Bernier, M.-É.; Rivinius, Th.; Alecian, E.; Petit, V.; Grunhut, J. H.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We employ high-resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry to derive the physical properties and magnetic characteristics of the multiple system HD 164492C, located in the young open cluster M20. The spectrum reveals evidence of three components: a broad-lined early B star (HD 164492C1), a narrow-lined early B star (HD 164492C2) and a late B star (HD 164492C3). Components C2 and C3 exhibit significant (>100 km s-1) bulk radial velocity variations with a period of 12.5351(7) d that we attribute to eccentric binary motion around a common centre-of-mass. Component C1 exhibits no detectable radial velocity variations. Using constraints derived from modelling the orbit of the C2+C3 binary and from synthesis of the combined spectrum, we determine the approximate physical characteristics of the components. We conclude that a coherent evolutionary solution consistent with the published age of M20 implies a distance to M20 of 0.9 ± 0.2 kpc, corresponding to the smallest published values. We confirm the detection of a strong magnetic field in the combined spectrum. The field is clearly associated with the broad-lined C1 component of the system. Repeated measurement of the longitudinal magnetic field allows the derivation of the rotation period of the magnetic star, Prot = 1.369 86(6) d. We derive the star's magnetic geometry, finding i=63± 6°, β =33± 6° and a dipole polar strength B_d=7.9^{+1.2}_{-1.0} kG. Strong emission - varying according to the magnetic period - is detected in the Hα profile. This is consistent with the presence of a centrifugal magnetosphere surrounding the rapidly rotating magnetic C1 component.

  5. Strong C+ Emission in Galaxies at z ~ 1-2: Evidence for Cold Flow Accretion Powered Star Formation in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Stacey, Gordon J.; Spoon, Henrik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Verma, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    We have recently detected the [C II] 157.7 μm line in eight star-forming galaxies at redshifts 1 to 2 using the redshift (z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS). Our sample targets star formation dominant sources detected in PAH emission. This represents a significant addition to [C II] observations during the epoch of peak star formation. We have augmented this survey with observations of the [O I] 63 μm line and far infrared photometry from the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments as well as Spitzer IRS spectra from the literature showing PAH features. Our sources exhibit above average gas heating efficiency, many with both [O I]/FIR and [C II]/FIR of ~1% or more. The relatively strong [C II] emission is consistent with our sources being dominated by star formation powered photo-dissociation regions, extending to kiloparsec scales. We suggest that the star formation mode in these systems follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law similar to local systems, but at a much higher rate due to molecular gas surface densities 10-100 times that of local star-forming systems. The source of the high molecular gas surface densities may be the infall of neutral gas from the cosmic web. In addition to the high [C II]/FIR values, we also find high [C II]/PAH ratios and, in at least one source, a cool dust temperature. This source, SWIRE 4-5, bears a resemblance in these diagnostics to shocked regions of Stephan's Quintet, suggesting that another mode of [C II] excitation in addition to normal photoelectric heating may be contributing to the observed [C II] line.

  6. New magnetic field measurements of beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; De Cat, P; Schöller, M; Morel, T; Ilyin, I

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the continuation of our magnetic survey with FORS1 at the VLT of a sample of B-type stars consisting of confirmed or candidate beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B stars. Roughly one third of the studied beta Cephei stars have detected magnetic fields. The fraction of magnetic Slowly Pulsating B and candidate Slowly Pulsating B stars is found to be higher, up to 50%. We find that the domains of magnetic and non-magnetic pulsating stars in the H-R diagram largely overlap, and no clear picture emerges as to the possible evolution of the magnetic field across the main sequence.

  7. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-10-01

    Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high-risk behaviours, with high-profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post-fame mortality in pop stars. Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All-Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five-year post-fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health-damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would-be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations.

  8. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-01-01

    Background Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high‐risk behaviours, with high‐profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. Objective This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. Design We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post‐fame mortality in pop stars. Participants Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All‐Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. Results From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five‐year post‐fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Conclusion Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health‐damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would‐be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations. PMID:17873227

  9. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordstrøm, B; Beers, T C; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later mass transfer of processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. ...

  10. Formation and Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies. III Star formation history as a function of mass and over-density

    CERN Document Server

    Merlin, Emiliano; Piovan, Lorenzo; Grassi, Tommaso; Buonomo, Umberto; La Barbera, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the initial proto-galaxies over-densities and masses on their evolution, to understand whether the internal properties of the proto-galactic haloes are sufficient to account for the varied properties of the galactic populations. By means of fully hydrodynamical N-body simulations performed with the code EvoL we produce twelve self-similar models of early-type galaxies of different initial masses and over-densities, following their evolution from z \\geq 20 down to z \\leq 1. The simulations include radiative cooling, star formation, stellar energy feedback, a reionizing photoheating background, and chemical enrichment of the ISM. We find a strong correlation between the initial properties of the proto-haloes and their star formation histories. Massive (10^13M\\odot) haloes experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates \\geq 10^3M\\odot/yr) at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a less pronounced dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate m...

  11. HD 164492C: a rapidly-rotating, H$\\alpha$-bright, magnetic early B star associated with a 12.5d spectroscopic binary

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Sikora, J; Bernier, M -É; Rivinius, Th; Alecian, E; Petit, V; Grunhut, J H

    2016-01-01

    We employ high resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry to derive the physical properties and magnetic characteristics of the multiple system HD 164492C, located in the young open cluster M20. The spectrum reveals evidence of 3 components: a broad-lined early B star (HD 164492C1), a narrow-lined early B star (HD 164492C2), and a late B star (HD 164492C3). Components C2 and C3 exhibit significant ($>100$ km/s) bulk radial velocity variations with a period of $12.5351(7)$ d that we attribute to eccentric binary motion around a common centre-of-mass. Component C1 exhibits no detectable radial velocity variations. Using constraints derived from modeling the orbit of the C2+C3 binary and from synthesis of the combined spectrum, we determine the approximate physical characteristics of the components. We conclude that a coherent evolutionary solution consistent with the published age of M20 implies a distance to the system of $0.9\\pm 0.2$ kpc, corresponding to the smallest published values. We confirm the dete...

  12. Magnetic field measurements and wind-line variability of OB-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schnerr, R S; Neiner, C; Verdugo, E; de Jong, J; Geers, V C; Wiersema, K; van Dalen, B; Tijani, A; Plaggenborg, B; Rygl, K L J

    2010-01-01

    Context. The first magnetic fields in O- and B-type stars that do not belong to the Bp-star class, have been discovered. The cyclic UV wind-line variability, which has been observed in a significant fraction of early-type stars, is likely to be related to such magnetic fields. Aims. We attempt to improve our understanding of massive-star magnetic fields, and observe twenty-five carefully-selected, OB-type stars. Methods. Of these stars we obtain 136 magnetic field strength measurements. We present the UV wind-line variability of all selected targets and summarise spectropolarimetric observations acquired using the MUSICOS spectropolarimeter, mounted at the TBL, Pic du Midi, between December 1998 and November 2004. From the average Stokes I and V line profiles, derived using the LSD method, we measure the magnetic field strengths, radial velocities, and first moment of the line profiles. Results. No significant magnetic field is detected in any OB-type star that we observed. Typical 1{\\sigma} errors are betwee...

  13. Prognostic Value of N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide and MMP-9 in Early Left Ventricular Re-modeling After Acute Myocardial Infarction%NT-proBNP和MMP-9与急性心肌梗死患者早期左室重构的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏翠; 阳军; 陈然; 程春; 刘赵云

    2015-01-01

    【目的】探讨氨基末端B型脑钠肽前体(N T‐proBN P )、基质金属蛋白酶‐9(M M P‐9)对急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者经皮冠脉介入治疗(PCI)术后早期心室重构的影响及其相关性。【方法】根据PCI术后4周时92例AMI患者左心室容积增加率的不同,将其分为左室重构组,非左室重构组,并设稳定性冠心病对照组。比较患者NT‐proBNP、MMP‐9水平及其与PCI术后患者的左室收缩末期容积( LVESV)和舒张末期容积(LVEDV)、左室射血分数(LVEF)、左室收缩末容积指数( LVESVI)、左室舒张末容积指数(LVEDVI)等的关系。【结果】AMI患者PCI治疗前后血浆NT‐proBNP和MMP‐9水平较稳定型冠心病对照组明显升高;左室重构组血浆 NT‐proB‐NP、MMP‐9水平持续增高,与非左室重构组在PCI术后7 d比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。血浆NT‐proB‐NP、MMP‐9水平与LVEDV均呈明显正相关( P <0.01),与LVEF均呈明显负相关( P <0.05)。【结论】AMI患者血浆NT‐proBNP、MMP‐9水平与左室重构指标有相关性,可作为AMI早期左室重构的预测因子。%[Objective] To explore the relationship between N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide (NT‐proBNP) and matrix metalloproteinase‐9 (MMP‐9) in early left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) .[Methods] A total of 92 AMI patients were divided into two groups based on left ventricular end‐diastolic volume index . The plasma levels of NT‐proBNP and MMP‐9 were determined by radioimmunoassay .Left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) ,left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) ,ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricle mass (LVM ) were measured by echocardiography .[Results] The plasma levels of NT‐proBNP and MMP‐9 were higher in AMI group than those in control group ( P<0 .01) .And their levels kept rising in left ventricular

  14. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies as a test of early enrichment and metallicity-dependent star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Kravtsov, Andrey V

    2011-01-01

    The tight relation of star formation with molecular gas indicated by observations and assumed in recent models implies that the efficiency with which galaxies convert their gas into stars depends on gas metallicity. This is because the abundance of molecular hydrogen is sensitive to the abundance of dust, which catalyzes the formation of H_2 and helps to shield it from dissociating radiation. In this study we point out that in the absence of significant pre-enrichment by Population III stars forming out of zero metallicity gas, such H_2-based star formation is expected to leave an imprint in the form of bi-modality in the metallicity distribution among dwarf galaxies and in the metallicity distribution of stars within individual galaxies. The bi-modality arises because when gas metallicity (and dust abundance) is low, formation of molecular gas is inefficient, the gas consumption time scale is long, and star formation and metal enrichment proceed slowly. When metallicity reaches a critical threshold value sta...

  15. Abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in Metal-Poor Stars and Implications for Chemical Evolution in the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Y -Z

    2008-01-01

    Studies of nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds from nascent neutron stars show that the elements from Sr through Ag with mass numbers A~88-110 are produced by charged-particle reactions (CPR) during the alpha-process in the winds. Accordingly, we have attributed all these elements in stars of low metallicities ([Fe/H]-0.32 for all metal-poor stars. The high-resolution data now available on Sr abundances in Galactic halo stars show that there is a great shortfall of Sr relative to Fe in many stars with [Fe/H]<-3. This is in direct conflict with the above prediction. The same conflict also exists for two other CPR elements Y and Zr. The very low abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr observed in stars with [Fe/H]<-3 thus require a stellar source that cannot be low-mass or normal SNe. We show that this observation requires a stellar source leaving behind black holes and that hypernovae (HNe) from progenitors of ~25-50M_sun are the most plausible candidates. (Abridged)

  16. N-terminal Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: a measure of significant patent cuctus arteriosus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OFarombi-Oghuvbu, IO

    2008-01-24

    Background: B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker for ventricular dysfunction secreted as a pre-prohormone, Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (ProBNP), and cleaved into BNP and a biologically inactive fragment, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Little is known about the clinical usefulness of NT-proBNP in preterm infants.\\r\

  17. Discovery of a magnetic field in the CoRoT hybrid B-type pulsator HD 43317

    CERN Document Server

    Briquet, M; Leroy, B; Pápics, P I

    2013-01-01

    A promising way of testing the impact of a magnetic field on internal mixing (core overshooting, internal rotation) in main-sequence B-type stars is to perform asteroseismic studies of a sample of magnetic pulsators. The CoRoT satellite revealed that the B3IV star HD 43317 is a hybrid SPB/beta Cep-type pulsator that has a wealth of pulsational constraints on which one can perform a seismic modelling, in particular, probing the extent of its convective core and mixing processes. Moreover, indirect indicators of a magnetic field in the star were observed: rotational modulation due to chemical or temperature spots and X-ray emission. Our goal was to directly investigate the field in HD 43317 and, if it is magnetic, to characterise it. We collected data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at TBL (T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot, Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from HD 43317. We modelled the longitudinal field me...

  18. A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris disc stars. II. CHARA/FLUOR observations of six early-type dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Absil, O; Merand, A; Augereau, J -C; Foresto, V Coude du; Defrere, D; Kervella, P; Aufdenberg, J P; Desort, M; Ehrenreich, D; Lagrange, A -M; Montagnier, G; Olofsson, J; Brummelaar, T A ten; McAlister, H A; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H

    2008-01-01

    High-precision interferometric observations of six early-type main sequence stars known to harbour cold debris discs have been obtained in the near-infrared K band with the FLUOR instrument at the CHARA Array. The measured squared visibilities are compared to the expected visibility of the stellar photospheres based on theoretical photospheric models taking into account rotational distortion, searching for potential visibility reduction at short baselines due to circumstellar emission. Our observations bring to light the presence of resolved circumstellar emission around one of the six target stars (zeta Aql) at the 5 sigma level. The morphology of the emission source cannot be directly constrained because of the sparse spatial frequency sampling of our interferometric data. Using complementary adaptive optics observations and radial velocity measurements, we find that the presence of a low-mass companion is a likely origin for the excess emission. The potential companion has a K-band contrast of four magnitu...

  19. Magnetic fields and differential rotation on the pre-main sequence I: The early-G star HD 141943 - brightness and magnetic topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, S C; Vélez, J C Ramírez; Alecian, E; Brown, C J; Carter, B D; Donati, J F; Dunstone, N; Hart, R; Semel, M; Waite, I A

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations of the pre-main sequence early-G star HD 141943 were obtained at four observing epochs (in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010). The observations were undertaken at the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope using the UCLES echelle spectrograph and the SEMPOL spectropolarimeter visitor instrument. Brightness and surface magnetic field topologies were reconstructed for the star using the technique of least-squares deconvolution to increase the signal-to-noise of the data. The reconstructed brightness maps show that HD 141943 had a weak polar spot and a significant amount of low latitude features, with little change in the latitude distribution of the spots over the 4 years of observations. The surface magnetic field was reconstructed at three of the epochs from a high order (l <= 30) spherical harmonic expansion of the spectropolarimetric observations. The reconstructed magnetic topologies show that in 2007 and 2010 the surface magnetic field was reasonably balanced betwee...

  20. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph - Evidence for photospheric microturbulence in early O stars - Are surface gravities systematically underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, I.; Heap, S. R.; Altner, B.

    1991-01-01

    GHRS spectra of two very hot stars provide evidence for the presence of microturbulence in their photospheres. In attempting to reproduce the observed spectra, theoretical models have been built in which the microturbulence is allowed to modify not only the Doppler line widths (classical 'spectroscopic' microturbulence), but also the turbulent pressure (thus mimicking a 'physical' turbulence). It is found that a corresponding modification of the temperature-pressure stratification influences the hydrogen and helium line profiles to the extent that the surface gravities of early O stars determined without considering microturbulence are too low by 0.1-0.15 dex. Thus, including microturbulence would reduce, or resolve completely, a long-standing discrepancy between evolutionary and spectroscopic stellar masses.

  1. Modeling the early evolution of massive OB stars with an experimental wind routine. The first bi-stability jump and the angular momentum loss problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, Z.; Puls, J.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Stellar evolution models of massive stars are very sensitive to the adopted mass-loss scheme. The magnitude and evolution of mass-loss rates significantly affect the main sequence evolution, and the properties of post-main sequence objects, including their rotational velocities. Aims: Driven by potential discrepancies between theoretically predicted and observationally derived mass-loss rates in the OB star range, we aim in particular to investigate the response to mass-loss rates that are lower than currently adopted, in parallel with the mass-loss behavior at the "first" bi-stability jump. Methods: We performed 1D hydrodynamical model calculations of single 20-60 M⊙ Galactic (Z = 0.014) stars where the effects of stellar winds are already significant in the main sequence phase. We have developed an experimental wind routine to examine the behavior and response of the models under the influence of different mass-loss rates. This observationally guided, simple and flexible wind routine is not a new mass-loss description but a useful tool based on the wind-momentum luminosity relation and other scaling relations, and provides a meaningful base for various tests and comparisons. Results: The main result of this study indicates a dichotomy between solutions of currently debated problems regarding mass-loss rates of hot massive stars. In a fully diffusive approach, and for commonly adopted initial rotational velocities, lower mass-loss rates than theoretically predicted require to invoke an additional source of angular momentum loss (either due to bi-stability braking, or yet unidentified) to brake down surface rotational velocities. On the other hand, a large jump in the mass-loss rates due to the bi-stability mechanism (a factor of 5-7 predicted by Vink et al. (2000, A&A, 362, 295), but a factor of 10-20 in modern models of massive stars) is challenged by observational results, and might be avoided if the early mass-loss rates agreed with the theoretically

  2. The view from K2: questioning the traditional view of flaring on early dM stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Doyle, J. Gerry

    2015-05-01

    We use K2 short cadence data obtained over a duration of 50 d during Campaign 0 to observe two M1V dwarf stars, TYC 1330-879-1 and RXJ 0626+2349. We provide an overview of our data analysis, in particular, making a comparison between using a fixed set of pixels and an aperture which follows the position of the source. We find that this moving aperture approach can give fewer non-astrophysical features compared to a fixed aperture. Both sources shows flares as energetic as observed from several M4V stars using both Kepler and ground-based telescopes. We find that the flare energy distribution of the sources shown here are very similar to the less active M3-M5 stars but are ˜8 times less likely to produce a flare of a comparable energy to the more active M0-M5 stars. We discuss the biases and sources of systematic errors when comparing the activity of stars derived from different instruments. We conclude that K2 observations will provide an excellent opportunity to perform a census of flare activity across the full range of M dwarf spectral class and hence the physical mechanisms which power them.

  3. The view from K2: Questioning the traditional view of flaring on early dM stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    We use K2 short cadence data obtained over a duration of 50 days during Campaign 0 to observe two M1V dwarf stars, TYC 1330-879-1 and RXJ 0626+2349. We provide an overview of our data analysis, in particular, making a comparison between using a fixed set of pixels and an aperture which follows the position of the source. We find that this moving aperture approach can give fewer non-astrophysical features compared to a fixed aperture. Both sources shows flares as energetic as observed from several M4V stars using both Kepler and ground based telescopes. We find that the flare energy distribution of the sources shown here are very similar to the less active M3-M5 stars but are ~8 times less likely to produce a flare of a comparable energy to the more active M0--M5 stars. We discuss the biases and sources of systematic errors when comparing the activity of stars derived from different instruments. We conclude that K2 observations will provide an excellent opportunity to perform a census of flare activity across ...

  4. Extended Main Sequence Turnoffs in Intermediate-Age Star Clusters: A Correlation Between Turnoff Width and Early Escape Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Kalirai, Jason S; Platais, Imants; Puzia, Thomas H; Correnti, Matteo; Bressan, Alessandro; Chandar, Rupali; Kerber, Leandro; Marigo, Paola; Rubele, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We present color-magnitude diagram analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a mass-limited sample of 18 intermediate-age (1 - 2 Gyr old) star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, including 8 clusters for which new data was obtained. We find that ${\\it all}$ star clusters in our sample feature extended main sequence turnoff (eMSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population (including unresolved binary stars). FWHM widths of the MSTOs indicate age spreads of 200-550 Myr. We evaluate dynamical evolution of clusters with and without initial mass segregation. Our main results are: (1) the fraction of red clump (RC) stars in secondary RCs in eMSTO clusters scales with the fraction of MSTO stars having pseudo-ages $\\leq 1.35$ Gyr; (2) the width of the pseudo-age distributions of eMSTO clusters is correlated with their central escape velocity $v_{\\rm esc}$, both currently and at an age of 10 Myr. We find that these two results are unlikely to be reproduced by the effects ...

  5. Searching for Line Profile Variability in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Knoglinger, P

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of four non-magnetic chemically peculiar late B type stars (HgMn) stars are analysed to detect periodic spectral line variations (LPVs). A procedure developed to study LPVs in Slowly Pulsating B stars has been adopted as pulsational properties of HgMn stars should be expected to be similar. In the preliminary results discussed here no conclusive evidence for periodic LPVs was uncovered. A more sensitive re-analysis of the data is under way.

  6. A TALE OF A RICH CLUSTER AT z ∼ 0.8 AS SEEN BY THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF ITS EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna [Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Vazdekis, Alexandre; De la Rosa, Ignacio G., E-mail: aferre@naoj.org [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-20

    We present a detailed stellar population analysis for a sample of 24 early-type galaxies (ETGs) belonging to the rich cluster RX J0152.7-1357 at z = 0.83. We have derived the age, metallicity, abundance pattern, and star formation history (SFH) for each galaxy individually to further characterize this intermediate-z reference cluster. We then study how these stellar population parameters depend on the local environment. This provides a better understanding on the formation timescales and subsequent evolution of the substructures in this cluster. We have also explored the evolutionary link between z ∼ 0.8 ETGs and those in the local universe by comparing the trends that the stellar population parameters followed with galaxy velocity dispersion at each epoch. We find that the ETGs in Coma are consistent with being the (passively evolving) descendants of the ETG population in RX J10152.7-1357. Furthermore, our results favor a downsizing picture, where the subclumps centers were formed first. These central parts contain the most massive galaxies, which formed the bulk of their stars in a short, burst-like event at high z. On the contrary, the cluster outskirts are populated with less-massive, smaller galaxies that show a wider variety of SFHs. In general, they present extended star formation episodes over cosmic time, which seems to be related to their posterior incorporation into the cluster around 4 Gyr after the initial event of formation.

  7. Magnetic fields and differential rotation on the pre-main sequence III: The early-G star HD 106506

    CERN Document Server

    Waite, I A; Carter, B D; Hart, R; Donati, J -F; Vélez, J C Ramírez; Semel, M; Dunstone, N

    2011-01-01

    We present photometry and spectropolarimetry of the pre-main sequence star HD 106506. A photometric rotational period of ~1.416 +/- 0.133 days has been derived using observations at Mount Kent Observatory (MKO). Spectropolarimetric data taken at the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) were used to derive spot occupancy and magnetic maps of the star through the technique of Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI). The resulting brightness maps indicate that HD 106506 displays photospheric spots at all latitudes including a predominant polar spot. Azimuthal and radial magnetic images of this star have been derived, and a significant azimuthal magnetic field is indicated, in line with other active young stars. A solar-like differential rotation law was incorporated into the imaging process. Using Stokes I information the equatorial rotation rate, $\\Omega_{eq}$, was found to be 4.54 +/- 0.01 rad/d, with a photospheric shear $\\delta\\Omega$ of $0.21_{-0.03}^{+0.02}$ rad/d. This equates to an equatorial rotation period of ~...

  8. The Evolution of Star Formation in Early-type Galaxies%早型星系的恒星形成活动演化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王放; 郑宪忠

    2011-01-01

    从观测上测定早型星系中恒星形成活动随红移的演化有助于理解这类星系的形成演化.结合GEMS(Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs)巡天的HST/ACS(Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys)高分辨图像和CDFS(Chandra Deep Field South)天区Spitzer、GALEX(Galaxy Evolution Explorer)等多波段数据,基于形态、颜色和恒星质量选出一个0.2≤ z ≤ 1.0红移范围的包含456个早型星系的完备样本.利用stacking技术测量了样本星系紫外与红外平均光度,估计早型星系的恒星形成率.结果显示,早型星系中的恒星形成率较低(<3 M⊙·yr-1),随红移递减而降低.在红移z=1以来的恒星形成贡献的质量小于15%.星族分析亦肯定大质量早型星系的主体星族形成于宇宙早期(z>2).%How the star formation activity in early-type galaxies (ETGs) evolves over cosmic time provides observational constraints on the picture of the formation and evolution of ETGs. Using HST/ACS (Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys)imaging data from the GEMS (Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs) survey and multi-band data in the CDFS (Chandra Deep Field South), a complete sample of 456 ETGs within 0.2 < z < 1 is selected based on morphology, color and stellar mass. With stacking technique, the UV and IR average luminosities are derived from GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) and Spitzer observations and the average star formation rates are estimated. Our results show that the star formation intensities of ETGs are low (SFR < 3 M☉ · yr-1) and decline with decreasing redshift. The total stellar mass contributed by star formation since z = 1 is less than 15%. Stellar population modeling confirms that the bulk of stars in ETGs were formed at early time (z > 2).

  9. Early-Type galaxies at z ~ 1.3. III. On the dependence of Formation Epochs and Star Formation Histories on Stellar Mass and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Rettura, Alessandro; Stanford, S A; Raichoor, A; Moran, S; Holden, B; Rosati, P; Ellis, R; Nakata, F; Nonino, M; Treu1, T; Blakeslee1, J P; Demarco, R; Eisenhardt, P; Ford, H C; Fosbury, R A E; Illingworth, G; Huertas-Company, M; Jee, M J; Kodama, T; Postman, M; Tanaka, M; White, R L

    2011-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of stellar population properties at z ~ 1.3. We derive galaxy properties (stellar masses, ages and star formation histories) for samples of massive, red, passive early-type galaxies in two high-redshift clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453 (with redshifts of z = 1.26 and 1.27, respectively), and compare them with those measured for the RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster at z=1.24 and with those measured for a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the GOODS-South Field. Robust estimates of the aforementioned parameters have been obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with extensive 8-10 band photometric coverage, from the rest-frame far-ultraviolet to the infrared. We find no variations of the overall stellar population properties among the different samples of cluster early-type galaxies. However, when comparing cluster versus field stellar population properties we find that, even if the (star formation weighted) ages...

  10. The sun, moon and stars of the southern Levant at Gezer and Megiddo: Cultural astronomy in Chalcolithic/Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sara Lee

    Astronomical images are found on monumental structures and decorative art, and metaphorically in seasonal myths, and are documented by calendars. In Israel and the southern Levant, images of the sun, the moon, and the stars were common decorating motifs. They were found on walls, pottery, and seals and date to as early as the Chalcolithic period; for example, the wall painting of a star at Teleilat Ghassul (North 1961). This dissertation establishes that the people of the Levant were aware of the apparent movement of the sun, and this will be discussed in Chapter 4. They began recording through representation drawings, astronomical phenomena no later than the Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age and continued to do so late into the Middle Bronze Age. The argument moves beyond the simple use of symbols to the use of images to represent constellations, with the focus on the constellation Leo in Chapter 5. Furthermore, the use of astronomy as a power and political tool is also suggested in Chapter 6. Nonetheless, the primary purpose that is addressed here is the tendency in Syro-Palestinian archaeology has been to attribute technological evidence found in the northern and southern Levant as diffused from Egypt or Assyria, particularly astronomy. This dissertation firmly establishes that astronomy was used in the southern Levant before any significant contact with the civilizations of Egypt or Assyria.

  11. Early galaxy evolution from deep wide field star counts; 1, The spheroid density law and mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Robin, A C

    2000-01-01

    As part of a global analysis of deep star counts to constrain scenarii of galaxy formation and evolution, we investigate possible links between the galactic spheroid and the dark matter halo. A wide set of deep star counts at high and intermediate galactic latitudes is used to determine the large scale density law of the spheroid. Assuming a power density law, the exponent, flattening, local density and IMF slope of this population are estimated. The estimation is checked for robustness against contamination of star counts by the thick disc population. Contamination effects are derived from a model of population synthesis under a broad variety of thick disc parameters. The parameter fit is based on a maximum likelihood criterion. The best fit spheroid density law has a flattening of 0.76, a power index of 2.44. There is a significant degeneracy between these two parameters. The data are also compatible with a slightly less flattened spheroid (c/a = 0.85), in combination with a larger power index (2.75). A fla...

  12. Elemental abundance analyses with DAO spectrograms: XXX. The middle B through early A stars ξ2 Ceti (B9 III), 21 Aquilae (B8 II-III), ι Aquilae (B5 III), and ι Delphini (A2V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, S. J.; Westbrook, P. C.; Gulliver, A. F.

    2010-04-01

    This series of high quality elemental abundance analyses of mostly main-sequence band normal and peculiar B, A, and F stars defines their properties and provides data for the comparison with the analyses of somewhat similar stars and with theoretical predictions. Most use high dispersion and high S/N (≥ 200) spectrograms obtained with CCD detectors at the long camera of the Coudé spectrograph of the 1.22-m Dominion Astrophysical Observatory telescope. Here we reanalyze 21 Aql with better quality spectra and increase the number of stars consistently analyzed in the spectral range B5 to A2 by analyzing three new stars for this series. In the early A stars the normal and non-mCP stars have abundances with overlapping ranges. But more stars are needed especially in the B5 to B9 range. ξ2 Cet on average has a solar composition with a few abundances outside the solar range while both 21 Aql and ι Aql have abundances marginally less than solar. The abundances of ι Del are greater than solar with a few elements such as Ca being less than solar. It is an Am star. Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/ftp/cats/J/other/AN/331/378

  13. Dark stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  14. Dark stars: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  15. Relationship between branching density and crystalline structure of A- and B-type maize mutant starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Planchot, V; Colonna, P; Bertoft, E

    2000-06-02

    Amylopectin from two double maize mutant starches of A-crystalline (wxdu) and B-crystalline type (aewx) was subjected successively to hydrolysis involving alpha and beta amylases, which isolated clusters and all branching zones of clusters (BZC). Enzymatic analysis together with ionic and size-exclusion chromatography revealed the structural features of the clusters and BZC and their role in starch crystallization. A-type clusters were larger (dp(n) > 80) and contained more (but shorter) chains than B-type clusters. The BZC of A-type starch was also larger, but with a shorter distance between the branching points than in B-type BZC. A-type clusters had a densely packed structure and B-type a poorly branched structure. Models for the structure of A- and B-type clusters are presented, and a hypothesis for the influence of cluster geometry on crystallization is proposed.

  16. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with growth hormone disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Vestergaard, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertension and subsequent congestive heart failure. Impairment of cardiac function has also been associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) have emerged as strong diagnostic and prognostic risk...

  17. The Preparation of B-type Starch Spherocrystals by Freezing Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Qi LIU; Jiu Gao YU; Xiu Ping SUN

    2004-01-01

    The B-typed starch spherocrystals were prepared by the dissolution and freezing crystallization of acid-hydrolyzed starch obtained by the mild hydrolysis of maize starch. The spherocrystals were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry (TG) and gel pervasion chromatogram (GPC). The results show that the preparation was a B-type spherocrystal with the average degree of polymerization of 14 glucose units, and the average diameter of crystal particles was about 7μm.

  18. Mouse B-Type Lamins Are Required for Proper Organogenesis But Not by Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngjo; Sharov, Alexei A; McDole, Katie; Cheng, Melody; Hao, Haiping; Fan, Chen-Ming; Gaiano, Nicholas; Minoru S.H. Ko; Zheng, Yixian

    2011-01-01

    B-type lamins, the major components of the nuclear lamina, are believed to be essential for cell proliferation and survival. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) do not need any lamins for self-renewal and pluripotency. Although genome-wide lamin-B binding profiles correlate with reduced gene expression, such binding is not directly required for gene silencing in ESCs or trophectoderm cells. However, B-type lamins are required for proper organogenesis. Defects in spindle orientatio...

  19. B field in OB stars (BOB): The outstandingly strong magnetic field in the evolved He-strong star CPD -62° 2124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S.; Järvinen, S. P.; Przybilla, N.; Nieva, M.-F.; Ilyin, I.; Carroll, T. A.; Schöller, M.; Langer, N.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Morel, T.; Butler, K.; BOB Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The origin and evolution of magnetism in OB stars is far from being well understood. With approximately 70 magnetic OB stars known, any new object with unusual characteristics may turn out to be a key piece of the puzzle. We report the detection of an exceptionally strong magnetic field in the He-strong B2IV star CPD -62° 2124. Spectropolarimetric FORS2 and HARPSpol observations were analysed by two independent teams and procedures, concluding on a strong longitudinal magnetic field of approximately 5.2 kG. The quantitative characterisation of the stellar atmosphere yields an effective temperature of 23 650 ± 250 K, a surface gravity of 3.95 ± 0.10 dex and a surface helium fraction of 0.35 ± 0.02 by number. The metal composition is in agreement with the cosmic abundance standard, except for Mg, Si and S, which are slightly non-solar. The strong and broad ( 300 km s-1) disc-like emission displayed by the Hα line suggests a centrifugal magnetosphere supported by the strong magnetic field. Our results imply that CPD -62° 2124 is an early B-type star hosting one of the strongest magnetic fields discovered to date, and one of the most evolved He-strong stars known, with a fractional main-sequence lifetime of approximately 0.6. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories under programme ID 191.D-0255(G,I).

  20. The First Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    The standard cosmological model predicts that the first cosmological objects are formed when the age of the universe is a few hundred million years. Recent theoretical studies and numerical simulations consistently suggest that the first objects are very massive primordial stars. We introduce the key physics and explain why the first stars are thought to be massive, rather than to be low-mass stars. The state-of-the-art simulations include all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high ``stellar'' densities. Evolutionary calculations of the primordial stars suggest the formation of massive blackholes in the early universe. Finally, we show the results from high-resolution simulations of star formation in a low-metallicity gas. Vigorous fragmentation is triggered in a star-forming gas cloud at a metallicity of as low as Z = 10-5Zsolar.

  1. Quantitative UV spectroscopy of early O stars on the Magellanic Clouds: The determination of the stellar metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haser, Stefan M.; Pauldrach, Adalbert W. A.; Lennon, Danny J.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Lennon, Maguerite; Puls, Joachim; Voels, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of four O stars in the Magellanic Clouds obtained with the faint object spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope are analyzed with respect to their metallicity. The metal abundances are derived from the stellar parameters and the mass loss rate with a two step procedure: hydrodynamic radiation-driven wind models with metallicity as a free parameter are constructed to fit the observed wind momentum rate and thus yield a dynamical metallicity, and synthetic spectra are computed for different metal abundances and compared to the observed spectra in order to obtain a spectroscopic metallicity.

  2. Physical characteristics of a dark cloud in an early stage of star formation toward NGC 7538 - An outer Galaxy infrared dark cloud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieswijk, W. W. F.; Spaans, M.; Shipman, R. F.; Teyssier, D.; Hily-Blant, P.

    2007-01-01

    Context. In the inner parts of the Galaxy the Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) are presently believed to be the progenitors of massive stars and star clusters. Many of them are predominantly devoid of active star formation and for now they represent the earliest observed stages of massive star formation

  3. Inferring the star-formation histories of the most massive and passive early-type galaxies at z < 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citro, Annalisa; Pozzetti, Lucia; Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Context. In the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological framework, massive galaxies are the end-points of the hierarchical evolution and are therefore key probes for understanding how the baryonic matter evolves within the dark matter halos. Aims: The aim of this work is to use the archaeological approach in order to infer the stellar population properties and star formation histories of the most massive (M > 1010.75 M⊙) and passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at 0 age, metallicity and star formation history. The results indicate that these properties can be derived with accuracy better than 10% at S/N ≳ 10-20, and also that the procedure of stacking galaxy spectra does not introduce significant biases into their retrieval. Results: Based on our spectral analysis, we found that the ETGs of our sample are very old systems - the most massive ones are almost as old as the Universe. The stellar metallicities are slightly supersolar, with a mean of Z ~ 0.027 ± 0.002 and Z ~ 0.029 ± 0.0015 (depending on the spectral synthesis models used for the fit) and do not depend on redshift. Dust extinction is very low, with a mean of AV ~ 0.08 ± 0.030 mag and AV ~ 0.16 ± 0.048 mag. The ETGs show an anti-hierarchical evolution (downsizing) where more massive galaxies are older. The SFHs can be approximated with a parametric function of the form SFR(t) ∝ τ- (c + 1)tc exp(-t/τ), with typical short e-folding times of τ ~ 0.6-0.8 Gyr (with a dispersion of ±0.1 Gyr) and c ~ 0.1 (with a dispersion of ±0.05). Based on the reconstructed SFHs, most of the stellar mass (≳75%) was assembled by z ~ 5 and ≲4% of it can be ascribed to stellar populations younger than ~1 Gyr. The inferred SFHs are also used to place constraints on the properties and evolution of the ETG progenitors. In particular, the ETGs of our samples should have formed most stars through a phase of vigorous star formation (SFRs ≳ 350-400 M⊙ yr-1) at z ≳ 4-5 and are quiescent by z ~ 1.5-2. The expected

  4. DNC/HNC RATIO OF MASSIVE CLUMPS IN EARLY EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takeshi [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We have observed the HN{sup 13}C J = 1-0 and DNC J = 1-0 lines toward 18 massive clumps, including infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the HN{sup 13}C emission is stronger than the DNC emission toward all of the observed sources. The averaged DNC/HNC ratio is indeed lower toward the observed high-mass sources (0.009 {+-} 0.005) than toward the low-mass starless and star-forming cores (0.06). The kinetic temperature derived from the NH{sub 3} (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) line intensities is higher toward the observed high-mass sources than toward the low-mass cores. However, the DNC/HNC ratio of some IRDCs involving the Spitzer 24 {mu}m sources is found to be lower than that of HMPOs, although the kinetic temperature of the IRDCs is lower than that of the HMPOs. This implies that the DNC/HNC ratio does not depend only on the current kinetic temperature. With the aid of chemical model simulations, we discuss how the DNC/HNC ratio decreases after the birth of protostars. We suggest that the DNC/HNC ratio in star-forming cores depends on the physical conditions and history in their starless-core phase, such as its duration time and the gas kinetic temperature.

  5. DNC/HNC Ratio of Massive Clumps in Early Evolutionary Stages of High-mass Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Sakai, Nami; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Hirota, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2012-03-01

    We have observed the HN13C J = 1-0 and DNC J = 1-0 lines toward 18 massive clumps, including infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the HN13C emission is stronger than the DNC emission toward all of the observed sources. The averaged DNC/HNC ratio is indeed lower toward the observed high-mass sources (0.009 ± 0.005) than toward the low-mass starless and star-forming cores (0.06). The kinetic temperature derived from the NH3 (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) line intensities is higher toward the observed high-mass sources than toward the low-mass cores. However, the DNC/HNC ratio of some IRDCs involving the Spitzer 24 μm sources is found to be lower than that of HMPOs, although the kinetic temperature of the IRDCs is lower than that of the HMPOs. This implies that the DNC/HNC ratio does not depend only on the current kinetic temperature. With the aid of chemical model simulations, we discuss how the DNC/HNC ratio decreases after the birth of protostars. We suggest that the DNC/HNC ratio in star-forming cores depends on the physical conditions and history in their starless-core phase, such as its duration time and the gas kinetic temperature.

  6. Early Results from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey: C III Emission Lines in Of Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, Nolan R; Apellaniz, Jesus Maiz; Alfaro, Emilio J; Morrell, Nidia I; Barba, Rodolfo H; Arias, Julia I; Gamen, Roberto C

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of an extensive new spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, we introduce the Ofc category, which consists of normal spectra with C III \\lambda\\lambda4647-4650-4652 emission lines of comparable intensity to those of the Of defining lines N III \\lambda\\lambda4634-4640-4642. The former feature is strongly peaked to spectral type O5, at all luminosity classes, but preferentially in some associations or clusters and not others. The relationships of this phenomenon to the selective C III \\lambda5696 emission throughout the normal Of domain, and to the peculiar, variable Of?p category, for which strong C III \\lambda\\lambda4647-4650-4652 emission is a defining characteristic, are discussed. Magnetic fields have recently been detected on two members of the latter category. We also present two new extreme Of?p stars, NGC 1624-2 and CPD -28^{\\circ}2561, bringing the number known in the Galaxy to five. Modeling of the behavior of these spectral features can be expected to better define the physical paramet...

  7. Probing the First Stars and Black Holes in the Early Universe with the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jack O; Bale, S D; Bowman, J D; Bradley, R F; Carilli, C L; Furlanetto, S R; Harker, G J A; Loeb, A; Pritchard, J R

    2011-01-01

    A concept for a new space-based cosmology mission called the Dark Ages Radio Explore (DARE) is presented in this paper. DARE's science objectives include (1) When did the first stars form? (2) When did the first accreting black holes form? (3) When did Reionization begin? (4) What surprises does the end of the Dark Ages hold (e.g., Dark Matter decay)? DARE will use the highly-redshifted hyperfine 21-cm transition from neutral hydrogen to track the formation of the first luminous objects by their impact on the intergalactic medium during the end of the Dark Ages and during Cosmic Dawn (redshifts z=11-35). It will measure the sky-averaged spin temperature of neutral hydrogen at the unexplored epoch 80-420 million years after the Big Bang, providing the first evidence of the earliest stars and galaxies to illuminate the cosmos and testing our models of galaxy formation. DARE's approach is to measure the expected spectral features in the sky-averaged, redshifted 21-cm signal over a radio bandpass of 40-120 MHz. D...

  8. The UVJ Selection of Quiescent and Star Forming Galaxies: Separating Early and Late-Type Galaxies and Isolating Edge-on Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Shannon G; Kelson, Daniel D; Franx, Marijn; van der Wel, Arjen; Illingworth, Garth D

    2011-01-01

    We utilize for the first time HST ACS imaging to examine the structural properties of galaxies in the rest-frame U-V versus V-J diagram (i.e., the UVJ diagram) using a sample at 0.610.25). The use of the UVJ diagram as a tool to distinguish quiescent galaxies from star forming galaxies (SFGs) is becoming more common due to its ability to separate red quiescent galaxies from reddened SFGs. Quiescent galaxies occupy a small and distinct region of UVJ color space and we find most of them to have concentrated profiles with high Sersic indices (n>2.5) and smooth structure characteristic of early-type systems. SFGs populate a broad, but well-defined sequence of UVJ colors and are comprised of objects with a mix of Sersic indices. Interestingly, most UVJ-selected SFGs with high Sersic indices also display structure due to dust and star formation typical of the n<2.5 SFGs and late-type systems. Finally, we find that the position of a SFG on the sequence of UVJ colors is determined to a large degree by the mass of ...

  9. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the H-R diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Briquet, M; De Cat, P; Aerts, C; North, P; Scholler, M; 10.1051/0004-6361:20066940

    2009-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods. We carry out a comparative study between samples of confirmed and well-studied SPB stars and a sample of well-studied Bp stars with known periods and magnetic field strengths. We determine their evolutionary state using accurate HIPPARCOS parallaxes and Geneva photometry. We discuss the occurrence and strengths of magnetic fields as well as the occurrence of stellar pulsation among both groups. Further, we make a comparison of Geneva photometric variability for both kinds of stars. Results. The group of Bp stars is significantly younger than the group of SPB stars. Longitudinal magnetic fields in SPB stars are weaker than those of Bp stars, suggesting that the magnetic field strength is an important factor for B type stars to become chemically pec...

  10. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  11. Reference Intervals for N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Amniotic Fluid between 10 and 34 Weeks of Gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Merz, Waltraut M.; Christina Leufgen; Rolf Fimmers; Birgit Stoffel-Wagner; Ulrich Gembruch

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adult and pediatric cardiology, n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP) serves as biomarker in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular dysfunction. Elevated levels of circulating nt-proBNP are present in fetal conditions associated with myocardial pressure or volume load. Compared to fetal blood sampling, amniocentesis is technically easier and can be performed from early pregnancy onwards. We aimed to investigate amniotic fluid (AF) nt-proBNP concentration...

  12. First Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectroscopy of early-type stars outside the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoog, O. E.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.

    2012-05-01

    As part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-shooter science verification, we obtained the first optical medium-resolution spectrum of a previously identified bright O-type object in NGC 55, a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)-like galaxy at a distance of ˜2.0 Mpc. Based on the stellar and nebular spectra, we investigate the nature and evolutionary status of the central object(s) and its influence on the surrounding interstellar medium. We conclude that the source, NGC 55 C1_31, is a composite object, likely a stellar cluster, which contains one or several hot (Teff≃ 50 000 K) WN stars with a high mass-loss rate (˜3 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1) and a helium-rich composition (NHe/NH= 0.8). The visual flux is dominated by OB-type (super)giant stars with Teff≲ 35 000 K, solar helium abundance (NHe/NH= 0.1) and mass-loss rate ˜2 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1. The surrounding H II region has an electron density of ne≤ 102 cm-3 and an electron temperature of T(O III) ≃ 11 500 ± 600 K. The oxygen abundance of this region is [O/H] = 8.18 ± 0.03, which corresponds to Z= 0.31 ± 0.04 Z⊙. We observed no significant gradients in T(O III), ne or [O/H] on a scale of 73 pc extending in four directions from the ionizing source. The properties of the H II region can be reproduced by a CLOUDY model which uses the central cluster as ionizing source, thus providing a self-consistent interpretation of the data. We also report on the serendipitous discovery of He II nebular emission associated with the nearby source NGC 55 C2_35, a feature usually associated with strong X-ray sources.

  13. New determination of abundances and stellar parameters for a set of weak G-band stars

    CERN Document Server

    Palacios, A; Masseron, T; Thévenin, F; Itam-Pasquet, J; Parthasarathy, M

    2015-01-01

    Weak G-band (wGb) stars are very peculiar red giants almost devoided of carbon and often mildly enriched in lithium. Despite their very puzzling abundance patterns, very few detailed spectroscopic studies existed up to a few years ago, preventing any clear understanding of the wGb phenomenon. We recently proposed the first consistent analysis of published data for 28 wGb stars and identified them as descendants of early A-type to late B-type stars, without being able to conclude on their evolutionary status or the origin of their peculiar abundance pattern. We used newly obtained high-resolution and high SNR spectra for 19 wGb stars in the southern and northern hemisphere to homogeneously derive their fundamental parameters, metallicities, as well as the spectroscopic abundances for Li, C, N, O, Na, Sr, and Ba. We also computed dedicated stellar evolution models that we used to determine the masses and to investigate the evolutionary status and chemical history of the stars in our sample. We confirm that the ...

  14. Why are some A stars magnetic, while most are not?

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Bale, K; Johnson, N; Power, J; Aurière, M; Ligniéres, F; Dintrans, B; Donati, J -F; Hoa, A Hui Bon; Mouillet, D; Naseri, S; Paletou, F; Petit, P; Rincon, F; Toque, N; Bagnulo, S; Folsom, C P; Landstreet, J D; Gruberbauer, M; Lüftinger, T; Jeffers, S; Lèbre, A; Marsden, S

    2007-01-01

    A small fraction of intermediate-mass main sequence (A and B type) stars have strong, organised magnetic fields. The large majority of such stars, however, show no evidence for magnetic fields, even when observed with very high precision. In this paper we describe a simple model, motivated by qualitatively new observational results, that provides a natural physical explanation for the small fraction of observed magnetic stars.

  15. The Evolution of the Fractions of Quiescent and Star-forming Galaxies as a Function of Stellar Mass Since z=3: Increasing Importance of Massive, Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Martis, Nicholas S; Brammer, Gabriel B; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Skelton, Rosalind E; Stefanon, Mauro; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Using the UltraVISTA DR1 and 3D-HST catalogs, we construct a stellar-mass-complete sample, unique for its combination of surveyed volume and depth, to study the evolution of the fractions of quiescent galaxies, moderately unobscured star-forming galaxies, and dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass over the redshift interval $0.2 \\le z \\le 3.0$. We show that the role of dusty star-forming galaxies within the overall galaxy population becomes more important with increasing stellar mass, and grows rapidly with increasing redshift. Specifically, dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the galaxy population with $\\log{(M_{\\rm star}/M_{\\odot})} \\gtrsim 10.3$ at $z\\gtrsim2$. The ratio of dusty and non-dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass changes little with redshift. Dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the star-forming population at $\\log{(M_{\\rm star}/M_{\\odot})} \\gtrsim 10.0-10.5$, being a factor of $\\sim$3-5 more common, while unobscured star-forming galaxies dominate at $\\lo...

  16. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SS

  17. Stellar Populations And Star-formation Histories Of Early-type Galaxies From The Atlas3d Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard; Alatalo, K.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T.; de Zeeuw, T.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Young, L.

    2011-01-01

    Atlas3D is a new survey based on integral-field spectroscopy for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies observed within the local 40 Mpc volume - the largest survey of its kind. This K-band selected sample spans a range in mass from 10e10 to 10e12 solar masses, and probes two o

  18. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive

  19. Prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in surgical palliation of children with single-ventricle congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J G; Askovich, B; Shaddy, R E; Hawkins, J A; Cowley, C G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the prognostic role of perioperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in infants and children with single-ventricle congenital heart disease undergoing Norwood, bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA), or Fontan operation. BNP levels were measured at baseline, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 6 to 12 hours after surgery, and then daily until indwelling vascular catheters were removed. Outcome measures included length of mechanical ventilation, inotropic support, and hospital stay. Twenty subjects underwent 23 surgical procedures (13 Norwood, 5 BCPA, and 5 Fontan). BNP levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing a Norwood procedure compared with a BCPA or Fontan procedure (p extubation was observed in 92% of patients undergoing a Norwood procedure. Early postoperative BNP levels correlate significantly with the ensuing duration of inotropic support and length of hospitalization. An increase in BNP after extubation may be reflective of the degree of underlying cardiopulmonary instability. Further investigation is necessary to define this important relation.

  20. Study of the Cygnus Star-Forming Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, Christopher; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming complexes in Cygnus extend nearly 30 deg in Galactic longitude and 20 deg in latitude, and most probably include star-formation sites located between 600 and 4000 pc. We combine the catalog by Heiles (2000) with uvbyβ photometric data from the catalog of Paunzen (2015) to collate a sample of O and B-type stars with precise homogeneous distances, color excess and available polarimetry. This allows us to identify star-forming sites at different distances along the line of sight and to investigate their spatial correlation to the interstellar matter. Further, we use this sample to study the orientation of the polarization as revealed by the polarized light of the bright early-type stars and analyze the polarization-extinction correlation for this field. Since dust grains align in the presence of a magnetic field cause the observed polarization at optical wavelengths, the data contain information about the large-scale component of the Galactic magnetic field. In addition, wide-field astrophotography equipment was used to image the Cygnus field in Hydrogen-alpha, Hydrogen-beta and the [OIII] line at 500.7 nm. This allows us to map the overall distribution of ionized material and the interstellar dust and trace large-scale regions where the physical conditions change rapidly due to supernova shock fronts and strong stellar winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSF grant AST- 1516932 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, NASA Training Grant #NNX14AP22H.

  1. Magnetic B stars observed with BRITE: Spots, magnetospheres, binarity, and pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Fletcher, C; Handler, G; Huang, L; Krticka, J; Neiner, C; Niemczura, E; Pablo, H; Paunzen, E; Petit, V; Pigulski, A; Rivinius, Th; Rowe, J; Rybicka, M; Townsend, R; Shultz, M; Silvester, J; Sikora, J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic B-type stars exhibit photometric variability due to diverse causes, and consequently on a variety of timescales. In this paper we describe interpretation of BRITE photometry and related ground-based observations of 4 magnetic B-type systems: $\\epsilon$ Lupi, $\\tau$ Sco, a Cen and $\\epsilon$ CMa.

  2. Portrait of Gunnar Källén a physics shooting star and poet of early quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Wolfgang Pauli referred to him as 'my discovery,' Robert Oppenheimer described him as 'one of the most gifted theorists' and Niels Bohr found him enormously stimulating. Who was the man in question, Gunnar Källén (1926-1968)? His appearance in the physics sky was like a shooting star. His contributions to the scientific debate caused excitement among young and old. Similar to his friend and mentor, Wolfgang Pauli, he demanded honesty and rigor in physics - a distinct dividing line between fact and speculation. In his obituary, Arthur S. Wightman would write: 'Gunnar Källén was a proud continuer of the tradition in quantum field theory established by Wolfgang Pauli. His papers on quantum electrodynamics in the period 1950-1954 carried the non-perturbative approach to quantum electrodynamics forward to a point beyond which very little essential progress has been made up to the present day. At the time I was trying to puzzle out the grammar of the language of quantum field theory, and here was Källén al...

  3. Very Early Phases of Massive Star Formation: An SMA Follow-up of Herschel Hi-Gal Survey Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard Alan; Zhang, Q.; Jimenez-Serra, I. M.; Beltran, M.; Cesaroni, R.; Finn, S.; Foster, J.; Jackson, J.; Molinari, S.; Viti, S.

    2011-01-01

    We used the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe eight cold, massive ( 1000Msol) dense cores in dark clouds discovered in the Herschel HiGal survey. In contrast to numerous studies of hot molecular cores, very little is known about objects prior to the hot core phase. The SMA results allow us to study systematically the physical and chemical evolution of these dense cores. These protostellar objects were selected because the Hershel SEDs of the dust have temperatures spanning the range between about 10K and 20K, suggestive of different evolutionary phases of very young stars, because the objects were comparatively bright at 250 microns ( 10Jy) and distinct in all five FIR HiGal bands, and because they seemed to be morphologically simple. Only one of the sources is bright enough to be detected at MIPS24; this source, the most mature one, already shows a small outflow in CO. The SMA was used in both compact and very extended configurations, with the 230GHz band. The SMA molecular line maps will be compared with chemical modelling (including dust grain and gas phase reactions) to constrain the physical conditions in these young cores, and their evolutionary stages.

  4. DNC/HNC Ratio of Massive Clumps in Early Evolutionary Stages of High-Mass Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, Takeshi; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Hirota, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have observed the HN13C J=1-0 and DNC J=1-0 lines toward 18 massive clumps, including infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the HN13C emission is stronger than the DNC emission toward all the observed sources. The averaged DNC/HNC ratio is indeed lower toward the observed high-mass sources (0.009\\pm0.005) than toward the low-mass starless and star-forming cores (0.06). The kinetic temperature derived from the NH3 (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) line intensities is higher toward the observed high-mass sources than toward the low-mass cores. However the DNC/HNC ratio of some IRDCs involving the Spitzer 24 {\\mu}m sources is found to be lower than that of HMPOs, although the kinetic temperature of the IRDCs is lower than that of the HMPOs. This implies that the DNC/HNC ratio does not depend only on the current kinetic temperature. With the aid of chemical model simulations, we discuss how the DNC/HNC ratio ...

  5. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Catala, C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.; Castro, N.; Schmid, V. S.; Scardia, M.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Michel, E.; Samadi, R.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD 46769 (V = 5.79). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target. Methods: We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending and spectroscopic follow-up data using standard Fourier analysis and phase dispersion minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assuming a dipole field. Results: In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84 d with an amplitude of 87 ppm and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69 d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not reveal any sign of pulsations. Our results are consistent with the absence of variability in the Hipparcos light curve. The spectroscopy leads to a projected rotational velocity of 72 ± 2 km s-1 and does not reveal periodic variability or the need to invoke macroturbulent line broadening. No signature of a magnetic field is detected in our data. A field stronger than ~500 G at the poles can be excluded, unless the possible non-detected field were more complex than dipolar. Conclusions: The absence of pulsations and macroturbulence of this evolved B-type supergiant is placed into the context of instability computations and of observed variability of evolved B-type stars. Based on CoRoT space-based photometric data; the CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO

  6. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, C; Catala, C; Neiner, C; Briquet, M; Castro, N; Schmid, V S; Scardia, M; Rainer, M; Poretti, E; Papics, I; Degroote, P; Bloemen, S; Oestensen, R H; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Michel, E; Samadi, R

    2013-01-01

    {We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD\\,46769 ($V=5.79$). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target.} {We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending, as well as spectroscopic follow-up data, by using standard Fourier analysis and Phase Dispersion Minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assumping a dipole field.} {In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84\\,d with an amplitude of 87\\,ppm, and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69\\,d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not revea...

  7. Swift, UVOT and Hot Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Michael H; Hagen, Lea M Z; Hoversten, Erik A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of our ongoing investigation into the properties of hot stars and young stellar populations using the Swift/UVOT telescope. We present UVOT photometry of open and globular clusters and show that UVOT is capable of characterizing a variety of rare hot stars, including Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch and Extreme Horizontal Branch Stars. We also present very early reults of our survey of stellar populations in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We find that the SMC has experienced recent bouts of star formation but constraining the exact star formation history will depend on finding an effective model of the reddening within the SMC.

  8. Physics of star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, F

    2002-01-01

    Begining with a historical introduction, ""Star Formation: The Early History"", this text then presents two long articles on ""Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution of Stars and Young Clusters"" and ""Observations of Young Stellar Objects"".

  9. Identification of five B-type response regulators as members of a multistep phosphorelay system interacting with histidine-containing phosphotransfer partners of Populus osmosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, the multistep phosphorelay signaling pathway mediates responses to environmental factors and plant hormones. This system is composed of three successive partners: hybrid Histidine-aspartate Kinases (HKs, Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer proteins (HPts, and Response Regulators (RRs. Among the third partners, B-type RR family members are the final output elements of the pathway; they act as transcription factors and clearly play a pivotal role in the early response to cytokinin in Arabidopsis. While interactions studies between partners belonging to the multistep phosphorelay system are mainly focused on protagonists involved in cytokinin or ethylene pathways, very few reports are available concerning partners of osmotic stress signaling pathway. Results In Populus, we identified eight B-type RR proteins, RR12-16, 19, 21 and 22 in the Dorskamp genotype. To assess HPt/B-type RR interactions and consequently determine potential third partners in the osmosensing multistep phosphorelay system, we performed global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assays in combination with Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC assays in plant cells. We found that all B-type RRs are able to interact with HPt predominant partners (HPt2, 7 and 9 of HK1, which is putatively involved in the osmosensing pathway. However, different profiles of interaction are observed depending on the studied HPt. HPt/RR interactions displayed a nuclear localization, while the nuclear and cytosolic localization of HPt and nuclear localization of RR proteins were validated. Although the nuclear localization of HPt/RR interaction was expected, this work constitutes the first evidence of such an interaction in plants. Furthermore, the pertinence of this partnership is reinforced by highlighting a co-expression of B-type RR transcripts and the other partners (HK1 and HPts belonging to a potential osmosensing pathway. Conclusion Based on the interaction studies

  10. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  11. Spectroscopy of unusual emission-line stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    1988-01-01

    New spectroscopic observations are reported for ten stars that have been identified in the literature as having H-alpha emission with suspected F, G, or K spectral types. Three of the stars are shown to be BE stars, two are confirmed as early-type supergiants, three show composite (F or K + B) spectra, one is a 'post-T Tauri' star, and one is an ordinary F star without emission.

  12. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  13. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  14. Characterization of A- and B-type starch granules in Chinese wheat cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; GUO Qi; FENG Nan; WANG Jin-rong; WANG Shu-jun; HE Zhong-hu

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the major component of wheat lfour and serves as a multifunctional ingredient in food industry. The objective of the present study was to investigate starch granule size distribution of Chinese wheat cultivars, and to compare structure and functionality of starches in four leading cultivars Zhongmai 175, CA12092, Lunxuan 987, and Zhongyou 206. A wide variation in volume percentages of A- and B-type starch granules among genotypes was observed. Volume percentages of A- and B-type granules had ranges of 68.4–88.9% and 9.7–27.9% in the ifrst cropping seasons, 74.1–90.1% and 7.2–25.3% in the second. Wheat cultivars with higher volume percentages of A- and B-type granules could serve as parents in breeding program for selecting high and low amylose wheat cultivars, respectively. In comparison with the B-type starch granules, the A-type granules starch showed difference in three aspects: (1) higher amount of ordered short-range structure and a lower relative crystalinity, (2) higher gelatinization onset (To) temperatures and enthalpies (ΔH), and lower gelatinization conclusion temperatures (Tc), (3) greater peak, though, and ifnal viscosity, and lower breakdown viscosity and pasting temperature. It provides important information for breeders to develop potentialy useful cultivars with particular functional properties of their starches suited to speciifc applications.

  15. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However, the impact...

  16. Spectroscopic Evidence for an Oxazolone Structure in Anionic b-Type Peptide Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzetic, J.; Oomens, J.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectra of anionic b-type fragments generated by collision induced dissociation (CID) from deprotonated peptides are reported. Spectra of the b(2) fragments of deprotonated AlaAlaAla and AlaTyrAla have been recorded over the 800-1800 cm(-1) spectral range by multiple-photon dissociation (MP

  17. Spectroscopic evidence for an oxazolone structure in anionic b-type peptide fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grzetic; J. Oomens

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectra of anionic b-type fragments generated by collision induced dissociation (CID) from deprotonated peptides are reported. Spectra of the b2 fragments of deprotonated AlaAlaAla and AlaTyrAla have been recorded over the 800-1800 cm-1 spectral range by multiple-photon dissociation (MPD) s

  18. Data Mining Rules for Ultrasonic B-Type Detection and Diagnosis for Cholecystolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Wei; YAN Li-min; HE Guo-sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents realistic data mining based on the data of B-type ultrasonic detection and diagnosis for cholrcystolithiasis (gallbladder stone in biliary tract) recorded by a district central hospital in Shanghai during the past several years. Computer simulation and modeling is described.

  19. A new brittle star from the early Carboniferous of Poland and its implications on Paleozoic modern-type ophiuroid systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossil record of Paleozoic ophiuroids includes a number of forms which share striking similarities with modern relatives in terms of skeletal morphology. These so called modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroids yield an enormous potential for a better understanding of ophiuroid evolution, yet the scarcity of accurate and sufficiently detailed morphological descriptions available to date precludes any further-reaching assessments. Here, we describe an articulated ophiuroid specimen from the Late Tournaisian (early Carboniferous of Czatkowice quarry, southern Poland, as a new species Aganaster jagiellonicus sp. nov. The good preservation of the specimen allowed for a morphological analysis at a level comparable to recent ophiuroid descriptions. It shows remarkable morphological similarities with extant former ophiolepidids Ophiomusium and Ophiosphalma. The new find thus contributes to a solid basis for future investigations on the position of the modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroid in the phylogeny of the class.

  20. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Early Life-History Stages and Settlement of the Coral-Eating Sea Star Acanthaster planci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900–1200 µatm pCO2) significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS) that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals. PMID:24358240

  1. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Uthicke

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2 significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  2. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2) significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS) that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  3. Recent relaxation of purifying selection on the tandem-repetitive early-stage histone H3 gene in brooding sea stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, David W; Mah, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Patterns of nucleotide substitution differ between marine species that have a pelagic feeding (planktotrophic) larval stage and related species that lack such a stage, for both adaptive and non-adaptive reasons. Here, patterns of nucleotide and inferred amino acid substitution are analyzed for the tandem-repetitive early-stage histone H3 gene in 36 sea star species of the order Forcipulatida with documented larval habitat. The relative rate of nonsynonymous substitution (expressed as ω=d(N)/d(S)) was significantly higher in lineages with a brooded non-feeding (lecithotrophic) larval form than in lineages with a planktotrophic larval form. There was also a significant excess of conservative over radical substitutions. The increase in ω for brooders as compared to non-brooders was much greater than for previously analyzed mitochondrial sequences in echinoderms. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that purifying selection on this gene has been relaxed in brooding lineages compared to non-brooding lineages. The hypotheses of adaptive or neutral evolution are less plausible, although recent pseudogenization following a period of relaxed purifying selection could also explain the results.

  4. Massive star clusters in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E

    2009-01-01

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCSs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GCS research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  5. The local luminosity function of star-forming galaxies derived from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrello, M.; Clemens, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; De Zotti, G.; Bonavera, L.; Cosco, G.; Guarese, G.; Boaretto, L.; Serjeant, S.; Toffolatti, L.; Lapi, A.; Bethermin, M.; Castex, G.; Clements, D. L.; Delabrouille, J.; Dole, H.; Franceschini, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Marchetti, L.; Partridge, B.; Sajina, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) has offered the first opportunity to accurately determine the luminosity function of dusty galaxies in the very local Universe (i.e. distances ≲100 Mpc), at several (sub-)millimetre wavelengths, using blindly selected samples of low-redshift sources, unaffected by cosmological evolution. This project, however, requires careful consideration of a variety of issues including the choice of the appropriate flux density measurement, the separation of dusty galaxies from radio sources and from Galactic sources, the correction for the CO emission, the effect of density inhomogeneities and more. We present estimates of the local luminosity functions at 857 GHz (350 μm), 545 GHz (550 μm) and 353 GHz (850 μm) extending across the characteristic luminosity L⋆, and a preliminary estimate over a limited luminosity range at 217 GHz (1382 μm). At 850 μm and for luminosities L ≳ L⋆ our results agree with previous estimates, derived from the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) Local Universe Galaxy Survey, but are higher than the latter at L ≲ L⋆. We also find good agreement with estimates at 350 and 500 μm based on preliminary Herschel survey data.

  6. Magnetic fields and differential rotation on the pre-main sequence II: The early-G star HD 141943 - coronal magnetic field, H-alpha emission and differential rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, S C; Vélez, J C Ramírez; Alecian, E; Brown, C J; Carter, B D; Donati, J F; Dunstone, N; Hart, R; Semel, M; Waite, I A

    2011-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of the pre-main sequence early-G star HD 141943 were obtained at three observing epochs (2007, 2009 and 2010). The observations were obtained using the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian telescope with the UCLES echelle spectrograph and the SEMPOL spectropolarimeter visitor instrument. The brightness and surface magnetic field topologies (given in Paper I) were used to determine the star's surface differential rotation and reconstruct the coronal magnetic field of the star. The coronal magnetic field at the 3 epochs shows on the largest scales that the field structure is dominated by the dipole component with possible evidence for the tilt of the dipole axis shifting between observations. We find very high levels of differential rotation on HD 141943 (~8 times the solar value for the magnetic features and ~5 times solar for the brightness features) similar to that evidenced by another young early-G star, HD 171488. These results indicate that a significant increase in the level of differe...

  7. Mouse B-Type Lamins Are Required for Proper Organogenesis But Not by Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Sharov, Alexei A.; McDole, Katie; Cheng, Melody; Hao, Haiping; Fan, Chen-Ming; Gaiano, Nicholas; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Zheng, Yixian

    2012-01-01

    B-type lamins, the major components of the nuclear lamina, are believed to be essential for cell proliferation and survival. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) do not need any lamins for self-renewal and pluripotency. Although genome-wide lamin-B binding profiles correlate with reduced gene expression, such binding is not directly required for gene silencing in ESCs or trophectoderm cells. However, B-type lamins are required for proper organogenesis. Defects in spindle orientation in neural progenitor cells and migration of neurons probably cause brain disorganizations found in lamin-B null mice. Thus, our studies not only disprove several prevailing views of lamin-Bs but also establish a foundation for redefining the function of the nuclear lamina in the context of tissue building and homeostasis. PMID:22116031

  8. Spectroscopic Evidence for an Oxazolone Structure in Anionic b-Type Peptide Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzetic, Josipa; Oomens, Jos

    2012-02-01

    Infrared spectra of anionic b-type fragments generated by collision induced dissociation (CID) from deprotonated peptides are reported. Spectra of the b2 fragments of deprotonated AlaAlaAla and AlaTyrAla have been recorded over the 800-1800 cm-1 spectral range by multiple-photon dissociation (MPD) spectroscopy using an FTICR mass spectrometer in combination with the free electron laser FELIX. Structural characterization of the b-type fragments is accomplished by comparison with density functional theory calculated spectra at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level for different isomeric structures. Although diketopiperazine structures represent the energetically lowest isomers, the IR spectra suggest an oxazolone structure for the b2 fragments of both peptides. Deprotonation is shown to occur on the oxazolone α-carbon, which leads to a conjugated structure in which the negative charge is practically delocalized over the entire oxazolone ring, providing enhanced gas-phase stability.

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  10. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Modulates Ghrelin, Hunger, and Satiety in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blind...

  11. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: From Posttranslational Processing to Clinical Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides and peptide fragments from their molecular precursors are markers of heart disease. Clinical studies have defined the current diagnostic utility of these markers, whereas biochemical elucidation of peptide structure and posttranslational processing has......-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are useful plasma markers in heart failure. New data have defined cardiac myocytes as competent endocrine cells in posttranslational processing and cellular secretion....

  12. Photometric amplitudes and phases of B-type main sequence pulsators: sources of inaccuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Szewczuk, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    We discuss all possible sources of uncertainties in theoretical values of the photometric amplitudes and phases of B-type main sequence pulsators. These observables are of particular importance because they contain information about the mode geometry as well as about stellar physics. Here, we study effects of various parameters coming both from theory of linear nonadiabatic oscillations and from models of stellar atmospheres. In particular, we show effects of chemical composition, opacities and, for the first time, effects of the NLTE atmospheres.

  13. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and B-type natriuretic peptide in heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG De-jia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular function, symptom status, quality of life and reduces hospitalization and mortality in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class Ⅲ or IV heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay despite optimal medical management.1 B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its amino terminal cleavage equivalent (NT-pro BNP) levels correlate with the severity of heart failure and predict prognosis of heart failure patients.2

  14. [The role of B type natriuretic peptide in the assessment of post myocardial infarction prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, A; Ibn el Hadj, Z; Chrigui, R; Kammoun, I; Lefi, A; Chine, S; Gargouri, S; Keskes, H; Kachboura, S

    2006-10-01

    Recently cardiac peptides have received close attention as cardiovascular markers. Brain (B type) natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized predominantly in ventricular myocardium. Previous studies have shown that this hormone can provide prognostic information in patients with myocardial infarction. The aim of this review is to evaluate the impact of plasma levels of BNP on prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction and remodelling and major cardiac events after myocardial infarction.

  15. Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  16. Temperature of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Sachiko

    2016-07-01

    We start with a brief introduction to the historical background in the early pioneering days when the first neutron star thermal evolution calculations predicted the presence of neutron stars hot enough to be observable. We then report on the first detection of neutron star temperatures by ROSAT X-ray satellite, which vindicated the earlier prediction of hot neutron stars. We proceed to present subsequent developments, both in theory and observation, up to today. We then discuss the current status and the future prospect, which will offer useful insight to the understanding of basic properties of ultra-high density matter beyond the nuclear density, such as the possible presence of such exotic particles as pion condensates.

  17. Mechanism of the Increase of Helium Abundance in the Atmospheres of Single Main-Sequence B Stars of Early Spectral Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staritsin, E.

    2017-06-01

    The observed increase in the surface helium abundance with stellar age in atmospheres of main-sequence B stars is investigated on the base of current theory of partial matter mixing in stellar interior. The intensity of mixing processes is studied in dependence on the mass and momenta of a star.

  18. TOPoS: II. On the bimodality of carbon abundance in CEMP stars. Implications on the early chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Spite, M; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A; Klessen, R S; François, P; Molaro, P; Ludwig, H G; Zaggia, S; Spite, F; Plez, B; Cayrel, R; Christlieb, N; Clark, P C; Glover, S C O; Hammer, F; Koch, A; Monaco, L; Sbordone, L; Steffen, M

    2015-01-01

    In the course of the TOPoS (Turn Off Primordial Stars) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0<=[Ca/H]< -2.1 and 7.12<=A(C)<=8.65. For star SDSS J1742+2531 we were able to detect three FeI lines from which we deduced [Fe/H]=-4.80, from four CaII lines we derived [Ca/H]=-4.56, and from synthesis of the G-band we derived A(C)=7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3sigma) upper limit of [Fe/H]< -5.0 and measure the Ca abundance, with [Ca/H]=-5.0, and carbon, A(C)=6.90. No lithium is detected in the spectrum of SDSS J1742+2531 or SDSS J1035+0641, which implies a robust upper limit of A(Li)<1.8 for both stars. Our measured carbon abundances confirm the bimodal distribution of carbon in CEMP stars, identifying a hi...

  19. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  20. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Romanova, M M

    2016-01-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars...

  1. Impact of initial models and variable accretion rates on the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive and intermediate-mass stars and the early evolution of H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Peters, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Massive star formation requires the accretion of gas at high rate while the star is already bright. Its actual luminosity depends sensitively on the stellar structure. We compute pre-main-sequence tracks for massive and intermediate-mass stars with variable accretion rates and study the evolution of stellar radius, effective temperature and ionizing luminosity, starting at 2 M⊙ with convective or radiative structures. The radiative case shows a much stronger swelling of the protostar for high accretion rates than the convective case. For radiative structures, the star is very sensitive to the accretion rate and reacts quickly to accretion bursts, leading to considerable changes in photospheric properties on time-scales as short as 100-1000 yr. The evolution for convective structures is much less influenced by the instantaneous accretion rate, and produces a monotonically increasing ionizing flux that can be many orders of magnitude smaller than in the radiative case. For massive stars, it results in a delay of the H II region expansion by up to 10 000 yr. In the radiative case, the H II region can potentially be engulfed by the star during the swelling, which never happens in the convective case. We conclude that the early stellar structure has a large impact on the radiative feedback during the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive protostars and introduces an important uncertainty that should be taken into account. Because of their lower effective temperatures, our convective models may hint at a solution to an observed discrepancy between the luminosity distribution functions of massive young stellar objects and compact H II regions.

  2. Period change and stellar evolution of $\\beta$ Cephei stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neilson, Hilding R

    2015-01-01

    The $\\beta$ Cephei stars represent an important class of massive star pulsators probing the evolution of B-type stars and the transition from main sequence to hydrogen-shell burning evolution. By understanding $\\beta$ Cep stars, we gain insights into the detailed physics of massive star evolution such as rotational mixing, convective core overshooting, magnetic fields and stellar winds, all of which play important roles. Similarly, modeling their pulsation provides additional information into their interior structures. Furthermore, measurements of the rate of change of pulsation period offer a direct measure of $\\beta$ Cephei stellar evolution. In this work, we compute state-of-the-art stellar evolution models assuming different amounts of initial rotation and convective core overshoot and measure theoretical rates of period change for which we compare to rates previously measured for a sample of $\\beta$ Cephei stars. The results of this comparison are mixed. For three stars, the rates are too small to infer ...

  3. Spectroscopic analyses of subluminous B stars: observational constraints for the theory of stellar evolution, pulsation, and diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Heinz

    2003-06-01

    This thesis deals with quantitative spectroscopic analyses of large samples of subluminous B stars in order to find constraints the theory of stellar evolution, pulsation, and diffusion. Subluminous B stars, also known as subdwarf B (sdB) stars, are very important in several respects: They dominate the population of faint blue stars in high galactic latitudes, and are found both in the field and in globular clusters. Therefore, sdB stars are important to understand the structure and evolution of our galaxy. From the cosmological point of view, they are candidate progenitors of supernovae of type Ia due to their membership in close binary systems. In the context of stellar astrophysics, subdwarf B stars play an important role because several of them are discovered to show non-radial pulsations, which allows to probe their interior by asteroseismology. Last but not least, sdB stars show very peculiar element abundance patterns, probably caused by diffusion processes. Subluminous B stars are generally considered to be core helium-burning stars with extremely thin hydrogen envelopes (clarified. Recently, several sdB stars have been found to show non-radial pulsations. We initiated a collaboration with two groups in Norway and Italy in 1999 to search for pulsating sdB stars in our sample. About one pulsator within ten observed sdB stars were found. With this discovery we enhanced the number of known pulsating sdB stars by about 50%. The surface metal abundance patterns of 16 sdB stars have been determined from high resolution, high S/N, optical spectra using equivalent widths measurements. This analysis almost quadruples the number of detailed metal abundance analyses of sdB stars. As typical for early B type stars, the metal lines are few and very weak. Three peculiar sdB stars have been found which show in addition to the absorption lines common in sdB stars many lines due to iron group elements (calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, manganese, and nickel) which have

  4. TOPoS . II. On the bimodality of carbon abundance in CEMP stars Implications on the early chemical evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Spite, M.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Klessen, R. S.; François, P.; Molaro, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Zaggia, S.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Christlieb, N.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Hammer, F.; Koch, A.; Monaco, L.; Sbordone, L.; Steffen, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. In the course of the Turn Off Primordial Stars (TOPoS) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. These stars are very common among the stars of extremely low metallicity and provide important clues to the star formation processes. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Aims: We want to provide the most complete chemical inventory for these six stars in order to constrain the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the abundance patterns. Methods: We analyse both X-Shooter and UVES spectra acquired at the VLT. We used a traditional abundance analysis based on OSMARCS 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres and the turbospectrum line formation code. Results: Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0 ≤ [Ca/H] band we derived A(C) = 7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3σ) upper limit of [Fe/H] iron-poor (UIP) stars. No lithium is detected in the spectrum of SDSS J1742+2531 or SDSS J1035+0641, which implies a robust upper limit of A(Li) band and a low-carbon band. We propose an interpretation of this bimodality according to which the stars on the high-carbon band are the result of mass transfer from an AGB companion, while the stars on the low-carbon band are genuine fossil records of a gas cloud that has also been enriched by a faint supernova (SN) providing carbon and the lighter elements. The abundance pattern of the UIP stars shows a large star-to-star scatter in the [X/Ca] ratios for all elements up to aluminium (up to 1 dex), but this scatter drops for heavier elements and is at most of the order of a factor of two. We propose that this can be explained if these stars are formed from gas that has been chemically enriched by several SNe, that produce the roughly constant [X/Ca] ratios for the heavier elements, and in some cases

  5. Star formation history and chemical enrichment in the early Universe: clues from the rest-optical and rest-UV spectra of z~2-3 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Allison L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation (z~2-3) exhibit significantly higher star formation rates and gas fractions at fixed stellar mass than nearby galaxies. These z~2-3 galaxies are also distinct in terms of their nebular spectra, reflecting important differences not only in the physical conditions of their interstellar medium (e.g., electron density and gas-phase metallicity), but also in the details of their massive stellar populations, especially their ionizing radiation fields. Jointly observing galaxies' HII regions, at rest-UV and rest-optical wavelengths, and massive stars, at rest-UV wavelengths, is central to constructing a framework for understanding the differences between z~2-3 and z~0 star-forming galaxies and for self-consistently explaining the trends observed in the high-redshift population. My thesis is based on data from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS), which uniquely combines observations of individual galaxies in these two bandpasses. In total, the near-infrared component of the KBSS includes spectra of >700 z~2-3 galaxies obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. I will present these results along with a detailed analysis of the full rest-optical (3600-7000 Ang) nebular spectra of ~400 galaxies, showing that high-redshift galaxies exhibit uniformly high degrees of ionization and excitation with respect to most z~0 galaxies. Combined with observations of the same galaxies' rest-UV spectra (obtained with Keck/LRIS) and photoionization model predictions, these results suggest that the disparity arises from differences in the shape of the ionizing radiation field at fixed gas-phase oxygen abundance, most likely due to the effects of Fe-poor massive binary stars. My comprehensive spectroscopic study of an unprecedentedly large sample of z~2-3 galaxies offers compelling evidence that the distinct chemical abundance patterns observed in these galaxies are the result of systematic differences in their star formation histories.

  6. Emission-line stars in M31 from the SPLASH and PHAT surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Prichard, Laura J; Hamren, Katherine M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dorman, Claire E; Seth, Anil C; Williams, Benjamin F; Damon, Gabriel A; Ilango, Anita; Ilango, Megha

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 224 stars that emit H$\\alpha$ (H$\\alpha$ stars) in the Andromeda galaxy (M31). The stars were selected from $\\sim$ 5000 spectra, collected as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo survey using Keck II/DEIMOS. We used six-filter Hubble Space Telescope photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey to classify and investigate the properties of the H$\\alpha$ stars. We identified five distinct categories of H$\\alpha$ star: B-type main sequence (MS) stars, `transitioning'-MS (T-MS) stars, red core He burning (RHeB) stars, non-C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and C-rich AGB stars. We found $\\sim$ 12 per cent of B-type stars exhibit H$\\alpha$ emission (Be stars). The frequency of Be to all B stars is known to vary with the metallicity of their environment. Comparing this proportion of Be stars with other environments around the Local Group, the result could indicate that M31 is more metal rich than the Milky Way. We predic...

  7. The B-type lamin is required for somatic repression of testis-specific gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelyov, Y. Y.; Lavrov, S. A.; Mikhaylova, L. M.; Nurminsky, I. D.; Kulathinal, R. J.; Egorova, K. S.; Rozovsky, Y. M.; Nurminsky, D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Large clusters of coexpressed tissue-specific genes are abundant on chromosomes of diverse species. The genes coordinately misexpressed in diverse diseases are also found in similar clusters, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms regulate expression of large multigenic regions both in normal development and in its pathological disruptions. Studies on individual loci suggest that silent clusters of coregulated genes are embedded in repressed chromatin domains, often localized to the nuclear periphery. To test this model at the genome-wide scale, we studied transcriptional regulation of large testis-specific gene clusters in somatic tissues of Drosophila. These gene clusters showed a drastic paucity of known expressed transgene insertions, indicating that they indeed are embedded in repressed chromatin. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the major role for the B-type lamin, LamDmo, in repression of large testis-specific gene clusters, showing that in somatic cells as many as three-quarters of these clusters interact with LamDmo. Ablation of LamDmo by using mutants and RNAi led to detachment of testis-specific clusters from nuclear envelope and to their selective transcriptional up-regulation in somatic cells, thus providing the first direct evidence for involvement of the B-type lamin in tissue-specific gene repression. Finally, we found that transcriptional activation of the lamina-bound testis-specific gene cluster in male germ line is coupled with its translocation away from the nuclear envelope. Our studies, which directly link nuclear architecture with coordinated regulation of tissue-specific genes, advance understanding of the mechanisms underlying both normal cell differentiation and developmental disorders caused by lesions in the B-type lamins and interacting proteins. PMID:19218438

  8. Magnetic fields and internal mixing of main sequence B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Grunhut, J; Landstreet, J D; Petit, V

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained high-quality magnetic field measurements of 19 sharp-lined B-type stars with precisely-measured N/C abundance ratios. Our primary goal is to test the idea that a magnetic field may explain extra drag (through the wind) on the surface rotation, thus producing more internal shear and mixing, and thus could provide an explanation for the appearance of slowly rotating N-rich main sequence B stars.

  9. Complex asteroseismology of the hybrid B-type pulsator $\\gamma$ Pegasi: a test of stellar opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Przemysław

    2010-01-01

    Using the updated oscillation spectrum of $\\gamma$ Pegasi, we construct a set of seismic models which reproduce two pulsational frequencies corresponding to the $\\ell=0$, p$_1$ and $\\ell=1$, g$_1$ modes. Then, we single out models which reproduce other well identified modes. Finally, we extend our seismic modelling by a requirement of fitting also values of the complex, nonadiabatic parameter $f$ associated to each mode frequency. Such complex asteroseismology of the B-type pulsators provides a unique test of stellar metallicity and opacities. In contrast to our previous studies, results for $\\gamma$ Peg indicate that both opacity tables, OPAL and OP, are equally preferred.

  10. Azeglio Bemporad and the "BEM" Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven; Prunotto, Marco

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to describe the scientific context and the life of early 20th century Italian astronomer Azeglio Bemporad (1875-1945), his work on double stars, and how the “BEM” doubles were incorporated into the Washington Double Star catalog. Included are new measures, a complete photo gallery of all 61 of his double star systems, and copies of his double star publications.

  11. On the rarity of FK Com stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, W.; Stencel, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Very high-dispersion spectra (2.5 A/mm) were obtained of 31 southern late-type stars, predominantly early G giants, in an effort to find new rapidly rotating, active stars which would be FK Com-like. Measurements of linewidths and the strength of chromospheric Ca II K-line emission are presented, but no new star could be added to the class of 'rapid rotators'. Space densities and evolutionary lifetimes for FK Com stars are discussed.

  12. F stars: A challenge to stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Suchkov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Many main-sequence F and early G stars are too luminous for their effective temperature, surface gravity, and chemical composition. These {\\it overluminous stars} have two curious properties. First, their kinematics as a function of age from stellar evolution modeling (isochrone fitting) is very different from that of normal stars. Second, while X-ray luminosity of normal stars declines with age, the X-ray luminosity of overluminous F stars changes in the opposite direction, being on average higher for older stars. These properties imply that, in defiance of standard models of stellar evolution, F stars of a given mass and chemical composition can evolve very differently. Assuming that the models correctly describe normal stars, for overluminous F stars they predict too young age and the X-ray emission evolving in the direction opposite to the actually observed trend. This discrepancy between modeling results and observational data suggests that standard stellar evolution models and models of stellar activity...

  13. Spectroscopic variability and magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Savanov, I S; Dall, T; Schoeller, M; Cowley, C R; Briquet, M; Arlt, R

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of exotic abundances, chemical inhomogeneities, and weak magnetic fields on the surface of late B-type primaries in spectroscopic binaries has important implications not only for our understanding of the formation mechanisms of stars with Hg and Mn peculiarities themselves, but also for the general understanding of B-type star formation in binary systems. The origin of the abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. The connection between HgMn peculiarity and membership in binary and multiple systems is supported by our observations during the last decade. The important result achieved in our studies of a large sample of HgMn stars is the finding that most HgMn stars exhibit spectral variability of various chemical elements, proving that the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution on the surface of these stars is a rather common characteristic and not a rare phenomenon. Further, in the studied systems, we found that all components are che...

  14. Star polygons

    OpenAIRE

    Riosa, Blažka

    2014-01-01

    In mathematics we often encounter polygons, such us triangle, square, hexagon, etc., but we hardly encounter star polygons. Despite the fact that we do not meet them so often in mathematics, in nature they can be traced almost on every step. In this paper the emphasis is on the geometric meaning of regular star polygons. Star polygon is a generalization of the concept of regular polygons. In star polygons also non-adjacent sides intersect. Up to similarity they are determined by Schläfli symb...

  15. Comparison of physicochemical properties of B-type nontraditional starches from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Man, Jianmin; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Weidong; Huai, Huyin; Wei, Cunxu

    2015-01-01

    Starches were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, Canna edulis and Canna indica and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, and showed a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Their physicochemical properties were investigated and compared. These starches showed significantly different granule morphologies and sizes, but all had eccentric hila. The C. longa starch had the lowest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the highest content of amylopectin long branch-chain, and the L. lancifolium starch the highest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the lowest content of amylopectin long branch-chain among the four starches. The L. lancifolium starch had the lowest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the lowest pasting peak, hot and final viscosities, and the C. longa starch had the highest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the highest pasting hot, final and setback viscosities and the lowest pasting breakdown viscosity. The C. longa and L. lancifolium starches possessed very high and low resistance to hydrolysis and digestion, respectively. The above physicochemical properties would be useful for the applications of B-type starches in food and nonfood industries.

  16. Identification of a major QTL controlling the content of B-type starch granules in Aegilops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Thomas; Rejab, Nur Ardiyana; Griffiths, Simon; Leigh, Fiona; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Simmonds, James; Uauy, Cristobal; Trafford, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Starch within the endosperm of most species of the Triticeae has a unique bimodal granule morphology comprising large lenticular A-type granules and smaller near-spherical B-type granules. However, a few wild wheat species (Aegilops) are known to lack B-granules. Ae. peregrina and a synthetic tetraploid Aegilops with the same genome composition (SU) were found to differ in B-granule number. The synthetic tetraploid had normal A- and B-type starch granules whilst Ae. peregrina had only A-granules because the B-granules failed to initiate. A population segregating for B-granule number was generated by crossing these two accessions and was used to study the genetic basis of B-granule initiation. A combination of Bulked Segregant Analysis and QTL mapping identified a major QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 4S that accounted for 44.4% of the phenotypic variation. The lack of B-granules in polyploid Aegilops with diverse genomes suggests that the B-granule locus has been lost several times independently during the evolution of the Triticeae. It is proposed that the B-granule locus is susceptible to silencing during polyploidization and a model is presented to explain the observed data based on the assumption that the initiation of B-granules is controlled by a single major locus per haploid genome. PMID:21227932

  17. The CoRoT B-type binary HD50230: a prototypical hybrid pulsator with g-mode period and p-mode frequency spacings

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, P; Michel, E; Briquet, M; Pápics, P I; Amado, P; Mathias, P; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Lombaert, R; Hillen, M; Morel, T; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Samadi, R

    2012-01-01

    B-type stars are promising targets for asteroseismic modelling, since their frequency spectrum is relatively simple. We deduce and summarise observational constraints for the hybrid pulsator, HD50230, earlier reported to have deviations from a uniform period spacing of its gravity modes. The combination of spectra and a high-quality light curve measured by the CoRoT satellite allow a combined approach to fix the position of HD50230 in the HR diagram. To describe the observed pulsations, classical Fourier analysis was combined with short-time Fourier transformations and frequency spacing analysis techniques. Visual spectra were used to constrain the projected rotation rate of the star and the fundamental parameters of the target. In a first approximation, the combined information was used to interpret multiplets and spacings to infer the true surface rotation rate and a rough estimate of the inclination angle. We identify HD50230 as a spectroscopic binary and characterise the two components. We detect the simu...

  18. Angular momentum transport by internal gravity waves. IV - Wave generation by surface convection zone, from the pre-main sequence to the early-AGB in intermediate mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Talon, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers that deal with angular momentum transport by internal gravity waves in stellar interiors. Here, we want to examine the potential role of waves in other evolutionary phases than the main sequence. We study the evolution of a 3Msun Population I model from the pre-main sequence to the early-AGB phase and examine whether waves can lead to angular momentum redistribution and/or element diffusion at the external convection zone boundary. We find that, although waves produced by the surface convection zone can be ignored safely for such a star during the main sequence, it is not the case for later evolutionary stages. In particular, angular momentum transport by internal waves could be quite important at the end of the sub-giant branch and during the early-AGB phase. Wave-induced mixing of chemicals is expected during the early-AGB phase.

  19. STAR Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, W W, E-mail: jacobsw@indiana.ed [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility and Department of Physics, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington IN 47408 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The main STAR calorimeters comprise a full Barrel EMC and single Endcap EMC plus a Forward Meson Spectrometer. Together they give a nearly complete coverage over the range -1 < pseudorapidity < 4 and provide EM readout and triggering that help drive STAR physics capabilities. Their description, status, performance and operations (and a few physics anecdotes) are briefly presented and discussed.

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  1. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  2. A JVLA survey of the high frequency radio emission of the massive magnetic B- and O-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kurapati, Sushma; Wade, Gregg; Cohen, David H; David-Uraz, Alexandre; Gagne, Marc; Grunhut, Jason; Oksala, Mary E; Petit, Veronique; Shultz, Matt; Sundqvist, Jon; Townsend, Richard H D; ud-Doula, Asif

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey of seven magnetic O and eleven B-type stars with masses above $8M_{\\odot}$ using the Very Large Array in the 1cm, 3cm and 13cm bands. The survey resulted in a detection of two O and two B-type stars. While the detected O-type stars - HD 37742 and HD 47129 - are in binary systems, the detected B-type stars, HD 156424 and ALS 9522, are not known to be in binaries. All four stars were detected at 3cm, whereas three were detected at 1cm and only one star was detected at 13cm. The detected B-type stars are significantly more radio luminous than the non-detected ones, which is not the case for O-type stars. The non-detections at 13cm are interpreted as due to thermal free-free absorption. Mass-loss rates were estimated using 3cm flux densities and were compared with theoretical mass-loss rates, which assume free-free emission. For HD 37742, the two values of the mass-loss rates were in good agreement, possibly suggesting that the radio emission for this star is mainly thermal. For the other th...

  3. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early Universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Skillman, Evan D; Cassisi, Santi; Bernard, Edouard J; Mayer, Lucio; Stetson, Peter; Cole, Andrew; Dolphin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval ($\\sim 13 Gyr$) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old ($\\geq 10.5 Gyr$) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions vary from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show promine...

  4. HATS-6b: A Warm Saturn Transiting an Early M Dwarf Star, and a Set of Empirical Relations for Characterizing K and M Dwarf Planet Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, J D; Brahm, R; Bakos, G Á; Mancini, L; Jordán, A; Penev, K; Rabus, M; Zhou, G; Butler, R P; Espinoza, N; de Val-Borro, M; Bhatti, W; Csubry, Z; Ciceri, S; Henning, T; Schmidt, B; Arriagada, P; Shectman, S; Crane, J; Thompson, I; Suc, V; Csák, B; Tan, T G; Noyes, R W; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth survey of HATS-6b, an extrasolar planet transiting a V=15.2 mag, i=13.7 mag M1V star with a mass of 0.57 Msun and a radius of 0.57 Rsun. HATS-6b has a period of P = 3.3253 d, mass of Mp=0.32 Mjup, radius of Rp=1.00 Rjup, and zero-albedo equilibrium temperature of Teq=712.8+-5.1 K. HATS-6 is one of the lowest mass stars known to host a close-in gas giant planet, and its transits are among the deepest of any known transiting planet system. We discuss the follow-up opportunities afforded by this system, noting that despite the faintness of the host star, it is expected to have the highest K-band S/N transmission spectrum among known gas giant planets with Teq < 750 K. In order to characterize the star we present a new set of empirical relations between the density, radius, mass, bolometric magnitude, and V, J, H and K-band bolometric corrections for main sequence stars with M < 0.80 Msun, or spectral types later than K5. These relations are calibrated using eclipsing...

  5. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Exploring the Effect of AGN Activity on the Relationships Between Molecular Gas, Dust, and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Aretxaga, Itziar; Armus, Lee; Calzetti, Daniela; Helou, George; Montana, Alfredo; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F Peter; Shi, Yong; Vega, Olga; Yun, Min

    2014-01-01

    The molecular gas, H$_2$, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of $L_{\\rm IR}$ to $L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ is an observational estimation of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous AGN has on the ratio $L_{\\rm IR}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to $L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm tot}$ results in a mean $L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm SF}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ for our entire sample consistent with the mean $L_{\\rm IR}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies fro...

  6. The MiMeS Survey of Magnetism in Massive Stars: Introduction and overview

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Alecian, E; Grunhut, J H; Petit, V; de Batz, B; Bohlender, D A; Cohen, D H; Henrichs, H F; Kochukhov, O; Landstreet, J D; Manset, N; Martins, F; Mathis, S; Oksala, M E; Owocki, S P; Rivinius, Th; Shultz, M E; Sundqvist, J O; Townsend, R H D; ud-Doula, A; Bouret, J -C; Braithwaite, J; Briquet, M; Carciofi, A C; David-Uraz, A; Folsom, C P; Fullerton, A W; Leroy, B; Marcolino, W L F; Moffat, A F J; Nazé, Y; Aurière, M; Bagnulo, S; Bailey, J D; Barbá, R H; Blazère, A; Böhm, T; Catala, C; Donati, J -F; Ferrario, L; Harrington, D; Howarth, I D; Ignace, R; Kaper, L; Lüftinger, T; Prinja, R; Vink, J S; Weiss, W W; Yakunin, I

    2015-01-01

    The MiMeS project is a large-scale, high resolution, sensitive spectropolarimetric investigation of the magnetic properties of O and early B type stars. Initiated in 2008 and completed in 2013, the project was supported by 3 Large Program allocations, as well as various programs initiated by independent PIs and archival resources. Ultimately, over 4800 circularly polarized spectra of 560 O and B stars were collected with the instruments ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Narval at the T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot, and HARPSpol at the European Southern Observatory La Silla 3.6m telescope, making MiMeS by far the largest systematic investigation of massive star magnetism ever undertaken. In this paper, the first in a series reporting the general results of the survey, we introduce the scientific motivation and goals, describe the sample of targets, review the instrumentation and observational techniques used, explain the exposure time calculation designed to provide sensitivity to surface dipole fields...

  7. Star formation in the massive "starless" infrared dark cloud G0.253$+$0.016

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, L F

    2013-01-01

    G0.253+0.016 is a remarkable massive infrared dark cloud located within $\\sim$100 pc of the galactic center. With a high mass of $1.3 \\times 10^5 M_\\odot$, a compact average radius of $\\sim$2.8 pc and a low dust temperature of 23 K, it has been believed to be a yet starless precursor to a massive Arches-like stellar cluster. We present sensitive JVLA 1.3 and 5.6 cm radio continuum observations that reveal the presence on three compact thermal radio sources projected against this cloud. These radio sources are interpreted as HII regions powered by $\\sim$B0.5 ZAMS stars. We conclude that although G0.253+0.016 does not show evidence of O-type star formation, there are certainly early B-type stars embedded in it. We detect three more sources in the periphery of G0.253+0.016 with non-thermal spectral indices. We suggest that these sources may be related to the galactic center region and deserve further study.

  8. Rayleigh scattering in the atmospheres of hot stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fišák, Jakub; Munzar, Dominik; Kubát, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering is a result of an interaction of photons with bound electrons. Rayleigh scattering is mostly neglected in calculations of hot star model atmospheres because most of the hydrogen atoms are ionized and the heavier elements have a lower abundance than hydrogen. In atmospheres of some chemically peculiar stars, helium overabundant regions containing singly ionized helium are present and Rayleigh scattering can be a significant opacity source. We evaluate the contribution of Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen and singly ionized helium in the atmospheres of hot stars with solar composition and in the atmospheres of helium overabundant stars. We computed several series of model atmospheres using the TLUSTY code and emergent fluxes using the SYNSPEC code. These models describe atmospheres of main sequence B-type stars with different helium abundance. We used an existing grid of models for atmospheres with solar chemical composition and we calculated an additional grid for helium-rich stars wi...

  9. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: From Posttranslational Processing to Clinical Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides and peptide fragments from their molecular precursors are markers of heart disease. Clinical studies have defined the current diagnostic utility of these markers, whereas biochemical elucidation of peptide structure and posttranslational processing has...... revealed new plasma peptide forms of potential clinical use.CONTENT:Natriuretic propeptide structures undergo variable degrees of endo- and exoproteolytic cleavages as well as amino acid modifications, which leave the plasma phase of the peptides highly heterogeneous and dependent on cardiac......-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are useful plasma markers in heart failure. New data have defined cardiac myocytes as competent endocrine cells in posttranslational processing and cellular secretion....

  10. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P ... was modest. CONCLUSIONS: Because moderate anemia is associated with a 1.7-fold increase in proBNP concentrations, hemoglobin concentrations should be taken into consideration in patients with nonspecific symptoms of heart disease and increased proBNP concentrations....

  11. Differential models for B-type open-closed topological Landau-Ginzburg theories

    CERN Document Server

    Babalic, Mirela; Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu; Tavakol, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a family of differential models for B-type open-closed topological Landau-Ginzburg theories defined by a pair $(X,W)$, where $X$ is any non-compact Calabi-Yau manifold and $W$ is any holomorphic complex-valued function defined on $X$ whose critical set is compact. The models are constructed at cochain level using smooth data, including the twisted Dolbeault algebra of polyvector valued forms and a twisted Dolbeault category of holomorphic factorizations of $W$. We give explicit proposals for cochain level versions of the bulk and boundary traces and for the bulk-boundary and boundary-bulk maps of the Landau-Ginzburg theory. We prove that most of the axioms of an open-closed topological field theory are satisfied on cohomology and conjecture that the remaining axioms are also satisfied.

  12. CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS ORBITING THE RAPIDLY PULSATING SUBDWARF B-TYPE BINARY NY Vir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Dai, Z.-B.; He, J.-J. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Fernandez-Lajus, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Xiang, F.-Y., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Physics Department, Xiangtan University, 411105 Xiangtan, Funan Province (China)

    2012-02-15

    We report here the tentative discovery of a Jovian planet in orbit around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B-type (sdB-type) eclipsing binary NY Vir. By using newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we detect that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of NY Vir shows a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 7.9 yr and a semiamplitude of 6.1 s, while it undergoes a downward parabolic change (revealing a period decrease at a rate of P-dot = -9.2 x 10{sup -12}). The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel-time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary companion was determined to be M{sub 3}sin i' = 2.3({+-} 0.3)M{sub Jupiter} when a total mass of 0.60 M{sub Sun} for NY Vir is adopted. This suggests that it is most probably a giant circumbinary planet orbiting NY Vir at a distance of about 3.3 astronomical units (AU). Since the rate of period decrease cannot be explained by true angular momentum loss caused by gravitational radiation or/and magnetic braking, the observed downward parabolic change in the O - C diagram may be only a part of a long-period (longer than 15 years) cyclic variation, which may reveal the presence of another Jovian planet ({approx}2.5 M{sub Jupiter}) in the system.

  13. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme, E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es, E-mail: monelli@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es, E-mail: carme@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); and others

    2013-12-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval (∼13 Gyr) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old (≳ 10.5 Gyr) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions varies from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show prominent radial stellar population gradients: The centers of these galaxies host young (≲ 1 Gyr) populations, while the age of the last formation event increases smoothly with increasing radius. This contrasts with the two dSph galaxies. Tucana shows a similar, but milder, gradient, but no gradient in age is detected Cetus. For the three galaxies with significant stellar population gradients, the exponential scale length decreases with time. These results are in agreement with outside-in scenarios of dwarf galaxy evolution, in which a quenching of the star formation toward the center occurs as the galaxy runs out of gas in the outskirts.

  14. Life Cycle of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  15. Dark Stars: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Dark Stars (DS) are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of ordinary atomic material but powered by the heat from Dark Matter (DM) annihilation (rather than by fusion). Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for DM, can be their own antimatter and can accumulate inside the star, with their annihilation products thermalizing with and heating the DS. The resulting DSs are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium. The first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. Though DM constituted only $10^6 M_\\odot$), very bright ($>10^9 L_\\odot$), and potentially detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Once the DM runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus DSs can provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The curre...

  16. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  17. Predictors of Left Ventricle Remodeling: Combined Plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide Decreasing Ratio and Peak Creatine Kinase-MB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Te; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Jung-Jung; Wang, Po-Chang; Chang, Shih-Tai; Yang, Teng-Yao; Jang, Shih-Jung; Yang, Tsung-Han; Hsiao, Ju-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that patients who had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have found that measuring B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the subacute phase of left ventricular (LV) remodeling can predict the possible course of LV remodeling. This study assessed the use of serial BNP serum levels combined with early creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) to predict the development of significant LV remodeling in AMI patients. Methods: Nighty-seven patients with new onset AMI were assessed using serial echocardiographic studies and serial measurements of BNP levels, both performed on day-2 (BNP1), day-7 (BNP2), day-90 (BNP3), and day-180 (BNP4) after admission. LV remodeling was defined as >20% increase in biplane LV end-diastolic volume on day-180 compared to baseline (day-2). Results: Patients were divided into LV remodeling [LVR(+)] and non LV remodeling [LVR(-)] groups. No first-week BNP level was found to predict remodeling. However, the two groups had significantly different day-90 BNP level (208.1 ± 263.7 pg/ml vs. 82.4 ± 153.7 pg/ml, P = 0.039) and significantly different 3-month BNP decrease ratios (RBNP13) (14.4 ± 92.2% vs. 69.4 ± 25.9%, P < 0.001). The appropriate cut-off value for RBNP13 was 53.2% (AUC = 0.764, P < 0.001). Early peak CK-MB (cut-off 48.2 ng/ml; AUC = 0.672; P = 0.014) was another independent predictor of remodeling. Additionally, combining peak CK-MB and RBNP13 offered an excellent discrimination for half-year remodeling when assessed by ROC curve (AUC = 0.818, P < 0.001). Conclusion: RBNP13 is a significant independent predictor of 6-month LV remodeling. The early peak CK-MB additionally offered an incremental power to the predictions derived from serial BNP examinations. PMID:28138312

  18. Rising Star

    OpenAIRE

    Worley, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Rising Star is a novel about appearances. Thailand Allen is a girl who thinks she understands what she sees. But when what she sees are cracks in her perfect world, maturation and new sight are not far off. Before growth can occur, Thailand must undergo a painful process of learning that carries with it embarrassment, sorrow, anger and confusion. Thailand lives with her mother in a small Texas town called Rising Star. Rising Star is like every other small town with its community gather...

  19. A cool R Coronae Borealis star Z UMi

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Tonu

    2006-01-01

    The high resolution spectra of a R CrB type star Z UMi are analysed. The atmospheric parameters of Z UMi are estimated: Teff=5250+/-250K and log g=0.5+/-0.3. This places Z UMi among the coolest R CrB stars. The hydrogen deficiency of Z UMi is confirmed. The abundances of other elements resemble those found for the minority group of R CrB stars. We note very low iron abundance, [Fe/H]=-1.85, and an excess of lithium, [Li/Fe]=+1.9.

  20. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Schoeller, M; Savanov, I; Arlt, R; Castelli, F; Curto, G Lo; Briquet, M; Dall, T H

    2012-01-01

    The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. We re-analyse available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD19400, using FORS2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We downloaded from the ESO archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudina...

  1. Two new SB2 binaries with main sequence B-type pulsators in the Kepler field

    CERN Document Server

    Pápics, P I; Aerts, C; Briquet, M; Marcos-Arenal, P; Beck, P G; Uytterhoeven, K; Hage, A Triviño; Southworth, J; Clubb, K I; Bloemen, S; Degroote, P; Jackiewicz, J; McKeever, J; Van Winckel, H; Niemczura, E; Gameiro, J F; Debosscher, J

    2013-01-01

    Context: OB stars are important in the chemistry and evolution of the Universe, but the sample of targets well understood from an asteroseismological point of view is still too limited to provide feedback on the current evolutionary models. Our study extends this sample with two spectroscopic binary systems. AIMS. Our goal is to provide orbital solutions, fundamental parameters and abundances from disentangled high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra, as well as to analyse and interpret the variations in the Kepler light curve of these carefully selected targets. This way we continue our efforts to map the instability strips of beta Cep and SPB stars using the combination of high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy and uninterrupted space-based photometry. Methods: We fit Keplerian orbits to radial velocities measured from selected absorption lines of high-resolution spectroscopy using synthetic composite spectra to obtain orbital solutions. We use revised masks to obtain optimal light curves from the or...

  2. A JVLA survey of the high-frequency radio emission of the massive magnetic B- and O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapati, Sushma; Chandra, Poonam; Wade, Gregg; Cohen, David H.; David-Uraz, Alexandre; Gagne, Marc; Grunhut, Jason; Oksala, Mary E.; Petit, Veronique; Shultz, Matt; Sundqvist, Jon; Townsend, Richard H. D.; ud-Doula, Asif

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a survey of seven magnetic O-type stars and eleven B-type stars with masses above 8 M⊙ using the Very Large Array in the 1, 3 and 13 cm bands. The survey resulted in a detection of two O- and two B-type stars. While the detected O-type stars - HD 37742 and HD 47129 - are in binary systems, the detected B-type stars, HD 156424 and ALS 9522, are not known to be in binaries. All four stars were detected at 3 cm, whereas three were detected at 1 cm and only one star was detected at 13 cm. The detected B-type stars are significantly more radio luminous than the non-detected ones, which is not the case for O-type stars. The non-detections at 13 cm are interpreted as due to thermal free-free absorption. Mass-loss rates were estimated using 3 cm flux densities and were compared with theoretical mass-loss rates, which assume free-free emission. For HD 37742, the two values of the mass-loss rates were in good agreement, possibly suggesting that the radio emission for this star is mainly thermal. For the other three stars, the estimated mass-loss rates from radio observations were much higher than those expected from theory, suggesting either a possible contribution from non-thermal emission from the magnetic star or thermal or non-thermal emission due to interacting winds of the binary system, especially for HD 47129. All the detected stars are predicted to host centrifugal magnetospheres except HD 37742, which is likely to host a dynamical magnetosphere. This suggests that non-thermal radio emission is favoured in stars with centrifugal magnetospheres.

  3. The evaluation of B-type Natriuretic Peptide and Troponin I in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafija Serdarevic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnostic utility of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP has prompted interest in its use as an aid in the detection of early heart failure and assessment of diseases. The first objective of this study was measurement of BNP and troponin I (TnI blood levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and unstable angina. The second objective of this study was to find a correlation between TnI and BNP in blood.Methods: The concentrations of BNP and TnI in 150 blood levels were determined using CMIA (chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Architect and 2000 (Abbott diagnostics. The retrospective study included 100 patients who were hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo and 50 healthy control. The reference blood range of BNP is 0-100 pg/mL and TnI is 0.00-0.4 ng/mL.Results: In the patients with AMI the mean value of BNP is 764.48 ± 639.52 pg/mL and TnI is 2.50 ± 2.28ng/mL. The patients with unstable angina have BNP 287.18 ± 593.20 pg/mL and TnI 0.10 ± 0.23 ng/mL. Our studies have shown that the correlation between BNP and TnI was statistically significant for p< 0.05 using Student t test with correlation coefficient r = 0.36. Conclusions: BNP and TnI levels can help to identify the patients with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Predictors of Left Ventricle Remodeling: Combined Plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide Decreasing Ratio and Peak Creatine Kinase-MB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Te; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Jung-Jung; Wang, Po-Chang; Chang, Shih-Tai; Yang, Teng-Yao; Jang, Shih-Jung; Yang, Tsung-Han; Hsiao, Ju-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that patients who had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have found that measuring B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the subacute phase of left ventricular (LV) remodeling can predict the possible course of LV remodeling. This study assessed the use of serial BNP serum levels combined with early creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) to predict the development of significant LV remodeling in AMI patients. Methods: Nighty-seven patients with new onset AMI were assessed using serial echocardiographic studies and serial measurements of BNP levels, both performed on day-2 (BNP1), day-7 (BNP2), day-90 (BNP3), and day-180 (BNP4) after admission. LV remodeling was defined as >20% increase in biplane LV end-diastolic volume on day-180 compared to baseline (day-2). Results: Patients were divided into LV remodeling [LVR(+)] and non LV remodeling [LVR(-)] groups. No first-week BNP level was found to predict remodeling. However, the two groups had significantly different day-90 BNP level (208.1 ± 263.7 pg/ml vs. 82.4 ± 153.7 pg/ml, P = 0.039) and significantly different 3-month BNP decrease ratios ( R BNP13) (14.4 ± 92.2% vs. 69.4 ± 25.9%, P MB (cut-off 48.2 ng/ml; AUC = 0.672; P = 0.014) was another independent predictor of remodeling. Additionally, combining peak CK-MB and R BNP13 offered an excellent discrimination for half-year remodeling when assessed by ROC curve (AUC = 0.818, P MB additionally offered an incremental power to the predictions derived from serial BNP examinations.

  5. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwavelenghts studies of massive star formation regions in the LMC and SMC reveal that a second generation of stars is being formed in dense molecular clouds located in the surroundings of the massive clusters. These dense molecular clouds have survive the action of massive star UV radiation elds and winds and they appear as compact dense H2 knots in regions of weak CO emission. We present results of observations obtained towards massive star forming regions in the low metallicity molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds and investigate its implication on star formation in the early universe.

  6. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  7. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  8. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaña, Alfredo; Vega, Olga [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica, Apdos. Postales 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ′} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  9. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  11. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  12. Dust formation and mass loss around intermediate-mass AGB stars with initial metallicity Zini ≤ 10-4 in the early Universe - I. Effect of surface opacity on stellar evolution and the dust-driven wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashibu, Shohei; Yasuda, Yuki; Kozasa, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Dust formation and the resulting mass loss around asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with initial metallicity in the range 0 ≤ Zini ≤ 10-4 and initial mass 2 ≤ Mini/M⊙ ≤ 5 are explored by hydrodynamical calculations of the dust-driven wind (DDW) along the AGB evolutionary tracks. We employ the MESA code to simulate the evolution of stars, assuming an empirical mass-loss rate in the post-main-sequence phase and considering three types of low-temperature opacity (scaled-solar, CO-enhanced and CNO-enhanced opacity) to elucidate the effect on stellar evolution and the DDW. We find that the treatment of low-temperature opacity strongly affects dust formation and the resulting DDW; in the carbon-rich AGB phase, the maximum dot{M} of Mini ≥ 3 M⊙ stars with the CO-enhanced opacity is at least one order of magnitude smaller than that with the CNO-enhanced opacity. A wide range of stellar parameters being covered, the necessary condition for driving efficient DDW with dot{M} ≥ 10^{-6} M⊙ yr-1 is expressed as effective temperature Teff ≲ 3850 K and log (δCL/κRM) ≳ 10.43log Teff - 32.33, with the carbon excess δC defined as εC - εO, the Rosseland mean opacity κR in units of cm2 g-1 in the surface layer and the stellar mass (luminosity) M(L) in solar units. The fitting formulae derived for gas and dust mass-loss rates in terms of input stellar parameters could be useful for investigating the dust yield from AGB stars in the early Universe being consistent with stellar evolution calculations.

  13. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  14. Massive binary stars as a probe of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.

    2010-10-01

    Massive stars are among the largest and most influential objects we know of on a sub-galactic scale. Binary systems, composed of at least one of these stars, may be responsible for several types of phenomena, including type Ib/c supernovae, short and long gamma ray bursts, high-velocity runaway O and B-type stars, and the density of the parent star clusters. Our understanding of these stars has met with limited success, especially in the area of their formation. Current formation theories rely on the accumulated statistics of massive binary systems that are limited because of their sample size or the inhomogeneous environments from which the statistics are collected. The purpose of this work is to provide a higher-level analysis of close massive binary characteristics using the radial velocity information of 113 massive stars (B3 and earlier) and binary orbital properties for the 19 known close massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. This work provides an analysis using the largest amount of massive star and binary information ever compiled for an O-star rich cluster like Cygnus OB2, and compliments other O-star binary studies such as NGC 6231, NGC 2244, and NGC 6611. I first report the discovery of 73 new O or B-type stars and 13 new massive binaries by this survey. This work involved the use of 75 successful nights of spectroscopic observation at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory in addition to observations obtained using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph at WIYN, the HIRES echelle spectrograph at KECK, and the Hamilton spectrograph at LICK. I use these data to estimate the spectrophotometric distance to the cluster and to measure the mean systemic velocity and the one-sided velocity dispersion of the cluster. Finally, I compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo models, the results of which indicate that the binary fraction of the cluster is 57 +/- 5% and that the indices for the power law distributions, describing the log of the periods, mass

  15. Detection of 610-MHz radio emission from hot magnetic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P.; Wade, G. A.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Oberoi, D.; Grunhut, J. H.; ud-Doula, A.; Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Oksala, M. E.; David-Uraz, A.

    2015-09-01

    We have carried out a study of radio emission from a small sample of magnetic O- and B-type stars using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, with the goal of investigating their magnetospheres at low frequencies. These are the lowest frequency radio measurements ever obtained of hot magnetic stars. The observations were taken at random rotational phases in the 1390 and the 610 MHz bands. Out of the eight stars, we detect five B-type stars in both the 1390 and the 610 MHz bands. The three O-type stars were observed only in the 1390 MHz band, and no detections were obtained. We explain this result as a consequence of free-free absorption by the free-flowing stellar wind exterior to the confined magnetosphere. We also study the variability of individual stars. One star - HD 133880 - exhibits remarkably strong and rapid variability of its low-frequency flux density. We discuss the possibility of this emission being coherent emission as reported for CU Vir by Trigilio et al.

  16. X-shooter, NACO, and AMBER observations of the LBV Pistol Star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martayan, C.; Blomme, R.; Bouquin, J.-B; Merand, A.; Montagnier, G.; Selman, F.; Girard, J.; Fox, A.; Baade, D.; Frémat, Y.; Lobel, A.; Martins, F.; Patru, F.; Rivinius, T.; Sana, H.A.A.; Stefl, S.; Zorec, J.; Semaan, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present multi-instrument and multi-wavelength observations of the famous LBV star Pistol Star. These observations are part of a larger program on early O stars at different metallicities. The Pistol Star has been claimed to be one of the most massive star known, with 250 solar masses. We present

  17. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2. II. Integrated Stellar Properties and the Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Vink, Jorick S

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star forming region, containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analysed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalogue of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to 1 Msun (excluding A and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. (2000) isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 (+0.75/-1.0) and 5.25 (+1.5/-1.0) Myrs for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-MS isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ~5 My...

  18. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  19. B-type natriuretic peptide to predict ductus intervention in infants <28 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Christoph; Lemmer, Julia; Metze, Boris; Koehne, Petra S; Mueller, Christian; Obladen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequent in neonates with gestational age of less than 28 wk. Clinical and echocardiographic signs define hemodynamic significance of PDA, but do not reveal the need for PDA intervention in the first days of life. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been proposed as a screening tool for PDA in preterm infants. To determine whether BNP can predict the need for PDA intervention, plasma BNP was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay in 67 preterm infants <28 wk (median 26) on the second day of life in a prospective blinded study. PDA intervention was based on specified clinical and echocardiographic findings. Twenty-four patients (intervention group) received treatment for PDA and 43 patients (controls) remained without intervention. BNP concentrations were higher in the intervention (median 1069 pg/mL) than in the control group (247 pg/mL, p < 0.001). BNP correlated positively with ductal size (R = 0.46, p < 0.001) and atrial/aortic root ratio (R = 0.54, p < 0.001). In conclusion, plasma BNP proved to be a good predictor for ductus intervention (area under the curve: 0.86) with the best cutoff at 550 pg/mL on the second day of life in ventilated infants less than 28 wk gestation (sensitivity: 83%; specificity: 86%).

  20. Solids flow diagram of a CFB riser using Geldart B-type powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiva Mahmoudi; Chian Wen Chan; Anke Brems; Jonathan Seville; Jan Baeyens

    2012-01-01

    Riser operating modes are vital to designing a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor for a required process of either a gas-solid or a gas-catalytic nature.Different operating modes provide different solids' residence times and mixing behaviors,which define the reactions' efficiency and yield.The literature demonstrates distinct operating modes resulting from observed differences in slip factors and the range of particle velocities and their associated residence time distribution.The present research uses positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) in a riser of B-type bed material to determine the different operating modes by measuring (i) particle velocities and residence time distribution,(ii) population densities of these particles in the cross-sectional area of the riser,and (iii) solids flow pattern at the bottom of the riser.Data treatment defines four distinct solids hold-up regimes in the riser and proposes a “phase diagram” depicting the existence of the different operating modes (dilute,dense,core-annulus and combined) as a function of the superficial gas velocity and solids circulation flux in the riser.The delineated regimes have good agreement with available literature data and known industrial operations.Comparison with literature data for risers using A-type powders is also fair.The diagram enables CFB designers to better delineate operating characteristics.

  1. Endothelial Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I Protects against Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris L. Vaisman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI in endothelial cells (EC was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC.

  2. Emergent criticality in complex turing B-type atomic switch networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Adam Z; Avizienis, Audrius V; Sillin, Henry O; Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Aono, Masakazu; Gimzewski, James K

    2012-01-10

    Recent advances in the neuromorphic operation of atomic switches as individual synapse-like devices demonstrate the ability to process information with both short-term and long-term memorization in a single two terminal junction. Here it is shown that atomic switches can be self-assembled within a highly interconnected network of silver nanowires similar in structure to Turing’s “B-Type unorganized machine”, originally proposed as a randomly connected network of NAND logic gates. In these experimental embodiments,complex networks of coupled atomic switches exhibit emergent criticality similar in nature to previously reported electrical activity of biological brains and neuron assemblies. Rapid fluctuations in electrical conductance display metastability and power law scaling of temporal correlation lengths that are attributed to dynamic reorganization of the interconnected electro-ionic network resulting from induced non-equilibrium thermodynamic instabilities. These collective properties indicate a potential utility for realtime,multi-input processing of distributed sensory data through reservoir computation. We propose these highly coupled, nonlinear electronic networks as an implementable hardware-based platform toward the creation of physically intelligent machines.

  3. Cortical Brain Connectivity and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Valeriani, Lavinia; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bramanti, Placido; Mecarelli, Oriano; Rossini, Paolo M

    2015-07-01

    The brain has a high level of complexity and needs continuous oxygen supply. So it is clear that any pathological condition, or physiological (aging) change, in the cardiovascular system affects functioning of the central nervous system. We evaluated linear aspects of the relationship between the slowness of cortical rhythms, as revealed by the modulation of a graph connectivity parameter, and congestive heart failure (CHF), as a reflection of neurodegenerative processes. Eyes-closed resting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of 10 patients with CHF were recorded by 19 electrodes positioned according the international 10-20 system. Graph theory function (normalized characteristic path length λ) was applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA software, therefore getting rid of volumetric propagation influences. The EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The analysis between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) values and λ showed positive correlation in delta, associated with a negative correlation in alpha 2 band. Namely, the higher the severity of the disease (as revealed by the BNP vales), the higher the λ in delta, and lower in alpha 2 band. Results suggest that delta and alpha λ indices are good markers of the severity of CHF.

  4. Identification of a hemerythrin-like domain in a P1B-type transport ATPase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Matthew E.; Subramanian, Poorna; Davydov, Roman; Hoffman, Brian M.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The P1B-type ATPases couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to metal ion translocation across cell membranes. Important for prokaryotic metal resistance and essential metal distribution in eukaryotes, P1B-ATPases are divided into subclasses on the basis of their metal substrate specificities. Sequence analysis of putative P1B-5-ATPases, for which the substrate has not been identified, led to the discovery of a C-terminal soluble domain homologous to hemerythrin (Hr) proteins and domains. The Hr domain from the Acidothermus cellulolyticus P1B-5-ATPase was cloned, expressed, and purified (P1B-5-Hr). P1B-5-Hr binds two iron ions per monomer and adopts a predominantly helical fold. Optical absorption features of the iron-loaded and azide-treated protein are consistent with features observed for other Hr proteins. Autooxidation to the met form is very rapid, as reported for other prokaryotic Hr domains. The presence of a diiron center was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data. The occurrence of a Hr-like domain in a P-type ATPase is unprecedented and suggests new regulatory mechanisms as well as an expanded function for Hr proteins in biology. PMID:20672819

  5. Hierarchical Star Formation Across Galactic Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Most stars form in clusters. This fact has emerged from the finding that "embedded clusters account for the 70 - 90% fraction of all stars formed in Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs)." While this is the case at scales of few 10 parsecs, typical for GMCs, a look at star-forming galaxies in the Local Group (LG) shows significant populations of enormous loose complexes of early-type stars extending at scales from few 100 to few 1000 parsecs. The fact that these stellar complexes host extremely large numbers of loosely distributed massive blue stars implies either that stars form also in an unbound fashion or they are immediately dislocated from their original compact birthplaces or both. The Legacy Extra-Galactic UV Survey (LEGUS) has produced remarkable collections of resolved early-type stars in 50 star-forming LG galaxies, suited for testing ideas about recent star formation. I will present results from our ongoing project on star formation across LEGUS disk galaxies. We characterize the global clustering behavior of the massive young stars in order to understand the morphology of star formation over galactic scales. This morphology appears to be self-similar with fractal dimensions comparable to those of the molecular interstellar medium, apparently driven by large-scale turbulence. Our clustering analysis reveals compact stellar systems nested in larger looser concentrations, which themselves are the dense parts of unbound complexes and super-structures, giving evidence of hierarchical star formation up to galactic scales. We investigate the structural and star formation parameters demographics of the star-forming complexes revealed at various levels of compactness. I will discuss the outcome of our correlation and regression analyses on these parameters in an attempt to understand the link between galactic disk dynamics and morphological structure in spiral and ring galaxies of the local universe.

  6. High Spatial Resolution Spectroscopy of W51 IRS2E and IRS2W: Two Very Massive Young Stars in Early Formation Stages

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, C L; Conti, P S; Damineli, A; Figueredo, E

    2008-01-01

    We present $K$-band spectra of the near infrared counterparts to IRS2E and IRS2W which is associated with the ultracompact HII region W51d, both of them embedded sources in the Galactic compact HII region W51 IRS2. The high spatial resolution observations were obtained with the laser guide star facility and Near infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) mounted at the Gemini North observatory. The spectrum of the ionizing source of W51d shows the photospheric features NIII (21155 \\AA) in emission and HeII (21897 \\AA) in absorption which lead us to classify it as an young O3 type star. We detected CO overtone in emission at 23000 \\AA in the spectrum of IRS2E, suggesting that it is a massive young object still surrounded by an accretion disc, probably transitioning from the hot core phase to an ultracompact HII region.

  7. A 158 Micron [CII] Line Survey of Galaxies at z ~ 1 to 2: An Indicator of Star Formation in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, G J; Ferkinhoff, C; Nikola, T; Parshley, S C; Benford, D J; Staguhn, J G; Fiolet, N

    2010-01-01

    We have detected the 158 {\\mu}m [CII] line from 12 galaxies at z~1-2. This is the first survey of this important starformation tracer at redshifts covering the epoch of maximum star-formation in the Universe and quadruples the number of reported high z [CII] detections. The line is very luminous, between <0.024-0.65% of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and arises from PDRs on molecular cloud surfaces. An exception is PKS 0215+015, where half of the [CII] emission could arise from XDRs near the central AGN. The L[CII] /LFIR ratio in our star-formation-dominated systems is ~8 times larger than that of our AGN-dominated systems. Therefore this ratio selects for star-formation-dominated systems. Furthermore, the L[CII]/LFIR and L[CII]/L(CO(1-0)) ratios in our starforming galaxies and nearby starburst galaxies are the same, so that luminous starforming galaxies at earlier epochs (z~1-2) appear to be scaled up versions of local starbursts entailing kilo-parsec-scale starbursts. Most of the F...

  8. Dense hadronic matter in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliara, Giuseppe; Lavagno, Andrea; Pigato, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The existence of stars with masses up to $2 M_{\\odot}$ and the hints of the existence of stars with radii smaller than $\\sim 11$ km seem to require, at the same time, a stiff and a soft hadronic equation of state at large densities. We argue that these two apparently contradicting constraints are actually an indication of the existence of two families of compact stars: hadronic stars which could be very compact and quark stars which could be very massive. In this respect, a crucial role is played, in the hadronic equation of state, by the delta isobars whose early appearance shifts to large densities the formation of hyperons. We also discuss how recent experimental information on the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at saturation indicate, indirectly, an early appearance of delta isobars in neutron star matter.

  9. Stellar Parameters of A- and B-type Members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelkamp, Grant; Smith, Skylar; Pecaut, Mark; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in high-contrast imaging and radio interferometry are allowing new avenues for circumstellar disk studies as well as direct imaging exoplanet searches. The most promising targets in these studies are intermediate mass B/A/F type members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association at a distance of ~100-200 pc and an age of 10-20 Myr old. However, many of the most interesting stellar members of Sco-Cen have poorly constrained stellar properties, including luminosities, distances and masses. In order to address this, we have obtained low resolution spectra from the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope and have obtained new spectral classifications for 106 stars. Using these new spectral classifications along with visual and near-infrared photometry from GAIA, Hipparcos, Tycho2, APASS and 2MASS, we obtained new reddening and extinction estimates. We then placed the stars on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and compared with stellar evolutionary tracks to obtain individual masses and ages. These improved stellar parameters will provide essential data for improving our understanding of high contrast imaging targets of B/A/F type members within the nearest OB association. We acknowledge support from NSF awards AST-1008908 and AST-1313029.

  10. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Mooley, Kunal P; Rebull, Luisa M; Padgett, Deborah L; Knapp, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (i) literature listings in SIMBAD; (ii) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud; (iii) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the 2MASS; and (iv) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the SDSS coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emiss...

  11. Thermomagnetic treatment effects on microstructure in Nd-Fe-B type sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    PaigeSmith, Catherine

    Optimizing the microstructure of sintered Nd-Fe-B type magnets has become increasingly important. Sintered magnets are key components to the growing industry of alternative energy, particularly wind turbines and electric car generators. With rising costs and limited supply of rare earth elements, special attention has been dedicated to improving magnetic properties of these magnets through processing rather than compositional modifications. The magnetic property needing the most improvement in Nd-Fe-B type sintered magnets is coercivity. Coercivity dictates the performance of magnets at temperatures still below the demagnetizing threshold temperature. It has been shown that annealing sintered magnets in a magnetic field can enhance coercivity when compared to conventional post-sinter annealing in the absence of a magnetic field. However, little is known about the microstructural changes that occur in sintered magnets as a result of these thermo-magnetic treatments. This work presents themicrostructural characterization of Dy-free and Dy-containing sintered magnets that have undergone annealing in a magnetic field of 9T. Microstructural characterization techniques were used to identify phases, analyze the texture of phases identified, and to study intergranular phases. Microstructural findings were then used to propose a solidification scheme during annealing and connect such findings to magnetic property results, as well as to make suggestions for optimizing the manufacturing process. In addition to the magnetic phase, phases identified in the Dy-free and Dy-containing Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets consisted of Nb-rich precipitates, Nd-rich phases, and phases from the Nd-Fe-Cu ternary system. Nd-Fe-Cu phases included alpha-Nd, NdCu, and the tau (Nd6Fe13Cu). The Nd-rich phases were specifically identified to be NdOx precipitates in an alpha-Nd matrix, and contained an orientation relationship described by (0001)alpha-Nd||(111)NdOx and [112¯0]alpha-Nd||[1¯10]NdO x. This

  12. B-type natriuretic peptide is an independent predictor of endothelial function in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauriah, Maheshwar; Khan, Faisel; Lim, Tiong K; Elder, Douglas H; Godfrey, Valerie; Kennedy, Gwen; Belch, Jill J F; Booth, Nuala A; Struthers, Allan D; Lang, Chim C

    2012-09-01

    BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) has been reported to be elevated in preclinical states of vascular damage. To elucidate the relationship between plasma BNP and endothelial function, we have investigated the relationship between BNP and endothelial function in a cohort of subjects comprising healthy subjects as well as at-risk subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. To also clarify the relative contribution of different biological pathways to the individual variation in endothelial function, we have examined the relationship between a panel of multiple biomarkers and endothelial function. A total of 70 subjects were studied (mean age, 58.1±4.6 years; 27% had a history of hypertension and 18% had a history of hypercholesterolaemia). Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was evaluated by the invasive ACH (acetylcholine)-induced forearm vasodilatation technique. A panel of biomarkers of biological pathways was measured: BNP, haemostatic factors PAI-1 (plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1) and tPA (tissue plasminogen activator), inflammatory markers, including cytokines [hs-CRP (high sensitive C-reactive protein), IL (interleukin)-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) and MPO (myeloperoxidase] and soluble adhesion molecules [E-selectin and sCD40 (soluble CD40)]. The median BNP level in the study population was 26.9 pg/ml. Multivariate regression analyses show that age, the total cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoprotein) ratio, glucose and BNP were independent predictors of endothelial function, and BNP remained an independent predictor (P=0.009) in a binary logistic regression analysis using FBF (forearm blood flow) as a dichotomous variable based on the median value. None of the other plasma biomarkers was independently related to ACH-mediated vasodilatation. In a strategy using several biomarkers to relate to endothelial function, plasma BNP was found to be an independent predictor of endothelial function as assessed by endothelium

  13. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. METHODS: The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1:9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. RESULTS: When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1:16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment.

  14. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen; Xu, Lei; Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1:9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1:16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment.

  15. Facile synthesis of B-type carbonated nanoapatite with tailored microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.romagnoli@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Hanuskova, Miriam, E-mail: Miriam.hanuskova@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Fabbri, Elena, E-mail: Elena.fabbri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro F., E-mail: Alessandro.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Nanolime and a phosphate-based chelating agent were used to synthesize B-type carbonated apatite. Developed Rietveld refinement strategies allowed one to determine process yield, product crystallinity as well as structural (unit cell) and microstructural (size, strain) parameters. The effect of synthesis temperature (20–60 °C) as well as Ca/P ratio (1.5–2.5) and solid content (10–30 wt%) of the starting batch on these properties were investigated. FTIR, TEM and gas adsorption data provided supporting evidence. The process yield was 42–60 wt% and found to be governed by the Ca/P ratio. The purified products had high specific surface area (107–186 m{sup 2}/g) and crystallinity (76–97%). The unit cell parameters, correlated to the degree of structural carbonate, were sensitive to the Ca/P ratio. Instead, temperature governed the microstructural parameters. Less strained and larger crystals were obtained at higher temperatures. Long-term aging up to 6 months at 20 °C compensated for higher crystal growth kinetics at higher temperature. - Graphical abstract: Controlled synthesis of carbonated apatite at moderate temperatures using nanolime and sodiumhexametaphosphate as starting reagent. - Highlights: • Chemical synthesis of nano-sized apatite with tailored microstructure was performed. • Colloidal Ca(OH){sub 2} and a phosphorus-based chelating agents were used as reagents. • The method is simple and reproducible which facilitate industrial process scale-up. • Rietveld refinement strategies for product characterization were developed. • Rietveld analyses provided yield, microstructural and structure information.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma with chronic B-type hepatitis complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A 57-year-old man consulted a local hospital because of a persistent slight fever. At the age of 37 years he was diagnosed having B-type hepatitis, but left the liver dysfunction untreated. Twenty years later, he was diagnosed having chronic hepatitis B, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and macrocytic anemia, and referred to our hospital for further investigation. A HCC with a maximum diameter of 5.2 cm was detected in segment 8. Results of blood tests included 1.8 mg/dL serum total bilirubin, 0.9 mg/dL bilirubin, less than 10 mg/dL haptoglobin, 7.9 g/dL hemoglobin, 130 fL MCV, and 14.5% reticulocytes. A bone marrow sample showed erythroid hyperplasia. The direct Coombs test gave a positive result. We diagnosed the anemia as autoimmmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), for which prednisolone could not be administered due to positivity for HBsAg and HBeAg. After preparation of washed blood cells for later transfusion, the patient underwent systematic resection of segment 8. The cut surface of the resected specimen demonstrated an encapsulated yellow-brownish tumor measuring 52 mm × 40 mmwhich was diagnosed pathologicaly as moderately differentiated HCC. On the 9th postoperative day, the patient's temperature rose to 38℃, and exacerbated hemolysis was observed. The maximum total bilirubin value was 5.8 mg/dL and minimum hemoglobin level was 4.6 g/dL. He tolerated this period without blood transfusion. Currently he is being followed up as an outpatient, and shows no signs of HCC recurrence or symptoms of anemia. AIHA associated with HBV infection has been described in only three previous cases, and the present case is the first in which surgery was performed for accompanying HCC.

  17. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžovic-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n =8 and stress group (n =8. Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep containing tap water (temperature ca. 25°C. The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the irst day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacriiced and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.. Results There was no statistically signiicant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81±0.14 ng/ml as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 ±0.08ng/ml. After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs.272.8 g, but this difference was not statistically signiicant. The stress period had no inluence on food intake in the stress rat group. Conclusion The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not suficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  18. Morning Star

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Morning Star comprises a group of paintings and drawings whose imagery derives from photographs of 1960s American hippie communes. The paintings are made using oil paint on linen. Their dimensions vary between 180 x 120, and 228 x 217 centimetres. The drawings are in pencil on watercolour paper and are all 56 x 76 centimetres. The work has been exhibited in conventional form, hanging on gallery walls. For Morning Star I made pencil drawings and oil paintings derived from images in Dick Fa...

  19. Massive stars. A chemical signature of first-generation very massive stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, W; Tominaga, N; Beers, T C; Honda, S; Lee, Y S

    2014-08-22

    Numerical simulations of structure formation in the early universe predict the formation of some fraction of stars with several hundred solar masses. No clear evidence of supernovae from such very massive stars has, however, yet been found in the chemical compositions of Milky Way stars. We report on an analysis of a very metal-poor star SDSS J001820.5-093939.2, which possesses elemental-abundance ratios that differ significantly from any previously known star. This star exhibits low [α-element Fe] ratios and large contrasts between the abundances of odd and even element pairs, such as scandium/titanium and cobalt/nickel. Such features have been predicted by nucleosynthesis models for supernovae of stars more than 140 times as massive as the Sun, suggesting that the mass distribution of first-generation stars might extend to 100 solar masses or larger.

  20. CoRoT high-precision photometry of the B0.5 IV star HD 51756

    CERN Document Server

    Pápics, P I; Auvergne, M; Aerts, C; Degroote, P; Niemczura, E; Vu\\vcković, M; Smolders, K; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Hareter, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R

    2011-01-01

    OB stars are important constituents for the ecology of the Universe, and there are only a few studies on their pulsational properties detailed enough to provide important feedback on current evolutionary models. Our goal is to analyse and interpret the behaviour present in the CoRoT light curve of the B0.5 IV star HD 51756 observed during the second long run of the space mission, and to determine the fundamental stellar parameters from ground-based spectroscopy gathered with the CORALIE and HARPS instruments after checking for signs of variability and binarity, thus making a step further in mapping the top of the Beta Cep instability strip. We compare the newly obtained high-resolution spectra with synthetic spectra of late O-type and early B-type stars computed on a grid of stellar parameters. We match the results with evolutionary tracks to estimate stellar parameters. We use various time series analysis tools to explore the nature of the variations present in the light curve. Additional calculations are ca...

  1. STAR FORMATION IN THE MASSIVE ''STARLESS'' INFRARED DARK CLOUD G0.253+0.016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: lrodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: lzapata@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2013-04-10

    G0.253+0.016 is a remarkable massive infrared dark cloud located within {approx}100 pc of the galactic center. With a high mass of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, a compact average radius of {approx}2.8 pc, and a low dust temperature of 23 K, it has been believed to be a yet starless precursor to a massive Arches-like stellar cluster. We present sensitive JVLA 1.3 and 5.6 cm radio continuum observations that reveal the presence of three compact thermal radio sources projected against this cloud. These radio sources are interpreted as H II regions powered by {approx}B0.5 zero-age main sequence stars. We conclude that although G0.253+0.016 does not show evidence of O-type star formation, there are certainly early B-type stars embedded in it. We detect three more sources in the periphery of G0.253+0.016 with non-thermal spectral indices. We suggest that these sources may be related to the galactic center region and deserve further study.

  2. Mass Loss and Evolution of Massive Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    I discuss the early observations and the discovery of stellar winds from massive stars, including the development of wind theories, the effects of mass loss on stellar evolution, the role of rotation and the evolutionary connection between different types of massive stars. Because of the special

  3. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  4. Stars Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Leyder

    1996-01-01

    An imaginary voyage in time where we were witness of the birth of the universe itself, the time of the Big-Bang 15 billion years ago. Particules from the very first moments of time : protons, neutrons and electrons, and also much more energetic one. These particules are preparing to interact collider and generating others which will be the birth to the stars ........

  5. STAR Highlights

    OpenAIRE

    Masui, Hiroshi; collaboration, for the STAR

    2011-01-01

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  6. The Prevalence and Impact of Wolf-Rayet Stars in Emerging Massive Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sokal, Kimberly R; Indebetouw, Remy; Massey, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars as a source of feedback contributing to the removal of natal material in the early evolution of massive star clusters. Despite previous work suggesting that massive star clusters clear out their natal material before the massive stars evolve into the WR phase, WR stars have been detected in several emerging massive star clusters. These detections suggest that the timescale for clusters to emerge can be at least as long as the time required to produce WR stars (a few million years), and could also indicate that WR stars may be providing the tipping point in the combined feedback processes that drive a massive star cluster to emerge. We explore the potential overlap between the emerging phase and the WR phase with an observational survey to search for WR stars in emerging massive star clusters hosting WR stars. We select candidate emerging massive star clusters from known radio continuum sources with thermal emission and obtain optical spectra with the 4m Mayall Telescope at...

  7. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a B-type (cricket-type) allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Lenz, C; Winther, A M

    2001-01-01

    and nonamidated C terminus. We have previously reported the structure of an A-type allatostatin preprohormone from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a B-type prepro-allatostatin from Drosophila (DAP-B). DAP-B is 211 amino acid residues long and contains one copy each...

  8. Strategies toward the Total Synthesis of Calyciphylline B-type Alkaloids: A Computational Perspective Aided by DFT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit Kumar; Berger, Gilles; Hanessian, Stephen

    2016-06-17

    Herein we describe synthetic efforts toward the total synthesis of calyciphylline B-type alkaloids. In the process, we disclose a detailed DFT study of equilibrium geometries and transition states that explains the stereochemical outcome during the formation of critical intermediates. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals interesting conformational features in the naturally occurring deoxycalyciphylline B and its synthetic congeners.

  9. Will sacubitril-valsartan diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mair, Johannes; Lindahl, Bertil; Giannitsis, Evangelos;

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval of sacubitril-valsartan for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, a commonly raised suspicion is that a wider clinical use of this new drug may diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing as sacubitril may interfere with B...

  10. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens Oscar; Kjær, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...

  11. Factors Associated with Serum B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Infants with Single Ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Ryan J.; Zak, Victor; Hsu, Daphne; Cnota, James; Colan, Steven D.; Hehir, David; Kantor, Paul; Levine, Jami C.; Margossian, Renee; Richmond, Marc; Szwast, Anita; Williams, Derek; Williams, Richard; Atz, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the value of B-type natriuretic peptide measurements (BNP) in infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology are lacking. The objective of this analysis was to describe the changes in BNP in infants with SV physiology before and after superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. Methods BNP levels were measured by a core laboratory pre-SCPC (5.0 ± 1.6 months) and at age 14 months during a multicenter trial of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition therapy in infants with SV. Multivariable longitudinal analysis was utilized to model the associations between BNP with three sets of grouped variables (echocardiographic, catheterization, growth). Multivariable analysis was performed to assess associations with patient characteristics at both visits. Associations between BNP and neurodevelopmental variables were investigated at the 14 month visit as neurodevelopmental assessment was performed only at this visit. Results BNP was significantly higher before SCPC (n=173) than at 14 months (n=134); median [IQR] 80.8 pg/ml [35–187] v. 34.5 pg/ml [17–67], p 100 pg/ml was present in 72 (42%) subjects pre-SCPC and 21 (16%) at 14 months. In the 117 patients who had BNP at both visits, the median BNP decreased 32 pg/mL [1–79 pg/mL], p<0.01. In longitudinal multivariable analysis, higher BNP were associated with a higher end-systolic volume z-score (p=0.01), greater degree of atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation (p<0.01), lower weight z-score (p<0.01), and lower length z-score (p=0.02) In multivariable analyses, higher BNP at 14 months was associated with presence of arrhythmia post-SCPC surgery (p<0.01), prior Norwood procedure (p<0.01), longer length of hospital stay post-SCPC surgery (p=0.04), and lower Bayley Psychomotor Developmental Index (p=0.02). Conclusion BNP decreases in infants with SV from the pre- SCPC visit to 14 months. Higher BNP is associated with increased ventricular dilation in systole, increased AV valve

  12. Dust and star-formation properties of a complete sample of local galaxies drawn from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Clemens, M S; De Zotti, G; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Bonavera, L; Cosco, G; Guarese, G; Boaretto, L; Salucci, P; Baccigalupi, C; Clements, D L; Danese, L; Lapi, A; Mandolesi, N; Partridge, R B; Perrotta, F; Serjeant, S; Scott, D; Toffolatti, L

    2013-01-01

    We combine Planck HFI data at 857, 545, 353 & 217GHz with data from WISE, Spitzer, IRAS & Herschel to investigate the properties of a flux limited sample of local star-forming galaxies. A 545GHz flux density limit was chosen so that the sample is 80% complete at this frequency, giving a sample of 234 local galaxies. We investigate the dust emission and star formation properties of the sample via various models & calculate the local dust mass function. Although 1-component modified black bodies fit the dust emission longward of 80um very well (median beta=1.83) the degeneracy between dust temp & beta also means that the SEDs are very well described by a dust emissivity index fixed at beta=2 and 10

  13. The Bok globule BHR 160: structure and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikala, L. K.; Reipurth, B.

    2017-01-01

    Context. BHR 160 is a virtually unstudied cometary globule within the Sco OB4 association in Scorpius at a distance of 1600 pc. It is part of a system of cometary clouds which face the luminous O star HD 155806. BHR 160 is special because it has an intense bright rim. Aims: We attempt to derive physical parameters for BHR 160 and to understand its structure and the origin of its peculiar bright rim. Methods: BHR 160 was mapped in the , and C18O(2-1) and (1-0) and CS (3-2) and (2-1) lines. These data, augmented with stellar photometry derived from the ESO VVV survey, were used to derive the mass and distribution of molecular material in BHR 160 and its surroundings. Archival mid-infrared data from the WISE satellite was used to find IR excess stars in the globule and its neighbourhood. Results: An elongated 1' by 0.´6 core lies adjacent to the globule bright rim. emission covers the whole globule, but the , C18Oand CS emission is more concentrated to the core. The line profiles indicate the presence of outflowing material near the core, but the spatial resolution of the mm data is not sufficient for a detailed spatial analysis. The BHR 160 mass estimated from the C18Omapping is100 ± 50 M⊙ (d/1.6 kpc)2 where d is the distance to the globule. Approximately 70% of the mass lies in the dense core. The total mass of molecular gas in the direction of BHR 160 is 210 ± 80 (d/1.6 kpc)2 M⊙ when estimated from the more extended VVV near-infrared photometry. We argue that the bright rim of BHR 160 is produced by a close-by early B-type star, HD 319648, that was likely recently born in the globule. This star is likely to have triggered the formation of a source, IRS 1, that is embedded within the core of the globule and detected only in Ks and by WISE and IRAS. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories.Reduced molecular line spectra (The SEST spectra as FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  14. Main-sequence variable stars in young open cluster NGC 1893

    OpenAIRE

    Lata, Sneh; Yadav, Ram Kesh; Pandey, A.K.(Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT), Mumbai, India); Richichi, Andrea; Eswaraiah, C.; Kumar, Brajesh; Kappelmann, Norbert; Sharma, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present time series photometry of 104 variable stars in the cluster region NGC 1893. The association of the present variable candidates to the cluster NGC 1893 has been determined by using $(U-B)/(B-V)$ and $(J-H)/(H-K)$ two colour diagrams, and $V/(V-I)$ colour magnitude diagram. Forty five stars are found to be main-sequence variables and these could be B-type variable stars associated with the cluster. We classified these objects as $\\beta$ Cep, slowly pulsating B stars an...

  15. Technological Analysis of the World’s Earliest Shamanic Costume: A Multi-Scalar, Experimental Study of a Red Deer Headdress from the Early Holocene Site of Star Carr, North Yorkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Aimée; Elliott, Benjamin; Conneller, Chantal; Pomstra, Diederik; Evans, Adrian A.; Fitton, Laura C.; Holland, Andrew; Davis, Robert; Kershaw, Rachel; O’Connor, Sonia; O’Connor, Terry; Sparrow, Thomas; Wilson, Andrew S.; Jordan, Peter; Collins, Matthew J.; Colonese, André Carlo; Craig, Oliver E.; Knight, Rebecca; Lucquin, Alexandre J. A.; Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. Here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the Early Holocene site of Star Carr (c. 11 kya). More than 90% of the examples from prehistoric Europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. Our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, analysis of macroscopic traces, organic residue analysis and 3D image acquisition, metrology and visualisation, represents the first attempt to understand the manufacturing processes used to create these artefacts. The results produced were unexpected—rather than being carefully crafted objects, elements of their production can only be described as expedient. PMID:27073850

  16. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    in large telescopes. Astronomers have however found ways to overcome this difficulty. For this, they rely on a combination of a well-considered observational strategy with state-of-the-art instruments. High contrast camera First, astronomers searching for very low mass objects look at young nearby stars because low-mass companion objects will be brightest while they are young, before they contract and cool off. In this particular case, an international team of astronomers [1] led by Laird Close (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), studied the star AB Doradus A (AB Dor A). This star is located about 48 light-years away and is "only" 50 million years old. Because the position in the sky of AB Dor A "wobbles", due to the gravitational pull of a star-like object, it was believed since the early 1990s that AB Dor A must have a low-mass companion. To photograph this companion and obtain a comprehensive set of data about it, Close and his colleagues used a novel instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This new high-contrast adaptive optics camera, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI [2], was specifically developed by Laird Close and Rainer Lenzen (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany) for hunting extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. A world premiere ESO PR Photo 03/05 ESO PR Photo 03/05 Infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 406 pix - 99k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 812 pix - 235k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 03/05 is an enhanced, false-colour near-infrared image of AB Dor A and C. The faint companion "AB Dor C" - seen as the pink dot at 8 o'clock - is 120 times fainter than its primary star. The tiny separation between A and C, only 0.156 arcsec, is smaller than a one Euro coin seen at 20 km distance. Nevertheless, the new

  17. Rayleigh scattering in the atmospheres of hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišák, J.; Krtička, J.; Munzar, D.; Kubát, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Rayleigh scattering is a result of an interaction of photons with bound electrons. Rayleigh scattering is mostly neglected in calculations of hot star model atmospheres because most of the hydrogen atoms are ionized and the heavier elements have a lower abundance than hydrogen. In atmospheres of some chemically peculiar stars, helium overabundant regions containing singly ionized helium are present and Rayleigh scattering can be a significant opacity source. Aims: We evaluate the contribution of Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen and singly ionized helium in the atmospheres of hot stars with solar composition and in the atmospheres of helium overabundant stars. Methods: We computed several series of model atmospheres using the TLUSTY code and emergent fluxes using the SYNSPEC code. These models describe atmospheres of main sequence B-type stars with different helium abundance. We used an existing grid of models for atmospheres with solar chemical composition and we calculated an additional grid for helium-rich stars with N(He)/N(H) = 10. Results: Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen can be neglected in atmospheres of hot stars, while Rayleigh scattering by singly ionized helium can be a non-negligible opacity source in some hot stars, especially in helium-rich stars.

  18. KELT-10b: the first transiting exoplanet from the KELT-South survey - a hot sub-Jupiter transiting a V = 10.7 early G-star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Collins, Karen A.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Colón, Knicole D.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.; Penev, Kaloyan; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Tan, T. G.; Curtis, Ivan A.; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Mawet, Dimitri; Dhital, Saurav; Soutter, Jack; Hart, Rhodes; Carter, Brad; Gaudi, B. Scott; Myers, Gordon; Beatty, Thomas G.; Eastman, Jason D.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Kielkopf, John; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright V = 10.7 star (TYC 8378-64-1), with Teff = 5948 ± 74 K, log g = 4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020} and [Fe/H] = 0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}, an inferred mass M* = 1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055} M⊙ and radius R* = 1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047} R⊙. The planet has a radius Rp = 1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069} RJ and mass Mp = 0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039} MJ. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semimajor axis a = 0.052 50_{-0.000 97}^{+0.000 86} au. The best-fitting linear ephemeris is T0 = 2457 066.720 45 ± 0.000 27 BJDTDB and P = 4.166 2739 ± 0.000 0063 d. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a larger radius and smaller mass than that of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4 per cent, has a relatively high equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1377_{-23}^{+28} K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution. KELT-10b receives an estimated insolation of 0.817_{-0.054}^{+0.068} × 109 erg s-1 cm-2, which places it far above the insolation threshold above which hot Jupiters exhibit increasing amounts of radius inflation. Evolutionary analysis of the host star suggests that KELT-10b may not survive beyond the current subgiant phase, depending on the rate of in-spiral of the planet over the next few Gyr. The planet transits a relatively bright star and exhibits the third largest transit depth of all transiting exoplanets with V < 11 in the Southern hemisphere, making it a promising candidate for future atmospheric characterization studies.

  19. The B Fields in OB Stars (BOB) Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kholtygin, A.F.; Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S.; Langer, N.; Morel, T.; Przybilla, N.; Schöller, M.; Carroll, T.; Ilyin, I.; Irrgang, A.; Oskinova, L.; Schneider, F.R.N.; Simon Díaz, S.; Briquet, M.; González, J.F.; Kharchenko, N.; Nieva, M.-F.; Scholz, R.-D.; de Koter, A.; Hamann, W.-R.; Herrero, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Arlt, R.; Barbá, R.; Dufton, P.; Mathys, G.; Piskunov, A.; Reisenegger, A.; Spruit, H.; Yoon, S. -C

    2015-01-01

    The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large program collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects we

  20. The B Fields in OB Stars (BOB) Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morel, T.; Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S.; Langer, N.; Przybilla, N.; Schöller, M.; Carroll, T.; Ilyin, I.; Irrgang, A.; Oskinova, L.; Schneider, F.R.N.; Simon Díaz, S.; Briquet, M.; González, J.F.; Kharchenko, N.; Nieva, M.-F.; Scholz, R.-D.; de Koter, A.; Hamann, W.-R.; Herrero, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Arlt, R.; Barbá, R.; Dufton, P.; Kholtygin, A.; Mathys, G.; Piskunov, A.; Reisenegger, A.; Spruit, H.; Yoon, S. -C

    2015-01-01

    The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects

  1. IUE observations of star formation in a cooling flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Jørgensen, H.E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Star formation in cooling flows is usually found to have an initial mass function deficient in massive stars, but the center of the cooling flow in Hydra A has been shown to contain a significant number of early type stars. Here we use UV-spectra obtained with the IUE satellite together with ground...

  2. New insights into the nature of the peculiar star theta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Morel, T; Schöller, M; González, J F; De Cat, P

    2008-01-01

    We acquired high resolution spectroscopic and low resolution spectropolarimetric observations to achieve the following goals: a) to improve the orbital parameters to allow a more in-depth discussion on the possibility of mass transfer in the binary system, b) to carry out a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundance analysis, and c) to search for the presence of a magnetic field. The study of the radial velocities using CORALIE spectra allowed us to significantly improve the orbital parameters. A comparative NLTE abundance analysis was undertaken for theta Car and two other early B-type stars with recently detected magnetic fields, tau Sco and xi^1 CMa. The analysis revealed significantly different abundance patterns: a one-order-of-magnitude nitrogen overabundance and carbon depletion was found in theta Car, while the oxygen abundance is roughly solar. For the stars xi^1 CMa and tau Sco the carbon abundance is solar and, while an N excess is also detected, it is of much smaller amplitude (0.4-0.6de...

  3. CERN Library | Cecilia Jarlskog presents "Portrait of Gunnar Källén: a physics shooting star and poet of early quantum field theory" | 16 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Wolfgang Pauli referred to him as 'my discovery', Robert Oppenheimer described him as 'one of the most gifted theorists' and Niels Bohr found him enormously stimulating. Who was the man in question, Gunnar Källén (1926-1968)?   His appearance in the physics sky was like a shooting star. His contributions to the scientific debate caused excitement among young and old. Similar to his friend and mentor, Wolfgang Pauli, he demanded honesty and rigour in physics - a distinct dividing line between fact and speculation. In his obituary, Arthur S. Wightman would write: "Gunnar Källén was a proud continuer of the tradition in quantum field theory established by Wolfgang Pauli. His papers on quantum electrodynamics in the period 1950-1954 carried the non-perturbative approach to quantum electrodynamics forward to a point beyond which very little essential progress has been made up to the present day. At the time I was trying ...

  4. DRAMATIC INFRARED VARIABILITY OF WISE J1810-3305: CATCHING EARLY-TIME DUST EJECTION DURING THE THERMAL PULSE OF AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Yamamura, Issei; Takita, Satoshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of a source with broadband infrared photometric characteristics similar to Sakurai's object. WISE J180956.27-330500.2 (hereafter J1810-3305) shows very red WISE colors, but a very blue 2MASS [K] versus WISE [W1 (3.4 {mu}m)] color. It was not visible during the IRAS era, but now has a 12 {mu}m flux well above the IRAS point-source catalog detection limit. There are also indications of variability in historical optical photographic plates as well as in multi-epoch AKARI mid-infrared measurements. The broadband infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shape, post-IRAS brightening, and multiwavelength variability are all characteristics also shared by Sakurai's object-a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star which underwent a late thermal pulse and recently ejected massive envelopes of dust that are currently expanding and cooling. Optical progenitor colors suggest that J1810-3305 may have been of late spectral class. Its dramatic infrared brightening and the detection of a late-type optical counterpart are consistent with a scenario in which we have caught an extremely massive dust ejection event (in 1998 or shortly before) during the thermal pulse of an AGB star, thus providing a unique opportunity to observe stellar evolution in this phase. J1810-3305 is the only source in the entire WISE preliminary data release with similar infrared SED and variability, emphasizing the rarity of such sources. Confirmation of its nature is of great importance.

  5. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  6. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  7. Echography of young stars reveals their evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Zwintz, K; Ryabchikova, T; Guenther, D; Aerts, C; Barnes, T G; Themessl, N; Lorenz, D; Cameron, C; Kuschnig, R; Pollack-Drs, S; Moravveji, E; Baglin, A; Matthews, J M; Moffat, A F J; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Rucinski, S M; Sasselov, D; Weiss, W W

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a seismic analysis of stars in their earliest evolutionary phases is a powerful method to identify young stars and distinguish their evolutionary states. The early star that is born from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud reaches at some point sufficient temperature, mass and luminosity to be detected. Accretion stops and the pre-main sequence star that emerges is nearly fully convective and chemically homogeneous. It will continue to contract gravitationally until the density and temperature in the core are high enough to start nuclear burning of hydrogen. We show that there is a relationship between detected pulsation properties for a sample of young stars and their evolutionary status illustrating the potential of asteroseismology for the early evolutionary phases.

  8. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    galaxy, another has been found in the nearby galaxy IC 1613, and five others are situated in the Magellanic Clouds. Astronomers have also detected the presence of HeII ions in a number of remote galaxies undergoing a phase of intense star formation ("starburst galaxies") and in the vicinity of ultraluminous X-ray sources in very distant galaxies. What is going on in those remote objects in the early Universe? Do we see the action of young and very hot stars or is something unknown going on? What can the existence of those hot nebulae in young galaxies tell about the evolution of our own Milky Way? Searching for the energy source We would like to know, but those distant nebulae are unfortunately too faint to be studied in any reasonable detail, even by means of the largest available telescopes. The only way forward is therefore to look closer at the nearest ones in the hope that they will provide clues about the processes leading to the observed high excitation and thus help to better understand their cousins in those distant galaxies. There appears to be three possible answers to the basic question about the nature of the energetic sources that heat these strange emission nebulae: * very fast particles: if there is in the area a fast-moving gas (more than 100 km/s), the shock created by the impact of this material is able to heat the ambient interstellar medium sufficiently to produce a HeII nebula. * ultraviolet emission from massive stars: according to the most recent model calculations, even the most massive O-type stars do not emit enough ultraviolet light to ionize a sufficient number of helium atoms in the surrounding nebula to produce a detectable HeII nebula. However, some of the hottest stars of the so-called Wolf-Rayet (W-R) type (that are the evolved descendants of O-stars) may produce enough high energy emission to completely ionize the helium atoms in their surroundings. * intense X-ray emission: close binary stars in which one component is a "compact

  9. Radio observations of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blomme, Ronny

    2011-01-01

    Detectable radio emission occurs during almost all phases of massive star evolution. I will concentrate on the thermal and non-thermal continuum emission from early-type stars. The thermal radio emission is due to free-free interactions in the ionized stellar wind material. Early ideas that this would lead to an easy and straightforward way of measuring the mass-loss rates were thwarted by the presence of clumping in the stellar wind. Multi-wavelength observations provide important constraints on this clumping, but do not allow its full determination. Non-thermal radio emission is associated with binarity. This conclusion was already known for some time for Wolf-Rayet stars and in recent years it has become clear that it is also true for O-type stars. In a massive-star binary, the two stellar winds collide and around the shocks a fraction of the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. Spiralling in the magnetic field these electrons emit synchrotron radiation, which we detect as non-thermal radio em...

  10. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  11. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  12. An extremely primitive halo star

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; François, P; Sbordone, L; Monaco, L; Spite, M; Spite, F; Ludwig, H -G; Cayrel, R; Zaggia, S; Hammer, F; Randich, S; Molaro, P; Hill, V; 10.1038/nature10377

    2012-01-01

    The early Universe had a chemical composition consisting of hydrogen, helium and traces of lithium1, almost all other elements were created in stars and supernovae. The mass fraction, Z, of elements more massive than helium, is called "metallicity". A number of very metal poor stars have been found some of which, while having a low iron abundance, are rich in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. For theoretical reasons and because of an observed absence of stars with metallicities lower than Z=1.5E-5, it has been suggested that low mass stars (M<0.8M\\odot, the ones that survive to the present day) cannot form until the interstellar medium has been enriched above a critical value, estimated to lie in the range 1.5E-8\\leqZ\\leq1.5E-6, although competing theories claiming the contrary do exist. Here we report the chemical composition of a star with a very low Z\\leq6.9E-7 (4.5E-5 of that of the Sun) and a chemical pattern typical of classical extremely metal poor stars, meaning without the enrichment of carbon, nitroge...

  13. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Kjær, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    of acromegaly is initiated. This was a three months prospective study investigating short-term cardiac effects of treatment in acromegalic patients. Cardiac function was evaluated by the gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP......Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...... and NT-proBNP). CMRI was performed at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Levels of IGF-I, BNP and NT-proBNP were measured after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months. Eight patients (5 males and 3 females, mean age 53 ± 12 years (range 30-70)) and 8 matched healthy control subjects were included. Median IGF-I Z...

  14. Invasive and noninvasive correlations of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, Fábio; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Soares, Milena B P; Pinho-Filho, Joel Alves; Nascimento, Thais; Barojas, Marcos M; Andrade, Marcus V S; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Ricardo; Bocchi, Edimar

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy (HFCC) differs from failure with other etiologies because of the occurrence of intense inflammatory infiltrate and right ventricle compromise. This article investigates correlations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels with parameters of severity in HFCC. Twenty-eight patients and 8 normal controls underwent heart catheterization and clinical and laboratory analyses. BNP levels were higher in patients with HFCC (PHFCC, irrespective of NYHA class, and that the occurrence of HFCC correlates with severity of disease.

  15. Measure of the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henbest, N.

    1984-12-13

    The paper concerns the Hertzsprung-Russel (H-R) diagram, which is graph relating the brightness to the surface temperature of the stars. The diagram provides a deep insight into the fundamental properties of the stars. Evolution of the stars; the death of a star; distances; and dating star clusters, are all briefly discussed with reference to the H-R diagram.

  16. When stars collide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.

    2007-01-01

    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a star cluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have perfor

  17. Analysis of A-Type and B-Type Highly Polymeric Proanthocyanidins and Their Biological Activities as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Yokota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+-catechin/(−-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements.

  18. Bronchopneumonia in wild boar (Sus scrofa) caused by Rhodococcus equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; Monego, Fernanda; Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Lazzari, Andrea Maria; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Ecco, Roselene; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Takai, Shinji

    2013-03-25

    Rhodococcus equi is associated with pyogranulomatous infections, especially in foals, and this bacterium has also emerged as a pathogen for humans, particularly immunocompromised patients. R. equi infections in pigs, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and humans are mainly due to strains carrying the intermediate virulence (VapB) plasmid. In Brazil, R. equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid is the most common type recovered from humans co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). R. equi infection in pigs and wild boar is restricted predominantly to the lymphatic system, without any reports of pulmonary manifestations. This report describes the microbiological and histopathological findings, and molecular characterization of R. equi in two bronchopneumonia cases in wild boar using PCR and plasmid profile analysis by digestion with restriction endonucleases. The histological findings were suggestive of pyogranulomatous infection, and the plasmid profile of both R. equi isolates enabled the characterization of the strains as VapB type 8. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boar due to R. equi. The detection of the VapB type 8 plasmid in R. equi isolates emphasize that wild boar may be a potential source of pathogenic R. equi strains for humans.

  19. Keepers of the double stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-03-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Early catalogues by the Herschels, Struves, and others began with their own discoveries. In 1906 court reporter and amateur astronomer Sherburne Wesley Burnham published a massive double star catalogue containing data from many observers on more than 13,000 systems. Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken produced a much larger catalogue in 1932 and coordinated with Robert Innes of Johannesburg, who catalogued the southern systems. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham's records of observations on handwritten file cards, and eventually turned them over to the Lick Observatory, where astrometrist Hamilton Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and together they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford had the new 120-inch reflector, the world's second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the United States Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley, and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,200,000 measures of more than 125

  20. KELT-10b: The First Transiting Exoplanet from the KELT-South Survey -- A Hot Sub-Jupiter Transiting a V = 10.7 Early G-Star

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Rudolf B; Collins, Karen A; Lund, Michael B; Siverd, Robert J; Colón, Knicole D; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G; Cargile, Phillip A; James, David J; Penev, Kaloyan; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Tan, T G; Curtis, Ivan A; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Mawet, Dimitri; Soutter, Jack; Hart, Rhodes; Carter, Brad; Gaudi, B Scott; Myers, Gordon; Beatty, Thomas G; Eastman, Jason D; Reichart, Daniel E; Haislip, Joshua B; Kielkopf, John; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W; Jensen, Eric L N; Oberst, Thomas E; Stevens, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright $V = 10.7$ star (TYC 8378-64-1), with T$_{eff}$ = $5948\\pm74$ K, $\\log{g}$ = $4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020}$ and [Fe/H] = $0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$, an inferred mass M$_{*}$ = $1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055}$ M$_{\\odot}$ and radius R$_{*}$ = $1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047}$ R$_{\\odot}$. The planet has a radius R$_{P}$ = $1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$ = $0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039}$ M$_{J}$. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semi-major axis $a$ = $0.05250_{-0.00097}^{+0.00086}$ AU. The best fitting linear ephemeris is $T_{0}$ = 2457066.72045$\\pm$0.00027 BJD$_{TDB}$ and P = 4.1662739$\\pm$0.0000063 days. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a radius much larger and a mass much less than those of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4%, has a relatively ...

  1. Dramatic infrared variability of WISE J1810-3305: catching early dust ejection during the thermal pulse of an AGB star?

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, Poshak; Takita, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of a source with broadband infrared photometric characteristics similar to Sakurai's Object. WISE J180956.27-330500.2 (hereafter, J1810-3305) shows very red WISE colors, but a very blue 2MASS [K] vs. WISE [W1 (3.4 micron)] color. It was not visible during the IRAS era, but now has a 12 micron flux well above the IRAS point source catalog detection limit. There are also indications of variability in historical optical photographic plates, as well as in multi-epoch AKARI mid-infrared measurements. The broadband infrared spectral energy distribution, post-IRAS brightening and multiwavelength variability are all characteristics also shared by Sakurai's Object - a post asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star which underwent a late thermal pulse and recently ejected massive envelopes of dust that are currently expanding and cooling. Optical progenitor colors suggest that J1810-3305 may have been of late spectral class. Its dramatic infrared brightening, and the detection of a late-type opti...

  2. Spectroscopic detections of CIII]1909 at z~6-7: A new probe of early star forming galaxies and cosmic reionisation

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Daniel P; Charlot, Stephane; Clement, Benjamin; Ellis, Richard; Siana, Brian; Robertson, Brant; Schenker, Matthew; Gutkin, Julia; Wofford, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Deep spectroscopic observations of z~6.5 galaxies have revealed a marked decline with increasing redshift in the detectability of Lyman-alpha emission. While this may offer valuable insight into the end of the reionisation process, it presents a fundamental challenge to the detailed spectroscopic study of the many hundreds of photometrically-selected distant sources now being found via deep HST imaging, and particularly those bright sources viewed through foreground lensing clusters. In this paper we demonstrate the validity of a new way forward via the convincing detection of an alternative diagnostic line, CIII]1909, seen in spectroscopic exposures of two star forming galaxies at z=6.029 and 7.213. The former detection is based on a 3.5 hour X-shooter spectrum of a bright (J=25.2) gravitationally-lensed galaxy behind the cluster Abell 383. The latter detection is based on a 4.2 hour MOSFIRE spectra of one of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxies, GN-108036, with J=25.2. Both targets were cho...

  3. Predicted Space Motions for Hypervelocity and Runaway Stars: Proper Motions and Radial Velocities for the GAIA Era

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, Scott J; Brown, Warren R; Geller, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    We predict the distinctive three dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10~kpc, unbound stars are rare; however, proper motions isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. Towards the Galactic Center, high proper motion stars are a unique signature of HVSs or runaways. At larger distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g <= 20 stars with GAIA should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  4. Detection of magnetic fields in both B-type components of the ɛ Lupi system: a new constraint on the origin of fossil fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Alecian, E.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution circular spectropolarimetric observations, obtained with ESPaDOnS in the context of the BinaMIcS Large Program, have revealed a magnetic field in the B3V secondary component of the SB2 binary system ɛ Lupi (B2/B3). As the B2V primary is already known to be magnetic, this is the first detection of a magnetic field in both components of an early-type binary system. The longitudinal magnetic field of the primary is ˜ -200 G; that of the secondary ˜ +100 G. Observations can be approximately reproduced by a model assuming the magnetic axes of the two stars are anti-aligned, and roughly parallel to their respective rotation axes. Estimated magnetospheric radii indicate a high probability that their magnetospheres are interacting. As many of the arguments for the different proposed formation scenarios of fossil magnetic fields rely upon evidence drawn from investigations of close binaries, in particular the rarity of magnetic ABO stars in close binaries and the previous absence of any known close binary with two magnetic, massive stars, this discovery may be an important new constraint on the origin of fossil magnetic fields.

  5. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 low-velocity peak is consistent with what has been found in other studies for late O- and early B-type stars. Conclusions: Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an alternative braking mechanism, possibly magnetic fields, is thus required to explain the present

  6. The CoRoT B-type binary HD 50230: a prototypical hybrid pulsator with g-mode period and p-mode frequency spacings⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, P.; Aerts, C.; Michel, E.; Briquet, M.; Pápics, P. I.; Amado, P.; Mathias, P.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Lombaert, R.; Hillen, M.; Morel, T.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Catala, C.; Samadi, R.

    2012-06-01

    Context. B-type stars are promising targets for asteroseismic modelling, since their frequency spectrum is relatively simple. Aims: We deduce and summarise observational constraints for the hybrid pulsator, HD 50230, earlier reported to have deviations from a uniform period spacing of its gravity modes. The combination of spectra and a high-quality light curve measured by the CoRoT satellite allow a combined approach to fix the position of HD 50230 in the HR diagram. Methods: To describe the observed pulsations, classical Fourier analysis was combined with short-time Fourier transformations and frequency spacing analysis techniques. Visual spectra were used to constrain the projected rotation rate of the star and the fundamental parameters of the target. In a first approximation, the combined information was used to interpret multiplets and spacings to infer the true surface rotation rate and a rough estimate of the inclination angle. Results: We identify HD 50230 as a spectroscopic binary and characterise the two components. We detect the simultaneous presence of high-order g modes and low-order p and g-modes in the CoRoT light curve, but were unable to link them to line profile variations in the spectroscopic time series. We extract the relevant information from the frequency spectrum, which can be used for seismic modelling, and explore possible interpretations of the pressure mode spectrum. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations made with the ESO telescopes at La Silla Observatory under the ESO Large Programme LP182.D-0356, and on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and on observations obtained with the HERMES

  7. Keepers of the Double Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tenn, Joseph S

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Early catalogues by the Herschels, Struves, and others began with their own discoveries. In 1906 court reporter and amateur astronomer Sherburne Wesley Burnham published a massive double star catalogue containing data from many observers on more than 13,000 systems. Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken produced a much larger catalogue in 1932 and coordinated with Robert Innes of Johannesburg, who catalogued the southern systems. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham's records of observations on handwritten file cards, and eventually turned them over to the Lick Observatory, where astrometrist Hamilton Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one obse...

  8. Gravitational wave asteroseismology with protoneutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotani, Hajime; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2016-08-01

    We examine the time evolution of the frequencies of the gravitational wave after the bounce within the framework of relativistic linear perturbation theory using the results of one-dimensional numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Protoneutron star models are constructed in such a way that the mass and the radius of the protoneutron star become equivalent to the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Then we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves radiating from protoneutron stars strongly depend on the mass and the radius of protoneutron stars, but almost independently of the profiles of the electron fraction and the entropy per baryon inside the star. Additionally, we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves can be characterized by the square root of the average density of the protoneutron star irrespective of the progenitor models, which are completely different from the empirical formula for cold neutron stars. The dependence of the spectra on the mass and the radius is different from that of the g -mode: the oscillations around the surface of protoneutron stars due to the convection and the standing accretion-shock instability. Careful observation of these modes of gravitational waves can determine the evolution of the mass and the radius of protoneutron stars after core bounce. Furthermore, the expected frequencies of gravitational waves are around a few hundred hertz in the early stages after bounce, which must be a good candidate for the ground-based gravitational wave detectors.

  9. Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. II. Massive star formation in the globule IRAS 20319+3958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupvik, A. A.; Comerón, F.; Schneider, N.

    2017-02-01

    Globules and pillars, impressively revealed by the Spitzer and Herschel satellites, for example, are pervasive features found in regions of massive star formation. Studying their embedded stellar populations can provide an excellent laboratory to test theories of triggered star formation and the features that it may imprint on the stellar aggregates resulting from it. We studied the globule IRAS 20319+3958 in Cygnus X by means of visible and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy, complemented with mid-infrared Spitzer/IRAC imaging, in order to obtain a census of its stellar content and the nature of its embedded sources. Our observations show that the globule contains an embedded aggregate of about 30 very young (≲1 Myr) stellar objects, for which we estimate a total mass of 90 M⊙. The most massive members are three systems containing early B-type stars. Two of them most likely produced very compact H II regions, one of them being still highly embedded and coinciding with a peak seen in emission lines characterising the photon dominated region (PDR). Two of these three systems are resolved binaries, and one of those contains a visible Herbig Be star. An approximate derivation of the mass function of the members of the aggregate gives hints of a slope at high masses shallower than the classical Salpeter slope, and a peak of the mass distribution at a mass higher than that at which the widely adopted log-normal initial mass function peaks. The emission distribution of H2 and Brγ, tracing the PDR and the ionised gas phase, respectively, suggests that molecular gas is distributed as a shell around the embedded aggregate, filled with centrally-condensed ionised gas. Both, the morphology and the low excitation of the H II region, indicate that the sources of ionisation are the B stars of the embedded aggregate, rather than the external UV field caused by the O stars of Cygnus OB2. The youth of the embedded cluster, combined with the isolation of the globule

  10. Effects of tolvaptan in the early postoperative stage after heart valve surgery: results of the STAR (Study of Tolvaptan for fluid retention AfteR valve surgery) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Kawamura, Masashi; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Saito, Tetsuya; Ueno, Takayoshi; Kuratani, Toru; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, for the management of postoperative surgical fluid retention after heart valve surgery. This was a prospective observational study of 64 patients with heart valve disease who underwent valve surgery between 2013 and 2014. Those in the tolvaptan group received tolvaptan in addition to conventional diuretic therapy. The results were compared to the results of 55 patients who underwent heart valve surgery between 2007 and 2010 and received conventional postoperative diuretics alone. The time to return to the preoperative BW was significantly shorter in the patients who received tolvaptan (6.1 ± 3.8 vs. 8.7 ± 6.7 days, p fluid retention during the early postoperative stage in cardiac surgery patients, without increased renal failure or abnormal electrolyte levels. This new type of diuretic therapy may be a suitable option for postoperative fluid management in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  11. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... the expected concentration of plasma proBNP based on age and gender was established for dyspneic subjects: an actual plasma proBNP concentration below half of the expected value ruled out left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 100% to 100%; specificity 15%, 95% CI 12...

  12. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... with dyspnea, left ventricular hypertrophy and/or systolic dysfunction was associated with a 2.6-fold increase in plasma proBNP concentration (p ...% to 17%). CONCLUSIONS: In the general population with dyspnea, plasma proBNP concentrations are increased in left ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, or diastolic dysfunction, but are unaffected by pulmonary dysfunction....

  13. Kink degeneracy and rogue potential solution for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHENHUI XU; HANLIN CHEN; ZHENGDE DAI

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we obtained the exact breather-type kink soliton and breather-type periodic soliton solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (BKP) equation using the extended homoclinic test technique. Some new nonlinear phenomena, such as kink and periodic degeneracies, are investigated. Using the homoclinic breather limit method, some new rational breather solutions are found as well. Meanwhile, we also obtained the rational potential solution which is found to be just a rogue wave. These results enrich thevariety of the dynamics of higher-dimensional nonlinear wave field.

  14. Neutron star natal kicks and the long-term survival of star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Contenta, Filippo; Heggie, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a star cluster in an external tidal field by using N-body simulations, with focus on the effects of the presence or absence of neutron star natal velocity kicks.We show that, even if neutron stars typically represent less than 2% of the total bound mass of a star cluster, their primordial kinematic properties may affect the lifetime of the system by up to almost a factor of four. We interpret this result in the light of two known modes of star cluster dissolution, dominated by either early stellar evolution mass loss or two-body relaxation. The competition between these effects shapes the mass loss profile of star clusters, which may either dissolve abruptly ("jumping"), in the pre-core-collapse phase, or gradually ("skiing"), after having reached core collapse.

  15. Near-Field Cosmology with Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The oldest, most metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo and satellite dwarf galaxies present an opportunity to explore the chemical and physical conditions of the earliest star forming environments in the Universe. We review the fields of stellar archaeology and dwarf galaxy archaeology by examining the chemical abundance measurements of various elements in extremely metal-poor stars. Focus on the carbon-rich and carbon-normal halo star populations illustrates how these provide insight into the Population III star progenitors responsible for the first metal enrichment events. We extend the discussion to near-field cosmology, which is concerned with the formation of the first stars and galaxies and how metal-poor stars can be used to constrain these processes. Complementary abundance measurements in high-redshift gas clouds further help to establish the early chemical evolution of the Universe. The data appear consistent with the existence of two distinct channels of star formation at the earliest times.

  16. Can strange stars mimic dark energy stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Debabrata; Guha, B K; Ray, Saibal

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of strange stars mixed with dark energy to be one of candidates for dark energy stars is the main issue of the present study. Our investigation shows that quark matter is acting as dark energy after certain yet unknown critical condition inside the quark stars. Our proposed model reveals that strange stars mixed with dark energy feature not only a physically acceptable stable model but also mimic characteristics of dark energy stars. The plausible connections are shown through the mass-radius relation as well as the entropy and temperature. We particulary note that two-fluid distribution is the major reason for anisotropic nature of the spherical stellar system.

  17. Reference intervals for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in amniotic fluid between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltraut M Merz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adult and pediatric cardiology, n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP serves as biomarker in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular dysfunction. Elevated levels of circulating nt-proBNP are present in fetal conditions associated with myocardial pressure or volume load. Compared to fetal blood sampling, amniocentesis is technically easier and can be performed from early pregnancy onwards. We aimed to investigate amniotic fluid (AF nt-proBNP concentrations in normal pregnancies between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Nt-proBNP and total protein (TP was measured in AF by chemiluminescence assay (photometry, respectively. To adjust for a potential dilutional effect, the AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio was analyzed. Reference intervals were constructed by regression modeling across gestational age. RESULTS: 132 samples were analyzed. A negative correlation between AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio and gestational age was observed. Curves for the mean and the 5% and 95% reference interval between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation were established. CONCLUSION: In normal pregnancy, nt-proBNP is present in AF and decreases during gestation. Our data provide the basis for research on AF-nt-proBNP as biomarker in fetal medicine.

  18. Chemical spots and their dynamical evolution on HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, Heidi; Briquet, Maryline; Gonzalez, Federico; Savanov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Our recent studies of late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity revealed for the first time the presence of fast dynamical evolution of chemical spots on their surfaces. These observations suggest a hitherto unknown physical process operating in the stars with radiative outer envelopes. Furthermore, we have also discovered existence of magnetic fields on these stars that have up to now been thought to be non-magnetic. Here we will discuss the dynamical spot evolution on HD 11753 and our new results on magnetic fields on AR Aur.

  19. Pulsations as a mass-loss trigger in evolved hot stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michaela; Haucke, Maximiliano; Cidale, Lydia; Venero, Roberto; Fernandes, Marcelo Borges; Tomic, Sanja; Cure, Michel

    2013-01-01

    During the post-main sequence evolution massive stars pass through several short-lived phases, in which they experience enhanced mass loss in the form of clumped winds and mass ejection events of unclear origin. The discovery that stars populating the blue, luminous part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram can pulsate hence suggests that stellar pulsations might influence or trigger enhanced mass loss and eruptions. We present recent results for two objects in different phases: a B[e] star at the end of the main sequence and a B-type supergiant.

  20. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.