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Sample records for early archaean cellular

  1. Early Archaean hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, S. T.; Nijman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Although many people have written about hydrothermal systems in the early Earth, little real evidence is available. New data from the Barberton greenstone belt (South Africa) and greenstone belts of the East Pilbara (Western Australia), provide proof of the existence and nature of hydrothermal systems in the Early Archaean (around 3.4 Ga). Detailed field relationships between vein systems, host rock and overlying sediments are combined with data from fluid inclusions studies on quartz fills in the sediments. An intimate relationship between chert veins and the overlying sediments has been established (the veins are syn-sedimentary). The salinity and temperature of the fluids in the inclusions shows that these are of hydrothermal origin. Similar types of hydrothermal systems, of approximately the same age, have been found at different locations; in the Barberton greenstone belt and at various locations in the East Pilbara. The setting of these hydrothermal systems is not always identical however. Although a felsic substratum is more common, in the North Pole area (Pilbara) the hydrothermal systems rise from a basaltic substratum. In the Barberton greenstone belt, the systems are closely related to shallow intrusive (felsic) bodies. The study of these ancient hydrothermal systems forms an important framework for studies of early life on Earth. This study forms part of an international project on Earth's Earliest Sedimentary Basins, supported by the Foundation Dr. Schürmannfonds.

  2. Stable isotope composition and volume of Early Archaean oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes between mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust) and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time oxygen was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen was not, as it can...... escape to space [1]. Hydrogen isotope ratios of serpentinites from the ~3.8Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are between -53 and -99‰; the highest values are in antigorite ± lizardite serpentinites from a low-strain lithologic domain where hydrothermal reaction of Archaean seawater with oceanic...... of continents present at that time), and the mass of Early Archaean oceans to ~109 to 126% of present day oceans. Oxygen isotope analyses from these Isua serpentinites (δ18O = +0.1 to 5.6‰ relative to VSMOW) indicate that early Archaean δ18OSEAWATER similar to modern oceans. Our observations suggest...

  3. Evidence from fluid inclusions for microbial methanogenesis in the early Archaean era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro; Maruyama, Shigenori; Isozaki, Yukio

    2006-03-23

    Methanogenic microbes may be one of the most primitive organisms, although it is uncertain when methanogens first appeared on Earth. During the Archaean era (before 2.5 Gyr ago), methanogens may have been important in regulating climate, because they could have provided sufficient amounts of the greenhouse gas methane to mitigate a severely frozen condition that could have resulted from lower solar luminosity during these times. Nevertheless, no direct geological evidence has hitherto been available in support of the existence of methanogens in the Archaean period, although circumstantial evidence is available in the form of approximately 2.8-Gyr-old carbon-isotope-depleted kerogen. Here we report crushing extraction and carbon isotope analysis of methane-bearing fluid inclusions in approximately 3.5-Gyr-old hydrothermal precipitates from Pilbara craton, Australia. Our results indicate that the extracted fluids contain microbial methane with carbon isotopic compositions of less than -56 per thousand included within original precipitates. This provides the oldest evidence of methanogen (> 3.46 Gyr ago), pre-dating previous geochemical evidence by about 700 million years.

  4. Geochemical and biologic constraints on the Archaean atmosphere and climate – A possible solution to the faint early Sun paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Brid, Dennis K.; Sleep, Norman H.

    . The stability relations of magnetite, which is ubiquitous in Archaean BIFs, preclude CO2 mixing ratios much higher than the present atmospheric level. Likewise, magnetite stability is consistent with atmospheric H2 controlled at the lower limit for H2 metabolism by methanogenic phototrophic organisms...... at greenhouse gas concentrations broadly similar to the present day values. We therefore suggest that the thermostasis during Earth geologic record, is not paradoxical, but is the combined effect of many factors, which are to a large part biologically controlled....... properties of Earth’s atmosphere e.g. Kasting (1993), by increasing the mixing ratio of CO2 and/or adding various other greenhouse gasses. We have used banded iron formation (BIF), which are chemical sediments precipitated out of the Archaean ocean to characterize the composition of the atmosphere...

  5. Oxygen produced by cyanobacteria in simulated Archaean conditions partly oxidizes ferrous iron but mostly escapes-conclusions about early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantamäki, Susanne; Meriluoto, Jussi; Spoof, Lisa; Puputti, Eeva-Maija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2016-12-01

    The Earth has had a permanently oxic atmosphere only since the great oxygenation event (GOE) 2.3-2.4 billion years ago but recent geochemical research has revealed short periods of oxygen in the atmosphere up to a billion years earlier before the permanent oxygenation. If these "whiffs" of oxygen truly occurred, then oxygen-evolving (proto)cyanobacteria must have existed throughout the Archaean aeon. Trapping of oxygen by ferrous iron and other reduced substances present in Archaean oceans has often been suggested to explain why the oxygen content of the atmosphere remained negligible before the GOE although cyanobacteria produced oxygen. We tested this hypothesis by growing cyanobacteria in anaerobic high-CO2 atmosphere in a medium with a high concentration of ferrous iron. Microcystins are known to chelate iron, which prompted us also to test the effects of microcystins and nodularins on iron tolerance. The results show that all tested cyanobacteria, especially nitrogen-fixing species grown in the absence of nitrate, and irrespective of the ability to produce cyanotoxins, were iron sensitive in aerobic conditions but tolerated high concentrations of iron in anaerobicity. This result suggests that current cyanobacteria would have tolerated the high-iron content of Archaean oceans. However, only 1 % of the oxygen produced by the cyanobacterial culture was trapped by iron, suggesting that large-scale cyanobacterial photosynthesis would have oxygenated the atmosphere even if cyanobacteria grew in a reducing ocean. Recent genomic analysis suggesting that ability to colonize seawater is a secondary trait in cyanobacteria may offer a partial explanation for the sustained inefficiency of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Archaean aeon, as fresh water has always covered a very small fraction of the Earth's surface. If oxygenic photosynthesis originated in fresh water, then the GOE marks the adaptation of cyanobacteria to seawater, and the late-Proterozoic increase

  6. Chronology of early Archaean granite-greenstone evolution in the Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa, based on precise dating by single zircon evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruener, Alfred; Byerly, Gary R.; Lowe, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Precise Pb-207/Pb-206 single zircon evaporating ages are reported for low-grade felsic metavolcanic rocks within the Onverwacht and Fig Tree Groups of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), South Africa, as well as for granitoid plutons bordering the belt. Dacitic tuffs of the Hooggenoeg Formation in the upper part of the Onverwacht Group are shown to yield ages between 3445 + or - 3 and 3416 + or - 5 Ma and to contain older crustal components represented by a 3504 + or - 4 Ma old zircon xenocryst. Fig Tree dacitic tuffs and agglomerates have euhedral zircons between 3259 + or - 3 Ma in age which are interpreted to reflect the time of crystallization. The comagmatic relationships between greenstone felsic volcanic units and the surrounding plutonic suites are keynoted. The data adduced show that the Onverwacht and Fig Tree felsic units have distinctly different ages and thus do not constitute a single, tectonically repeated unit as proposed by others. It is argued that conventional multigrain zircon dating may not accurately identify the time of felsic volcanic activity in ancient greenstones, and that the BGB in the Kaapval craton of southern Africa and greenstones in the Pilbara Block of Western Australia may have been part of a larger crustal unit in early Archaean times.

  7. Tectonics of the Kola collision suture and adjacent Archaean and Early Proterozoic terrains in the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Asger; Marker, Mogens

    1986-06-01

    As preparation for the deep-seismic and other geophysical experiments along the Polar Profile, which transects the Granulite belt and the Kola collision suture, structural field work has been performed in northernmost Finland and Norway, and published geological information including data from the neighbouring Soviet territory of the Kola Peninsula, have been compiled and reinterpreted. Based on these studies and a classification according to crustal and structural ages, the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield is divided into six major tectonic units. These units are separated and outlined by important low-angle, ductile shear or thrust zones of Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic age. The lateral extension of these units into Soviet territory and their involvement in large-scale crustal deformation structures, are described. Using the "view down the plunge" method, a generalised tectonic cross-section that predicts the crustal structures along the Polar Profile is compiled, and the structures around the Kola deep drill-hole are reinterpreted. The Kola suture belt, through parts of which the Kola deep bore-hole has been drilled, is considered to represent a ca. 1900 Ma old arc-continent and continent-continent collision suture. It divides the northeastern Shield region into two major crustal compartments: a Northern compartment (comprising the Murmansk and Sörvaranger units) and a Southern compartment (including the Inari unit, the Granulite belt and the Tanaelv belt, as well as the more southernly situated South Lapland-Karelia "craton" of the Karelian province of the Svecokarelian fold belt). The Kola suture belt is outlined by a 2-40 km wide and ca. 500 km long crustal belt composed of (1) Early Proterozoic (ca. 2400-2000 Ma old) metavolcanic and metasedimentary sequences which originally formed part of the attenuated margin of the Northern Archaean compartment, and (2) the remains of a ca. 2000-1900 Ma old, predominantly andesitic island-arc terrain. This

  8. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Stephen F; Buhre, Stephan; Jacob, Dorrit E

    2003-01-16

    The Archaean oceanic crust was probably thicker than present-day oceanic crust owing to higher heat flow and thus higher degrees of melting at mid-ocean ridges. These conditions would also have led to a different bulk composition of oceanic crust in the early Archaean, that would probably have consisted of magnesium-rich picrite (with variably differentiated portions made up of basalt, gabbro, ultramafic cumulates and picrite). It is unclear whether these differences would have influenced crustal subduction and recycling processes, as experiments that have investigated the metamorphic reactions that take place during subduction have to date considered only modern mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Here we present data from high-pressure experiments that show that metamorphism of ultramafic cumulates and picrites produces pyroxenites, which we infer would have delaminated and melted to produce basaltic rocks, rather than continental crust as has previously been thought. Instead, the formation of continental crust requires subduction and melting of garnet-amphibolite--formed only in the upper regions of oceanic crust--which is thought to have first occurred on a large scale during subduction in the late Archaean. We deduce from this that shallow subduction and recycling of oceanic crust took place in the early Archaean, and that this would have resulted in strong depletion of only a thin layer of the uppermost mantle. The misfit between geochemical depletion models and geophysical models for mantle convection (which include deep subduction) might therefore be explained by continuous deepening of this depleted layer through geological time.

  9. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  10. Millions of Boreal Shield Lakes can be used to Probe Archaean Ocean Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, S. L.; Tsuji, J. M.; Wu, L.; Venkiteswaran, J. J.; Molot, L. A.; Elgood, R. J.; Paterson, M. J.; Neufeld, J. D.

    2017-04-01

    Life originated in Archaean oceans, almost 4 billion years ago, in the absence of oxygen and the presence of high dissolved iron concentrations. Early Earth oxidation is marked globally by extensive banded iron formations but the contributing processes and timing remain controversial. Very few aquatic habitats have been discovered that match key physico-chemical parameters of the early Archaean Ocean. All previous whole ecosystem Archaean analogue studies have been confined to rare, low sulfur, and permanently stratified lakes. Here we provide first evidence that millions of Boreal Shield lakes with natural anoxia offer the opportunity to constrain biogeochemical and microbiological aspects of early Archaean life. Specifically, we combined novel isotopic signatures and nucleic acid sequence data to examine processes in the anoxic zone of stratified boreal lakes that are naturally low in sulfur and rich in ferrous iron, hallmark characteristics predicted for the Archaean Ocean. Anoxygenic photosynthesis was prominent in total water column biogeochemistry, marked by distinctive patterns in natural abundance isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and iron. These processes are robust, returning reproducibly after water column re-oxygenation following lake turnover. Evidence of coupled iron oxidation, iron reduction, and methane oxidation affect current paradigms of both early Earth and modern aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Early Vision with Cellular Automata Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo Alberto Marques

    We introduce a new approach, based on the natural clique structure of diffusive networks, to both the standard and the graded weak membrane models of image reconstruction from noisy sparse data. The new clique-based formulation leads to a single discontinuity field, provides a natural solution to the long-standing localization problem concerning the gradient field construction, and yields an exact paradigm of cellular automata field. The standard weak membrane model of image reconstruction assumes weakly continuous images corrupted by white gaussian noise and operates through an iterative process of constrained anisotropic diffusion. The anisotropy is controlled by the line process I describing the discontinuity contours, while the constraint enforces closeness to the image data. The graded weak membrane model includes an extra field, the sparse processs, which computes a 0 to 1 visual significance map and excludes the less significant data from the image reconstruction scheme. In this mechanism the sparse process s couples with a local noise estimate and, in the interactive model, with the line process l. The resulting [0,1] significance hierarchy of image sites can be regarded as the membership distribution of a fuzzy minimal image.

  12. Quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Olsen, Jesper V

    2007-01-01

    Technical limitations have prevented proteomic analyses of events occurring less than 30 s after signal initiation. We developed an automated, continuous quench-flow system allowing quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events (qPACE) with a time resolution of 1 s...

  13. Archaean TTG of Vodlozero Terrain, Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulaev, Valery; Arestova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The Vodlozero terrain is the largest (about 270*240 km) early Archaean fragment of Fennoscandian Shield and composes its eastern part. The granitoids of TTG suite are predominant component of the terrain. The greenstone belts are placed along the margins of the terrain. Several stages of TTG formation can be distinguished in Achaean crust history. (1) The oldest TTG are trondhjemites and tonalities with age of 3240 Ma. They contain rare and small amphibolite inclusions of the same age. These TTG are characterized by high Sr (av. 412 ppm), Sr/Y (70), (La/Yb)n (54) and low Y (av. 7 ppm), Yb (0.32 ppm) and Nb (4 ppm). It was shown (Lobach-Zhuchenko et al., 2000), that the source of these TTG could be basic rocks, having composition similar with TH1 by K.Condie. (2) The tonalities and granodiorites with age of 3150 Ma are disposed near greenstone belts and contain compared to TTG of the first group less Sr (av. 250 ppm), Sr/Y (22), (La/Yb)n (18) and more K, Rb (av. 70 ppm), Ba (470 ppm), Y (11 ppm),Yb (1.16 ppm). TTG of both groups have identical T(DM)Nd (3250-3400 Ma) and differences in composition is evidently connected with lower level of source melting of the second group and also with K-metasomatism. The volcanics of the greenstone belts have age 3020 - 2940 Ma. Dykes of gabbro-amphibolites and andesites with the same age and composition cut TTG of the first and the second groups. The age of the third TTG group is about 2900 Ma ago. These rocks form leucosoma of migmatites within TTG of the second group. The composition of the third TTG and Nd isotope data suppose their origin by the melting of ancient TTG crust simultaneously with greenstone belt emplacement. The fourth TTG group with age 2780-2850 Ma forms a small intrusions, cutting older TTG and greenstone rocks. Their composition is similar to 3150 Ma TTG. Nd isotope data indicate that these TTG have younger (about 2850 Ma) source. Thus there are four TTG groups formed into interval more 400 Ma. The age and

  14. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower plate is the dominant agent in modern convergent margins characterized by active subduction, as negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere sinks into the asthenosphere under its own weight. This is a strong plate-driving force because the slab-pull force is transmitted through the stiff sub-oceanic lithospheric mantle. As geological and geochemical data seem inconsistent with the existence of modern-style ridges and arcs in the Archaean, a periodically-destabilized stagnant-lid crust system is proposed instead. Stagnant-lid intervals may correspond to periods of layered mantle convection where efficient cooling was restricted to the upper mantle, perturbing Earth's heat generation/loss balance, eventually triggering mantle overturns. Archaean basalts were derived from fertile mantle in overturn upwelling zones (OUZOs, which were larger and longer-lived than post-Archaean plumes. Early cratons/continents probably formed above OUZOs as large volumes of basalt and komatiite were delivered for protracted periods, allowing basal crustal cannibalism, garnetiferous crustal restite delamination, and coupled development of continental crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Periodic mixing and rehomogenization during overturns retarded development of isotopically depleted MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle. Only after the start of true subduction did sequestration of subducted slabs at the core-mantle boundary lead to the development of the depleted MORB mantle source. During Archaean mantle overturns, pre-existing continents located above OUZOs would be strongly reworked; whereas OUZO-distal continents would drift in response to mantle currents. The leading edge of drifting Archaean continents would be convergent margins characterized by terrane accretion, imbrication, subcretion and anatexis of unsubductable oceanic lithosphere. As Earth cooled and the background oceanic lithosphere became denser and stiffer, there would be an increasing

  15. Record of mid-Archaean subduction from metamorphism in the Barberton terrain, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Stevens, Gary; Kisters, Alexander

    2006-08-03

    Although plate tectonics is the central geological process of the modern Earth, its form and existence during the Archaean era (4.0-2.5 Gyr ago) are disputed. The existence of subduction during this time is particularly controversial because characteristic subduction-related mineral assemblages, typically documenting apparent geothermal gradients of 15 degrees C km(-1) or less, have not yet been recorded from in situ Archaean rocks (the lowest recorded apparent geothermal gradients are greater than 25 degrees C km(-1)). Despite this absence from the rock record, low Archaean geothermal gradients are suggested by eclogitic nodules in kimberlites and circumstantial evidence for subduction processes, including possible accretion-related structures, has been reported in Archaean terrains. The lack of spatially and temporally well-constrained high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphism continues, however, to cast doubt on the relevance of subduction-driven tectonics during the first 1.5 Gyr of the Earth's history. Here we report garnet-albite-bearing mineral assemblages that record pressures of 1.2-1.5 GPa at temperatures of 600-650 degrees C from supracrustal amphibolites from the mid-Archaean Barberton granitoid-greenstone terrain. These conditions point to apparent geothermal gradients of 12-15 degrees C-similar to those found in recent subduction zones-that coincided with the main phase of terrane accretion in the structurally overlying Barberton greenstone belt. These high-pressure, low-temperature conditions represent metamorphic evidence for cold and strong lithosphere, as well as subduction-driven tectonic processes, during the evolution of the early Earth.

  16. Page 1 Studies on Archaean Dharwar Tectonic Province 433 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1988 Archaean stromatolites from Chitradurga schist belt, Dharwar craton, South India; Precamb. Res. 43 239-250. Srinivasan R, Subba Rao DV, Pantulu G V C, Sivaraman TV, Balaram V and Gopalan K 1990 Negative europium anomalies and Rb-Sr reset ages of Archaean detrital metasediments of the low-grade.

  17. Palaeoproterozoic prograde metasomatic-metamorphic overprint zones in Archaean tonalitic gneisses, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajunen, M.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Several occurrences of coarse-grained kyanite rocks are exposed in the Archaean area of eastern Finland in zones trending predominantly northwest-southeast that crosscut all the Archaean structures and, locally, the Palaeoproterozoic metadiabase dykes, too. Their metamorphic history illustrates vividly Palaeoproterozoic reactivation of the Archaean craton. The early-stage kyanite rocks were formed within the framework of ductile shearing or by penetrative metasomatism in zones of mobile brecciation. Static-state coarse-grained mineral growth during the ongoing fluid activity covered the early foliated fabrics, and metasomatic zoning developed. The early-stage metasomatism was characterized by Si, Ca and alkali leaching. The late-stage structures are dilatational semi-brittle faults and fractures with unstrained, coarse-grained fabrics often formed by metasomatic reactions displaying Mg enrichment along grain boundaries. Metamorphism proceeded from the low-T early-stage Chl-Ms-Qtz, Ky/And-St, eventually leading to the high-T late-stage Crd-Sil assemblages. The thermal peak, at 600-620°C/4-5 kbar, of the process is dated to 1852+2 Ma (U-Pb on xenotime. Al-silicate growth successions in different locations record small variations in the Palaeoproterozoic clockwise P-T paths. Pressure decreased by c. 1 kbar between the early and late stage, i.e. some exhumation had occurred. Fluid composition also changed during the progression, from saline H2O to CO2, rich. Weak retrograde features of high-T phases indicate a rapid cooling stage and termination of fluid activity. The early-stage Ky-St assemblages resemble those described from nearby Palaeoproterozoic metasediments in the Kainuu and North Karelia Schist Belts, where the metamorphic peak was achieved late with respect to Palaeoproterozoic structures. The static Ky-St metamorphism in kyanite rocks was generated by fluid-induced leaching processes at elevated T during the post-orogenic stage after

  18. Archaean and Proterozoic diamond growth from contrasting styles of large-scale magmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Janne M; Gress, Michael U; Chinn, Ingrid L; Jelsma, Hielke A; Harris, Jeff W; Davies, Gareth R

    2017-09-21

    Precise dating of diamond growth is required to understand the interior workings of the early Earth and the deep carbon cycle. Here we report Sm-Nd isotope data from 26 individual garnet inclusions from 26 harzburgitic diamonds from Venetia, South Africa. Garnet inclusions and host diamonds comprise two compositional suites formed under markedly different conditions and define two isochrons, one Archaean (2.95 Ga) and one Proterozoic (1.15 Ga). The Archaean diamond suite formed from relatively cool fluid-dominated metasomatism during rifting of the southern shelf of the Zimbabwe Craton. The 1.8 billion years younger Proterozoic diamond suite formed by melt-dominated metasomatism related to the 1.1 Ga Umkondo Large Igneous Province. The results demonstrate that resolving the time of diamond growth events requires dating of individual inclusions, and that there was a major change in the magmatic processes responsible for harzburgitic diamond formation beneath Venetia from the Archaean to the Proterozoic.Dating of inclusions within diamonds is used to reconstruct Earth's geodynamic history. Here, the authors report isotope data on individual garnet inclusions within diamonds from Venetia, South Africa, showing that two suites of diamonds define two isochrons, showing the importance of dating individual inclusions.

  19. Was the Archaean biosphere upside down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J C

    1987-10-22

    Photosynthesis produces reduced organic carbon and an oxidized partner in equivalent molar amounts. These compounds can react with one another, again in equivalent molar amounts, so that no net change occurs in the overall level of oxidation of the biosphere (here taken to mean the biota together with the part of the Earth with which living things interact). But, the reduced and oxidized partners have different susceptibilities to transport by environmental processes and so, typically, they become separated. Conservation of matter implies that for every mole of excess oxidant in an oxidizing region of the biosphere there must be a mole of excess reductant in a reducing region. Today, the oxidized partner in photosynthesis is usually free oxygen, which floats upward to accumulate in excess in the atmosphere, whereas organic matter settles downward to collect in sediments and stagnant pools. On the anoxic Archean Earth, the oxidized partner was probably iron. As oxidized iron is markedly less soluble and mobile than organic carbon, differential transport in the Archaean biosphere would have had an effect just the opposite of that in the modern biosphere. The oxidized partner would have settled downward more rapidly than the reduced partner, resulting in the accumulation of excess oxidant in sediments and stagnant pools. An equivalent excess of the more volatile reduced compounds would have been left behind in ocean and atmosphere in the form of dissolved organic carbon and gaseous hydrocarbons. On average, therefore, the Archean biosphere may have been oxidizing at the bottom and reducing on top.

  20. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 113; Issue 4. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton: Evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes. Abhijit Roy A Sarkar S Jeyakumar S K Aggrawal M Ebihara H Satoh. Volume ...

  1. Archaean Soils, Lakes and Springs: Looking for Signs of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasier, A.T.; Y. Dilek, H. Furnes

    2014-01-01

    Microbial life in Archaean non-marine settings like soils, lakes and springs would have faced several challenges. These would have included exposure to UV light; aridity, salinity and temperature changes; and nutrient availability. Current understanding is that none of these challenges would have

  2. The origin of late archaean granitoids in the Sukumaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Granitoids intruding the late Archaean sequences of the Sukumaland Greenstone Belt of northern Tanzania belong to two distinct geochemical suites. Suite 1 is characterised by Na2O/K2O > 1 (1.04 – 4.67), high Sr/Y (56 – 204) and Ba/Rb ratios (6.1 – 27.1) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.08 - 0.25). The rocks are enriched in Sr ...

  3. the origin of late archaean granitoids in the sukumaland greenstone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The origin of late archaean granitoids in the Sukumaland … 78 repeated measurement of the USGS. Reference Material W2 is better than 8% for most elements and is typically ~2.5% (n = 10) for most elements except for Er, Gd, Pr and Tm which are accurate to within 10.8,. 19.2, 20.0 and 10.5% respectively of their.

  4. Mantle hydrous-fluid interaction with Archaean granite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słaby, E.; Martin, H.; Hamada, M.; Śmigielski, M.; Domonik, A.; Götze, J.; Hoefs, J.; Hałas, S.; Simon, K.; Devidal, J.-L.; Moyen, J.-F.; Jayananda, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water content/species in alkali feldspars from late Archaean Closepet igneous bodies as well as growth and re-growth textures, trace element and oxygen isotope composition have been studied (Słaby et al., 2011). Both processes growth and re-growth are deterministic, however they differ showing increasing persistency in element behaviour during interaction with fluids. The re-growth process fertilized domains and didn't change their oxygen-isotope signature. Water speciation showed persistent behaviour during heating at least up to 600oC. Carbonate crystals with mantle isotope signature are associated with the recrystallized feldspar domains. Fluid-affected domains in apatite provide evidence of halide exchange. The data testify that the observed recrystallization was a high-temperature reaction with fertilized, halide-rich H2O-CO2 mantle-derived fluids of high water activity. A wet mantle being able to generate hydrous plumes, which appear to be hotter during the Archean in comparison to the present time is supposed by Shimizu et al. (2001). Usually hot fluids, which can be strongly carbonic, precede asthenospheric mantle upwelling. They are supposed to be parental to most recognized compositions, which can be derived by their immiscible separation into saline aqueous-silicic and carbonatitic members (Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007). The aqueous fractions are halogen-rich with a significant proportion of CO2. Both admixed fractions are supposed to be fertile. The Closepet granite emplaced in a major shear zone that delimitates two different terrains. Generally such shear zones, at many places, are supposed to be rooted deep into the mantle. The drain, that favoured and controlled magma ascent and emplacement, seemed to remain efficient after granite crystallization. In the southern part of the Closepet batholiths an evidence of intensive interaction of a lower crust fluid (of high CO2 activity) is provided by the extensive charnockitization of amphibolite facies (St

  5. Early Cellular Changes in the Ascending Aorta and Myocardium in a Swine Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Rabya; Huang, Thomas; Mahmood, Feroze; Owais, Khurram; Bardia, Amit; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Liu, David; Senthilnathan, Venkatachalam; Lassaletta, Antonio D; Sellke, Frank; Matyal, Robina

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with pathological remodeling of the heart and adjacent vessels. The early biochemical and cellular changes underlying the vascular damage are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to establish the nature, extent, and initial timeline of cytochemical derangements underlying reduced ventriculo-arterial compliance in a swine model of metabolic syndrome. Yorkshire swine (n = 8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-cholesterol (HCD) for 12 weeks. Myocardial function and blood flow was assessed before harvesting the heart. Immuno-blotting and immuno-histochemical staining were used to assess the cellular changes in the myocardium, ascending aorta and left anterior descending artery (LAD). There was significant increase in body mass index, blood glucose and mean arterial pressures (p = 0.002, p = 0.001 and p = 0.024 respectively) in HCD group. At the cellular level there was significant increase in anti-apoptotic factors p-Akt (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002) and Bcl-xL (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01) in the HCD aorta and myocardium, respectively. Pro-fibrotic markers TGF-β (p = 0.01), pSmad1/5 (p = 0.03) and MMP-9 (p = 0.005) were significantly increased in the HCD aorta. The levels of pro-apoptotic p38MAPK, Apaf-1 and cleaved Caspase3 were significantly increased in aorta of HCD (p = 0.03, p = 0.04 and p = 0.007 respectively). Similar changes in coronary arteries were not observed in either group. Functionally, the high cholesterol diet resulted in significant increase in ventricular end systolic pressure and-dp/dt (p = 0.05 and p = 0.007 respectively) in the HCD group. Preclinical metabolic syndrome initiates pro-apoptosis and pro-fibrosis pathways in the heart and ascending aorta, while sparing coronary arteries at this early stage of dietary modification.

  6. Coordination of cellular differentiation, polarity, mitosis and meiosis - New findings from early vertebrate oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkouby, Yaniv M; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-10-15

    A mechanistic dissection of early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates is key to advancing our knowledge of germline development, reproductive biology, the regulation of meiosis, and all of their associated disorders. Recent advances in the field include breakthroughs in the identification of germline stem cells in Medaka, in the cellular architecture of the germline cyst in mice, in a mechanistic dissection of chromosomal pairing and bouquet formation in meiosis in mice, in tracing oocyte symmetry breaking to the chromosomal bouquet of meiosis in zebrafish, and in the biology of the Balbiani body, a universal oocyte granule. Many of the major events in early oogenesis are universally conserved, and some are co-opted for species-specific needs. The chromosomal events of meiosis are of tremendous consequence to gamete formation and have been extensively studied. New light is now being shed on other aspects of early oocyte differentiation, which were traditionally considered outside the scope of meiosis, and their coordination with meiotic events. The emerging theme is of meiosis as a common groundwork for coordinating multifaceted processes of oocyte differentiation. In an accompanying manuscript we describe methods that allowed for investigations in the zebrafish ovary to contribute to these breakthroughs. Here, we review these advances mostly from the zebrafish and mouse. We discuss oogenesis concepts across established model organisms, and construct an inclusive paradigm for early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early warning of illegal development for protected areas by integrating cellular automata with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Lao, Chunhua; Liu, Yilun; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Yimin; Li, Shaoying; Ai, Bing; He, Zijian

    2013-11-30

    Ecological security has become a major issue under fast urbanization in China. As the first two cities in this country, Shenzhen and Dongguan issued the ordinance of Eco-designated Line of Control (ELC) to "wire" ecologically important areas for strict protection in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Early warning systems (EWS) are a useful tool for assisting the implementation ELC. In this study, a multi-model approach is proposed for the early warning of illegal development by integrating cellular automata (CA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The objective is to prevent the ecological risks or catastrophe caused by such development at an early stage. The integrated model is calibrated by using the empirical information from both remote sensing and handheld GPS (global positioning systems). The MAR indicator which is the ratio of missing alarms to all the warnings is proposed for better assessment of the model performance. It is found that the fast urban development has caused significant threats to natural-area protection in the study area. The integration of CA, ANN and GPS provides a powerful tool for describing and predicting illegal development which is in highly non-linear and fragmented forms. The comparison shows that this multi-model approach has much better performances than the single-model approach for the early warning. Compared with the single models of CA and ANN, this integrated multi-model can improve the value of MAR by 65.48% and 5.17% respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac cellular coupling and the spread of early instabilities in intracellular Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiheng; Bien, Harold; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Entcheva, Emilia

    2012-03-21

    Recent experimental and modeling studies demonstrate the fine spatial scale, complex nature, and independent contribution of Ca(2+) dynamics as a proarrhythmic factor in the heart. The mechanism of progression of cell-level Ca(2+) instabilities, known as alternans, to tissue-level arrhythmias is not well understood. Because gap junction coupling dictates cardiac syncytial properties, we set out to elucidate its role in the spatiotemporal evolution of Ca(2+) instabilities. We experimentally perturbed cellular coupling in cardiac syncytium in vitro. Coupling was quantified by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and related to function, including subtle fine-scale Ca(2+) alternans, captured by optical mapping. Conduction velocity and threshold for alternans monotonically increased with coupling. Lower coupling enhanced Ca(2+) alternans amplitude, but the spatial spread of early (<2 Hz) alternation was the greatest under intermediate (not low) coupling. This nonmonotonic relationship was closely matched by the percent of samples exhibiting large-scale alternans at higher pacing rates. Computer modeling corroborated these experimental findings for strong but not weak electromechanical (voltage-Ca(2+)) coupling, and offered mechanistic insight. In conclusion, using experimental and modeling approaches, we reveal a general mechanism for the spatial spread of subtle cellular Ca(2+) alternans that relies on a combination of gap-junctional and voltage-Ca(2+) coupling. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of cellular infiltrates during early stages of brain inflammation with magnetic resonance microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Waiczies

    Full Text Available A comprehensive view of brain inflammation during the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalomyelitis can be achieved with the aid of high resolution non-invasive imaging techniques such as microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of cryogenically-cooled RF coils to produce μMRI in vivo, with sufficient detail to reveal brain pathology in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model. We could visualize inflammatory infiltrates in detail within various regions of the brain, already at an early phase of EAE. Importantly, this pathology could be seen clearly even without the use of contrast agents, and showed excellent correspondence with conventional histology. The cryogenically-cooled coil enabled the acquisition of high resolution images within short scan times: an important practical consideration in conducting animal experiments. The detail of the cellular infiltrates visualized by in vivo μMRI allows the opportunity to follow neuroinflammatory processes even during the early stages of disease progression. Thus μMRI will not only complement conventional histological examination but will also enable longitudinal studies on the kinetics and dynamics of immune cell infiltration.

  10. Evidence of Meso-Archaean subduction from the Torckler-Tango Layered Complex, Rauer Group, Prydz bay, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, C. A.; Harley, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Archaean Torckler Tango Layered complex (TTLC) of the Rauer Group, East Antarctica, consists of a series of elongate mega-boudins that can be traced over a strike length of 7 km, enclosed within and intruded by c. 2.8 Ga homogeneous tonalitic orthogneisses. Despite later granulite facies metamorphism (860-900°C, 0.7 GPa) original igneous structures and layering features of the TTLC are very well preserved. Graded and cross stratified layering is evident, as are load-cast structures and geopetal structures. Isotopic and LILE signatures indicate that crustal contamination has been negligible and that metamorphic disturbances have been minor. As a result, the whole rock chemistry of the TTLC is considered to reflect its igneous protoliths. This whole rock geochemistry is distinctive, with high MgO (av. 15.8 wt%), high Mg# (av. 79.1) low TiO2 (av.< 0.33 wt%), and high SiO2 (av. 52.5 wt%). The TTLC can be subdivided into two geochemical groupings based upon Al2O3 and Cr abundances, which provide clear evidence for the crystal fractionation and accumulation processes active within the complex. Trace-element and REE element ratios show coherent trends. Based on its systematic major element (Al2O3/TiO2 ~40), trace element ratios Ti/Zr vs. Zr (Ti/Zr ~34-59 at Zr ~15-40 ppm), and negative HSFE anomalies, the TTLC is similar in geochemistry to both modern, neo-Proterozoic and Archaean boninitic rocks. Magmatic zircons define an intrusive age for the TTLC of ca. 3280 ± 22 Ma. HSFE ratios, and whole rock Nd isotope ratios recalculated back to this age, are consistent with a juvenile depleted source for the primary magma. The TTLC is therefore interpreted as the intrusive equivalent of a boninite, produced through the shallow melting of refractory mantle and supportive of the operation of subduction-like processes in the early-mid Archaean.

  11. Early-life Stress Impacts the Developing Hippocampus and Primes Seizure Occurrence: cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tung eHuang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed.

  12. [Early cellular alterations induced by myocardial hypoxia: possible role of cyclic AMP (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leiris, J; Bégué, J M; Gauduel, Y; Feuvray, D

    1980-01-01

    The ability of endogenous myocardial catecholamines to participate in the development of myocardial cellular alterations during a short period of severe hypoxia (30 min) was studied in isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat heart preparation, arrested by a high potassium concentration (16 mM) and perfused in the absence of exogenous substrate (Table I). Tyramine, which accelerated catecholamine depletion, also increased myocardial cell damage as assessed by a higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and a more marked reduction in cellular levels of high energy phosphates and glycogen (Table II). On the other hand, under conditions of beta-blockade (atenolol), hypoxia-induced tissular damage was reduced (Table II). These changes could be related to modifications in the cellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) since cAMP was consistently higher during the first 30 min of hypoxic perfusion than in control normoxic hearts (Table III) whereas cyclic GMP content remained unchanged. Moreover, interventions increasing cellular content of cAMP (theophylline, dibutyryl-cAMP) also increased hypoxic damage (Table IV), whereas N-methyl imidazole which reduced cellular content of cAMP lessened hypoxia-induced cellular alterations (Table IV). It is concluded that cellular lesions developing during the first 30 min of hypoxia in isolated arrested rat heart preparation perfused without exogenous substrate could be related to intracellular accumulation of cAMP occurring under the effect of endogenous catecholamine release.

  13. An Archaean heavy bombardment from a destabilized extension of the asteroid belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William F; Vokrouhlický, David; Minton, David; Nesvorný, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Brasser, Ramon; Simonson, Bruce; Levison, Harold F

    2012-05-03

    The barrage of comets and asteroids that produced many young lunar basins (craters over 300 kilometres in diameter) has frequently been called the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Many assume the LHB ended about 3.7 to 3.8 billion years (Gyr) ago with the formation of Orientale basin. Evidence for LHB-sized blasts on Earth, however, extend into the Archaean and early Proterozoic eons, in the form of impact spherule beds: globally distributed ejecta layers created by Chicxulub-sized or larger cratering events4. At least seven spherule beds have been found that formed between 3.23 and 3.47 Gyr ago, four between 2.49 and 2.63 Gyr ago, and one between 1.7 and 2.1 Gyr ago. Here we report that the LHB lasted much longer than previously thought, with most late impactors coming from the E belt, an extended and now largely extinct portion of the asteroid belt between 1.7 and 2.1 astronomical units from Earth. This region was destabilized by late giant planet migration. E-belt survivors now make up the high-inclination Hungaria asteroids. Scaling from the observed Hungaria asteroids, we find that E-belt projectiles made about ten lunar basins between 3.7 and 4.1 Gyr ago. They also produced about 15 terrestrial basins between 2.5 and 3.7 Gyr ago, as well as around 70 and four Chicxulub-sized or larger craters on the Earth and Moon, respectively, between 1.7 and 3.7 Gyr ago. These rates reproduce impact spherule bed and lunar crater constraints.

  14. Siderite cannot be used as CO2 sensor for Archaean atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäb, Fabian; Ballhaus, Chris; Siemens, Jan; Heuser, Alexander; Lissner, Moritz; Geisler, Thorsten; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    It was proposed to utilize siderite FeCO3 in mid to late Archaean Superior type banded as a proxy to constrain the CO2 partial pressure of Archaean atmospheres. Implicit in this proposition is that siderite was a primary carbonate mineral that crystallized directly from Fe2+ enriched Archaean seawater, in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. To our knowledge that proposition has not been demonstrated to be valid. We test with water-gas exchange experiments under controlled CO2 partial pressures if siderite can be stabilized as a primary mineral in Fe2+ bearing seawater. Reduced seawater proxies enriched in Fe2+ and Mn2+ are equilibrated with reduced N2-CH4-CO2-H2 gas phases with variable CO2. The solid phases stabilized in Fe2+ enriched water compositions are amorphous ferrous iron hydroxy carbonates. Crystalline siderite FeCO3 is not found to be a stable phase. The phases precipitating from Mn2+ enriched water include crystalline rhodochrosite MnCO3 and possibly amorphous Mn-enriched phases. Based on these results we advise against using siderite in banded iron formations as a CO2 sensor for the Archaean atmosphere.

  15. Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Kirchner, Henriette; Lundell, Leonidas S; Zelenin, Pavel V; Zierath, Juleen R; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2017-07-15

    Small transmembrane proteins such as FXYDs, which interact with Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase, and the micropeptides that interact with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase play fundamental roles in regulation of ion transport in vertebrates. Uncertain evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships among these regulators of ion transport have led to inconsistencies in their classification across vertebrate species, thus hampering comparative studies of their functions. We discovered the first FXYD homologue in sea lamprey, a basal jawless vertebrate, which suggests small transmembrane regulators of ion transport emerged early in the vertebrate lineage. We also identified 13 gene subfamilies of FXYDs and propose a revised, phylogeny-based FXYD classification that is consistent across vertebrate species. These findings provide an improved framework for investigating physiological and pathophysiological functions of small transmembrane regulators of ion transport. Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin and DWORF, which regulate the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) and

  16. Asteroids and Archaean crustal evolution: Tests of possible genetic links between major mantle/crust melting events and clustered extraterrestrial bombardments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, A. Y.

    1992-09-01

    Since the oldest intact terrestrial rocks of ca. 4.0 Ga and oldest zircon xenocrysts of ca. 4.3 Ga measured to date overlap with the lunar late heavy bombardment, the early Precambrian record requires close reexamination vis a vis the effects of megaimpacts. The identification of microtektite-bearing horizons containing spinals of chondritic chemistry and Ir anomalies in 3.5-3.4-Ga greenstone belts provides the first direct evidence for large-scale Archaean impacts. The Archaean crustal record contains evidence for several major greenstone-granite-forming episodes where deep upwelling and adiabatic fusion of the mantle was accompanied by contemporaneous crustal anatexis. Isotopic age studies suggest evidence for principal age clusters about 3.5, 3.0, and 2.7 (+/- 0.8) Ga, relics of a ca. 3.8-Ga event, and several less well defined episodes. These peak events were accompanied and followed by protracted thermal fluctuations in intracrustal high-grade metamorphic zones. Interpretations of these events in terms of internal dynamics of the Earth are difficult to reconcile with the thermal behavior of silicate rheologies in a continuously convecting mantle regime. A triggering of these episodes by mantle rebound response to intermittent extraterrestrial asteroid impacts is supported by (1) identification of major Archaean impacts from microtektite and distal ejecta horizons marked by Ir anomalies; (2) geochemical and experimental evidence for mantle upwelling, possibly from levels as deep as the transition zone; and (3) catastrophic adiabatic melting required to generate peridotitic komatites. Episodic differentiation/accretion growth of sial consequent on these events is capable of resolving the volume problem that arises from comparisons between modern continental crust and the estimated sial produced by continuous two-stage mantle melting processes. The volume problem is exacerbated by projected high accretion rates under Archaean geotherms. It is suggested that

  17. Ebola virion attachment and entry into human macrophages profoundly effects early cellular gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV infections are associated with high lethality in primates. ZEBOV primarily targets mononuclear phagocytes, which are activated upon infection and secrete mediators believed to trigger initial stages of pathogenesis. The characterization of the responses of target cells to ZEBOV infection may therefore not only further understanding of pathogenesis but also suggest possible points of therapeutic intervention. Gene expression profiles of primary human macrophages exposed to ZEBOV were determined using DNA microarrays and quantitative PCR to gain insight into the cellular response immediately after cell entry. Significant changes in mRNA concentrations encoding for 88 cellular proteins were observed. Most of these proteins have not yet been implicated in ZEBOV infection. Some, however, are inflammatory mediators known to be elevated during the acute phase of disease in the blood of ZEBOV-infected humans. Interestingly, the cellular response occurred within the first hour of Ebola virion exposure, i.e. prior to virus gene expression. This observation supports the hypothesis that virion binding or entry mediated by the spike glycoprotein (GP(1,2 is the primary stimulus for an initial response. Indeed, ZEBOV virions, LPS, and virus-like particles consisting of only the ZEBOV matrix protein VP40 and GP(1,2 (VLP(VP40-GP triggered comparable responses in macrophages, including pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signals. In contrast, VLP(VP40 (particles lacking GP(1,2 caused an aberrant response. This suggests that GP(1,2 binding to macrophages plays an important role in the immediate cellular response.

  18. A hitherto unknown river type from the Archaean at Bhurkuli (Jharkhand, E India

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    Loon A.J. (Tom van

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Archaean granitoid pluton of the Singhbhum craton in E India is overlain by Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasediments. These sediments are still poorly known and their stratigraphy is under debate. Several scattered, most probably Meso- to Neoarchaean, conglomerates are present in the state of Jharkhand that differ so much in characteristics that they are probably not related to each other. The sedimentology of a series of conglomerate patches and layers near Bhurkuli has been investigated, including the characteristics of the clasts. It is deduced on the basis of these characteristics and the sedimentological context that the Bhurkuli conglomerates represent the channel facies of a river system that differed from the types of fluvial systems that exist nowadays.

  19. Accelerated telomere shortening: Tracking the lasting impact of early institutional care at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-12-30

    Studies examining the association between early adversity and longitudinal changes in telomere length within the same individual are rare, yet are likely to provide novel insight into the subsequent lasting effects of negative early experiences. We sought to examine the association between institutional care history and telomere shortening longitudinally across middle childhood and into adolescence. Buccal DNA was collected 2-4 times, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, in 79 children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal study exploring the impact of early institutional rearing on child health and development. Children with a history of early institutional care (n=50) demonstrated significantly greater telomere shortening across middle childhood and adolescence compared to never institutionalized children (n=29). Among children with a history of institutional care, randomization to high quality foster care was not associated with differential telomere attrition across development. Cross-sectional analysis of children randomized to the care as usual group indicated shorter telomere length was associated with greater percent of the child's life spent in institutional care up to age 8. These results suggest that early adverse care from severe psychosocial deprivation may be embedded at the molecular genetic level through accelerated telomere shortening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The hottest lavas of the Phanerozoic and the survival of deep Archaean reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Jarek; Gazel, Esteban; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Moore, Lowell; Bizimis, Michael; Jicha, Brian; Batanova, Valentina G.

    2017-06-01

    Large igneous provinces and some hotspot volcanoes are thought to form above thermochemical anomalies known as mantle plumes. Petrologic investigations that support this model suggest that plume-derived melts originated at high mantle temperatures (greater than 1,500 °C) relative to those generated at ambient mid-ocean ridge conditions (about 1,350 °C). Earth's mantle has also cooled appreciably during its history and the temperatures of modern mantle derived melts are substantially lower than those produced during the Archaean (2.5 to 4.0 billion years ago), as recorded by komatiites (greater than 1,700 °C). Here we use geochemical analyses of the Tortugal lava suite to show that these Galapagos-Plume-related lavas, which formed 89 million years ago, record mantle temperatures as high as Archaean komatiites and about 400 °C hotter than the modern ambient mantle. These results are also supported by highly magnesian olivine phenocrysts and Al-in-olivine crystallization temperatures of 1,570 +/- 20 °C. As mantle plumes are chemically and thermally heterogeneous, we interpret these rocks as the result of melting the hot core of the plume head that produced the Caribbean large igneous province. Our results imply that a mantle reservoir as hot as those responsible for some Archaean lavas has survived eons of convection in the deep Earth and is still being tapped by mantle plumes.

  1. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-17

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points.

  2. Cellular immunity is activated and a TH-2 response is associated with early wheezing in infants after bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, P M; Turgeon, J P; Yang, J P; Drblik, S P; Marcotte, J E; Pedneault, L; Spier, S

    1997-04-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of cellular immunity are present and linked to early wheezing after bronchiolitis. We prospectively studied 26 infants hospitalized for a first episode of bronchiolitis and without any prior immune, cardiac, or respiratory disease. Blood was obtained at the time of enrollment and 5 months later for the assessment of the total cellular and differential counts, CD4+ (helper) and CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes, and the activation markers CD23 (low-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor) and CD25 (interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor). The cytokines interferon gamma (T-helper (TH) type-1 cytokine) and IL-4 (TH-2) were measured in plasma and in vitro after stimulation with IL-2 or with the house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) antigen. A daily log of episodes of wheezing was kept by parents after discharge. We found an increase in blood eosinophils, an increased percentage of CD4+, CD25+, and CD23+ lymphocytes in subjects at 5 months compared with the time of bronchiolitis and with healthy subjects of the same age (p bronchiolitis, in response to D. farinae antigen. In babies who wheezed, a positive correlation was found between the total number of days that wheezing occurred and the blood eosinophil count. Babies who wheezed more often (> 20 days) had more peripheral blood basophils and eosinophils, and peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from these subjects at the time of bronchiolitis produced less interferon gamma on stimulation with IL-2. Bronchiolitis is followed by activation of cellular immunity, and early wheezing in infants is associated with a TH-2 response.

  3. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  4. Discovery of cellular proteins required for the early steps of HCV infection using integrative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Park

    Full Text Available Successful viral infection requires intimate communication between virus and host cell, a process that absolutely requires various host proteins. However, current efforts to discover novel host proteins as therapeutic targets for viral infection are difficult. Here, we developed an integrative-genomics approach to predict human genes involved in the early steps of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. By integrating HCV and human protein associations, co-expression data, and tight junction-tetraspanin web specific networks, we identified host proteins required for the early steps in HCV infection. Moreover, we validated the roles of newly identified proteins in HCV infection by knocking down their expression using small interfering RNAs. Specifically, a novel host factor CD63 was shown to directly interact with HCV E2 protein. We further demonstrated that an antibody against CD63 blocked HCV infection, indicating that CD63 may serve as a new therapeutic target for HCV-related diseases. The candidate gene list provides a source for identification of new therapeutic targets.

  5. Discovery of Cellular Proteins Required for the Early Steps of HCV Infection Using Integrative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Seong; Kwon, Oh Sung; Kim, Sanguk; Jang, Sung Key

    2013-01-01

    Successful viral infection requires intimate communication between virus and host cell, a process that absolutely requires various host proteins. However, current efforts to discover novel host proteins as therapeutic targets for viral infection are difficult. Here, we developed an integrative-genomics approach to predict human genes involved in the early steps of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. By integrating HCV and human protein associations, co-expression data, and tight junction-tetraspanin web specific networks, we identified host proteins required for the early steps in HCV infection. Moreover, we validated the roles of newly identified proteins in HCV infection by knocking down their expression using small interfering RNAs. Specifically, a novel host factor CD63 was shown to directly interact with HCV E2 protein. We further demonstrated that an antibody against CD63 blocked HCV infection, indicating that CD63 may serve as a new therapeutic target for HCV-related diseases. The candidate gene list provides a source for identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:23593195

  6. Carbopol improves the early cellular immune responses induced by the modified-life vaccine Ingelvac PRRS® MLV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, K H; Koinig, H; Gerner, W; Höhne, A; Bretthauer, J; Kroll, J J; Roof, M B; Saalmüller, A; Stadler, K; Libanova, R

    2015-04-17

    Adjuvants enhance both the magnitude and duration of immune responses, therefore representing a central component of vaccines. The nature of the adjuvant can determine the particular type of immune response, which may be skewed toward cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, antibody responses, or particular classes of T helper (Th) responses and antibody isotypes. Traditionally, adjuvants have been added to intrinsically poor immunogenic vaccines, such as those using whole killed organisms or subunit vaccines. Here, we have compared cellular immune responses induced by the immunogenic modified life-attenuated vaccine Ingelvac PRRS® MLV when administered alone or in combination with carbopol, a widely used adjuvant in veterinary medicine. Using functional readouts (IFN-γ ELISpot and cell proliferation) and analyzing phenotypical hallmarks of CD4T cell differentiation, we show that carbopol improves cellular immunity by inducing early IFN-γ-producing cells and by preferentially driving T cell differentiation to effector phenotypes. Our data suggest that adjuvants may enhance and modulate life-attenuated--not only subunit/inactivated--vaccines. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute inflammation promotes early cellular stimulation of the epithelial and stromal compartments of the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintar, Amado A; Doll, Andreas; Leimgruber, Carolina; Palmeri, Claudia M; Roth, Felix D; Maccioni, Mariana; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2010-08-01

    It has been proposed that prostatic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. However, little information is available about the prostatic reaction to bacterial compounds in vivo. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the early effects of bacterial infection on rat ventral prostate compartments. Using a rat model of acute bacterial prostatitis by Escherichia coli, we analyzed the histological and ultrastructural changes in the prostate at 24, 48, and 72 hr postinfection. Prostatic tissues were immunostained for prostatic binding protein (PBP), ACTA2, ErbB1, and ErbB2 receptors, TUNEL, and markers of cell proliferation. Dot and Western blots for PBP, ACTA2, ErbB1, ErbB2, and TGFbeta1 were also performed. The prostatic epithelium became hypertrophied, with increases in PBP and ErbB1 expression at 24 hr postinfection. Moreover, inflammation induced the expression of ErbB2, a receptor strongly involved in carcinogenesis. These alterations were more pronounced at 48 hr, but the epithelium also showed apoptosis and finally atrophy at 72 hr postinfection, with a decrease in PBP and ErbB receptors. Interestingly, the epithelial cells exhibited a high level of proliferation in response to the bacteria. The stromal reaction to acute inflammation was initially characterized by smooth muscle hypertrophy. Afterwards, muscle cells acquired a secretory phenotype, with a reduction in ACTA2 at 72 hr postinfection. Prostatic inflammation, even at the early stages, promotes atrophic and proliferative changes, and the upregulation of ErbB receptors together with dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells. These data suggest that repetitive reinfections could lead to uncontrolled growth in the prostate gland. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Microsatellite instability, KRAS mutations and cellular distribution of TRAIL-receptors in early stage colorectal cancer.

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    Lydia Kriegl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fact that the receptors for the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL are almost invariably expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC represents the rationale for the employment of TRAIL-receptors targeting compounds for the therapy of patients affected by this tumor. Yet, first reports on the use of these bioactive agents provided disappointing results. We therefore hypothesized that loss of membrane-bound TRAIL-R might be a feature of some CRC and that the evaluation of membrane staining rather than that of the overall expression of TRAIL-R might predict the response to TRAIL-R targeting compounds in this tumor. AIM AND METHODS: Thus, we evaluated the immunofluorescence pattern of TRAIL-receptors and E-cadherin to assess the fraction of membrane-bound TRAIL-receptors in 231 selected patients with early-stage CRC undergoing surgical treatment only. Moreover, we investigated whether membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors as well as the presence of KRAS mutations or of microsatellite instability (MSI had an effect on survival and thus a prognostic effect. RESULTS: As expected, almost all CRC samples stained positive for TRAIL-R1 and 2. Instead, membrane staining for these receptors was positive in only 71% and 16% of samples respectively. No correlation between KRAS mutation status or MSI-phenotype and prognosis could be detected. TRAIL-R1 staining intensity correlated with survival in univariate analysis, but only membranous staining of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on cell membranes was an independent predictor of survival (cox multivariate analysis: TRAIL-R1: p = 0.019, RR 2.06[1.12-3.77]; TRAIL-R2: p = 0.033, RR 3.63[1.11-11.84]. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the current assumptions, loss of membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors is a common feature of early stage CRC which supersedes the prognostic significance of their staining intensity. Failure to achieve therapeutic effects in recent clinical trials using TRAIL-receptors targeting

  9. Archaean Au-Ag mineralisation at Racetrack, near Kalgoorlie, Western Australia: a high crustal-level expression of the Archaean composite lode-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Mariam, M.; Groves, D. I.; McNaughton, N. J.; Mikucki, E. J.; Vearncombe, J. R.

    1993-12-01

    The Racetrack Au-Ag deposit, in the Archaean Yilgarn Block, Western Australia, is hosted by a porphyritic basalt in a low greenschist facies setting and is associated with a brittle strike-slip fault system. Three distinct and successive stages of hydrothermal activity and late quartz-carbonate veining resulted in multiple veining and/or brecciation: Stages I and II are Au-bearing, whereas Stage III and late veins are barren. The ore shows features of both classic epithermal and mesothermal deposits. Alteration assemblages, typified by sericitization, carbonization, silicification and chloritization, are similar to those of mesothermal gold deposits, wheras the quartz vein-textures including comb, rosette, plumose and banded, ore mineralogyof arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, freibergite, tetrahedrite, tennantite, fahlore, electrum and gold, and metal associations (Cu, As, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au and Pb) are more characteristics of epithermal deposits. Fluid inclusions related to Stage II are two phase and aqueous with 1-8 (average 4) wt. % NaCl equiv. and CO2 content of <0.85 molal. Pressure-corrected homogenisation temperatures range from 190°C to 260°C. Mineral assemblages indicate that ore fluid pH ranged between 4.2 and 5.3, fO 2 between 10-38.8 and 10-39.6 bars, and mΣs between 10-3.2 and 10-3.6. Calculated chemical and stable isotope compositions require a component of surface water in the ore fluid depositing the mineralisation, but evidence for deep crustal Pb indicates that deeply sourced fluids were also involved. The deposit is interpreted to have formed in a shallow environment via mixing of deeply sourced fluids, from at least as deep as the base of the greenstone belt, with surface waters. It therefore represents the upper crustal end-member of the crustal depth spectrum of Archaean lode-gold mineralisation.

  10. Cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of an early experience on cognitive abilities and affective states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoflos, Efstathios; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Pondiki, Stavroula; Stamatakis, Antonios; Philippidis, Eleni; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of neonatal handling, an animal model of early experience, on spatial learning and memory, on hippocampal glucocorticoid (GR), mineralocorticoid (MR) and type 1A serotonin (5-HT1A) receptors, as well as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and on circulating leptin levels, of male rats. Method Spatial learning and memory following an acute restraint stress (30 min) were assessed in the Morris water maze. Hippocampal GR, MR and BDNF levels were determined immunocytochemically. 5-HT1A receptors were quantified by in vitro binding autoradiography. Circulating leptin levels, following a chronic forced swimming stress, were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Neonatal handling increased the ability of male rats for spatial learning and memory. It also resulted in increased GR/MR ratio, BDNF and 5-HT1A receptor levels in the hippocampus. Furthermore, leptin levels, body weight and food consumption during chronic forced swimming stress were reduced as a result of handling. Conclusion Neonatal handling is shown to have a beneficial effect in the males, improving their cognitive abilities. This effect on behavior could be mediated by the handling-induced increase in hippocampal GR/MR ratio and BDNF levels. The handling-induced changes in BDNF and 5-HT1A receptors could underlie the previously documented effect of handling in preventing "depression". Furthermore, handling is shown to prevent other maladaptive states such as stress-induced hyperphagia, obesity and resistance to leptin. PMID:15876359

  11. Distinct Cellular Basis for Early Cardiac Arrhythmias, the Cardinal Manifestation of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy, and the Skin Phenotype of Cardiocutaneous Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmouch, Jennifer; Zhou, Qiong Q; Miyake, Christina Y; Lombardi, Raffaella; Kretzschmar, Kai; Bannier-Hélaouët, Marie; Clevers, Hans; Wehrens, Xander H T; Willerson, James T; Marian, Ali J

    2017-12-08

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is caused primarily by mutations in genes encoding desmosome proteins. Ventricular arrhythmias are the cardinal and typically early manifestations, whereas myocardial fibroadiposis is the pathological hallmark. Homozygous DSP (desmoplakin) and JUP (junction protein plakoglobin) mutations are responsible for a subset of patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy who exhibit cardiac arrhythmias and dysfunction, palmoplanter keratosis, and hair abnormalities (cardiocutaneous syndromes). To determine phenotypic consequences of deletion of Dsp in a subset of cells common to the heart and skin. Expression of CSPG4 (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4) was detected in epidermal keratinocytes and the cardiac conduction system. CSPG4pos cells constituted ≈5.6±3.3% of the nonmyocyte cells in the mouse heart. Inducible postnatal deletion of Dsp under the transcriptional control of the Cspg4 locus led to ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular conduction defects, and death by 4 months of age. Cardiac arrhythmias occurred early and in the absence of cardiac dysfunction and excess cardiac fibroadipocytes, as in human arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. The mice exhibited palmoplantar keratosis and progressive alopecia, leading to alopecia totalis, associated with accelerated proliferation and impaired terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. The phenotype is similar to human cardiocutaneous syndromes caused by homozygous mutations in DSP. Deletion of Dsp under the transcriptional regulation of the CSPG4 locus led to lethal cardiac arrhythmias in the absence of cardiac dysfunction or fibroadiposis, palmoplantar keratosis, and alopecia, resembling the human cardiocutaneous syndromes. The findings offer a cellular basis for early cardiac arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy and cardiocutaneous syndromes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Coordination of early cellular reactions during activation of bone resorption in the rat mandible periosteum: An immunohistochemical study

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    Bassam Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The activation step of bone remodeling remains poorly characterized. Activation comprises determination of the site to be remodeled, osteoclast precursor recruitment, their migration to the site of remodeling, and differentiation. These actions involve different compartments and cell types. The aim of this study was to investigate events and cell types involved during activation. We used a bone remodeling model in rats where extractions of the upper jaw molars initiate remodeling of the antagonist lower jaw (mandible cortex along the periosteum. In this model osteoclastic resorption peaks 4 days after extractions. We previously reported that mast cell activation in the periosteum fibrous compartment is an early event of activation, associated with recruitment of circulating monocyte osteoclast precursors. By using immunohistochemistry, we observed 9 hours after induction a spatially oriented expression of InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in the vessels that was inhibited by antagonists of histamine receptors 1 and 2. It was followed at 12 hours by the recruitment of ED1+ monocytes. In parallel, at 9 hours, Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1+ fibroblast-like cells scattered in the fibrous compartment of the periosteum between the vessels and the osteogenic compartment increased; these cells may be implicated in osteoclast precursor migration. Receptor Activator of NF KappaB Ligand+ cells increased at 12 hours in the osteogenic compartment and reached a peak at 18 hours. At 24 hours the numbers of osteogenic cells and subjacent osteocytes expressing semaphorin 3a, a repulsive for osteoclast precursors, decreased before returning to baseline at 48 hours. These data show that during activation the two periosteum compartments and several cell types are coordinated to recruit and guide osteoclast precursors towards the bone surface. Keywords: Biological sciences, Cell biology, Physiology, Dentistry

  13. Plateaux ancient and modern: Geochemical and sedimentological perspectives on Archaean oceanic magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, R. W.; Hardarson, B. S.; Saunders, A. D.; Storey, M.

    1996-04-01

    Unequivocal examples of oceanic plateaux older than about 2.1 Ga have yet to be identified from the geological record. The most likely explanation for this is the partial dismemberment of ancient plateaux at convergent plate margins, and their subsequent juxtaposition in accretionary complexes with arc volcanic, sedimentary and plutonic rocks. A review of Cretaceous plateaux in the eastern Indian Ocean suggests that certain geochemical-isotopic criteria (e.g. positive Nb anomalies relative to primitive mantle) employed by petrologists to identify modern oceanic plateau lavas are of little practical use in distinguishing ancient plateau lavas from arc and volcanic rifted margin basalts. The extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneity of Indian Ocean plateaux, together with large variations in area and volume, suggest that these edifices represent one extreme of a spectrum of oceanic plateau compositions. The other extreme, represented by Iceland and Ontong Java, is characterised by relatively homogeneous melt compositions, reflecting steady-state melting conditions and the absence of a continental lithosphere contaminant to plateau magmas. Crustal thickness and compositional estimates for Archaean oceanic plateaux using the McKenzie-Bickle method give a mean thickness of ~ 43 km, and mean MgO content of ~ 19 wt.%. Archaean plateaux were thus compositionally distinct from surrounding ocean floor (basaltic komatiite?), and notably more magnesian than plateaux such as Iceland (mean for Tertiary basalts = 6.3 wt.% MgO) and Ontong Java (mean for core samples = 6.9 wt.% MgO). By analogy with Cretaceous-Tertiary ultramafic complexes in western Colombia, the deeper portions of these plateaux may have consisted of noritic rocks, underlain by Iherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbronorite and dunite. The general absence of such rocks in Archaean terrains suggests that these portions of plateaux are only rarely preserved. The search for remnants of ancient oceanic plateaux has

  14. Early cellular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the evolutionary developments that occurred subsequent to the origin of ancestral cells. Microbial physiology and ecology are potential sharp tools for shaping concepts of microbial evolution. Some popular unjustified assumptions are discussed. It is considered that certain principles derived mainly from the advances of molecular biology can be used to order the natural groups (genera) of extant prokaryotes and their patterns phylogenetically.

  15. Structural and Metamorphic Evolution of the Archaean High-pressure Granulite in Datong-Huaian Area, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Archaean granulite terrain in the Datong-Huaian area, north China, comprises a basement complex of fe lsic and mafic granulite (TTG gneiss), overlain by a sedimentary sequence dominated by metapelite and metapsammite (khondalite series). Both lithological associations are separated by

  16. Dose-response modeling of early molecular and cellular key events in the CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geter, David R; Bhat, Virunya S; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Sura, Radhakrishna; Hester, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Low-dose extrapolation and dose-related transitions are paramount in the ongoing debate regarding the quantification of cancer risks for nongenotoxic carcinogens. Phenobarbital (PB) is a prototypical nongenotoxic carcinogen that activates the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) resulting in rodent liver tumors. In this study, male and female CD-1 mice administered dietary PB at 0, 0.15, 1.5, 15, 75, or 150 mg/kg-day for 2 or 7 days to characterize multiple apical and molecular endpoints below, at (∼75 mg/kg-day), and above the carcinogenic dose level of PB and examine these responses using benchmark dose modeling. Linear toxicokinetics were observed for all doses. Increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and mitotic figures were seen at 75 and 150 mg/kg-day. CAR activation, based on Cyp2b qPCR and pentoxyresorufin dealkylase activity, occurred at doses ≥ 1.5 mg/kg-day. The no-observable transcriptional effect level for global gene expression was 15 mg/kg-day. At 2 days, several xenobiotic metabolism and cell protective pathways were activated at lower doses and to a greater degree in females. However, hepatocellular proliferation, quantified by bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry, was the most sensitive indicator of PB exposure with female mice more sensitive than males, contrary to sex-specific differences in sensitivity to hepatocarcinogenesis. Taken together, the identification of low-dose cellular and molecular transitions in the subtumorigenic dose range aids the understanding of early key events in CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. Did the formation of D″ cause the Archaean-Proterozoic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Griffiths, Ross W.

    2014-02-01

    The MgO content of the highest MgO plume-related komatiites and picrites remained constant at 32±2.5% between 3.5 and 2.7 Ga, then fell to 21±3% by ca. 2.0 Ga, a value similar to the present day value. Because there is a linear relationship between the liquidus temperature of dry magmas and their MgO content this observation implies that the temperature of mantle plumes changed little between 3.5 and 2.7 Ga, and then fell by 200-250 °C between 2.7 and 2.0 Ga to a temperature similar to that of present plumes. We suggest that Archaean plumes originate from the core-mantle boundary and that their temperature remained constant because the temperature of the outer core was buffered by solidification of the Fe-Ni inner core. At about 2.7 Ga dense former basaltic crust began to accumulate at the core and eventually covered it to produce an insulating layer that reduced the heat flux out of the core and lowered the temperature of mantle plumes. The temperature of mantle plumes fell as the dense layer above the core thickened until it exceeded the critical thickness required for convection. Because heat is transferred rapidly across the convecting part of the insulating layer, any further increase in its thickness by the addition more basaltic material has no influence on the temperature at the top of the layer, which is the source of Post-Archaean mantle plumes. We equate the dense layer above the core with the seismically identified layer D″. Our analyses suggest the drop in plume temperatures produced by a dense insulating layer above the core will be about 40% once it starts to convect, which is consistent with the observed drop inferred from the decrease in the MgO content of komatiites and picrites at that time.

  18. A proposal for formation of Archaean stromatolites before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis

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    John Frederick Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stromatolites are solid, laminar structures of biological origin. Living examples are sparsely distributed and formed by cyanobacteria, which are oxygenic phototrophs. However, stromatolites were abundant between 3.4 and 2.4 Gyr, prior to the advent of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis. Here I propose that many Archaean stromatolites were seeded at points of efflux of hydrogen sulfide from hydrothermal fields into shallow water, while their laminar composition arose from alternating modes of strictly anoxygenic photosynthetic metabolism. These changes were a redox regulatory response of gene expression to changing hydrogen sulfide concentration, which fluctuated with intermittent dilution by tidal action or by rainfall into surface waters. The proposed redox switch between modes of metabolism deposited sequential microbial mats. These mats gave rise to alternating carbonate sediments predicted to retain evidence of their origin in differing ratios of isotopes of carbon and sulfur. The mats may have arisen either by replacement of microbial populations or by continuous lineages of protocyanobacteria in which a redox genetic switch selected between type I and type II photosynthetic reaction centers, and thus between photolithoautotrophic and photoorganoheterotrophic metabolism. In the latter case, and by 2.4 Gyr at the latest, a mutation had disabled the redox genetic switch to give simultaneous constitutive expression of both type I and type II reaction centers, and thus to the ability to extract electrons from manganese and then water. By this simple step, the first cyanobacterium had the dramatic advantage of emancipation from limiting supplies of inorganic electron donors, produced free molecular oxygen as a waste product, and initiated the Great Oxidation Event in Earth’s history at the transition from the Archaean to the Paleoproterozoic.

  19. A Proposal for Formation of Archaean Stromatolites before the Advent of Oxygenic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John F

    2016-01-01

    Stromatolites are solid, laminar structures of biological origin. Living examples are sparsely distributed and formed by cyanobacteria, which are oxygenic phototrophs. However, stromatolites were abundant between 3.4 and 2.4 Gyr, prior to the advent of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis. Here I propose that many Archaean stromatolites were seeded at points of efflux of hydrogen sulfide from hydrothermal fields into shallow water, while their laminar composition arose from alternating modes of strictly anoxygenic photosynthetic metabolism. These changes were a redox regulatory response of gene expression to changing hydrogen sulfide concentration, which fluctuated with intermittent dilution by tidal action or by rainfall into surface waters. The proposed redox switch between modes of metabolism deposited sequential microbial mats. These mats gave rise to alternating carbonate sediments predicted to retain evidence of their origin in differing ratios of isotopes of carbon and sulfur and in organic content. The mats may have arisen either by replacement of microbial populations or by continuous lineages of protocyanobacteria in which a redox genetic switch selected between Types I and II photosynthetic reaction centers, and thus between photolithoautotrophic and photoorganoheterotrophic metabolism. In the latter case, and by 2.4 Gyr at the latest, a mutation had disabled the redox genetic switch to give simultaneous constitutive expression of both Types I and II reaction centers, and thus to the ability to extract electrons from manganese and then water. By this simple step, the first cyanobacterium had the dramatic advantage of emancipation from limiting supplies of inorganic electron donors, produced free molecular oxygen as a waste product, and initiated the Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history at the transition from the Archaean to the Paleoproterozoic.

  20. Imaging eubacteria and archaean cell abundance and nitrification activity on marine snow particles collected from the South Pacific using microscopy and nanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, R.; Santoro, A. E.; Tienken, D.; Littman, S.; Berelson, W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2016-02-01

    The abundance and nitrification activity by marine-snow associated eubacteria and archaea were measured on particles collected in the South Pacific. The particles were first collected from 24 hour floating sediment traps moored at 100 and 200 m and later amended and incubated with 13C-bicarbonate and 15NH4 for 48 hours. Enrichment for 13C and 15N in cells above natural abundance was quantified using a coupled halogenated in situ hybridization assay with nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (HISH-SIMS). Approximately 82% ± 10 of the observed hybridized cells were Eubacterial, while 24% ± 5 were positively hybridized with the Archaean probe. There was high variability in 13C/12C and 15N/14N in both bacterial and archaeal cells. Complementary measurements of δ15NNO3 at the conclusion of the experiment indicated no detectible nitrification activity associated with the particles. Thin sections of the particles imaged with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that a higher abundance of degrading phytoplanktonic cells, including numerous empty radiolarian and diatom frustules were associated with the deeper moored tap, while the shallow trap collected intact bacterial cells, including small picocyanobacteria. Single cell imaging and observations such as those presented here can provide subtle insights and measurements of cellular activity that are often diluted by bulk approaches and that are directly applicable to modeling N and C cycling.

  1. Paleomagnetism of late Archaean flood basalt terrains : implications for early Earth geodynamics and geomagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, G.H.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies are e.g. important for demonstrating and quantifying horizontal movement and rotation of pieces of the Earth's crust. The constant movement and recycling of plates, in other words plate tectonics, is an important mechanism for the Earth to lose its heat. It is generally

  2. Palaeomagnetism of late Archaean flood basalt terrains : implications for early Earth geodynamics and geomagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Gerardus Henricus Martina Anna

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies are e.g. important for demonstrating and quantifying horizontal movement and rotation of pieces of the Earth's crust. The constant movement and recycling of plates, in other words plate tectonics, is an important mechanism for the Earth to lose its heat. It is generally

  3. GSM 900 MHz cellular phone radiation can either stimulate or depress early embryogenesis in Japanese quails depending on the duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybulin, Olexandr; Sidorik, Evgeniy; Brieieva, Olga; Buchynska, Lyubov; Kyrylenko, Sergiy; Henshel, Diane; Yakymenko, Igor

    2013-09-01

    Our study was designed to assess the effects of low intensity radiation of a GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) 900 MHz cellular phone on early embryogenesis in dependence on the duration of exposure. Embryos of Japanese Quails were exposed in ovo to GSM 900 MHz cellular phone radiation during initial 38 h of brooding or alternatively during 158 h (120 h before brooding plus initial 38 h of brooding) discontinuously with 48 sec ON (average power density 0.25 μW/cm(2), specific absorption rate 3 μW/kg) followed by 12 sec OFF intervals. A number of differentiated somites were assessed microscopically. Possible DNA damage evoked by irradiation was assessed by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to radiation from a GSM 900 MHz cellular phone led to a significantly altered number of differentiated somites. In embryos irradiated during 38 h the number of differentiated somites increased (p GSM 900 MHz cellular phone radiation on early embryogenesis can be either stimulating or deleterious depending on the duration of exposure.

  4. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

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    Kalsbeek, Feiko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The geological development of Greenland spans a period of nearly 4 Ga, from Eoarchaean to the Quaternary. Greenland is the largest island on Earth with a total area of 2 166 000 km2, but only c. 410 000 km2 are exposed bedrock, the remaining part being covered by a major ice sheet (the Inland Ice reaching over 3 km in thickness. The adjacent offshore areas underlain by continental crust have an area of c. 825 000 km2. Greenland is dominated by crystalline rocks of the Precambrian shield, which formed during a succession of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic orogenic events and stabilised as a part of the Laurentian shield about 1600 Ma ago. The shield area can be divided into three distinct types of basement provinces: (1 Archaean rocks (3200–2600 Ma old, with local older units up to >3800Ma that were almost unaffected by Proterozoic or later orogenic activity; (2 Archaean terrains reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic around 1900–1750 Ma ago; and (3 terrains mainly composed of juvenile Palaeoproterozoic rocks (2000–1750 Ma in age.Subsequent geological developments mainly took place along the margins of the shield. During the Proterozoic and throughout the Phanerozoic major sedimentary basins formed, notably in North and North-East Greenland, in which sedimentary successions locally reaching 18 km in thickness were deposited. Palaeozoic orogenic activity affected parts of these successions in the Ellesmerian fold belt of North Greenland and the East Greenland Caledonides; the latter also incorporates reworked Precambrian crystalline basement complexes. Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins developed along the continent–ocean margins in North, East and West Greenland and are now preserved both onshore and offshore. Their development was closely related to continental break-up with formation of rift basins. Initial rifting in East Greenland in latest Devonian to earliest Carboniferous time and succeeding phases culminated with the

  5. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin’s Warm Little Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damer, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Charles Darwin’s original intuition that life began in a “warm little pond” has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin’s original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth’s first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record. PMID:27231942

  6. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin’s Warm Little Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Damer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s original intuition that life began in a “warm little pond” has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin’s original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth’s first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record.

  7. Metal availability and the expanding network of microbial metabolisms in the Archaean eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eli K.; Jelen, Benjamin I.; Giovannelli, Donato; Raanan, Hagai; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2017-09-01

    Life is based on energy gained by electron-transfer processes; these processes rely on oxidoreductase enzymes, which often contain transition metals in their structures. The availability of different metals and substrates has changed over the course of Earth's history as a result of secular changes in redox conditions, particularly global oxygenation. New metabolic pathways using different transition metals co-evolved alongside changing redox conditions. Sulfur reduction, sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis appeared between about 3.8 and 3.4 billion years ago. The oxidoreductases responsible for these metabolisms incorporated metals that were readily available in Archaean oceans, chiefly iron and iron-sulfur clusters. Oxygenic photosynthesis appeared between 3.2 and 2.5 billion years ago, as did methane oxidation, nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification. These metabolisms rely on an expanded range of transition metals presumably made available by the build-up of molecular oxygen in soil crusts and marine microbial mats. The appropriation of copper in enzymes before the Great Oxidation Event is particularly important, as copper is key to nitrogen and methane cycling and was later incorporated into numerous aerobic metabolisms. We find that the diversity of metals used in oxidoreductases has increased through time, suggesting that surface redox potential and metal incorporation influenced the evolution of metabolism, biological electron transfer and microbial ecology.

  8. The maternal-effect gene cellular island encodes aurora B kinase and is essential for furrow formation in the early zebrafish embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taijiro Yabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Females homozygous for a mutation in cellular island (cei produce embryos with defects in cytokinesis during early development. Analysis of the cytoskeletal events associated with furrow formation reveal that these defects include a general delay in furrow initiation as well as a complete failure to form furrow-associated structures in distal regions of the blastodisc. A linkage mapping-based candidate gene approach, including transgenic rescue, shows that cei encodes the zebrafish Aurora B kinase homologue. Genetic complementation analysis between the cei mutation and aurB zygotic lethal mutations corroborate gene assignment and reveal a complex nature of the maternal-effect cei allele, which appears to preferentially affect a function important for cytokinesis in the early blastomeres. Surprisingly, in cei mutant embryos a short yet otherwise normal furrow forms in the center of the blastodisc. Furrow formation is absent throughout the width of the blastodisc in cei mutant embryos additionally mutant for futile cycle, which lack a spindle apparatus, showing that the residual furrow signal present in cei mutants is derived from the mitotic spindle. Our analysis suggests that partially redundant signals derived from the spindle and astral apparatus mediate furrow formation in medial and distal regions of the early embryonic blastomeres, respectively, possibly as a spatial specialization to achieve furrow formation in these large cells. In addition, our data also suggest a role for Cei/AurB function in the reorganization of the furrow-associated microtubules in both early cleavage- and somite-stage embryos. In accordance with the requirement for cei/aurB in furrow induction in the early cleavage embryo, germ plasm recruitment to the forming furrow is also affected in embryos lacking normal cei/aurB function.

  9. Analysis of the early cellular and humoral responses of Galleria mellonella larvae to infection by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Gerard; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae were administered an inoculum of Candida albicans and the response to infection over 24 hours was monitored. The yeast cell density in infected larvae declined initially but replication commenced six hours post-infection. The hemocyte density decreased from 5.2 × 10 6 /ml to 2.5 × 10 6 /ml at 2 hours but increased to 4.2 × 106 at 6 hours and decreased subsequently. Administration of β - glucan to larvae also caused a fluctuation in hemocyte density (5.1 ± 0.22 × 10 6 /ml (0 hour) to 6.25 ± 0.25 × 106/ml (6 hour) (p < 0.05) to 5 ± 2.7 × 106 (24 hour)) and the population showed an increase in the density of small, granular cells at 24 hours (p < 0.05). Hemocytes from larvae inoculated with β - glucan for 6 or 24 hours showed faster killing of C. albicans cells (53 ± 4.1% (p < 0.01), 64 ± 3.7%, (p < 0.01), respectively) than hemocytes from control larvae (24 ± 11%) at 60 min. Proteomic analysis indicated increased abundance of immune related proteins cecropin-A (5 fold) and prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase-1 (5 fold) 6 hours post infection but by 24 hours there was elevated abundance of muscle (tropomyosin 2 (141 fold), calponin (66 fold), troponin I (62 fold)) and proteins indicative of cellular stress (glutathione-S-transferase-like protein (114 fold)), fungal dissemination (muscle protein 20-like protein (174 fold)) and tissue breakdown (mitochondrial cytochrome c (10 fold)). Proteins decreased in abundance at 24 hour included β - 1,3 - glucan recognition protein precursor (29 fold) and prophenoloxidase subunit 2 (25 fold).

  10. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to (56)Fe irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Samy S; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a "priming" dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a "challenge" dose of (56)Fe in a mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of (56)Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of (56)Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Exposure to (56)Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before (56)Fe prevented all of the responses to (56)Fe. This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Orogenic gold mineralisation hosted by Archaean basement rocks at Sortekap, Kangerlussuaq area, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, D. A.; Jenkin, G. R. T.; Butterworth, K. G.; Abraham-James, T.; Boyce, A. J.

    2013-04-01

    A gold-bearing quartz vein system has been identified in Archaean basement rocks at Sortekap in the Kangerlussuaq region of east Greenland, 35 km north-northeast of the Skaergaard Intrusion. This constitutes the first recorded occurrence of Au mineralisation in the metamorphic basement rocks of east Greenland. The mineralisation can be classified as orogenic style, quartz vein-hosted Au mineralisation. Two vein types have been identified based on their alteration styles and the presence of Au mineralisation. Mineralised type 1 veins occur within sheared supracrustal units and are hosted by garnet-bearing amphibolites, with associated felsic and ultramafic intrusions. Gold is present as native Au and Au-rich electrum together with arsenopyrite and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite in thin alteration selvages in the immediate wall rocks. The alteration assemblage of actinolite-clinozoisite-muscovite-titanite-scheelite-arsenopyrite-pyrite is considered to be a greenschist facies assemblage. The timing of mineralisation is therefore interpreted as being later and separate event to the peak amphibolite facies metamorphism of the host rocks. Type 2 quartz veins are barren of mineralisation, lack significant alteration of the wall rocks and are considered to be later stage. Fluid inclusion microthermometry of the quartz reveals three separate fluids, including a high temperature ( T h = 300-350 °C), H2O-CO2-CH4 fluid present only in type 1 veins that in interpreted to be responsible for the main stage of Au deposition and sulphidic wall rock alteration. It is likely that the carbonic fluids were actually trapped at temperatures closer to 400 °C. Two other fluids were identified within both vein types, which comprise low temperature (100-200 °C) brines, with salinities of 13-25 wt% eq. NaCl and at least one generation of low salinity aqueous fluids. The sources and timings of the secondary fluids are currently equivocal but they may be related to the emplacement of

  12. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  13. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  14. Drp1 Mitochondrial Fission in D1 Neurons Mediates Behavioral and Cellular Plasticity during Early Cocaine Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Engeln, Michel; Schiefer, Christopher; Patton, Mary H; Martin, Jennifer A; Werner, Craig T; Riggs, Lace M; Francis, T Chase; McGlincy, Madeleine; Evans, Brianna; Nam, Hyungwoo; Das, Shweta; Girven, Kasey; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Gancarz, Amy M; Golden, Sam A; Iñiguez, Sergio D; Russo, Scott J; Turecki, Gustavo; Mathur, Brian N; Creed, Meaghan; Dietz, David M; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2017-12-20

    Altered brain energy homeostasis is a key adaptation occurring in the cocaine-addicted brain, but the effect of cocaine on the fundamental source of energy, mitochondria, is unknown. We demonstrate an increase of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), the mitochondrial fission mediator, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after repeated cocaine exposure and in cocaine-dependent individuals. Mdivi-1, a demonstrated fission inhibitor, blunts cocaine seeking and locomotor sensitization, while blocking c-Fos induction and excitatory input onto dopamine receptor-1 (D1) containing NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Drp1 and fission promoting Drp1 are increased in D1-MSNs, consistent with increased smaller mitochondria in D1-MSN dendrites after repeated cocaine. Knockdown of Drp1 in D1-MSNs blocks drug seeking after cocaine self-administration, while enhancing the fission promoting Drp1 enhances seeking after long-term abstinence from cocaine. We demonstrate a role for altered mitochondrial fission in the NAc, during early cocaine abstinence, suggesting potential therapeutic treatment of disrupting mitochondrial fission in cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Homology and Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Development of Unique Feather Morphologies in Early Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Chuong, Cheng-ming; Bottjer, David J.; You, Hailu

    2013-01-01

    At least two lineages of Mesozoic birds are known to have possessed a distinct feather morphotype for which there is no neornithine (modern) equivalent. The early stepwise evolution of apparently modern feathers occurred within Maniraptora, basal to the avian transition, with asymmetrical pennaceous feathers suited for flight present in the most basal recognized avian, Archaeopteryx lithographica. The number of extinct primitive feather morphotypes recognized among non-avian dinosaurs continues to increase with new discoveries; some of these resemble feathers present in basal birds. As a result, feathers between phylogenetically widely separated taxa have been described as homologous. Here we examine the extinct feather morphotypes recognized within Aves and compare these structures with those found in non-avian dinosaurs. We conclude that the “rachis dominated” tail feathers of Confuciusornis sanctus and some enantiornithines are not equivalent to the “proximally ribbon-like” pennaceous feathers of the juvenile oviraptorosaur Similicaudipteryx yixianensis. Close morphological analysis of these unusual rectrices in basal birds supports the interpretation that they are modified pennaceous feathers. Because this feather morphotype is not seen in living birds, we build on current understanding of modern feather molecular morphogenesis to suggest a hypothetical molecular developmental model for the formation of the rachis dominated feathers of extinct basal birds. PMID:24003379

  16. Homology and Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Development of Unique Feather Morphologies in Early Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Bottjer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least two lineages of Mesozoic birds are known to have possessed a distinct feather morphotype for which there is no neornithine (modern equivalent. The early stepwise evolution of apparently modern feathers occurred within Maniraptora, basal to the avian transition, with asymmetrical pennaceous feathers suited for flight present in the most basal recognized avian, Archaeopteryx lithographica. The number of extinct primitive feather morphotypes recognized among non-avian dinosaurs continues to increase with new discoveries; some of these resemble feathers present in basal birds. As a result, feathers between phylogenetically widely separated taxa have been described as homologous. Here we examine the extinct feather morphotypes recognized within Aves and compare these structures with those found in non-avian dinosaurs. We conclude that the “rachis dominated” tail feathers of Confuciusornis sanctus and some enantiornithines are not equivalent to the “proximally ribbon-like” pennaceous feathers of the juvenile oviraptorosaur Similicaudipteryx yixianensis. Close morphological analysis of these unusual rectrices in basal birds supports the interpretation that they are modified pennaceous feathers. Because this feather morphotype is not seen in living birds, we build on current understanding of modern feather molecular morphogenesis to suggest a hypothetical molecular developmental model for the formation of the rachis dominated feathers of extinct basal birds.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Early Cellular Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Solid Organ Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Judy D; Metes, Diana M; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the early inflammatory response in transplantation is formulated with ordinary differential equations. We first consider the inflammatory events associated only with the initial surgical procedure and the subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) events that cause tissue damage to the host as well as the donor graft. These events release damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), thereby initiating an acute inflammatory response. In simulations of this model, resolution of inflammation depends on the severity of the tissue damage caused by these events and the patient's (co)-morbidities. We augment a portion of a previously published mathematical model of acute inflammation with the inflammatory effects of T cells in the absence of antigenic allograft mismatch (but with DAMP release proportional to the degree of graft damage prior to transplant). Finally, we include the antigenic mismatch of the graft, which leads to the stimulation of potent memory T cell responses, leading to further DAMP release from the graft and concomitant increase in allograft damage. Regulatory mechanisms are also included at the final stage. Our simulations suggest that surgical injury and I/R-induced graft damage can be well-tolerated by the recipient when each is present alone, but that their combination (along with antigenic mismatch) may lead to acute rejection, as seen clinically in a subset of patients. An emergent phenomenon from our simulations is that low-level DAMP release can tolerize the recipient to a mismatched allograft, whereas different restimulation regimens resulted in an exaggerated rejection response, in agreement with published studies. We suggest that mechanistic mathematical models might serve as an adjunct for patient- or sub-group-specific predictions, simulated clinical studies, and rational design of immunosuppression.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Early Cellular Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Solid Organ Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Judy D.; Metes, Diana M.; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the early inflammatory response in transplantation is formulated with ordinary differential equations. We first consider the inflammatory events associated only with the initial surgical procedure and the subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) events that cause tissue damage to the host as well as the donor graft. These events release damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), thereby initiating an acute inflammatory response. In simulations of this model, resolution of inflammation depends on the severity of the tissue damage caused by these events and the patient’s (co)-morbidities. We augment a portion of a previously published mathematical model of acute inflammation with the inflammatory effects of T cells in the absence of antigenic allograft mismatch (but with DAMP release proportional to the degree of graft damage prior to transplant). Finally, we include the antigenic mismatch of the graft, which leads to the stimulation of potent memory T cell responses, leading to further DAMP release from the graft and concomitant increase in allograft damage. Regulatory mechanisms are also included at the final stage. Our simulations suggest that surgical injury and I/R-induced graft damage can be well-tolerated by the recipient when each is present alone, but that their combination (along with antigenic mismatch) may lead to acute rejection, as seen clinically in a subset of patients. An emergent phenomenon from our simulations is that low-level DAMP release can tolerize the recipient to a mismatched allograft, whereas different restimulation regimens resulted in an exaggerated rejection response, in agreement with published studies. We suggest that mechanistic mathematical models might serve as an adjunct for patient- or sub-group-specific predictions, simulated clinical studies, and rational design of immunosuppression. PMID:26441988

  19. Flavopiridol induces cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein degradation by the proteasome and promotes TRAIL-induced early signaling and apoptosis in breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Carmen; Yerbes, Rosario; López-Rivas, Abelardo

    2006-09-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol is undergoing clinical trials as an antitumor drug. We show here that pretreatment of different human breast cancer cell lines with flavopiridol facilitates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. In breast tumor cells, apoptosis induction by TRAIL is blocked at the level of apical caspase-8 activation. Flavopiridol treatment enhances TRAIL-induced formation of death-inducing signaling complex and early processing of procaspase-8. Subsequently, a TRAIL-induced, mitochondria-operated pathway of apoptosis is activated in cells treated with flavopiridol. Down-regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory proteins (c-FLIP; c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S)) is observed on flavopiridol treatment. c-FLIP loss and apoptosis sensitization by flavopiridol are both prevented in cells treated with an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Furthermore, targeting c-FLIP directly with small interfering RNA oligonucleotides also sensitizes various human breast tumor cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that flavopiridol sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by facilitating early events in the apoptotic pathway, and this combination treatment could be regarded as a potential therapeutic tool against breast tumors.

  20. Steroidogenesis and early response gene expression in MA-10 Leydig tumor cells following heterologous receptor down-regulation and cellular desensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuey-Ming Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig tumor cell line, MA-10, expresses the luteinizing hormone receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor that, when activated with luteinizing hormone or chorionic gonadotropin (CG, stimulates cAMP production and subsequent steroidogenesis, notably progesterone. These cells also respond to epidermal growth factor (EGF and phorbol esters with increased steroid biosynthesis. In order to probe the intracellular pathways along with heterologous receptor down-regulation and cellular desensitization, cells were preincubated with EGF or phorbol esters and then challenged with CG, EGF, dibutryl-cyclic AMP, and a phorbol ester. Relative receptor numbers, steroid biosynthesis, and expression of the early response genes, JUNB and c-FOS, were measured. It was found that in all cases but one receptor down-regulation and decreased progesterone production were closely coupled under the conditions used; the exception involved preincubation of the cells with EGF followed by addition of CG where the CG-mediated stimulation of steroidogenesis was considerably lower than the level of receptor down-regulation. In a number of instances JUNB and c-FOS expression paralleled the decreases in receptor number and progesterone production, while in some cases these early response genes were affected little if at all by the changes in receptor number. This finding may indicate that even low levels of activated signaling kinases, e.g. protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or receptor tyrosine kinase, may suffice to yield good expression of JUNB and c-FOS, or it may suggest alternative pathways for regulating expression of these two early response genes.

  1. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  2. Cellular entry of ebola virus involves uptake by a macropinocytosis-like mechanism and subsequent trafficking through early and late endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad F Saeed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV, a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus, poses serious public health, ecological and potential bioterrorism threats. Currently no specific therapy or vaccine is available. Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. However, current knowledge of the ZEBOV entry mechanism is limited. While it is known that ZEBOV enters cells through endocytosis, which of the cellular endocytic mechanisms used remains unclear. Previous studies have produced differing outcomes, indicating potential involvement of multiple routes but many of these studies were performed using noninfectious surrogate systems such as pseudotyped retroviral particles, which may not accurately recapitulate the entry characteristics of the morphologically distinct wild type virus. Here we used replication-competent infectious ZEBOV as well as morphologically similar virus-like particles in specific infection and entry assays to demonstrate that in HEK293T and Vero cells internalization of ZEBOV is independent of clathrin, caveolae, and dynamin. Instead the uptake mechanism has features of macropinocytosis. The binding of virus to cells appears to directly stimulate fluid phase uptake as well as localized actin polymerization. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis including Pak1 and CtBP/BARS as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, which affects macropinosome formation, resulted in significant reduction in ZEBOV entry and infection. It is also shown that following internalization, the virus enters the endolysosomal pathway and is trafficked through early and late endosomes, but the exact site of membrane fusion and nucleocapsid penetration in the cytoplasm remains unclear. This study identifies the route for ZEBOV entry and identifies the key cellular factors required for the uptake of this filamentous virus. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the ZEBOV entry mechanism that can be applied to development of new

  3. Archaean microbial consortia of the 2.7-2.6 Ga Ngesi Gp. (Belingwe) sediments, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassineau, N. V.; Nisbet, E. G.; Thomazo, C.

    2011-12-01

    microbial ecology can be deduced. S isotopes imply the presence of sulphate reducers, and most probably sulphide oxidisers in sulphureta. C isotopes in stromatolites imply the presence of cyanobacteria carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis. C isotopes also record more extreme fractionation involving methanogenesis. The presence of methanotrophs to reconvert the methane to carbon dioxide and organic matter is also a likely inference, supported by the 'light' carbonate in the Cheshire shales. Both the Archaean carbonate reefs and the muddy bottoms probably hosted patchworks of microbial consortia, dependent on small-scale physical (and chemical) variation in the sediment reflecting local depositional facies and diagenetic processes, as well as external factors such as tides, currents and seasonality.

  4. Late-Archaean crustal growth in the Lewisian Complex of Northwest Scotland: Diachroneity in magmatic accretion and implications for models of crustal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M. J.

    The Lewisian Complex of northwestern Scotland is an Archaean basement terrain that was reworked during the Proterozoic. Previous geochronological studies have established that the complex represents an entirely new crustal addition during late-Archaean times, and the difference between a Sm-Nd accretion date of 2920 + or - 50 Ma and a Pb/Pb metamorphic date of 2680 + or - 70 Ma was interpreted as indicating a crustal accretion-differentiation superevent (CADS) lasting 240 + or - 110 Ma. A combined Rb-Sr, Pb/Pb, and Sm-Nd isotopic study reported was applied to the Lewisian CADS to attempt to address the problem of whether this comprised a short regional scale magmatic accretion event followed approximately 200 Ma later by regional high-grade metamorphism, or a long period of episodic or semi-continuous magmatic accretion prior to high-grade metamorphism.

  5. Radiometric ages and other isotopic data bearing on the evolution of Archaean crust and ores in the Kuhmo-Suomussalmi area, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaasjoki, M.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Archaean greenstone-gneiss terrain in the Kuhmo-Suomussalmi district in eastern Finland has been isotopically studied in connection with regional bedrock mapping and local mineral exploration projects. The studies have aimed at testing correlations of lithologic units in partly poorly exposed areas, determining times of ore formation and obtaining ore genetic information in order to better understand the general evolution of the Archaean formations within the Fennoscandian Shield. Isotopic results on 63 zircon and titanite fractions from 13 samples, common lead analyses of 14 sulphide separates from two mineral prospects and 33 whole rock Pb-Pb analyses warrant the following conclusions: 1 Although some dates in excess of 3 Ga have been determined from the Finnish Archaean, most of the granite gneiss terrain was formed between 2.85 and 2.65 Ga with a major period of rock formation from about 2.75 to 2.69 Ga. 2 The majority of the metavolcanic rocks within the Kuhmo-Suomussalmi greenstone belt are 2.79 Ga old, but the meta-andesites of the Luoma Group are distinctly older at 2.97 Ga. 3 The Taivaljärvi Ag-Zn-Pb deposit appears to be syngenetic with the local metavolcanic rocks and is thus 2.79 Ga old. Its lead probably represents the initial lead of both mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks in the area. 4 When compared to the Abitibi region in Canada, the available Pb-Pb data may suggest a heterogeneous Archaean mantle, but as even this study shows, common lead data is inconclusive evidence, as it may be easily influenced by later hydrothermal processes.

  6. Geochemical evidence for subduction in the early Archaean from quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization, Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    of this metasomatic-tectonic relationship requires that 1) Phanerozoic orogenic Au-deposits form in subduction-zone environments, and 2) the geochemical similarity of Precambrian orogenic deposits to their younger counterparts is the result of having the same petrogenetic origin. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope...... compositions of fuchsite and quartz from auriferous mineralization in the ca. 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB) in West Greenland, in conjunction with elevated concentrations of CO2, Cr, Al, K and silica relative to protolith assemblages, suggest that this mineralization shares a common petro-tectonic origin......, are the result of seawater-derived fluids liberated from subducting lithosphere interacting with ultramafic rocks in the mantle wedge and lower crust, before migrating up crustal-scale vertical fracture zones. Thus, the presence of quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization in the Isua supracrustal belt and other...

  7. Archaean lode gold mineralisation in banded iron formation at the Kalahari Goldridge deposit, Kraaipan Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Napoleon Q.; Moore, John M.

    2006-08-01

    The Kalahari Goldridge Mine is located within the Archaean Kraaipan Greenstone Belt, about 60 km southwest of Mafikeng in the North West Province, South Africa. The ore body thickness varies from 15 to 45 m along a strike length of about 1.5 km within approximately N-S striking banded iron formation (BIF). The stratabound ore body is hosted primarily by BIF, which consists of alternating chert and magnetite-chlorite-stilpnomelane-sulphide-carbonate bands of millimetre- to centimetre scale. A footwall of sericite-carbonate-chlorite schist underlain by mafic amphibolite occurs to the west and carbonaceous metapelites in the hanging wall to the east. Overlying the hanging wall, carbonaceous metapelites, units of coarse-grained metagreywackes fining upwards, become increasingly conglomeratic up the stratigraphy. Small-scale isoclinal folds, brecciation, extension fractures and boudinage of cherty BIF units reflect brittle-ductile deformation. Fold axial planes have foliation, with subvertical plunges parallel to prominent rodding and mineral lineation in the footwall rocks. Gold mineralisation is associated with two generations of quartz-carbonate veins, dipping approximately 20° to 40° W. The first generation consists of ladder-vein sets (group IIA) preferentially developed in centimetre-scale Fe-rich mesobands, whereas the second generation consists of large quartz-carbonate veins (group IIB), which locally crosscut the entire ore body and extend into the footwall and hanging wall. The ore body is controlled by mesoscale isoclinal folds approximately 67° E, orthogonal to the plane of mineralised, gently dipping veins, defining the principal stretching direction and development of fluid-focussing conduits. The intersections of the mineralised veins and foliation planes of the host rock plunges approximately 08° to the north. Pervasive hydrothermal alteration is characterised by chloritisation, carbonatisation, sulphidation and K-metasomatism. Gold is closely

  8. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietikäinen, K.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  9. δ- and γ-Tocopherols Inhibit PhIP/DSS-induced Colon Carcinogenesis by Protection against Early Cellular and DNA Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jayson X.; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Wang, Hong; Yu, Siyuan; Chi, Eric; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Yang, Chung S.

    2017-01-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, are a family of fat-soluble compounds that exist in alpha (α-T), beta (β-T), gamma (γ-T) and delta (δ-T) variants. A cancer preventive effect of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies. However, past animal studies and human intervention trials with α-T, the most active vitamin E form, have yielded disappointing results. A possible explanation is that the cancer preventive activity of α-T is weak compared to other tocopherol forms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of δ-T, γ-T and α-T (0.2% in diet) in a novel colon cancer model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. PhIP/DSS treatments induced multiple polypoid tumors, mainly tubular adenocarcinomas, in the middle to distal colon of the hCYP1A mice after 10 weeks. Dietary supplementation with δ-T and γ-T significantly reduced colon tumor formation and suppressed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (i.e., 8-oxo-dG and nitrotyrosine) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., NF-κB p65 and p-STAT3) in tumors and adjacent tissues. By administering δ-T at different time periods, we obtained results suggesting that the inhibitory effect of δ-T against colon carcinogenesis is mainly due to protection against early cellular and DNA damages caused by PhIP. α-T was found to be ineffective in inhibiting colon tumors and less effective in attenuating the molecular changes. Altogether, we demonstrated strong cancer preventive effects of δ-T and γ-T in a physiologically relevant model of human colon cancer. PMID:27175800

  10. Early differential cell death and survival mechanisms initiate and contribute to the development of OPIDN: A study of molecular, cellular, and anatomical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodaran, T.V., E-mail: tdamodar@nccu.edu [Dept of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Attia, M.K. [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Abou-Donia, M.B., E-mail: donia@mc.duke.edu [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    analysis revealed that the order of severity of damage declines from the spino-cerebellar, ventral, and dorsal tract respectively, suggesting neuroanatomical specificity. Thus, early activation of cell death and cell survival processes may play significant role in the clinical progression and syndromic clinical feature presentation of OPIDN. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple mechanisms of neurodegeneration were indicated in a study on OPIDN model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Altered expressions of BCL2 and GADD45 were recorded in various tissues of CNS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple anomalous cellular (neuronal and astroglial) features were recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anatomical specificity of the neurodegeneration was described.

  11. Selection for Protein Kinetic Stability Connects Denaturation Temperatures to Organismal Temperatures and Provides Clues to Archaean Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, M Luisa; Risso, Valeria A; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Gaucher, Eric A; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the denaturation temperatures of proteins (Tm values) and the living temperatures of their host organisms (environmental temperatures: TENV values) is poorly understood. Since different proteins in the same organism may show widely different Tm's, no simple universal relationship between Tm and TENV should hold, other than Tm≥TENV. Yet, when analyzing a set of homologous proteins from different hosts, Tm's are oftentimes found to correlate with TENV's but this correlation is shifted upward on the Tm axis. Supporting this trend, we recently reported Tm's for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins that mirror a proposed environmental cooling over long geological time, while remaining a shocking ~50°C above the proposed ancestral ocean temperatures. Here, we show that natural selection for protein kinetic stability (denaturation rate) can produce a Tm↔TENV correlation with a large upward shift in Tm. A model for protein stability evolution suggests a link between the Tm shift and the in vivo lifetime of a protein and, more specifically, allows us to estimate ancestral environmental temperatures from experimental denaturation rates for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins. The TENV values thus obtained match the proposed ancestral ocean cooling, support comparatively high Archaean temperatures, and are consistent with a recent proposal for the environmental temperature (above 75°C) that hosted the last universal common ancestor. More generally, this work provides a framework for understanding how features of protein stability reflect the environmental temperatures of the host organisms.

  12. Archaean and Proterozoic diamond growth from contrasting styles of large-scale magmatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Janne M.; Gress, Michael U.; Chinn, Ingrid L.; Jelsma, Hielke A.; Harris, Jeff W.; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Precise dating of diamond growth is required to understand the interior workings of the early Earth and the deep carbon cycle. Here we report Sm-Nd isotope data from 26 individual garnet inclusions from 26 harzburgitic diamonds from Venetia, South Africa. Garnet inclusions and host diamonds comprise

  13. Invisible gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from a multistage Archaean gold deposit: Sunrise Dam, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y.-H.; Brugger, J.; Ciobanu, C. L.; Pring, A.; Skinner, W.; Nugus, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Sunrise Dam gold mine (11.1 Moz Au) is the largest deposit in the Archaean Laverton Greenstone Belt (Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). The deposit is characterized by multiple events of fluid flow leading to repeated alteration and mineralization next to a major crustal-scale structure. The Au content of arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from four mineralizing stages (D1, D3, D4a, and D4b) and from different structural and lithostratigraphic environments was measured using in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pyrite contains up to 3,067 ppm Au ( n = 224), whereas arsenopyrite contains up to 5,767 ppm ( n = 19). Gold in arsenopyrite (D4a stage) was coprecipitated and remained as “invisible gold” (nanoparticles and/or lattice-bound) during subsequent deformation events. In contrast, gold in pyrite is present not only as “invisible gold” but also as micrometer-size inclusions of native gold, electrum, and Au(Ag)-tellurides. Pristine D1 and D3 arsenian pyrite contains relatively low Au concentrations (≤26 ppm). The highest Au concentrations occur in D4a arsenian-rich pyrite that has recrystallized from D3 pyrite. Textures show that this recrystallization proceeded via a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, and this process may have contributed to upgrading Au grades during D4a. In contrast, Au in D4b pyrite shows grain-scale redistribution of “invisible” gold resulting in the formation of micrometer-scale inclusions of Au minerals. The speciation of Au at Sunrise Dam and the exceptional size of the deposit at province scale result from multiple fluid flow and multiple Au-precipitating mechanisms within a single plumbing system.

  14. Rock strength measurements on Archaean basement granitoids recovered from scientific drilling in the active Koyna seismogenic zone, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Deepjyoti; Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Misra, Surajit; Roy, Sukanta; Singh, Santosh K.; Sinha, Amalendu; Gupta, Harsh; Bansal, B. K.; Nayak, Shailesh

    2017-08-01

    Reservoir triggered earthquakes have been occurring in the Koyna area, western India for the past five decades. Triaxial tests carried out on 181 core samples of Archaean granitoids underlying the Deccan Traps provide valuable constraints on rock strength properties in the Koyna seismogenic zone for the first time. The data include measurements on granite gneiss, granite, migmatitic gneiss and mylonitised granite gneiss obtained from boreholes KBH-3, KBH-4A, KBH-5 and KBH-7 located in the western and eastern margins of the seismic zone. Salient results are as follows. (i) Increase of rock strength with increasing confining pressure allow determination of the linearized failure envelopes from which the cohesive strength and angle of internal friction are calculated. (ii) Variable differential stresses at different depths are the manifestations of deformation partitioning in close association of fault zone(s) or localized fracture zones. (iii) Fractures controlled by naturally developed weak planes such as cleavage and fabric directly affect the rock strength properties, but the majority of failure planes developed during triaxial tests is not consistent with the orientations of pre-existing weak planes. The failure planes may, therefore, represent other planes of weakness induced by ongoing seismic activity. (iv) Stress-strain curves confirm that axial deformation is controlled by the varying intensity of pre-existing shear in the granitoids, viz., mylonite, granite gneiss and migmatitic gneiss. (v) Frequent occurrences of low magnitude earthquakes may be attributed to low and variable rock strength of the granitoids, which, in turn, is modified by successive seismic events.

  15. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  16. Pre-transplant donor-specific T-cell alloreactivity is strongly associated with early acute cellular rejection in kidney transplant recipients not receiving T-cell depleting induction therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Crespo

    Full Text Available Preformed T-cell immune-sensitization should most likely impact allograft outcome during the initial period after kidney transplantation, since donor-specific memory T-cells may rapidly recognize alloantigens and activate the effector immune response, which leads to allograft rejection. However, the precise time-frame in which acute rejection is fundamentally triggered by preformed donor-specific memory T cells rather than by de novo activated naïve T cells is still to be established. Here, preformed donor-specific alloreactive T-cell responses were evaluated using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay in a large consecutive cohort of kidney transplant patients (n = 90, to assess the main clinical variables associated with cellular sensitization and its predominant time-frame impact on allograft outcome, and was further validated in an independent new set of kidney transplant recipients (n = 67. We found that most highly T-cell sensitized patients were elderly patients with particularly poor HLA class-I matching, without any clinically recognizable sensitizing events. While one-year incidence of all types of biopsy-proven acute rejection did not differ between T-cell alloreactive and non-alloreactive patients, Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis indicated the first two months after transplantation as the highest risk time period for acute cellular rejection associated with baseline T-cell sensitization. This effect was particularly evident in young and highly alloreactive individuals that did not receive T-cell depletion immunosuppression. Multivariate analysis confirmed preformed T-cell sensitization as an independent predictor of early acute cellular rejection. In summary, monitoring anti-donor T-cell sensitization before transplantation may help to identify patients at increased risk of acute cellular rejection, particularly in the early phases after kidney transplantation, and thus guide decision-making regarding the use of induction

  17. The GH/IGF-1 axis in a critical period early in life determines cellular DNA repair capacity by altering transcriptional regulation of DNA repair-related genes: implications for the developmental origins of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlutsky, Andrej; Valcarcel-Ares, Marta Noa; Yancey, Krysta; Podlutskaya, Viktorija; Nagykaldi, Eszter; Gautam, Tripti; Miller, Richard A; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2017-04-01

    Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological findings support the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD), suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period around adolescence have a powerful impact on cancer morbidity later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during puberty are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating GH and IGF-1 levels. Importantly, patients with developmental IGF-1 deficiency due to GH insensitivity (Laron syndrome) do not develop cancer during aging. Rodents with developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exhibit significantly decreased cancer incidence at old age, marked resistance to chemically induced carcinogenesis, and cellular resistance to genotoxic stressors. Early-life treatment of GH/IGF-1-deficient mice and rats with GH reverses the cancer resistance phenotype; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that developmental GH/IGF-1 status impacts cellular DNA repair mechanisms. To achieve that goal, we assessed repair of γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage (single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay) and basal and post-irradiation expression of DNA repair-related genes (qPCR) in primary fibroblasts derived from control rats, Lewis dwarf rats (a model of developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency), and GH-replete dwarf rats (GH administered beginning at 5 weeks of age, for 30 days). We found that developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency resulted in persisting increases in cellular DNA repair capacity and upregulation of several DNA repair-related genes (e.g., Gadd45a, Bbc3). Peripubertal GH treatment reversed the radiation resistance phenotype. Fibroblasts of GH/IGF-1-deficient Snell dwarf mice also exhibited improved DNA repair capacity, showing that the persisting influence of peripubertal GH/IGF-1 status is not species-dependent. Collectively, GH/IGF-1 levels during a critical period

  18. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  19. A basin on an unstable ground: Correlation of the Middle Archaean Moodies Basin, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnemueller, Frank; Heubeck, Christoph; Kirstein, Jens; Gamper, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    time and immediately predates the initiation of basin shortening. Basin compartmentalization was likely due to the movement along a group of major faults (Sheba, Haki, Barbrook, Saddleback Faults) between the present Saddleback and Eureka Synclines, creating at least two subbasins in late Moodies time. Even though sediment provenance thus became localized, intensive Archaean weathering likely contributed to generate petrographically similar quartz-rich sandstones in fault-bounded minibasins. The late-Moodies minibasins may have become connected occasionally, allowing concurrent deposition of thin BIFs. A similar phase of movement along the major transcurrent Inyoka Fault may be responsible for the distinct petrographic character of Moodies sandstones south of that fault.

  20. A prospective, comparative study on the early effects of local and remote radiation therapy on carotid intima-media thickness and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with head and neck and prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Lima, Marta N; Biolo, Andréia; Foppa, Murilo; da Rosa, Priscila Raupp; Rohde, Luis Eduardo P; Clausell, Nadine

    2011-12-01

    To investigate early vascular changes related to carotid atherosclerotic injury post-radiation therapy (RT), we studied carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 at two time-points after RT and compared local and remote irradiation effects in patients with head and neck (HNC) and prostate cancer (PC), respectively. We prospectively studied patients beginning RT for HNC or PC, performing carotid ultrasound before RT, early after and six months after treatment to measure carotid IMT. Blood samples were simultaneously collected to study VCAM-1 by ELISA. We studied 19 patients with HNC and 24 with PC. Patients with HNC were younger (55 ± 10 years) than PC patients (68 ± 8 years). Early post-RT only HNC patients had an increase in IMT compared to baseline measurements (0.73 ± 0.04 mm vs. 0.80 ± 0.05 mm, p=0.029). On the other hand, VCAM-1 levels decreased in PC patients, remaining unchanged in HNC patients. Late post-RT (six months from previous assessment), neither IMT nor VCAM-1 values changed in both groups. Local and remote RT seem to exert differential early effects regarding vascular-related changes: (1) local RT seems to affect vascular structure and increase IMT and (2) RT for PC is associated with reduction in VCAM levels, suggesting systemic modulation of cancer-related factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardas, K.; Apostolou, K.; Briassouli, E.; Goukos, D.; Psarra, K.; Botoula, E.; Tsagarakis, S.; Magira, E.; Routsi, C.; Nanas, S.; Briassoulis, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP) and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) compared to healthy subjects (H). Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs) SS (n = 29) or SIRS (n = 29) admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72) and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α) were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P < 0.05). In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases. PMID:25243181

  2. Thymus vulgaris essential oil and thymol against Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler: effects on growth, viability, early infection and cellular mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Fabiano J; Amaral, Douglas C; Fernandes, Rafael S; Labory, Claudia Rg; Teixeira, Glauco A; Alves, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    In initial assays, Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) has demonstrated activity against several plant-pathogenic fungi and has reduced the fungal diseases to levels comparable with commercial fungicides. Thus, the goal of this work was to identify the mode of action in fungi of TEO and its major compound thymol (TOH) at the cellular level using an ultrastructure approach. TEO from leaves and TOH had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 500 and 250 µg mL(-1) respectively against A. alternata; under the same conditions, MIC for a commercial fungicide was 1250 µg mL(-1) . Ultrastructure analysis showed that TOH phenolic substance prevented fungal growth, reduced fungal viability and prevented the penetration in fruits by a cell wall/plasma membrane interference mode of action with organelles targeted for destruction in the cytoplasm. Such mode of action differs from protective and preventive-curative commercial fungicides used as pattern control. These findings suggest that TOH was responsible for the antifungal activity of TEO. Therefore, both the essential oil and its major substance have potential for use in the development of new phenolic structures and analogues to control Alternaria brown spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vardas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  4. Association of the Number of HLA-DR Mismatches With Early Post-transplant Acute Cellular Rejection Among Heart Transplantation Recipients: A Cohort Study in Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, D; Kinugawa, K; Imamura, T; Iino, J; Endo, M; Amiya, E; Hatano, M; Kinoshita, O; Nawata, K; Ono, M; Komuro, I

    Although many risk factors are reported about graft rejection after heart transplantation (HTx), the effect of HLA mismatch (MM) still remains unknown, especially in the Japanese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of HLA MM on graft rejection among HTx recipients in Japan. We retrospectively investigated the association of the number of HLA MM including class I (A, B) and class II (DR) (for each locus MM: 0 to 2, total MM: 0 to 6) and the incidence of moderate to severe acute cellular rejection (ACR) confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥ 3A/2R) within 1 year after HTx. Between 2007 and 2014, we had 49 HTx cases in our institute. After excluding those with insufficient data and positive donor-specific antigen, finally 35 patients were enrolled. Moderate to severe ACR was observed in 16 (45.7%) patients. The number of HLA-DR MM was significantly associated with the development of ACR (ACR+: 1.50 ± 0.63, ACR-: 1.11 ± 0.46, P = .029). From univariate analysis, DR MM = 2 was the only independent risk factor for ACR episodes (P = .017). The frequency of ACR within 1 year was significantly higher in those with DR MM = 2 (DR MM = 0 to 1: 0.3 ± 0.47, DR MM = 2: 1.17 ± 1.34 times, P = .007). The number of HLA-DR MMs was associated with the development and recurrence of ACR episodes among HTx recipients within 1 year after transplantation in Japanese population. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clathrin assembly protein CALM plays a critical role in KIT signaling by regulating its cellular transport from early to late endosomes in hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shinya; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Mai; Ogoh, Honami; Taniguchi, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yasuyoshi; Shimada, Takahiro; Tanimura, Akira; Matsui, Keiko; Yokota, Takafumi; Oritani, Kenji; Tanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Matsumura, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    CALM is implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, which mediate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of growth factor receptors and nutrients. We previously found that CALM-deficient mice suffer from severe anemia due to the impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin receptor in immature erythroblast. However, CALM has been supposed to regulate the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. So, in this study, we focused on the function of CALM in these cells. We here show that the number of Linage-Sca-1+KIT+ (LSK) cells decreased in the fetal liver of CALM-/- mice. Also, colony forming activity was impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells. In addition, SCF, FLT3, and TPO-dependent growth was severely impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells, while they can normally proliferate in response to IL-3 and IL-6. We also examined the intracellular trafficking of KIT using CALM-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) engineered to express KIT. At first, we confirmed that endocytosis of SCF-bound KIT was not impaired in CALM-/- MEFs by the internalization assay. However, SCF-induced KIT trafficking from early to late endosome was severely impaired in CALM-/- MEFs. As a result, although intracellular KIT disappeared 30 min after SCF stimulation in wild-type (WT) MEFs, it was retained in CALM-/- MEFs. Furthermore, SCF-induced phosphorylation of cytosolic KIT was enhanced and prolonged in CALM-/- MEFs compared with that in WT MEFs, leading to the excessive activation of Akt. Similar hyperactivation of Akt was observed in CALM-/- KIT+ cells. These results indicate that CALM is essential for the intracellular trafficking of KIT and its normal functions. Also, our data demonstrate that KIT located in the early endosome can activate downstream molecules as a signaling endosome. Because KIT activation is involved in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, the manipulation of CALM function would be an attractive therapeutic strategy.

  6. Clathrin assembly protein CALM plays a critical role in KIT signaling by regulating its cellular transport from early to late endosomes in hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Rai

    Full Text Available CALM is implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, which mediate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of growth factor receptors and nutrients. We previously found that CALM-deficient mice suffer from severe anemia due to the impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin receptor in immature erythroblast. However, CALM has been supposed to regulate the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. So, in this study, we focused on the function of CALM in these cells. We here show that the number of Linage-Sca-1+KIT+ (LSK cells decreased in the fetal liver of CALM-/- mice. Also, colony forming activity was impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells. In addition, SCF, FLT3, and TPO-dependent growth was severely impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells, while they can normally proliferate in response to IL-3 and IL-6. We also examined the intracellular trafficking of KIT using CALM-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs engineered to express KIT. At first, we confirmed that endocytosis of SCF-bound KIT was not impaired in CALM-/- MEFs by the internalization assay. However, SCF-induced KIT trafficking from early to late endosome was severely impaired in CALM-/- MEFs. As a result, although intracellular KIT disappeared 30 min after SCF stimulation in wild-type (WT MEFs, it was retained in CALM-/- MEFs. Furthermore, SCF-induced phosphorylation of cytosolic KIT was enhanced and prolonged in CALM-/- MEFs compared with that in WT MEFs, leading to the excessive activation of Akt. Similar hyperactivation of Akt was observed in CALM-/- KIT+ cells. These results indicate that CALM is essential for the intracellular trafficking of KIT and its normal functions. Also, our data demonstrate that KIT located in the early endosome can activate downstream molecules as a signaling endosome. Because KIT activation is involved in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, the manipulation of CALM function would be an attractive therapeutic strategy.

  7. Inhibition of MMP-2-mediated cellular invasion by NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ in 3D culture of breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells: A model for early phase of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaji, Tamami; Lin, Yinzhi; Okada, Shoshiro; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2017-03-25

    The three-dimensional (3D) culture of cancer cells provides an environmental condition closely related to the condition in vivo. It would especially be an ideal model for the early phase of metastasis, including the detachment and invasion of cancer cells from the primary tumor. In one hand, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), an NF-κB inhibitor, is known to inhibit cancer progression and late phase metastasis in animal experiments. In the present research, we studied the inhibitory activity on the 3D invasion of breast carcinoma cells. Breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells showed the most active invasion from spheroid among the cell lines tested. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of cells at the 3D-nontoxic concentrations. The PCR array analysis using RNA isolated from the 3D on-top cultured cells indicated that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression is lowered by DHMEQ. Knockdown of MMP-2 and an MMP inhibitor, GM6001, both inhibited the invasion. DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the promoter activity of MMP-2 in the reporter assay. Thus, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit NF-κB/MMP-2-dependent cellular invasion in 3D-cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that DHMEQ would inhibit the early phase of metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The origins of cellular life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-07-01

    All life on earth can be naturally classified into cellular life forms and virus-like selfish elements, the latter being fully dependent on the former for their reproduction. Cells are reproducers that not only replicate their genome but also reproduce the cellular organization that depends on semipermeable, energy-transforming membranes and cannot be recovered from the genome alone, under the famous dictum of Rudolf Virchow, Omnis cellula e cellula. In contrast, simple selfish elements are replicators that can complete their life cycles within the host cell starting from genomic RNA or DNA alone. The origin of the cellular organization is the central and perhaps the hardest problem of evolutionary biology. I argue that the origin of cells can be understood only in conjunction with the origin and evolution of selfish genetic elements. A scenario of precellular evolution is presented that involves cohesion of the genomes of the emerging cellular life forms from primordial pools of small genetic elements that eventually segregated into hosts and parasites. I further present a model of the coevolution of primordial membranes and membrane proteins, discuss protocellular and non-cellular models of early evolution, and examine the habitats on the primordial earth that could have been conducive to precellular evolution and the origin of cells.

  9. Geochronology of the Archaean Kolmozero-Voron'ya Greenstone Belt: U-Pb dating of zircon, titanite, tourmaline and tantalite (Kola Region, North-Eastern BAltic Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N.; Gavrilenko, B.; Apanasevich, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Archaean Kolmozero-Voron’ya greenstone belt is one of the most ancient geological structures of the Kola Peninsula. It is located between Upper Archaean terrains: Murmansk, Central Kola and Keivy. Within the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt there are rare metal (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be), Cu, Mo, and Au deposits. All rocks were metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions and intruded by granodiorites, plagiomicrocline and tourmaline granites and pegmatite veins. Four suites are distinguished within the belt: lower terrigenous formation, komatiite-tholeite, basalt-andesite-dacite and upper terrigenous formation. The U-Pb age of 2925±6 Ma on magmatic zircon was obtained for leucogabbro of differentiated gabbro-anorthosite massif Patchemvarak, situated at the boundary between volcanic-sedimentary units and granitoids of the Murmansk block. This age is the oldest for gabbro-anorthosites of the Kola Peninsula. Sm-Nd age of komatiites is ca. 2.87 Ga (Vrevsky, 1996). U-Pb age of zircon from biotite schist, which belongs to acid volcanites is 2865+/-5 Ma. Quartz porphyries, which are considered to be an intrusive vein analogous of acid volcanites has an age of 2828+/-8 Ma, that marks the final stage of the belt development. Dating of titanite from ovoid plagioamphibolites yielded an U-Pb age of 2595+/-20 Ma that probably is connected with the closure of the U-Pb isotopic titanite system during the regional metamorphism. The Porosozero granodioritic complex with an age of 2733+/-6 Ma is located between granites of the Murmansk domain, migmatites and gneisses of the Central Kola terrain and the Keivy alkaline granites. Tourmaline granites are found all over the Kolmozero-Voron’ya belt occurring among volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the belt. Their Pb-Pb age of 2520+/-70 Ma appears to denote the tourmaline crystallization at a post-magmatic stage of the complex formation. U-Pb zircon age from rare metal pegmatites is 1.9-1.8 Ga. Zircons from

  10. Integrated cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  11. Regulation of Cellular Identity in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Nilotpal; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Neoplastic transformation requires changes in cellular identity. Emerging evidence increasingly points to cellular reprogramming, a process during which fully differentiated and functional cells lose aspects of their identity while gaining progenitor characteristics, as a critical early step during cancer initiation. This cell identity crisis persists even at the malignant stage in certain cancers, suggesting that reactivation of progenitor functions supports tumorigenicity. Here, we review r...

  12. Regulation of Cellular Identity in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nilotpal; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-12-21

    Neoplastic transformation requires changes in cellular identity. Emerging evidence increasingly points to cellular reprogramming, a process during which fully differentiated and functional cells lose aspects of their identity while gaining progenitor characteristics, as a critical early step during cancer initiation. This cell identity crisis persists even at the malignant stage in certain cancers, suggesting that reactivation of progenitor functions supports tumorigenicity. Here, we review recent findings that establish the essential role of cellular reprogramming during neoplastic transformation and the major players involved in it with a special emphasis on pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    V. Zalud

    2002-01-01

    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  14. Silicon isotope and trace element constraints on the origin of similar to 3.5 Ga cherts: Implications for Early Archaean marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boorn, S.; van Bergen, M.J.; Vroon, P.Z.; de Vries, S.T.; Nijman, W.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon (Si) isotope variability in Precambrian chert deposits is significant, but proposed explanations for the observed heterogeneity are incomplete in terms of silica provenance and fractionation mechanisms involved. To address these issues we investigated Si isotope systematics, in conjunction

  15. Isotope composition and volume of Earth's early oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Emily C; Bird, Dennis K; Rosing, Minik T

    2012-03-20

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth's seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen's was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of ancient seawater. Archaean oceans were depleted in deuterium [expressed as δD relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25 ± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios in Earth's oceans. Our calculations predict that the oceans of early Earth were up to 26% more voluminous, and atmospheric CH(4) and CO(2) concentrations determined from limits on hydrogen escape to space are consistent with clement conditions on Archaean Earth.

  16. Ca isotope fingerprints of early crust-mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissig, K.; Elliott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The utility of 40Ca/ 44Ca as a tracer of pre-existing crustal contributions in early Archaean cratons has been explored to identify traces of Hadean crust and to assess the style of continental growth. The relatively short half-life of 40K (˜1.3 Gy) means that its decay to 40Ca occurs dominantly during early Earth History. If Archaean crust had a significant component derived from a more ancient protolith, as anticipated by "steady state" crustal evolution models, this should be clearly reflected in radiogenic 40Ca/ 44Ca ratios (or positive initial ɛ Ca) in different Archaean cratons. A high precision thermal ionisation technique has been used to analyse the 40Ca/ 44Ca ratios of plagioclase separates and associated whole rocks in ˜3.6 Ga (early Archaean) samples from Zimbabwe and West Greenland. Three out of four tonalite, trondhjemite, granodiorite (TTG) suite samples from Zimbabwe display initial 40Ca/ 44Ca ratios indistinguishable from our measured modern MORB value (i.e., ɛ Ca(3.6) ˜ 0). Greenland samples, however, are very diverse ranging from ɛ Ca(3.7) = 0.1 in mafic pillow lavas and felsic sheets from the Isua supracrustal belt, up to very radiogenic signatures (ɛ Ca(3.7) = 2.9) in both mafic rocks of the Akilia association and felsic TTG from the coastal Amîtsoq gneisses. At face value, these results imply the Zimbabwe crust is juvenile whereas most Greenland samples include an earlier crustal component. Yet the west Greenland craton, as with many Archaean localities, has experienced a complex geological history and the interpretation of age-corrected initial isotope values requires great care. Both felsic and mafic samples from Greenland display ɛ Ca(3.7) so radiogenic that they are not readily explained by crustal growth scenarios. The presence of such radiogenic 40Ca/ 44Ca found in low K/Ca plagioclases requires Ca isotope exchange between plagioclase and whole rock during later metamorphic event(s). In addition the unexpectedly radiogenic Ca

  17. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  18. Nominal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Bolognesi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of Nominal Computation Theory is concerned with the theory of Nominal Sets and its applications to Computer Science. We investigate here the impact of nominal sets on the definition of Cellular Automata and on their computational capabilities, with a special focus on the emergent behavioural properties of this new model and their significance in the context of computation-oriented interpretations of physical phenomena. A preliminary investigation of the relations between Nominal Cellular Automata and Wolfram's Elementary Cellular Automata is also carried out.

  19. Cellular magnesium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Andrea M P

    2011-08-01

    Magnesium, the second most abundant cellular cation after potassium, is essential to regulate numerous cellular functions and enzymes, including ion channels, metabolic cycles, and signaling pathways, as attested by more than 1000 entries in the literature. Despite significant recent progress, however, our understanding of how cells regulate Mg(2+) homeostasis and transport still remains incomplete. For example, the occurrence of major fluxes of Mg(2+) in either direction across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells following metabolic or hormonal stimuli has been extensively documented. Yet, the mechanisms ultimately responsible for magnesium extrusion across the cell membrane have not been cloned. Even less is known about the regulation in cellular organelles. The present review is aimed at providing the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of the mechanisms enacted by eukaryotic cells to regulate cellular Mg(2+) homeostasis and how these mechanisms are altered under specific pathological conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hijacking cellular garbage cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Sonja; Locker, Jacomine Krijnse

    2010-06-25

    Viruses are perfect opportunists that have evolved to modify numerous cellular processes in order to complete their replication cycle in the host cell. An article by Reggiori and coworkers in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe reveals how coronaviruses can divert a cellular quality control pathway that normally functions in degradation of mis-folded proteins to replicate the viral genome. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  2. Oceanic plateau model for continental crustal growth in the Archaean: A case study from the Kostomuksha greenstone belt, NW Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. V.; Shchipansky, A. A.; Jochum, K. P.; Mezger, K.; Hofmann, A. W.; Puchtel, I. S.

    1998-02-01

    Field studies combined with chemical and isotope data indicate that the Kostomuksha greenstone belt in the NW Baltic Shield consists of two lithotectonic terranes, one mafic igneous and the other sedimentary, separated by a major shear zone. The former contains submarine komatiite-basalt lavas and volcaniclastic lithologies, and the latter is composed of shelf-type rocks and BIF. Komatiitic and basaltic samples yield Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2843+/-39 and 2813+/-78 Ma, respectively. Their trace-element compositions resemble those of recent Pacific oceanic flood basalts with primitive-mantle normalized Nb/Th of 1.5-2.1 and Nb/La of 1.0-1.5. This is in sharp contrast with island arc and most continental magmas, which are characterized by Nb/(Th,La)N≪1. Calculated initial Nd-isotope compositions (ɛNd(T)=+2.8 to +3.4) plot close to an evolution line previously inferred for major orogens (``MOMO''), which is also consistent with the compositions of recent oceanic plateaux. The high liquidus temperatures of the komatiite magmas (1550°C) and their Al-depleted nature require an unusually hot (1770°C) mantle source for the lavas (>200°C hotter than the ambient mantle at 2.8 Ga), and are consistent with their formation in a deep mantle plume in equilibrium with residual garnet. This plume had the thermal potential to produce oceanic crust with an average thickness of ~30 km underlain by a permanently buoyant refractory lithospheric mantle keel. Nb/U ratios in the komatiites and basalts calculated on the basis of Th-U-Pb relationships range from 35 to 47 and are thus similar to those observed in modern MORB and OIB. This implies that some magma source regions of the Kostomuksha lavas have undergone a degree of continental material extraction comparable with those found in the modern mantle. The mafic terrane is interpreted as a remnant of the upper crustal part of an Archaean oceanic plateau. When the newly formed plateau reached the active continental margin

  3. Early impact basins and the onset of plate tectonics. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental crustal dichotomy of the Earth (high and low density crust) was established nearly 4 billion years ago. Therefore, subductable crust was concentrated at the surface of the Earth very early in its history, making possible an early onset for plate tectonics. Simple thermal history calculations spanning 1 billion years show that the basin forming impact thins the lithosphere by at least 25%, and increases the sublithosphere thermal gradients by roughly 20%. The corresponding increase in convective heat transport, combined with the highly fractured nature of the thinned basin lithosphere, suggest that lithospheric breakup or rifting occurred shortly after the formation of the basins. Conditions appropriate for early rifting persisted from some 100,000,000 years following impact. We suggest a very early stage of high temperature, fast spreading "microplate" tectonics, originating before 3.5 billion years ago, and gradually stabilizing over the Archaean into more modern large plate or Wilson Cycle tectonics.

  4. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  5. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  6. Cellular Therapy for Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Peter J.; Schwarz, Nisha; Toledo-Flores, Deborah; Nicholls, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF) is underpinned by complex changes at subcellular, cellular and extracellular levels in the ventricular myocardium. For all of the gains that conventional treatments for HF have brought to mortality and morbidity, they do not adequately address the loss of cardiomyocyte numbers in the remodeling ventricle. Originally conceived to address this problem, cellular transplantation for HF has already gone through several stages of evolution over the past two decades. Various cell types and delivery routes have been implemented to positive effect in preclinical models of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, with pleiotropic benefits observed in terms of myocardial remodeling, systolic and diastolic performance, perfusion, fibrosis, inflammation, metabolism and electrophysiology. To a large extent, these salubrious effects are now attributed to the indirect, paracrine capacity of transplanted stem cells to facilitate endogenous cardiac repair processes. Promising results have also followed in early phase human studies, although these have been relatively modest and somewhat inconsistent. This review details the preclinical and clinical evidence currently available regarding the use of pluripotent stem cells and adult-derived progenitor cells for cardiomyopathy and HF. It outlines the important lessons that have been learned to this point in time, and balances the promise of this exciting field against the key challenges and questions that still need to be addressed at all levels of research, to ensure that cell therapy realizes its full potential by adding to the armamentarium of HF management. PMID:27280304

  7. Identifying early Earth microfossils in unsilicified sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Asael, Dan; Bekker, Andrey; Debaille, Vinciane; Derenne, Sylvie; Hofmann, Axel; Mattielli, Nadine; Poulton, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The search for life on the early Earth or beyond Earth requires the definition of biosignatures, or "indices of life". These traditionally include fossil molecules, isotopic fractionations, biosedimentary structures and morphological fossils interpreted as remnants of life preserved in rocks. This research focuses on traces of life preserved in unsilicified siliciclastic sediments. Indeed, these deposits preserve well sedimentary structures indicative of past aqueous environments and organic matter, including the original organic walls of microscopic organisms. They also do not form in hydrothermal conditions which may be source of abiotic organics. At our knowledge, the only reported occurrence of microfossils preserved in unsilicified Archean sediments is a population of large organic-walled vesicles discovered in shales and siltstones of the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa. (Javaux et al, Nature 2010). These have been interpreted as microfossils based on petrographic and geochemical evidence for their endogenicity and syngeneity, their carbonaceous composition, cellular morphology and ultrastructure, occurrence in populations, taphonomic features of soft wall deformation, and the geological context plausible for life, as well as lack of abiotic explanation falsifying a biological origin. Demonstrating that carbonaceous objects from Archaean rocks are truly old and truly biological is the subject of considerable debate. Abiotic processes are known to produce organics and isotopic signatures similar to life. Spheroidal pseudofossils may form as self-assembling vesicles from abiotic CM, e.g. in prebiotic chemistry experiments (Shoztak et al, 2001), from meteoritic lipids (Deamer et al, 2006), or hydrothermal fluids (Akashi et al, 1996); by artifact of maceration; by migration of abiotic or biotic CM along microfractures (VanZuilen et al, 2007) or along mineral casts (Brasier et al, 2005), or around silica spheres formed in silica-saturated water (Jones and

  8. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  9. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  10. Probabilistic cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-09-01

    Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.

  11. Predictability in cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case.

  12. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  13. Cosserat modeling of cellular solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cellular solids inherit their macroscopic mechanical properties directly from the cellular microstructure. However, the characteristic material length scale is often not small compared to macroscopic dimensions, which limits the applicability of classical continuum-type constitutive models. Cosserat

  14. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  15. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  16. Review of cellular mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning

    2017-06-01

    Living cells and tissues experience physical forces and chemical stimuli in the human body. The process of converting mechanical forces into biochemical activities and gene expression is mechanochemical transduction or mechanotransduction. Significant advances have been made in understanding mechanotransduction at the cellular and molecular levels over the last two decades. However, major challenges remain in elucidating how a living cell integrates signals from mechanotransduction with chemical signals to regulate gene expression and to generate coherent biological responses in living tissues in physiological conditions and diseases.

  17. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.......Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...

  18. Cellular mechanism of metformin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorescu, F; Laurent, A; Chavanieu, A; Capony, J P

    1991-05-01

    Activation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular substrates are important steps in insulin signalling. In order to elucidate the cellular mechanism of action of metformin (NN'dimethylbiguanide) we have focused towards the effects of metformin on the insulin receptor kinase, the phosphorylation cascade and the biological effect of insulin. Since annexins (lipocortins) have been recently recognized as substrates of several tyrosine kinases we have investigated the effect of metformin on phosphorylation of annexins after insulin stimulation or microinjection of pp60c-src kinase in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Insulin induced in oocytes progression through the cell cycle from late G2 to M phase (maturation). Microinjection of pp60c-src kinase or treatment with metformin potentiates both the rate and the level of insulin-induced oocyte maturation. In oocytes prelabeled with 32P orthophosphate metformin potentiates insulin induced phosphorylation of annexins. It is concluded that annexins are substrates of the phosphorylation cascade initiated by insulin which is synergistic to the action of pp60c-src kinase and that this early phosphorylation events correlate well with the enhanced biological effect of insulin during metformin treatment.

  19. [Senescence and cellular immortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentesaux, C; Riou, J-F

    2010-11-01

    Senescence was originally described from the observation of the limited ability of normal cells to grow in culture, and may be generated by telomere erosion, accumulation of DNA damages, oxidative stress and modulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Senescence corresponds to a cellular response aiming to control tumor progression by limiting cell proliferation and thus constitutes an anticancer barrier. Senescence is observed in pre-malignant tumor stages and disappears from malignant tumors. Agents used in standard chemotherapy also have the potential to induce senescence, which may partly explain their therapeutic activities. It is possible to restore senescence in tumors using targeted therapies that triggers telomere dysfunction or reactivates suppressor genes functions, which are essential for the onset of senescence.

  20. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  1. Improving User Experience of Internet Services in Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Klockar, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has grown enormously since the introduction of the World Wide Web in the early 90's. The evolution and wide spread deployment of cellular networks have contributed to make the Internet accessible to more people in more places. The cellular networks of today offer data rates high enough for most Internet services. Even so, the service quality experienced by the users is often lower than in wired networks. The performance of TCP has a large impact on user experience. Therefore, we ...

  2. Free fall and cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three reasonable hypotheses lead to the thesis that physical phenomena can be described and simulated with cellular automata. In this work, we attempt to describe the motion of a particle upon which a constant force is applied, with a cellular automaton, in Newtonian physics, in Special Relativity, and in General Relativity. The results are very different for these three theories.

  3. Cellular automata analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl-Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a coherent representation of the main approaches to analyze the dynamics of cellular automata. Cellular automata are an inevitable tool in mathematical modeling. In contrast to classical modeling approaches as partial differential equations, cellular automata are straightforward to simulate but hard to analyze. In this book we present a review of approaches and theories that allow the reader to understand the behavior of cellular automata beyond simulations. The first part consists of an introduction of cellular automata on Cayley graphs, and their characterization via the fundamental Cutis-Hedlund-Lyndon theorems in the context of different topological concepts (Cantor, Besicovitch and Weyl topology). The second part focuses on classification results: What classification follows from topological concepts (Hurley classification), Lyapunov stability (Gilman classification), and the theory of formal languages and grammars (Kůrka classification). These classifications suggest to cluster cel...

  4. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  5. MSAT and cellular hybrid networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Patrick W., II

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation is developing both the Communications Ground Segment and the Series 1000 Mobile Phone for American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC's) Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the voice services portion of this system depends, to some extent, upon the interoperability of the cellular network and the satellite communication circuit switched communication channels. This paper will describe the set of user-selectable cellular interoperable modes (cellular first/satellite second, etc.) provided by the Mobile Phone and described how they are implemented with the ground segment. Topics including roaming registration and cellular-to-satellite 'seamless' call handoff will be discussed, along with the relevant Interim Standard IS-41 Revision B Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations and IOS-553 Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification.

  6. Dissecting cellular biomechanics with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, M. Shane

    2011-10-01

    The biological tissues of a developing organism are built and reshaped by the mechanical behavior of individual cells. We probe the relevant cellular mechanics in vivo using laser-microsurgery -- both qualitatively, to assess whether removal of specific cells alters the dynamics of tissue reshaping, and quantitatively, to measure sub-cellular mechanical properties and stresses. I will detail two quantitative microsurgical measurements. The first uses a laser to drill a sub-cellular hole in a sheet of cells. The subsequent retraction of surrounding cells allows one to infer the local mechanical stress. The second uses a laser to isolate a single cell from the rest of a cell sheet. Isolation is accomplished on a microsecond time scale by holographically shaping a single laser pulse. The subsequent retraction (or expansion) of the isolated cell allows one to separate and quantify the effects of internal and external stresses in the determination of cell shape. I will discuss application of these techniques to the time-dependent biomechanics of epithelial tissues during early fruit fly embryogenesis -- specifically during the processes of germband retraction and dorsal closure.

  7. Systems biology of cellular rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, A; Gérard, C; Gonze, D; Leloup, J-C; Dupont, G

    2012-08-31

    Rhythms abound in biological systems, particularly at the cellular level where they originate from the feedback loops present in regulatory networks. Cellular rhythms can be investigated both by experimental and modeling approaches, and thus represent a prototypic field of research for systems biology. They have also become a major topic in synthetic biology. We review advances in the study of cellular rhythms of biochemical rather than electrical origin by considering a variety of oscillatory processes such as Ca++ oscillations, circadian rhythms, the segmentation clock, oscillations in p53 and NF-κB, synthetic oscillators, and the oscillatory dynamics of cyclin-dependent kinases driving the cell cycle. Finally we discuss the coupling between cellular rhythms and their robustness with respect to molecular noise.

  8. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  9. When are cellular automata random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J. B.; Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-12-01

    A random cellular automaton is one in which a cell's behaviour is independent of its previous states. We derive analytical conditions which must be satisfied by random cellular automata and find deterministic and probabilistic cellular automata that satisfy these conditions. Many random cellular automata are seen to have a flow as they are updated through time. We define a correlation current that describes this flow and develop an analytical expression for its size. We compare results from this analytical expression with those from simulation. The randomness in a cell comes from randomness in adjacent cells or from the stochastic nature of update rules. We give an expression for how much randomness comes from each of these two sources.

  10. Procefual Non Uniform Cellular Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Jonchier, Théo; Salvati, Marc; Derouet-Jourdan, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Procedural cellular textures have been widely used in movie production to reproduce various natural and organic looks. The advantage of procedural texture is to trade memory for computer power and obtain potentially unlimited resolution. In this paper, we propose to compute non-uniform density cellular noise by using a procedural quad-tree. We will explain how to efficiently traverse the tree recursively (CPU) and iteratively (CPU and GPU).

  11. The cellular protein MCM3AP is required for inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by the IE86 protein of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Poole

    Full Text Available Like all DNA viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is known to result in profound effects on host cell cycle. Infection of fibroblasts with HCMV is known to induce an advance in cell cycle through the G(0-G(1 phase and then a subsequent arrest of cell cycle in early S-phase, presumably resulting in a cellular environment optimum for high levels of viral DNA replication whilst precluding replication of cellular DNA. Although the exact mechanisms used to arrest cell cycle by HCMV are unclear, they likely involve a number of viral gene products and evidence points to the ability of the virus to prevent licensing of cellular DNA synthesis. One viral protein known to profoundly alter cell cycle is the viral immediate early 86 (IE86 protein--an established function of which is to initially drive cells into early S phase but then inhibit cellular DNA synthesis. Here we show that, although IE86 interacts with the cellular licensing factor Cdt1, it does not inhibit licensing of cellular origins. Instead, IE86-mediated inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis requires mini-chromosome-maintenance 3 (MCM3 associated protein (MCM3AP, which can cause subsequent inhibition of initiation of cellular DNA synthesis in a licensing-independent manner.

  12. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  13. Influence of postoperative enteral nutrition on cellular immunity. A random double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier-Holgersen, R; Brandstrup, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover if the cellular immunological response is different in patients receiving early postoperative enteral nutrition compared to patients who only receive "water".......The aim of this study was to discover if the cellular immunological response is different in patients receiving early postoperative enteral nutrition compared to patients who only receive "water"....

  14. Creation of Simple Biochemical Systems to Study Early Cellular Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruma, Yutetsu

    2015-09-01

    A constructive model of the minimal cell that can produce lipids internally was proposed by reconstructing a set of enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. This will be an promising approach to study not only for potential reconstruction of LUCA-like organisms but also for construction of artificial cells.

  15. Aging, Cellular Senescence, and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2014-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyper-plastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  16. Roles of Apoptosis and Cellular Senescence in Cancer and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerella, Claudia; Grandjenette, Cindy; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and aging are two similar processes representing the final outcome of timedependent accumulation of various irreversible dysfunctions, mainly caused by stress-induced DNA and cellular damages. Apoptosis and senescence are two types of cellular response to damages that are altered in both cancer and aging, albeit through different mechanisms. Carcinogenesis is associated with a progressive reduction in the ability of the cells to trigger apoptosis and senescence. In contrast, in aging tissues, there is an increased accumulation of senescent cells, and the nature of apoptosis deregulation varies depending on the tissue. Thus, the prevailing model suggests that apoptosis and cellular senescence function as two essential tumor-suppressor mechanisms, ensuring the health of the individual during early and reproductive stages of life, but become detrimental and promote aging later in life. The recent discovery that various anticancer agents, including canonical inducers of apoptosis, act also as inducers of cellular senescence indicates that pro-senescence strategies may have applications in cancer prevention therapy. Therefore, dissection of the mechanisms mediating the delicate balance between apoptosis and cellular senescence will be beneficial in the therapeutic exploitation of both processes in the development of future anticancer and anti-aging strategies, including minimizing the side effects of such strategies. Here, we provide an overview of the roles of apoptosis and cellular senescence in cancer and aging.

  17. Cellular and genetic analysis of mouse blastocyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, R A; Spindle, A I

    1979-01-01

    The development of mouse embryos was studied by both cellular and genetic approaches. In the cellular analysis, determination of cell fate in blastocysts and in cell populations derived from them was studied in an attempt to estimate the time that these cells become committed to their fate. In the genetic analysis, existing mutations that are lethal to mouse embryos were used to discern essential features of early development. In this review, the timing of cell determination in the inner cell mass and the primary ectoderm, and the manifestation of defects in mouse embryos that are homozygous for the A/sup y/ allele of the agouti locus were considered.

  18. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  19. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN......(-) and H2O, respectively), were included as control samples. The results indicated that B12 derivatives delivered cisplatin to both cellular cytosol and nuclei with an efficiency of one third compared to the uptake of free cisplatin cis-[Pt(II)Cl2(NH3)2]. In addition, uptake of charged B12 derivatives...

  20. Early mantle differentiation: constraint from {sup 146}Sm-{sup 142}Nd systematics; Radioactivite eteinte du {sup 146}Sm et differenciation precoce du manteau terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, G

    2005-07-15

    We present new ultra-high precision {sup 142}Nd/{sup 144}Nd measurements of early Archaean rocks using the new generation thermal ionization mass spectrometer TRITON. Repeated measurements of the Ames Nd standard demonstrate that the {sup 142}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio can be determined with external precision of 2 ppm (2s), allowing confident resolution of anomalies as small as 5 ppm. A major analytical improvement lies in the elimination of the double normalization procedure required to correct our former measurements from a secondary mass fractionation effect. Our new results indicate that metasediments, meta-basalts and orthogneisses from the 3.6 - 3.8 Ga West Greenland craton display positive {sup 142}Nd anomalies ranging from 8 to 15 ppm. Using a simple two-stage model with initial e{sup 143}Nd value of 1.9 {+-} 0.6 e-units, coupled {sup 147}Sm-{sup 143}Nd and {sup 146}Sm-{sup 142}Nd chronometry constrains mantle differentiation to 50 to 200 Ma after formation of the solar system. This chronological constraint is consistent with differentiation of the Earth's mantle during the late stage of crystallization of a magma ocean. We have developed a two-box model describing {sup 142}Nd and {sup 143}Nd isotopic evolution of depleted mantle during the subsequent evolution of the crust-mantle system. Our results indicate that early terrestrial proto-crust had a lifetime of ca. 500 Ma in order to produce the observed Nd isotope signature of Archaean rocks. In the context of this two box mantle-crust system, we model the evolution of isotopic and chemical heterogeneity of depleted mantle as a function of the mantle stirring time. Using the dispersion of {sup 142}Nd/{sup 144}Nd and {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratios observed in early Archaean rocks, we constrain the stirring time of early Earth's mantle to 100 - 150 Ma, a factor of 5 to 10 shorter than stirring time inferred from modern oceanic basalts. (author)

  1. Cellular nanotechnology: making biological interfaces smarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Paula M

    2013-12-21

    Recently, there has been an outburst of research on engineered cell-material interfaces driven by nanotechnology and its tools and techniques. This tutorial review begins by providing a brief introduction to nanostructured materials, followed by an overview of the wealth of nanoscale fabrication and analysis tools available for their development. This background serves as the basis for a discussion of early breakthroughs and recent key developments in the endeavour to develop nanostructured materials as smart interfaces for fundamental cellular studies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The review covers three major aspects of nanostructured interfaces - nanotopographical control, dynamic behaviour and intracellular manipulation and sensing - where efforts are continuously being made to further understand cell function and provide new ways to control cell behaviour. A critical reflection of the current status and future challenges are discussed as a conclusion to the review.

  2. Cellular senescence mediates fibrotic pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Iijima, Koji; Haak, Andrew J; Ligresti, Giovanni; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Oberg, Ann L; Birch, Jodie; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Zhu, Yi; Mazula, Daniel L; Brooks, Robert W; Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Heike; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Prakash, Y S; Tchkonia, Tamara; Robbins, Paul D; Aubry, Marie Christine; Passos, João F; Kirkland, James L; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Kita, Hirohito; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease characterized by interstitial remodelling, leading to compromised lung function. Cellular senescence markers are detectable within IPF lung tissue and senescent cell deletion rejuvenates pulmonary health in aged mice. Whether and how senescent cells regulate IPF or if their removal may be an efficacious intervention strategy is unknown. Here we demonstrate elevated abundance of senescence biomarkers in IPF lung, with p16 expression increasing with disease severity. We show that the secretome of senescent fibroblasts, which are selectively killed by a senolytic cocktail, dasatinib plus quercetin (DQ), is fibrogenic. Leveraging the bleomycin-injury IPF model, we demonstrate that early-intervention suicide-gene-mediated senescent cell ablation improves pulmonary function and physical health, although lung fibrosis is visibly unaltered. DQ treatment replicates benefits of transgenic clearance. Thus, our findings establish that fibrotic lung disease is mediated, in part, by senescent cells, which can be targeted to improve health and function.

  3. Cellular Automata and the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ernest

    1994-01-01

    The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…

  4. Auxin and Cellular Elongation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  5. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Meng, Gang; Heragu, S.S.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; van Houtum, Geert-Jan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handling

  6. Phase Space Invertible Asynchronous Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Wacker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While for synchronous deterministic cellular automata there is an accepted definition of reversibility, the situation is less clear for asynchronous cellular automata. We first discuss a few possibilities and then investigate what we call phase space invertible asynchronous cellular automata in more detail. We will show that for each Turing machine there is such a cellular automaton simulating it, and that it is decidable whether an asynchronous cellular automaton has this property or not, even in higher dimensions.

  7. Protective cellular responses to Burkholderia mallei infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline A; Lever, M Stephen; Griffin, Kate F; Bancroft, Gregory J; Lukaszewski, Roman A

    2010-10-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative bacillus causing the disease glanders in humans. During intraperitoneal infection, BALB/c mice develop a chronic disease characterised by abscess formation where mice normally die up to 70 days post-infection. Although cytokine responses have been investigated, cellular immune responses to B. mallei infection have not previously been characterised. Therefore, the influx and activation status of splenic neutrophils, macrophages and T cells was examined during infection. Gr-1+ neutrophils and F4/80+ macrophages infiltrated the spleen 5 h post-infection and an increase in activated macrophages, neutrophils and T cells occurred by 24 h post-infection. Mice depleted of Gr-1+ cells were acutely susceptible to B. mallei infection, succumbing to the infection 5 days post-infection. Mice depleted of both CD4 and CD8 T cells did not succumb to the infection until 14 days post-infection. Infected μMT (B cell) and CD28 knockout mice did not differ from wildtype mice whereas iNOS-2 knockout mice began to succumb to the infection 30 days post-infection. The data presented suggests that Gr-1+ cells, activated early in B. mallei infection, are essential for controlling the early, innate response to B. mallei infection and T cells or nitric oxide are important during the later stages of infection. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2013-09-13

    We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing.

  9. Cellular multiplets in directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopczynski, P.; Rappel, W.; Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    We report the existence of new branches of steady state cellular structures in directional solidification. These structures consist of repeating cellular subunits, or multiplets, each containing a set of distinct cells separated by unequal grooves. A detailed numerical study of the symmetric model of directional solidification reveals that all multiplets bifurcate off the main singlet solution branch in two sets. Two points on the main branch, one corresponding to the onset of the Eckhaus instability at small cell spacing and the other to a fold of this branch at large spacing, are argued to be separate accumulation points for each set of multiplets. The set of structures bifurcating near the fold are morphologically similar to experimentally observed multiplets. In contrast, those bifurcating near the Eckhaus instability do not resemble experimental shapes. Furthermore, they are argued to be generically unstable. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Cellular IRES-mediated translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Translation of cellular mRNAs via initiation at internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) has received increased attention during recent years due to its emerging significance for many physiological and pathological stress conditions in eukaryotic cells. Expression of genes bearing IRES elements in their mRNAs is controlled by multiple molecular mechanisms, with IRES-mediated translation favored under conditions when cap-dependent translation is compromised. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field and future directions that may bring us closer to understanding the complex mechanisms that guide cellular IRES-mediated expression. We present examples in which the competitive action of IRES-transacting factors (ITAFs) plays a pivotal role in IRES-mediated translation and thereby controls cell-fate decisions leading to either pro-survival stress adaptation or cell death. PMID:21220943

  11. Xtoys: Cellular automata on xwindows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.

    1995-08-15

    Xtoys is a collection of xwindow programs for demonstrating simulations of various statistical models. Included are xising, for the two dimensional Ising model, xpotts, for the q-state Potts model, xautomalab, for a fairly general class of totalistic cellular automata, xsand, for the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfield model of self organized criticality, and xfires, a simple forest fire simulation. The programs should compile on any machine supporting xwindows.

  12. Melanoma Screening with Cellular Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Massone, Cesare; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Ahlgrimm-Siess, Verena; Gabler, Gerald; Ebner, Christoph; Peter Soyer, H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in p...

  13. Aging, Cellular Senescence, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Campisi, Judith

    2012-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses ...

  14. Cellular Senescence: A Translational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, James L.; Tamara Tchkonia

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence entails essentially irreversible replicative arrest, apoptosis resistance, and frequently acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues with aging and at sites of pathogenesis in many chronic diseases and conditions. The SASP can contribute to senescence-related inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, stem cell dysfunction, aging phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric sy...

  15. Cellular automata : dynamics, simulations, traces

    OpenAIRE

    Guillon, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A cellular automaton is a discrete dynamical system which can model objects that evolve parallelly and asynchronously : the space is divided into cells, each of which has a state evolving according to some single local rule and a finite number of neighboring cells. Though this system can easily be formalized, very complex behaviors can appear ; it turns out to be a powerful computational model. That complexity can be studied with respect to various theories : topology, measure, decidability, ...

  16. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  17. Value of endothelin in cellular rejection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábrega, E; Figols, J; Dueñas, C; Crespo, J; Casafont, F; Sanchez-Antolín, G; de las Heras, G; Amado, J A; Pons-Romero, F

    1997-02-01

    Endothelin-1 is a vasoconstrictor peptide released by the vascular endothelium by various chemical and mechanical factors. Cellular rejection is one of the most common complications following orthotopic liver transplantation, endotheliitis being its most specific and consistent histological feature. To assess the role of endothelin in cellular hepatic rejection, we studied 21 cirrhotic patients undergoing elective liver transplantation. These patients were divided in two groups: Group I comprised 10 patients without cellular rejection, and Group II comprised 11 patients with cellular rejection. Endothelin was measured on day 7 after transplantation, on the day of liver biopsy, and after treatment for rejection. We found a significant increase in the plasma endothelin levels in the early postoperative period in the patients with moderate or severe cellular rejection compared with the non-rejection group. It remained significantly elevated until the clinical diagnosis of rejection was made. This value returned to baseline with successful treatment. So, the monitorization of this peptide may be of help in the diagnosis of rejection, its severity, and the evaluation of its resolution.

  18. Cellular technology improves transmission success of pre-hospital electrocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larochelle, Nicholas; O'Keefe, Michael; Wolfson, Daniel; Freeman, Kalev

    2013-11-01

    In rural settings, long distances and transport times pose a challenge for achieving early reperfusion goals in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study investigated the association between the method of pre-hospital 12-lead ECG transmission (radio transmission vs. cellular phone transmission) and the success of transmission and legibility of 12-lead ECGs in a rural setting. Observational study of pre-hospital 12-lead ECG transmission to the emergency department (ED) in a predominantly rural area. Success of transmission and the legibility of the 12-lead ECG were analyzed to identify barriers to 12-lead ECG transmission and reasons for failed transmission. Emergency medical services performed ECGs on 1140 patients, 917 of which they attempted to transmit, including 43 cases requiring emergent catheterization. Twelve-lead ECG transmission was successful in 236 (70%) of 337 radio attempts and 441 (76%) of 580 cellular attempts (difference 6.0%, 95% CI 1.1-12.1). Legibility increased from 164 (49%) of 337 radio attempts to 389 (67%) of 580 cellular attempts (difference 18.4%, 95% CI 11.8-24.9). The success of transmission and legibility of 12-lead ECGs was significantly higher with cellular technology by emergency medical service agencies in comparison to radio transmission. In rural settings with lengthy transport times, utilization of cellular technology for transmission of pre-hospital 12-lead ECGs may improve door-to-balloon times for STEMI patients. © 2013.

  19. Cellular bases of experimental amebic liver abscess formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumi, V.; Mena-Lopez, R.; Anaya-Velazquez, F.; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1984-01-01

    The complete sequence of morphologic events during amebic liver abscess formation in the hamster has been studied, from the lodgement of amebas in the hepatic sinusoids to the development of extensive liver necrosis. Following intraportal inoculation of live amebas, the early stages of the lesion (from 1 to 12 hours) were characterized by acute cellular infiltration composed of an increasingly large number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which surrounded centrally located trophozoites. Histi...

  20. Palaeomagnetism of Archaean rocks of the Onverwacht Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt (southern Africa): Evidence for a stable and potentially reversing geomagnetic field at ca. 3.5 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggin, Andrew J.; de Wit, Maarten J.; Langereis, Cor G.; Zegers, Tanja E.; Voûte, Sara; Dekkers, Mark J.; Drost, Kerstin

    2011-02-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from the Palaeoarchaean Era (3.2-3.6 Ga) have the potential to provide us with a great deal of information about early conditions within, and processes affecting, the Earth's core, mantle, and surface environment. Here we present new data obtained from some of the oldest palaeomagnetic recorders in the world: igneous and sedimentary rocks from the Onverwacht Group of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa). Our palaeomagnetic measurements strengthen a recently published positive conglomerate test (Y. Usui, J.A. Tarduno, M. Watkeys, A. Hofmann and R.D. Cottrell, 2009) and our new U-Pb date constrains the conglomerate to older than 3455 ± 8 Ma. The new palaeomagnetic data from other units are nontrivial to interpret and are of uncertain reliability when taken individually; similar, we argue, to all other published palaeomagnetic data of this age. Nonetheless, four poles (two new, two derived from published data) produced from high temperature components of magnetisation recorded in the Komati, Noisy, and Hooggenoeg formations exhibit considerably improved clustering when their directions are corrected for differences in attitude resulting from a large fold structure dated at 3.23 Ga. On the basis of this enhanced consistency in stratigraphic coordinates, the positive conglomerate test, and the absence of any clear indications of their remagnetisation from comparison with younger poles, we argue that these are the most trustworthy palaeomagnetic results yet produced from any rocks of Palaeoarchaean age. When taken in conjunction with published data, the new results present the most compelling evidence to date that the Earth had a stable geomagnetic field at ca. 3.5 Ga in addition to presenting tentative evidence that it was undergoing polarity reversals. The data do not appear to support a claim, made previously from Palaeoarchean palaeomagnetic data from the Pilbara Craton (Y. Suganuma, Y. Hamano, S. Niitsuma, M. Hoashi

  1. Dynamic properties of cellular neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Slavova

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of a new class of information-processing systems called Cellular Neural Networks is investigated. In this paper we introduce a small parameter in the state equation of a cellular neural network and we seek for periodic phenomena. New approach is used for proving stability of a cellular neural network by constructing Lyapunov's majorizing equations. This algorithm is helpful for finding a map from initial continuous state space of a cellular neural network into discrete output. A comparison between cellular neural networks and cellular automata is made.

  2. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  3. Cellular host responses to gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Najbauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Molecular and genetic analysis has advanced our understanding of glioma biology, however mapping the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment is crucial for understanding the pathology of this dreaded brain cancer. In this study we identified major cell populations attracted by glioma using orthotopic rodent models of human glioma xenografts. Marker-specific, anatomical and morphological analyses revealed a robust influx of host cells into the main tumor bed and tumor satellites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human glioma cell lines and glioma spheroid orthotopic implants were used in rodents. In both models, the xenografts recruited large numbers of host nestin-expressing cells, which formed a 'network' with glioma. The host nestin-expressing cells appeared to originate in the subventricular zone ipsilateral to the tumor, and were clearly distinguishable from pericytes that expressed smooth muscle actin. These distinct cell populations established close physical contact in a 'pair-wise' manner and migrated together to the deeper layers of tumor satellites and gave rise to tumor vasculature. The GBM biopsy xenografts displayed two different phenotypes: (a low-generation tumors (first in vivo passage in rats were highly invasive and non-angiogenic, and host nestin-positive cells that infiltrated into these tumors displayed astrocytic or elongated bipolar morphology; (b high-generation xenografts (fifth passage had pronounced cellularity, were angiogenic with 'glomerulus-like' microvascular proliferations that contained host nestin-positive cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and its receptor CXCR4 were highly expressed in and around glioma xenografts, suggesting their role in glioma progression and invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a robust migration of nestin-expressing host cells to glioma, which

  4. Earth's early O2 cycle suppressed by primitive continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Matthijs A.; Mezger, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    Free oxygen began to accumulate in Earth's surface environments between 3.0 and 2.4 billion years ago. Links between oxygenation and changes in the composition of continental crust during this time are suspected, but have been difficult to demonstrate. Here we constrain the average composition of the exposed continental crust since 3.7 billion years ago by compiling records of the Cr/U ratio of terrigenous sediments. The resulting record is consistent with a predominantly mafic crust prior to 3.0 billion years ago, followed by a 500- to 700-million-year transition to a crust of modern andesitic composition. Olivine and other Mg-rich minerals in the mafic Archaean crust formed serpentine minerals upon hydration, continuously releasing O2-scavenging agents such as dihydrogen, hydrogen sulfide and methane to the environment. Temporally, the decline in mafic crust capable of such process coincides with the first accumulation of O2 in the oceans, and subsequently the atmosphere. We therefore suggest that Earth's early O2 cycle was ultimately limited by the composition of the exposed upper crust, and remained underdeveloped until modern andesitic continents emerged.

  5. Symmetry analysis of cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Morales, V., E-mail: vmorales@ph.tum.de [Institute for Advanced Study – Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-01-03

    By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.

  6. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in rat...... pancreatic alpha-cells and somatotrophs. We found a pharmacological dissociation between the actions on KATP channels and exocytosis and suggest that compounds that, unlike repaglinide, have direct stimulatory effects on exocytosis in somatotrophs and alpha- and beta-cells, such as sulphonylureas...

  7. Game of Life Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational

  8. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J

    1999-01-01

    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  9. Protein accounting in the cellular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S

    2014-04-24

    Knowing the copy number of cellular proteins is critical for understanding cell physiology. By being able to measure the absolute synthesis rates of the majority of cellular proteins, Li et al. gain insights into key aspects of translation regulation and fundamental principles of cellular strategies to adjust protein synthesis according to the functional needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Universal map for cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Morales, V., E-mail: vmorales@ph.tum.de [Institute for Advanced Study – Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-08-20

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  11. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  12. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massone, Cesare; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Ahlgrimm-Siess, Verena; Gabler, Gerald; Ebner, Christoph; Soyer, H Peter

    2007-05-30

    Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria). Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp) where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  13. Cellular dynamics and embryonic morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallen, Jennifer

    2007-11-01

    The elongated body axis is a characteristic feature of many multicellular animals. Axis elongation occurs largely through cell rearrangements that are coordinated across a large cell population and driven by an asymmetric distribution of cytoskeletal and junctional proteins [1]. To visualize cellular dynamics during this process, we performed time-lapse confocal imaging of cell behavior in the Drosophila embryo. These studies revealed that rearranging cells display a steady increase in topological disorder that is accompanied by the formation of transient structures where 5-11 cells meet [2,3]. These multicellular rosettes form and resolve in a directional fashion to produce a local change in the aspect ratio of the cellular assembly, contributing to an overall change in tissue structure. We propose that higher-order rosette structures link local cell interactions to global tissue reorganization during morphogenesis. [1] J. Zallen and E. Wieschaus, Developmental Cell 6, 343 (2004). [2] J. Zallen and R. Zallen, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S5073 (2004). [3] J. Blankenship et al., Developmental Cell 11, 459 (2006).

  14. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  15. Stable cellular senescence is associated with persistent DDR activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Fumagalli

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is activated upon DNA damage generation to promote DNA repair and inhibit cell cycle progression in the presence of a lesion. Cellular senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest characterized by persistent DDR activation. However, some reports suggest that DDR activation is a feature only of early cellular senescence that is then lost with time. This challenges the hypothesis that cellular senescence is caused by persistent DDR activation. To address this issue, we studied DDR activation dynamics in senescent cells. Here we show that normal human fibroblasts retain DDR markers months after replicative senescence establishment. Consistently, human fibroblasts from healthy aged donors display markers of DDR activation even three years in culture after entry into replicative cellular senescence. However, by extending our analyses to different human cell strains, we also observed an apparent DDR loss with time following entry into cellular senescence. This though correlates with the inability of these cell strains to survive in culture upon replicative or irradiation-induced cellular senescence. We propose a model to reconcile these results. Cell strains not suffering the prolonged in vitro culture stress retain robust DDR activation that persists for years, indicating that under physiological conditions persistent DDR is causally involved in senescence establishment and maintenance. However, cell strains unable to maintain cell viability in vitro, due to their inability to cope with prolonged cell culture-associated stress, show an only-apparent reduction in DDR foci which is in fact due to selective loss of the most damaged cells.

  16. Cellular Therapies Clinical Research Roadmap: lessons learned on how to move a cellular therapy into a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, Stacy; Tappitake, Darah; Armant, Myriam; Wesselschmidt, Robin; Derecho, Ivy; Draxler, Rebecca; Wood, Deborah; Centanni, John M

    2015-04-01

    A clinical research roadmap has been developed as a resource for researchers to identify critical areas and potential pitfalls when transitioning a cellular therapy product from the research laboratory, by means of an Investigational New Drug (IND) application, into early-phase clinical trials. The roadmap describes four key areas: basic and preclinical research, resource development, translational research and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and IND assembly and submission. Basic and preclinical research identifies a new therapeutic concept and demonstrates its potential value with the use of a model of the relevant disease. During resource development, the appropriate specialists and the required expertise to bring this product into the clinic are identified (eg, researchers, regulatory specialists, GMP manufacturing staff, clinicians and clinical trials staff, etc). Additionally, the funds required to achieve this goal (or a plan to procure them) are identified. In the next phase, the plan to translate the research product into a clinical-grade therapeutic is developed. Finally regulatory approval to start the trial must be obtained. In the United States, this is done by filing an IND application with the Food and Drug Administration. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-funded Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies program has facilitated the transition of a variety of cellular therapy products from the laboratory into Phase1/2 trials. The five Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies facilities have assisted investigators by performing translational studies and GMP manufacturing to ensure that cellular products met release specifications and were manufactured safely, reproducibly and at the appropriate scale. The roadmap resulting from this experience is the focus of this article. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular, cellular, and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering. Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering, the fourth volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in molecular biology, transport phenomena, physiological modeling, tissue engineering, stem cells, drug delivery systems, artificial organs, and personalized medicine. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including DNA vaccines, biomimetic systems, cardiovascular dynamics, biomaterial scaffolds, cell mechanobiology, synthetic biomaterials, pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, nanobiomaterials for tissue engineering, biomedical imaging of engineered tissues, gene therapy, noninvasive targeted protein and peptide drug deliver...

  18. Thermomechanical characterisation of cellular rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, H.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses an experimental possibility to characterise a cellular rubber in terms of the influence of multiaxiality, rate dependency under environmental temperature and its behaviour under hydrostatic pressure. In this context, a mixed open and closed cell rubber based on an ethylene propylene diene monomer is investigated exemplarily. The present article intends to give a general idea of the characterisation method and the considerable effects of this special type of material. The main focus lies on the experimental procedure and the used testing devices in combination with the analysis methods such as true three-dimensional digital image correlation. The structural compressibility is taken into account by an approach for a material model using the Theory of Porous Media with additional temperature dependence.

  19. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    without or with poor surface conductivity, providing a patternable conducting polymer deposition technique integrated with standard microfabrication techniques. Electropolymerization of pyrrole on planar interdigitated electrodes resulted in the creation of doped conducting polymer films. Different....... An in vivo investigation also gave evidence of how the peptide nanowires can be used as surface modification in implantable electrodes for neurological measurements. Conducting polymers were utilized in electrode modifications for electrochemical sensor surfaces. Both chemical and electrochemical deposition...... methods were used to optimize the polymer film with respect to sensitivity towards cellular analytes, each method chosen accordingly to specific electrode geometry and shape. Chemical polymerization of pyrrole was used to achieve conductive polymer film coatings for out-of-plane electrode structures...

  20. REGULATORY MECHANISMS OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, E. S. Guzman; Nelson, Leonard; Ardao, Maria Isabel

    1948-01-01

    Oxidizing agents of sulfhydryl groups such as iodosobenzoate, alkylating agents such as iodoacetamide, and mercaptide-forming agents such as cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, p-chloromercuribenzoate, sodium arsenite, and p-carboxyphenylarsine oxide, added in small concentrations to a suspension of sea urchin sperm produced an increase in respiration. When the concentration was increased there was an inhibition. These effects are explained by postulating the presence in the cells of two kinds of sulfhydryl groups: soluble sulfhydryl groups, which regulate cellular respiration, and fixed sulfhydryl groups, present in the protein moiety of enzymes. Small concentrations of sulfhydryl reagents combine only with the first, thus producing an increase in respiration; when the concentration is increased, the fixed sulfhydryl groups are also attacked and inhibition of respiration is the consequence. Other inhibitors of cell respiration, such as cyanide and urethanes, which do not combine with —SH groups, did not stimulate respiration in small concentration. PMID:18891144

  1. Discrete geodesics and cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.

  2. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  3. Simplified microenvironments and reduced cell culture size influence the cell differentiation outcome in cellular microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago A; Ortuño, María José; Ventura, Francesc; Martínez, Elena; Samitier, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Cellular microarrays present a promising tool for multiplex evaluation of the signalling effect of substrate-immobilized factors on cellular differentiation. In this paper, we compare the early myoblast-to-osteoblast cell commitment steps in response to a growth factor stimulus using standard well plate differentiation assays or cellular microarrays. Our results show that restraints on the cell culture size, inherent to cellular microarrays, impair the differentiation outcome. Also, while cells growing on spots with immobilised BMP-2 are early biased towards the osteoblast fate, longer periods of cell culturing in the microarrays result in cell proliferation and blockage of osteoblast differentiation. The results presented here raise concerns about the efficiency of cell differentiation when the cell culture dimensions are reduced to a simplified microspot environment. Also, these results suggest that further efforts should be devoted to increasing the complexity of the microspots composition, aiming to replace signalling cues missing in this system.

  4. On the cellular convexity of complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C E

    1981-06-01

    In this paper we discuss cellular convexity of complexes. A new definition of cellular convexity is given in terms of a geometric property. Then it is proven that a regular complex is celiularly convex if and only if there is a convex plane figure of which it is the cellular image. Hence, the definition of cellular convexity by Sklansky [7] is equivalent to the new definition for the case of regular complexes. The definition of Minsky and Papert [4] is shown to be equivalent to our definition. Therefore, aU definitions are virtually equivalent. It is shown that a regular complex is cellularly convex if and only if its minimum-perimeter polygon does not meet the boundary of the complex. A 0(n) time algorithm is presented to determine the cellular convexity of a complex when it resides in n × m cells and is represented by the run length code.

  5. Perfluorinated alginate for cellular encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattás-Asfura, Kerim M; Fraker, Christopher A; Stabler, Cherie L

    2012-08-01

    Molecules of pentadecafluorooctanoyl chloride (PFC) were grafted onto alginate (Alg) using a linear poly(ethylene glycol) linker and amide bonds. The resulting Alg-PFC material was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The degree of PFC functionalization significantly influenced the physical and chemical properties of Alg-PFC, particularly when the resulting polymer was ionically crosslinked into hydrogels. Alg-PFC hydrogel beads fabricated via Ba(2+) crosslinking were found to match the permeability properties of control alginate beads, except upon swelling over time in culture media. When used to encapsulate MIN6 cells, a beta cell line, Alg-PFC beads demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation over alginate control beads. These results indicate that Alg-PFC hydrogels retain some of the PFC's biological-relevant benefits, such as enhancement of mass transport and bioinertness, to enhance cellular viability within alginate three-dimensional hydrogel environments. We envision these functionalized hydrogels to be particularly useful in the encapsulation of cells with a high metabolic demand, such as pancreatic islets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cellular Senescence: A Translational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Kirkland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence entails essentially irreversible replicative arrest, apoptosis resistance, and frequently acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues with aging and at sites of pathogenesis in many chronic diseases and conditions. The SASP can contribute to senescence-related inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, stem cell dysfunction, aging phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of resilience. Delaying senescent cell accumulation or reducing senescent cell burden is associated with delay, prevention, or alleviation of multiple senescence-associated conditions. We used a hypothesis-driven approach to discover pro-survival Senescent Cell Anti-apoptotic Pathways (SCAPs and, based on these SCAPs, the first senolytic agents, drugs that cause senescent cells to become susceptible to their own pro-apoptotic microenvironment. Several senolytic agents, which appear to alleviate multiple senescence-related phenotypes in pre-clinical models, are beginning the process of being translated into clinical interventions that could be transformative.

  7. Cellular Senescence: A Translational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Tchkonia, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Cellular senescence entails essentially irreversible replicative arrest, apoptosis resistance, and frequently acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues with aging and at sites of pathogenesis in many chronic diseases and conditions. The SASP can contribute to senescence-related inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, stem cell dysfunction, aging phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of resilience. Delaying senescent cell accumulation or reducing senescent cell burden is associated with delay, prevention, or alleviation of multiple senescence-associated conditions. We used a hypothesis-driven approach to discover pro-survival Senescent Cell Anti-apoptotic Pathways (SCAPs) and, based on these SCAPs, the first senolytic agents, drugs that cause senescent cells to become susceptible to their own pro-apoptotic microenvironment. Several senolytic agents, which appear to alleviate multiple senescence-related phenotypes in pre-clinical models, are beginning the process of being translated into clinical interventions that could be transformative. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies proposes to develop a unique structural cellular core material to improve mechanical performance, reduce platform weight and lower...

  9. Review of cellular mechanotransduction on micropost substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuxu; Wang, Zhanjiang

    2016-03-01

    As physical entities, living cells can sense and respond to various stimulations within and outside the body through cellular mechanotransduction. Any deviation in cellular mechanotransduction will not only undermine the orchestrated regulation of mechanical responses, but also lead to the breakdown of their physiological function. Therefore, a quantitative study of cellular mechanotransduction needs to be conducted both in experiments and in computational simulations to investigate the underlying mechanisms of cellular mechanotransduction. In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge and significant progress in cellular mechanotransduction via micropost substrates. In the aspect of experimental studies, we summarize significant experimental progress and place an emphasis on the coupled relationship among cellular spreading, focal adhesion and contractility as well as the influence of substrate properties on force-involved cellular behaviors. In the other aspect of computational investigations, we outline a coupled framework including the biochemically motivated stress fiber model and thermodynamically motivated adhesion model and present their predicted biomechanical responses and then compare predicted simulation results with experimental observations to further explore the mechanisms of cellular mechanotransduction. At last, we discuss the future perspectives both in experimental technologies and in computational models, as well as facing challenges in the area of cellular mechanotransduction.

  10. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that resveratrol, a grape derived polyphenol, exerts its chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer by interacting with specific cellular targets, denoted resveratrol targeting proteins (RTPs...

  11. Reciprocal Control of the Circadian Clock and Cellular Redox State - a Critical Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putker, Marrit; O'Neill, John Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Redox signalling comprises the biology of molecular signal transduction mediated by reactive oxygen (or nitrogen) species. By specific and reversible oxidation of redox-sensitive cysteines, many biological processes sense and respond to signals from the intracellular redox environment. Redox signals are therefore important regulators of cellular homeostasis. Recently, it has become apparent that the cellular redox state oscillates in vivo and in vitro, with a period of about one day (circadian). Circadian time-keeping allows cells and organisms to adapt their biology to resonate with the 24-hour cycle of day/night. The importance of this innate biological time-keeping is illustrated by the association of clock disruption with the early onset of several diseases (e.g. type II diabetes, stroke and several forms of cancer). Circadian regulation of cellular redox balance suggests potentially two distinct roles for redox signalling in relation to the cellular clock: one where it is regulated by the clock, and one where it regulates the clock. Here, we introduce the concepts of redox signalling and cellular timekeeping, and then critically appraise the evidence for the reciprocal regulation between cellular redox state and the circadian clock. We conclude there is a substantial body of evidence supporting circadian regulation of cellular redox state, but that it would be premature to conclude that the converse is also true. We therefore propose some approaches that might yield more insight into redox control of cellular timekeeping.

  12. Location and cellular stages of NK cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The identification of distinct tissue-specific natural killer (NK) cell populations that apparently mature from local precursor populations has brought new insight into the diversity and developmental regulation of this important lymphoid subset. NK cells provide a necessary link between the early (innate) and late (adaptive) immune responses to infection. Gaining a better understanding of the processes that govern NK cell development should allow us to better harness NK cell functions in multiple clinical settings as well as to gain further insight into how these cells undergo malignant transformation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding sites and cellular stages of NK cell development in humans and mice. PMID:24055329

  13. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  14. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Jacobsen, Rune; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. METHODS: This study is an extended follow-up ...

  15. Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; K. Quatramaran

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar

  16. Anxiety disorders and accelerated cellular ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.E.; Revesz, D.; van Oppen, P.C.; Epel, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Penninx, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders increase the risk of onset of several ageing-related somatic conditions, which might be the consequence of accelerated cellular ageing. Aims: To examine the association between anxiety status and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as an indicator of cellular ageing.

  17. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data.

  18. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Popescu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of isolated and purified glyconectins revealed the presence of specific carbohydrate structures, acidic glycans, different from classical glycosaminoglycans. Such acidic glycans of high molecular weight containing fucose, glucuronic or galacturonic acids, and sulfate groups, originally found in sponges and sea urchin embryos, may represent a new class of carbohydrate carcino-embryonal antigens in mice and humans. Such interactions between biological macromolecules are usually investigated by kinetic binding studies, calorimetric methods, X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and other spectroscopic analyses. However, these methods do not supply a direct estimation of the intermolecular binding forces that are fundamental for the function of the ligand-receptor association. Recently, we have introduced atomic force microscopy to quantify the binding strength between cell adhesion proteoglycans. Measurement of binding forces intrinsic to cell adhesion proteoglycans is necessary to assess their contribution to the maintenance of the anatomical integrity of multicellular organisms. As a model, we selected the glyconectin 1, a cell adhesion proteoglycan isolated from the marine sponge Microciona prolifera. This glyconectin mediates in vivo cell recognition and aggregation via homophilic, species-specific, polyvalent, and calcium ion-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. Under physiological conditions, an adhesive force of up to 400 piconewtons

  19. A cellular memory of developmental history generates phenotypic diversity in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sarah E.; Beverly, Matthew; Russ, Carsten; Nusbaum, Chad; Sengupta, Piali

    2010-01-01

    Early life experiences have a major impact on adult phenotypes [1–3]. However, the mechanisms by which animals retain a cellular memory of early experience are not well understood. Here we show that adult wild-type C. elegans that transiently passed through the stress-resistant dauer larval stage exhibit distinct gene expression profiles and life history traits, as compared to adult animals that bypassed this stage. Using chromatin immmunoprecipitation experiments coupled with massively paral...

  20. Cryptographic primitives based on cellular transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Izotov

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Design of cryptographic primitives based on the concept of cellular automata (CA is likely to be a promising trend in cryptography. In this paper, the improved method performing data transformations by using invertible cyclic CAs (CCA is considered. Besides, the cellular operations (CO as a novel CAs application in the block ciphers are introduced. Proposed CCAs and COs, integrated under the name of cellular transformations (CT, suit well to be used in cryptographic algorithms oriented to fast software and cheap hardware implementation.

  1. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular......; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...

  2. In vivo cellular imaging with microscopes enabled by MEMS scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun

    High-resolution optical imaging plays an important role in medical diagnosis and biomedical research. Confocal microscopy is a widely used imaging method for obtaining cellular and sub-cellular images of biological tissue in reflectance and fluorescence modes. Its characteristic optical sectioning capability also enables three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction. However, its use has mostly been limited to excised tissues due to the requirement of high numerical aperture (NA) lenses for cellular resolution. Microscope miniaturization can enable in vivo imaging to make possible early cancer diagnosis and biological studies in the innate environment. In this dissertation, microscope miniaturization for in vivo cellular imaging is presented. The dual-axes confocal (DAC) architecture overcomes limitations of the conventional single-axis confocal (SAC) architecture to allow for miniaturization with high resolution. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner is the central imaging component that is key in miniaturization of the DAC architecture. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the two-dimensional (2-D) MEMS scanner are presented. The gimbaled MEMS scanner is fabricated on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives. The imaging performance of the MEMS scanner in a DAC configuration is shown in a breadboard microscope setup, where reflectance and fluorescence imaging is demonstrated. Then, the MEMS scanner is integrated into a miniature DAC microscope. The whole imaging system is integrated into a portable unit for research in small animal models of human biology and disease. In vivo 3-D imaging is demonstrated on mouse skin models showing gene transfer and siRNA silencing. The siRNA silencing process is sequentially imaged in one mouse over time.

  3. Psychiatric disorders and leukocyte telomere length: Underlying mechanisms linking mental illness with cellular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindqvist, D.; Epel, E.S.; Mellon, S.H.; Penninx, B.W.; Revesz, D.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Reus, V.I.; Lin, J.; Mahan, L.; Hough, C.M.; Rosser, R.; Bersani, F.S.; Blackburn, E.H.; Wolkowitz, O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere

  4. Alpha-synuclein is a cellular ferrireductase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davies, Paul; Moualla, Dima; Brown, David R

    2011-01-01

    α-synuclein (αS) is a cellular protein mostly known for the association of its aggregated forms with a variety of diseases that include Parkinson's disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. While the role of α...

  5. The roles of cellular nanomechanics in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapu, Murali M; Katti, Kalpana S; Katti, Dinesh R; Mishra, Sanjay R; Khan, Sheema; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of cells and tissues may be instrumental in increasing our understanding of cellular behavior and cellular manifestations of diseases such as cancer. Nanomechanical properties can offer clinical translation of therapies beyond what are currently employed. Nanomechanical properties, often measured by nanoindentation methods using atomic force microscopy, may identify morphological variations, cellular binding forces, and surface adhesion behaviors that efficiently differentiate normal cells and cancer cells. The aim of this review is to examine current research involving the general use of atomic force microscopy/nanoindentation in measuring cellular nanomechanics; various factors and instrumental conditions that influence the nanomechanical properties of cells; and implementation of nanoindentation methods to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells or tissues. Applying these fundamental nanomechanical properties to current discoveries in clinical treatment may result in greater efficiency in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer, which ultimately can change the lives of patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam ... Keywords. Embryonic stem cells; pluripotency; reprogramming; differentiation; Nobel Prize 2012. ... National Centre for Cell Science University of Pune Campus Ganeshkhind Pune 411 007, India.

  7. Cellular Schwannoma Arising from Sigmoid Mesocolon Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, metastatic melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, inflammatory fibroid polyps, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.[5] For differentiation of cellular schwannomas from these tumors, immunohistochemical staining for various markers such as ...

  8. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...

  9. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies has developed, produced and tested, as part of the Phase-I SBIR, a new form of composite cellular core material, named Interply Core,...

  10. Cellular senescence in aging and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Brittberg, Mats; Farr, Jack; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Gomoll, Andreas H; Hui, James Hoi Po; Richardson, James B; Roberts, Sally; Spector, Myron

    2016-12-01

    - It is well accepted that age is an important contributing factor to poor cartilage repair following injury, and to the development of osteoarthritis. Cellular senescence, the loss of the ability of cells to divide, has been noted as the major factor contributing to age-related changes in cartilage homeostasis, function, and response to injury. The underlying mechanisms of cellular senescence, while not fully understood, have been associated with telomere erosion, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of cellular senescence, and the associated biological challenges in cartilage repair. In addition, we present novel strategies for modulation of cellular senescence that may help to improve cartilage regeneration in an aging population.

  11. Cellular scaling rules for primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2007-01-01

    Primates are usually found to have richer behavioral repertoires and better cognitive abilities than rodents of similar brain size. This finding raises the possibility that primate brains differ from rodent brains in their cellular composition. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for primate brains and show that brain size increases approximately isometrically as a function of cell numbers, such that an 11× larger brain is built with 10× more neurons and ≈12× more nonneuronal cells of ...

  12. Optimal Band Allocation for Cognitive Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu,Tingting; Jiang, Chengling

    2011-01-01

    FCC new regulation for cognitive use of the TV white space spectrum provides a new means for improving traditional cellular network performance. But it also introduces a number of technical challenges. This letter studies one of the challenges, that is, given the significant differences in the propagation property and the transmit power limitations between the cellular band and the TV white space, how to jointly utilize both bands such that the benefit from the TV white space for improving ce...

  13. Building mathematics cellular phone learning communities

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2011-01-01

    Researchers emphasize the importance of maintaining learning communities and environments. This article describes the building and nourishment of a learning community, one comprised of middle school students who learned mathematics out-of-class using the cellular phone. The building of the learning community was led by three third year pre-service teachers majoring in mathematics and computers. The pre-service teachers selected thirty 8th grade students to learn mathematics with the cellular ...

  14. Transient inter-cellular polymeric linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Siew-Min; He, Lijuan; Thuy Linh, Nguyen Thi; Tee, Yee-Han; Arooz, Talha; Tang, Guping; Tan, Choon-Hong; Yu, Hanry

    2007-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissue-engineered constructs with bio-mimicry cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are useful in regenerative medicine. In cell-dense and matrix-poor tissues of the internal organs, cells support one another via cell-cell interactions, supplemented by small amount of the extra-cellular matrices (ECM) secreted by the cells. Here we connect HepG2 cells directly but transiently with inter-cellular polymeric linker to facilitate cell-cell interaction and aggregation. The linker consists of a non-toxic low molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) backbone conjugated with multiple hydrazide groups that can aggregate cells within 30 min by reacting with the aldehyde handles on the chemically modified cell-surface glycoproteins. The cells in the cellular aggregates proliferated; and maintained the cortical actin distribution of the 3D cell morphology while non-aggregated cells died over 7 days of suspension culture. The aggregates lost distinguishable cell-cell boundaries within 3 days; and the ECM fibers became visible around cells from day 3 onwards while the inter-cellular polymeric linker disappeared from the cell surfaces over time. The transient inter-cellular polymeric linker can be useful for forming 3D cellular and tissue constructs without bulk biomaterials or extensive network of engineered ECM for various applications.

  15. On Collision Resistance of Generalized Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author had previously developed the principles for creating the symmetric cryptoalgorithms based on the generalized cellular automata. In hardware implementation these cryptoalgorithms are of high efficiency. This work continues studies in this field. It investigates collisions arising during the operation of generalized cellular automata.The main objective of the work is to develop a method for creating the generalized cellular automata to be resistant to a certain type of collisions.Two various initial fillings of the generalized cellular machine gun differing in w categories and giving identical fillings after t steps shall be called a t-step collision of weight w. We notice that any t-step collision at the same time is also a step collision (t+u.It is obvious that collisions existing in generalized cellular automata, provided that there are efficient algorithms to detect them, sharply worsen cryptographic properties of the cryptoalgorithms based on it. Therefore methods for synthesis of generalized cellular automata, which are resistant to collisions are very important. This work studies resistance to the single-step collisions of weight 1.The work shows that for a lack of single-step collisions of weight 1 it is enough that any other cell is linearly dependent on each cell of the cellular automata. For this, it is sufficient that the knumbered edges with regard to any tops form, together with these tops, a 2-factor of the graph of the generalized cellular automata while a local function of relation has to be linear in k- numbered argument.Existence conditions of 2-factor are given. The method to find the 2-factor in this graph is given. It is based on the search algorithm of the maximum bipartite matching.Thus, the article develops a theory of the generalized cellular automata, free from single-step collisions of weight 1. Such automata are important for cryptographic applications. The method is developed to create such cellular

  16. Cellular injury evidenced by impedance technology and infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, K; Prinsloo, L C; Meyer, D

    2015-03-05

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is finding increasing biological application, for example in the analysis of diseased tissues and cells, cell cycle studies and investigating the mechanisms of action of anticancer drugs. Cancer treatment studies routinely define the types of cell-drug responses as either total cell destruction by the drug (all cells die), moderate damage (cell deterioration where some cells survive) or reversible cell cycle arrest (cytostasis). In this study the loss of viability and related chemical stress experienced by cells treated with the medicinal plant, Plectranthus ciliatus, was investigated using real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) technology and FTIR microspectroscopy. The use of plants as medicines is well established and ethnobotany has proven that crude extracts can serve as treatments against various ailments. The aim of this study was to determine whether FTIR microspectroscopy would successfully distinguish between different types of cellular injury induced by a potentially anticancerous plant extract. Cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells were treated with a crude extract of Pciliatus and cells monitored using RT-CES to characterize the type of cellular responses induced. Cell populations were then investigated using FTIR microspectroscopy and statistically analysed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The plant extract and a cancer drug control (actinomycin D) induced concentration dependent cellular responses ranging from nontoxic, cytostatic or cytotoxic. Thirteen spectral peaks (915cm(-)(1), 933cm(-)(1), 989cm(-)(1), 1192cm(-)(1), 1369cm(-)(1), 1437cm(-)(1), 1450cm(-)(1), 1546cm(-)(1), 1634cm(-)(1), 1679cm(-)(1) 1772cm(-)(1), 2874cm(-)(1) and 2962cm(-)(1)) associated with cytotoxicity were significantly (p value<0.05, one way ANOVA, Tukey test, Bonferroni) altered, while two of the bands were also indicative of early stress related responses. In PCA, poor

  17. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Extension of Comment Period... assist in designing early-phase clinical trials of CGT products. In the notice, we requested comments on... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular...

  18. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  19. Magnetic fields, radicals and cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Some effects of low-intensity magnetic fields on the concentration of radicals and their influence on cellular functions are reviewed. These fields have been implicated as a potential modulator of radical recombination rates. Experimental evidence has revealed a tight coupling between cellular function and radical pair chemistry from signaling pathways to damaging oxidative processes. The effects of externally applied magnetic fields on biological systems have been extensively studied, and the observed effects lack sufficient mechanistic understanding. Radical pair chemistry offers a reasonable explanation for some of the molecular effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, and changes in radical concentrations have been observed to modulate specific cellular functions. Applied external magnetic fields have been shown to induce observable cellular changes such as both inhibiting and accelerating cell growth. These and other mechanisms, such as cell membrane potential modulation, are of great interest in cancer research due to the variations between healthy and deleterious cells. Radical concentrations demonstrate similar variations and are indicative of a possible causal relationship. Radicals, therefore, present a possible mechanism for the modulation of cellular functions such as growth or regression by means of applied external magnetic fields.

  20. Cyclic cellular automata in 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Clifford A., E-mail: reiterc@lafayette.edu [Department of Mathematics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. > Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. > Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. > Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.

  1. Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Kang, Xinmei; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2008-09-24

    Measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important in the screening of fruits for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity in cell culture and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the cellular antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 25 fruits commonly consumed in the United States. Pomegranate and berries (wild blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry) had the highest CAA values, whereas banana and melons had the lowest. Apples were found to be the largest contributors of fruit phenolics to the American diet, and apple and strawberries were the biggest suppliers of cellular antioxidant activity. Increasing fruit consumption is a logical strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of cancer.

  2. Cellular programs for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Maria J

    2012-12-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, AM fungi colonize root cortical cells to obtain carbon from the plant, while assisting the plant with the acquisition of mineral nutrients from the soil. Within the root cells, the fungal hyphae inhabit membrane-bound compartments that the plant establishes to accommodate the fungal symbiont. Recent data provide new insights into the events associated with development of the symbiosis including signaling for the formation of a cellular apparatus that guides hyphal growth through the cell. Plant genes that play key roles in a cellular program for the accommodation of microbial symbionts have been identified. In the inner cortical cells, tightly regulated changes in gene expression accompanied by a transient reorientation of secretion, enables the cell to build and populate the periarbuscular membrane with its unique complement of transporter proteins. Similarities between the cellular events for development of the periarbuscular membrane and cell plate formation are emerging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles inhibit cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Morrow, Matthew P; Asefa, Tewodros; Sharma, Krishna K; Duncan, Cole; Anan, Abhishek; Penefsky, Harvey S; Goodisman, Jerry; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2008-05-01

    We studied the effect of two types of mesoporous silica nanoparticles, MCM-41 and SBA-15, on mitochondrial O 2 consumption (respiration) in HL-60 (myeloid) cells, Jurkat (lymphoid) cells, and isolated mitochondria. SBA-15 inhibited cellular respiration at 25-500 microg/mL; the inhibition was concentration-dependent and time-dependent. The cellular ATP profile paralleled that of respiration. MCM-41 had no noticeable effect on respiration rate. In cells depleted of metabolic fuels, 50 microg/mL SBA-15 delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration by 12 min and 200 microg/mL SBA-15 by 34 min; MCM-41 also delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration. Neither SBA-15 nor MCM-41 affected cellular glutathione. Both nanoparticles inhibited respiration of isolated mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

  4. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In today’s world, three great classes of non-infectious diseases – the metabolic syndromes (such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis), the cancers, and the neurodegenerative disorders – have risen to the fore. These diseases, all associated with increasing age of an individual, have proven to be remarkably complex and difficult to treat. This is because, in large measure, when the cellular signaling pathways responsible for maintaining homeostasis and health of the body become dysregulated, they generate equally stable disease states. As a result the body may respond positively to a drug, but only for a while and then revert back to the disease state. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease summarizes our current understanding of these regulatory networks in the healthy and diseased states, showing which molecular components might be prime targets for drug interventions. This is accomplished by presenting models that explain in mechanistic, molecular detail how a particular part of the cellular sign...

  5. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  6. Cellular mechanisms for altered learning in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M Matthew; Disterhoft, John F

    2010-01-01

    Getting gray hair is part of the natural progression of aging. People expect it and they can change their hair color, if they choose. People also expect increases in memory lapses and learning difficulties as they get older. However, unlike hair color, there is no magic cure or option to fix learning and memory difficulties, because the cellular mechanisms of learning and aging in all the different types of neurons throughout the brain have yet to be discovered. This review describes our efforts to identify a cellular biomarker in hippocampal pyramidal neurons that has been demonstrated to reliably change with learning and with aging - the postburst afterhyperpolarization. We propose that this biomarker, which plays a critical role in regulating neuronal excitability, can be used as a benchmark for future studies in order to understand and identify the cellular mechanisms of learning and aging in the hippocampus, as well as in other cortical regions.

  7. Role of galactose in cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence has been proposed to play critical roles in tumor suppression and organismal aging, but the molecular mechanism of senescence remains incompletely understood. Here we report that a putative lysosomal carbohydrate efflux transporter, Spinster, induces cellular senescence in human primary fibroblasts. Administration of d-galactose synergistically enhanced Spinster-induced senescence and this synergism required the transporter activity of Spinster. Intracellular d-galactose is metabolized to galactose-1-phosphate by galactokinase. Galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts, which accumulate intracellular d-galactose, displayed increased baseline senescence. Senescence of galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts was further enhanced by d-galactose administration and was diminished by restoration of wild-type galactokinase expression. Silencing galactokinase in normal fibroblasts also induced senescence. These results suggest a role for intracellular galactose in the induction of cellular senescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of basement membrane-like structure terminates the cellular encapsulation of microfilariae in the haemocoel of Anopheles quadrimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C T; Hou, R F; Chen, C C

    1998-06-01

    The encapsulation of microfilariae in the haemocoels of mosquitoes combines both humoral and cellular reactions: the microfilariae are first encased in an acellular layer of melanin, followed by a cellular encapsulation by plasmatocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that cellular encapsulation of Brugia pahangi microfilariae in the haemocoel of the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus was terminated by the formation of a basement membrane-like structure on the outermost surface of the cellular capsule. This structure occurred in the early stage of cellular encapsulation and was evident on the exterior surface of the plasmatocyte, when the active haemocytes were attaching to the already melanized microfilariae. The termination structure appears to be laid down by releasing the vesicle inclusions of haemocytes and has similarities in ultrastructure and cationic colloidal gold staining properties with that of mosquito basement membranes.

  9. Cellular functional changes in the endocrine system of the rats upon exposure to coal rock dust and during exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk

    2004-07-15

    Exposure to coal rock dust in combination with exercise for 2 months was found to have a negative impact on cellular metabolism in the endocrine system. The early form of anthracosilicosis developed in this period. Cytomorphological study revealed cellular changes in the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and pancreatic glands. The cells of the endocrine organs are functionally tense upon exposure to toxic and physical factors and they are most vulnerable in this period of an experiment.

  10. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  11. Algorithmic crystal chemistry: A cellular automata approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivovichev, S. V., E-mail: skrivovi@mail.ru [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    Atomic-molecular mechanisms of crystal growth can be modeled based on crystallochemical information using cellular automata (a particular case of finite deterministic automata). In particular, the formation of heteropolyhedral layered complexes in uranyl selenates can be modeled applying a one-dimensional three-colored cellular automaton. The use of the theory of calculations (in particular, the theory of automata) in crystallography allows one to interpret crystal growth as a computational process (the realization of an algorithm or program with a finite number of steps).

  12. Genomic stability during cellular reprogramming: Mission impossible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joest, Mathieu von; Búa Aguín, Sabela; Li, Han, E-mail: han.li@pasteur.fr

    2016-06-15

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult somatic cells is one of the most exciting discoveries in recent biomedical research. It holds tremendous potential in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, a series of reports highlighting genomic instability in iPSCs raises concerns about their clinical application. Although the mechanisms cause genomic instability during cellular reprogramming are largely unknown, several potential sources have been suggested. This review summarizes current knowledge on this active research field and discusses the latest efforts to alleviate the genomic insults during cellular reprogramming to generate iPSCs with enhanced quality and safety.

  13. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  14. Lung Diseases of the Elderly: Cellular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Kori; Elliot, Sharon J; Rubio, Gustavo A; Glassberg, Marilyn K

    2017-11-01

    Natural lung aging is characterized by molecular and cellular changes in multiple lung cell populations. These changes include shorter telomeres, increased expression of cellular senescence markers, increased DNA damage, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and stem cell exhaustion. Aging, combined with the loss of protective repair processes, correlates with the development and incidence of chronic respiratory diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ultimately, it is the interplay of age-related changes in biology and the subsequent responses to environmental exposures that largely define the physiology and clinical course of the aging lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular Automata Simulation for Wealth Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching

    2009-08-01

    Wealth distribution of a country is a complicate system. A model, which is based on the Epstein & Axtell's "Sugars cape" model, is presented in Netlogo. The model considers the income, age, working opportunity and salary as control variables. There are still other variables should be considered while an artificial society is established. In this study, a more complicate cellular automata model for wealth distribution model is proposed. The effects of social welfare, tax, economical investment and inheritance are considered and simulated. According to the cellular automata simulation for wealth distribution, we will have a deep insight of financial policy of the government.

  16. The cellular basis for animal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Elly; Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of animals to regenerate missing parts is a dramatic and poorly understood aspect of biology. The sources of new cells for these regenerative phenomena have been sought for decades. Recent advances involving cell fate tracking in complex tissues have shed new light on the cellular underpinnings of regeneration in Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, Xenopus, and Axolotl. Planarians accomplish regeneration with use of adult pluripotent stem cells, whereas several vertebrates utilize a collection of lineage-restricted progenitors from different tissues. Together, an array of cellular strategies—from pluripotent stem cells to tissue-specific stem cells and dedifferentiation—are utilized for regeneration. PMID:21763617

  17. Cellularity of certain quantum endomorphism algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of endomorphism algebras, and another which relates the multiplicities of indecomposable summands to the dimensions of simple modules for an endomorphism algebra. Our cellularity result then allows us to prove that knowledge of the dimensions of the simple modules of the specialised cellular algebra above...... is equivalent to knowledge of the weight multiplicities of the tilting modules for $\\U_{\\zeta}(\\fsl_2)$. In the final section we independently determine the weight multiplicities of indecomposable tilting modules for $U_\\zeta(\\fsl_2)$ and the decomposition numbers of the endomorphism algebras. We indicate how...

  18. Analyzing dynamic cellular morphology in time-lapsed images enabled by cellular deformation pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Liu, Zhiwen; Pang, Fengqian; Fan, Zhiyi; Shi, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Computational analysis of cellular morphology aims to provide quantitative information of the global organizational and physiological state of cells, and has long been a major topic of biomedical research. Instead of analyzing morphology of static cells, we concentrate on live-cell deformation in a period of time. According to our observation of dynamic cell behavior, we have assumed that the pattern of cellular deformation is relevant to the cellular state. Moreover, based on our assumption an innovative approach for characterizing the deformation pattern is described and applied into cell classification. After normalizing and aligning cell image sequences, we extract the continuity of deformation at each angle through time-lapse. Then the deformation pattern is given by the histogram of the continuity of deformation. Experimental results demonstrate that the cellular deformation pattern provided by our approach can be applied to discriminate cellular activation. In addition, the deformation pattern recognition makes remarkable progress in the classification of cells.

  19. Green Cellular - Optimizing the Cellular Network for Minimal Emission from Mobile Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Ezri, Doron

    2009-01-01

    Wireless systems, which include cellular phones, have become an essential part of the modern life. However the mounting evidence that cellular radiation might adversely affect the health of its users, leads to a growing concern among authorities and the general public. Radiating antennas in the proximity of the user, such as antennas of mobile phones are of special interest for this matter. In this paper we suggest a new architecture for wireless networks, aiming at minimal emission from mobile stations, without any additional radiation sources. The new architecture, dubbed Green Cellular, abandons the classical transceiver base station design and suggests the augmentation of transceiver base stations with receive only devices. These devices, dubbed Green Antennas, are not aiming at coverage extension but rather at minimizing the emission from mobile stations. We discuss the implications of the Green Cellular architecture on 3G and 4G cellular technologies. We conclude by showing that employing the Green Cell...

  20. Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the biological effects of ELF (extremely low frequency, regulators, scientists and engineers, and, importantly, an increasing number of individuals in the general public are interested in this health issue. The goal of research at the cellular level is to identify cellular responses to ELF fields, to develop a dose threshold for such interactions, and with such information to formulate and test appropriate interaction mechanisms. This review is selective and will discuss the most recent cellular studies directed at these goals which relate to power line, sinusoidal ELF fields. In these studies an interaction site at the cell membrane is by consensus a likely candidate, since changes in ion transport, ligand-receptor events such as antibody binding, and G protein activation have been reported. These changes strongly indicate that signal transduction (ST) can be influenced. Also, ELF fields are reported to influence enzyme activation, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation, which are triggered by earlier ST events at the cell membrane. The concept of ELF fields altering early cell membrane events and thereby influencing intracellular cell function via the ST cascade is perhaps the most plausible biological framework currently being investigated for understanding ELF effects on cells. For example, the consequence of an increase due to ELF fields in mitogenesis, the final endpoint of the ST cascade, is an overall increase in the probability of mutagenesis and consequently cancer, according to the Ames epigenetic model of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this epigenetic mechanism and the ST pathway to carcinogenesis is recent evidence that ELF fields can alter breast cancer cell proliferation and can act as a copromoter in vitro. The most important dosimetric question being addressed currently is whether the electric (E) or the magnetic (B) field, or if combinations of static B and time-varying B fields represent an exposure

  1. Model of cellular mechanotransduction via actin stress fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouget, Cecile L M; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical stresses due to blood flow regulate vascular endothelial cell structure and function and play a key role in arterial physiology and pathology. In particular, the development of atherosclerosis has been shown to correlate with regions of disturbed blood flow where endothelial cells are round and have a randomly organized cytoskeleton. Thus, deciphering the relation between the mechanical environment, cell structure, and cell function is a key step toward understanding the early development of atherosclerosis. Recent experiments have demonstrated very rapid (∼100 ms) and long-distance (∼10 μm) cellular mechanotransduction in which prestressed actin stress fibers play a critical role. Here, we develop a model of mechanical signal transmission within a cell by describing strains in a network of prestressed viscoelastic stress fibers following the application of a force to the cell surface. We find force transmission dynamics that are consistent with experimental results. We also show that the extent of stress fiber alignment and the direction of the applied force relative to this alignment are key determinants of the efficiency of mechanical signal transmission. These results are consistent with the link observed experimentally between cytoskeletal organization, mechanical stress, and cellular responsiveness to stress. Based on these results, we suggest that mechanical strain of actin stress fibers under force constitutes a key link in the mechanotransduction chain.

  2. [Cellular immune system of surgical maggots Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, T V

    2014-01-01

    In the hemolymph of surgical maggots Lucilia sericata seven types of hemocytes were revealed. These are prohemocytes, stable and unstable hyaline cells, thrombocytoids, spindle cells, larval plasmatocytes and plasmatocytes I-IV, which represent sequential stages of one cell line differentiation. In contrast to Calliphora hyaline cells, this type of hemocytes in cropemptying larvae of Lucilia is elongated or vermiform in shape. Hyaline cells may be transformed to both prothrombocytoids and unstable prophenoloxydase-producing cells. Appearance and differentiation of each hemocyte type is rigidly linked with a definite stage of development. In cellular defense the main role play juvenile plasmatocytes, plasmatocytes II and III and trombocytoides. Juvenile plasmatocytes are the most active ones. After charcoal particles injection they were instantly surrounded by the thick envelope of adhered alien particles and form uniform morules aggregations or conglomerates together with thrombocytoidal agglutinates. Plasmatocytes II and III during the early stages of differentiation may be involved in adhesion and phagocytosis of alien particles and during the last stages in the engulfing of apoptose desintegrated tissues. Thus the cellular defense reaction is assisted by 4 hemocyte types--prophenoloxydase-unstable hyaline cells, thrombocytoids, juvenile plasmatocytes and plasmatocytes I-IV.

  3. Visualizing cellular interactions with a generalized proximity reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmyer, Mark A; Bronsart, Laura; Imoto, Hiroshi; Contag, Christopher H; Wandless, Thomas J; Prescher, Jennifer A

    2013-05-21

    Interactions among neighboring cells underpin many physiological processes ranging from early development to immune responses. When these interactions do not function properly, numerous pathologies, including infection and cancer, can result. Molecular imaging technologies, especially optical imaging, are uniquely suited to illuminate complex cellular interactions within the context of living tissues in the body. However, no tools yet exist that allow the detection of microscopic events, such as two cells coming into close proximity, on a global, whole-animal scale. We report here a broadly applicable, longitudinal strategy for probing interactions among cells in living subjects. This approach relies on the generation of bioluminescent light when two distinct cell populations come into close proximity, with the intensity of the optical signal correlating with relative cellular location. We demonstrate the ability of this reporter strategy to gauge cell-cell proximity in culture models in vitro and then evaluate this approach for imaging tumor-immune cell interactions using a murine breast cancer model. In these studies, our imaging strategy enabled the facile visualization of features that are otherwise difficult to observe with conventional imaging techniques, including detection of micrometastatic lesions and potential sites of tumor immunosurveillance. This proximity reporter will facilitate probing of numerous types of cell-cell interactions and will stimulate the development of similar techniques to detect rare events and pathological processes in live animals.

  4. What can we hope for from cellular automata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolen, Gary

    Although the idea of using discrete methods for modeling partial differential equations occured very early, the actual statement that cellular automata techniques can approximate the solutions of hydrodynamic partial differential equations was first discovered by Frisch, Hasslacher, and Pomeau. Their description of the derivation, which assumes the validity of the Boltzmann equation, appeared in the Physical Review Letters in April 1986. It is the intent of this article to provide a description of the simplest lattice gas model and to examine the successes and inadequacies of a lattice gas calculation of flow in a two-dimensional channel. Some comments will summarize a recent result of a lattice gas simulation of flow through porous media, a problem which is ideal for the lattice gas method. Finally, some remarks will be focused on the impressive speeds which could be obtained from a dedicated lattice gas computer.

  5. Biochemical Factors Modulating Cellular Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvinder Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg, an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood, poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities, given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption versus the possible adverse neurological damage. Several studies have shown that MeHg toxicity is influenced by a number of biochemical factors, such as glutathione (GSH, fatty acids, vitamins, and essential elements, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this paper is to outline the cellular response to dietary nutrients, as well as to describe the neurotoxic exposures to MeHg. In order to determine the cellular mechanism(s of toxicity, the effect of pretreatment with biochemical factors (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC; diethyl maleate, (DEM; docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA; selenomethionine, SeM; Trolox and MeHg treatment on intercellular antioxidant status, MeHg content, and other endpoints was evaluated. This paper emphasizes that the protection against oxidative stress offered by these biochemical factors is among one of the major mechanisms responsible for conferring neuroprotection. It is therefore critical to ascertain the cellular mechanisms associated with various dietary nutrients as well as to determine the potential effects of neurotoxic exposures for accurately assessing the risks and benefits associated with fish consumption.

  6. Deformation heterogeneity in cellular Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastawros, A.-F. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics; Evans, A.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Materials Inst.

    2000-04-01

    Cell ellipticity and non-planar membranes are thought to be dominant degradation factors of cellular metals. The mechanisms operating at the cell/membrane level in both closed and open cell Al alloys have been established by following the evolution of deformation with cell-level resolution using digital image correlation analysis. (orig.)

  7. Terminal addition in a cellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S; Miller, William B

    2017-12-19

    Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental biophysical stresses and epigenetic impacts. In such terms, Terminal Addition flows according to a logic of cellular needs confronting environmental challenges over space-time. A reconciliation of evolutionary development and Terminal Addition can be achieved through a combined focus on cell-cell signaling, molecular phylogenies and a broader understanding of epigenetic phenomena among eukaryotic organisms. When understood in this manner, Terminal Addition has an important role in evolutionary development, and chronic disease might be considered as a form of 'reverse evolution' of the self-same processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Determining lineage pathways from cellular barcoding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perié, Leïla; Hodgkin, Philip D; Naik, Shalin H; Schumacher, Ton N; de Boer, Rob J; Duffy, Ken R

    2014-01-01

    Cellular barcoding and other single-cell lineage-tracing strategies form experimental methodologies for analysis of in vivo cell fate that have been instrumental in several significant recent discoveries. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of proliferation and differentiation, interrogation of the

  9. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    machines are located in relative proximity based on processing requirements rather than similar functional aspects. Decision-making and accountability are more locally focused, often resulting in quality and productivity improvements. 2. Design of cellular manufacturing system. The problem of cell design is a very complex ...

  10. Simulating complex systems by cellular automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Kroc, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Deeply rooted in fundamental research in Mathematics and Computer Science, Cellular Automata (CA) are recognized as an intuitive modeling paradigm for Complex Systems. Already very basic CA, with extremely simple micro dynamics such as the Game of Life, show an almost endless display of complex

  11. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  12. Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of nicotine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelder, H.D.; McGehee, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The tragic health effects of nicotine addiction highlight the importance of investigating the cellular mechanisms of this complex behavioral phenomenon. The chain of cause and effect of nicotine addiction starts with the interaction of this tobacco alkaloid with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION THE MASS OF CELLULAR RETINOIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    type cellular retinoic acid binding protein I (wt*-CRABP I) with a stabilizing mutation R131Q, a protein whose molecular mass up to 17 kDa utilizing 13C depletion combined FT-ICR MS technology. EXPERIMENTAL. The synthesis of 13C depleted wt*-CRABP I was based on an adaptation of a previously published method ...

  14. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  15. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of multi-period cell formation and part operation tradeoff in a dynamic cellular manufacturing system is proposed in consideration with multiple part process route. This paper puts emphasize on the production flexibility (production/subcontracting part operation) to satisfy the ...

  16. Cellular schwannoma arising from sigmoid mesocolon presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon. The tumor was diagnosed to be a case of cellular schwannoma, an exceedingly rare tumor in this location with rare presentation. Keywords: Pelvis, Retroperitoneum, Schwannoma, Sigmoid mesocolon, Torsion, Tumor ...

  17. Cellular Schwannoma Arising from Sigmoid Mesocolon Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon. The tumor was diagnosed to be a case of cellular schwannoma, an exceedingly rare tumor in this location with rare presentation. Keywords: Pelvis, Retroperitoneum, Schwannoma, Sigmoid mesocolon, Torsion, Tumor.

  18. electromagnetic radiation exposure from cellular base station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    17 and 18] carried out in Lagos on cellular networks, suggests that there is basically no health risk in areas accessible to the public around the BTSs in Nigeria as far as conformity to ICNIRP,. 2009 safety limit is concerned, the risk associated.

  19. Cellular mechanisms within the juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briggs, J P; Skøtt, O; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Cl concentration at the macular densa. This change also results in inhibition of secretion of renin. The macula densa has a unique location near the terminal end of the thick ascending limb, where NaCl concentration is highly flow dependent. The cellular mechanisms by which changes in tubular fluid NaCl produce...

  20. Traffic Engineering of Cellular Wireless Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2002-01-01

    protection mechanisms to guarantee the Quality of Service for all services. We study cellular systems with hierarchical cells, and the effect of overlapping cells, and we show that by call packing we obtain a very high utilisation. The models are generalisations of the Erlang-B formula, and include general...... arrival processes, and multi-rate (multi-media) traffic for third generation systems....

  1. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, H R Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad 201003, India; Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India; Nikhil Institute of Technology ...

  2. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems...

  3. Predicting cellular growth from gene expression signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo M Airoldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is governed by mechanisms that are highly conserved from unicellular to multicellular organisms, and the disruption of these processes in metazoans is a major factor in the development of cancer. In this paper, we develop statistical methodology to identify quantitative aspects of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cellular proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that the expression levels of a small set of genes can be exploited to predict the instantaneous growth rate of any cellular culture with high accuracy. The predictions obtained in this fashion are robust to changing biological conditions, experimental methods, and technological platforms. The proposed model is also effective in predicting growth rates for the related yeast Saccharomyces bayanus and the highly diverged yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, suggesting that the underlying regulatory signature is conserved across a wide range of unicellular evolution. We investigate the biological significance of the gene expression signature that the predictions are based upon from multiple perspectives: by perturbing the regulatory network through the Ras/PKA pathway, observing strong upregulation of growth rate even in the absence of appropriate nutrients, and discovering putative transcription factor binding sites, observing enrichment in growth-correlated genes. More broadly, the proposed methodology enables biological insights about growth at an instantaneous time scale, inaccessible by direct experimental methods. Data and tools enabling others to apply our methods are available at http://function.princeton.edu/growthrate.

  4. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  5. Cellular automata and follicle recognition problem and possibilities of using cellular automata for image recognition purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viher, B; Dobnikar, A; Zazula, D

    1998-04-01

    Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems whose behaviour is completely specified in terms of a local relation. Guided by a suitable recipe, they can simulate a whole hierarchy of structures and phenomena. While investigating the problem of follicle recognition in ultrasonic images of women's ovaries, we became increasingly interested in using cellular automata for this purpose. We were very successful, which encouraged us to further investigate the use of cellular automata for image recognition purposes in general. This paper presents the results of our research in this area, along with the details of how we solved the follicle recognition problem.

  6. Cellular bases of experimental amebic liver abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, V.; Mena-Lopez, R.; Anaya-Velazquez, F.; Martinez-Palomo, A.

    1984-01-01

    The complete sequence of morphologic events during amebic liver abscess formation in the hamster has been studied, from the lodgement of amebas in the hepatic sinusoids to the development of extensive liver necrosis. Following intraportal inoculation of live amebas, the early stages of the lesion (from 1 to 12 hours) were characterized by acute cellular infiltration composed of an increasingly large number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which surrounded centrally located trophozoites. Histiocytes and lysed leukocytes were situated on the periphery of the lesions. Hepatocytes close to the early lesions showed degenerative changes which led to necrosis; however, direct contact of liver cells with amebas was very rarely observed. At later stages, the extent of necrosis increased, macrophages and epithelioid cells replaced most leukocytes, and well-organized granulomas developed. Extensive necrosis associated with fused granulomas was present by Day 7. The results suggest that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites do not produce amebic liver abscesses in hamsters through direct lysis of hepatocytes. Rather, tissue destruction is the result of the accumulation and subsequent lysis of leukocytes and macrophages surrounding the amebas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6385728

  7. Physiological and pathological consequences of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dominick G A; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2014-11-01

    Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest accompanied by a complex phenotype, is an essential mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. In physiological conditions, senescent cells can be removed by the immune system, facilitating tumor suppression and wound healing. However, as we age, senescent cells accumulate in tissues, either because an aging immune system fails to remove them, the rate of senescent cell formation is elevated, or both. If senescent cells persist in tissues, they have the potential to paradoxically promote pathological conditions. Cellular senescence is associated with an enhanced pro-survival phenotype, which most likely promotes persistence of senescent cells in vivo. This phenotype may have evolved to favor facilitation of a short-term wound healing, followed by the elimination of senescent cells by the immune system. In this review, we provide a perspective on the triggers, mechanisms and physiological as well as pathological consequences of senescent cells.

  8. Disturbances of cellular immunity in rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C; Gheorghiu, M

    1976-01-01

    The alteration of cellular reactivity was investigated in 20 patients with rheumatic fever at the first rheumatic attack or in relapse with confirmed heart damage. The results obtained by studying in parallel ESR, the ASLO titer, IDR to streptococci and the degree of leukocyte migration inhibition proved that the onset of rheumatic attack was preceded by a deep disturbance of the cellular immunity. The migration inhibition values were between 50 and 60% (as compared with 10% in the normal controls) in over 85% of the patients investigated. It is emphasized that the selection of cases of streptococcal angina should be made very carefully and that sometimes it is necessary to use a more specific method for the detection of rheumatic fever in its preclinical stage.

  9. Designing beauty the art of cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Genaro

    2016-01-01

    This fascinating, colourful book offers in-depth insights and first-hand working experiences in the production of art works, using simple computational models with rich morphological behaviour, at the edge of mathematics, computer science, physics and biology. It organically combines ground breaking scientific discoveries in the theory of computation and complex systems with artistic representations of the research results. In this appealing book mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and engineers brought together marvelous and esoteric patterns generated by cellular automata, which are arrays of simple machines with complex behavior. Configurations produced by cellular automata uncover mechanics of dynamic patterns formation, their propagation and interaction in natural systems: heart pacemaker, bacterial membrane proteins, chemical rectors, water permeation in soil, compressed gas, cell division, population dynamics, reaction-diffusion media and self-organisation. The book inspires artists to tak...

  10. Cellular Dynamics Revealed by Digital Holographic Microscopy☆

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, P.

    2016-11-22

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a new optical method that provides, without the use of any contrast agent, real-time, three-dimensional images of transparent living cells, with an axial sensitivity of a few tens of nanometers. They result from the hologram numerical reconstruction process, which permits a sub wavelength calculation of the phase shift, produced on the transmitted wave front, by the optically probed cells, namely the quantitative phase signal (QPS). Specifically, in addition to measurements of cellular surface morphometry and intracellular refractive index (RI), various biophysical cellular parameters including dry mass, absolute volume, membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale and biomechanical properties, transmembrane water permeability as swell as current, can be derived from the QPS. This article presents how quantitative phase DHM (QP-DHM) can explored cell dynamics at the nanoscale with a special attention to both the study of neuronal dynamics and the optical resolution of local neuronal network.

  11. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  12. Route to instability in cellular detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Sharpe, Gary J.; Quirk, James J.

    2007-11-01

    Through highly resolved direct numerical simulations of detonation cellular structures performed on large domains, we show that with increasing sensitivity of the reaction rates, the cellular front transits from a regular pattern to a highly irregular one, characterized by transverse wave merging and formation of new triple points on the front. We formulate a new method to study the distribution of the spacings between triple points of the same family and correlate their distribution with the sensitivity of the reaction rates. It is found that past a critical value of activation energy, a period doubling bifurcation occurs, with the preferred cell size having twice its original value. Simultaneously, higher frequency oscillations appear through a period halving bifurcation, hence significantly broadening the range of characteristic cell sizes of the front. The non-linear mechanisms responsible for the generation of these higher modes is discussed.

  13. Feedback control of unstable cellular solidification fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, A. J.; Karma, A.; Akamatsu, S.; Newey, M.; Pomerance, A.; Singer, H.; Losert, W.

    2007-02-01

    We present a feedback control scheme to stabilize unstable cellular patterns during the directional solidification of a binary alloy. The scheme is based on local heating of cell tips which protrude ahead of the mean position of all tips in the array. The feasibility of this scheme is demonstrated using phase-field simulations and, experimentally, using a real-time image processing algorithm, to track cell tips, coupled with a movable laser spot array device to heat the tips locally. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that spacings well below the threshold for a period-doubling instability can be stabilized. As predicted by the numerical calculations, cellular arrays become stable with uniform spacing through the feedback control which is maintained with minimal heating.

  14. Prodrug Approach for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cacciatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense. It plays an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. GSH deficiency has been observed in aging and in a wide range of pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as in several viral infections. Use of GSH as a therapeutic agent is limited because of its unfavorable biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH prodrugs able to replenish intracellular GSH levels. This review discusses different strategies for increasing GSH levels by supplying reversible bioconjugates able to cross the cellular membrane more easily than GSH and to provide a source of thiols for GSH synthesis.

  15. A cellular glass substrate solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, R.; Bell, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a second generation point focusing solar concentration is discussed. The design is based on reflective gores fabricated of thin glass mirror bonded continuously to a contoured substrate of cellular glass. The concentrator aperture and structural stiffness was optimized for minimum concentrator cost given the performance requirement of delivering 56 kWth to a 22 cm diameter receiver aperture with a direct normal insolation of 845 watts sq m and an operating wind of 50 kmph. The reflective panel, support structure, drives, foundation and instrumentation and control subsystem designs, optimized for minimum cost, are summarized. The use of cellular glass as a reflective panel substrate material is shown to offer significant weight and cost advantages compared to existing technology materials.

  16. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Cerebellar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMartinez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function.

  17. Cellular automata in image processing and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...

  18. SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-01-01

    Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.

  19. Probing Cellular Dynamics with Mesoscopic Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2010-01-01

    . Advances in computing hardware and software now allow explicit simulation of some aspects of cellular dynamics close to the molecular scale. Vesicle fusion is one example of such a process. Experiments, however, typically probe cellular behavior from the molecular scale up to microns. Standard particle......-based simulation techniques cannot capture such a broad range. Consequently, at long length scales, models have often been of the Mass Action variety, in which molecular constituents are represented by density fields that vary continuously in space and time, rather than involving discrete molecules....... But these models struggle to represent processes that are localized in space and time or involve the transport of material through a crowded environment. A novel class of mesoscopic simulation techniques are now able to span length and time scales from nanometers to microns for hundreds of microseconds, and may...

  20. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anupam; Dong, Zheng; Harris, Raymond; Murray, Patrick; Parikh, Samir M; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we review the current evidence for the cellular and molecular mechanisms of AKI, focusing on epithelial cell pathobiology and related cell-cell interactions, using ischemic AKI as a model. Highlighted are the clinical relevance of cellular and molecular targets that have been investigated in experimental models of ischemic AKI and how such models might be improved to optimize translation into successful clinical trials. In particular, development of more context-specific animal models with greater relevance to human AKI is urgently needed. Comorbidities that could alter patient susceptibility to AKI, such as underlying diabetes, aging, obesity, cancer, and CKD, should also be considered in developing these models. Finally, harmonization between academia and industry for more clinically relevant preclinical testing of potential therapeutic targets and better translational clinical trial design is also needed to achieve the goal of developing effective interventions for AKI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Spectrum sharing for future mobile cellular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bennis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Spectrum sharing has become a high priority research area over the past few years. The motivation behind this lies in the fact that the limited spectrum is currently inefficiently utilized. As recognized by the World radio communication conference (WRC)-07, the amount of identified spectrum is not large enough to support large bandwidths for a substantial number of operators. Therefore, it is paramount for future mobile cellular systems to share the frequency spectrum and coexist ...

  2. Physiological and pathological consequences of cellular senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Dominick G. A.; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest accompanied by a complex phenotype, is an essential mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. In physiological conditions, senescent cells can be removed by the immune system, facilitating tumor suppression and wound healing. However, as we age, senescent cells accumulate in tissues, either because an aging immune system fails to remove them, the rate of senescent cell formation is elevated, or both. If senescent cells p...

  3. Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorte, S.L. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France). Plateforme d' Imagerie Dynamique PFID-Imagopole; Frischknecht, F. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Parasitology

    2007-07-01

    'Imaging cellular and molecular biological function' provides a unique selection of essays by leading experts, aiming at scientist and student alike who are interested in all aspects of modern imaging, from its application and up-scaling to its development. Indeed the philosophy of this volume is to provide student, researcher, PI, professional or provost the means to enter this applications field with confidence, and to construct the means to answer their own specific questions. (orig.)

  4. Cognitive resource management for heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief focuses on cognitive resource management in heterogeneous cellular networks (Het Net) with small cell deployment for the LTE-Advanced system. It introduces the Het Net features, presents practical approaches using cognitive radio technology in accommodating small cell data relay and optimizing resource allocation and examines the effectiveness of resource management among small cells given limited coordination bandwidth and wireless channel uncertainty. The authors introduce different network characteristics of small cell, investigate the mesh of small cell access points in

  5. Characteristics of cellular composition of periodontal pockets

    OpenAIRE

    Hasiuk, Petro; Hasiuk, Nataliya; Kindiy, Dmytro; Ivanchyshyn, Victoriya; Kalashnikov, Dmytro; Zubchenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The development of inflammatory periodontal disease in young people is an urgent problem of today's periodontology, and requires a development of new methods that would give an opportunity not only to diagnose but also for prognosis of periodontitis course in a given patients contingent. Results Cellular structure of periodontal pockets is presented by hematogenous and epithelial cells. Our results are confirmed by previous studies, and show that the penetration of periodontal pathoge...

  6. Cellular Responses to Auxin: Division versus Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Many aspects of these processes depend on the multiple controls exerted by auxin on cell division and cell expansion. The detailed mechanisms by which auxin controls these essential cellular responses are still poorly understood, despite recent progress in the identification of auxin receptors and components of auxin signaling pathways. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the present knowledge of ...

  7. Empirical multiscale networks of cellular regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin de Bivort

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouping genes by similarity of expression across multiple cellular conditions enables the identification of cellular modules. The known functions of genes enable the characterization of the aggregate biological functions of these modules. In this paper, we use a high-throughput approach to identify the effective mutual regulatory interactions between modules composed of mouse genes from the Alliance for Cell Signaling (AfCS murine B-lymphocyte database which tracks the response of approximately 15,000 genes following chemokine perturbation. This analysis reveals principles of cellular organization that we discuss along four conceptual axes. (1 Regulatory implications: the derived collection of influences between any two modules quantifies intuitive as well as unexpected regulatory interactions. (2 Behavior across scales: trends across global networks of varying resolution (composed of various numbers of modules reveal principles of assembly of high-level behaviors from smaller components. (3 Temporal behavior: tracking the mutual module influences over different time intervals provides features of regulation dynamics such as duration, persistence, and periodicity. (4 Gene Ontology correspondence: the association of modules to known biological roles of individual genes describes the organization of functions within coexpressed modules of various sizes. We present key specific results in each of these four areas, as well as derive general principles of cellular organization. At the coarsest scale, the entire transcriptional network contains five divisions: two divisions devoted to ATP production/biosynthesis and DNA replication that activate all other divisions, an "extracellular interaction" division that represses all other divisions, and two divisions (proliferation/differentiation and membrane infrastructure that activate and repress other divisions in specific ways consistent with cell cycle control.

  8. The Cellular Basis for Animal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Elly M.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of animals to regenerate missing parts is a dramatic and poorly understood aspect of biology. The sources of new cells for these regenerative phenomena have been sought for decades. Recent advances involving cell fate tracking in complex tissues have shed new light on the cellular underpinnings of regeneration in Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, Xenopus, and Axolotl. Planarians accomplish regeneration with use of adult pluripotent stem cells, whereas several vertebrates utilize a col...

  9. Cellularity of certain quantum endomorphism algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Lehrer, Gus; Zhang, Ruibin

    2015-01-01

    of the specialisation Δζ(d)⊗r at q↦ζ of ΔA˜(d)⊗r. As an application of these results, we prove that knowledge of the dimensions of the simple modules of the specialised cellular algebra above is equivalent to knowledge of the weight multiplicities of the tilting modules for Uζ(sl2). As an example, in the final section...

  10. Cellular Mechanisms of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    theory we call “functional targeting”. Report Sections This summary report is organized on chapters that approximated papers either published or in...Bikson M. Cellular Effects of Acute Direct Current Stimulation: Somatic and Synaptic Terminal Effects. Journal of Physiology 2013; 591.10: 2563- 2578...a finite element model of brain current flow, numerical simulations of neuronal activity, and a statistical theory of coincident activity predicts

  11. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  12. Cellular Mechanisms of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    enhanced synaptic efficacy. Understanding the cellular targets of tDCS is considered pre-requisite to rational electrotherapy design and optimization...quantifying transcranial electrotherapy dosage. Curr Treat Options Neurol 10:377-385. Bindman LJ, Lippold OC, Redfearn JW (1962) Long-lasting...transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug delivery and electrotherapy , including tDCS. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 190:188-197

  13. Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liew, T C H

    2016-10-31

    We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.

  14. Cellular mechanisms for altered learning in aging

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, M Matthew; Disterhoft, John F

    2010-01-01

    Getting gray hair is part of the natural progression of aging. People expect it and they can change their hair color, if they choose. People also expect increases in memory lapses and learning difficulties as they get older. However, unlike hair color, there is no magic cure or option to fix learning and memory difficulties, because the cellular mechanisms of learning and aging in all the different types of neurons throughout the brain have yet to be discovered. This review describes our effo...

  15. Urban Area Development in Stochastic Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Mulianta; Yun Hariadi

    2004-01-01

    Urban is still an interesting topic to discuss whether in government or public studies. As economy grows in cities, many people are attracted to come to cities from villages to try their luck. In this paper, we investigated urban area development using von Thunen’s economic location theory. By using stochastic Cellular Automata which views land location as agents that will change their states in agriculture, industry, and service series, here we show how the urban areas dominated by economy, ...

  16. Cellular arsenic transport pathways in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbeck, Barbara A; Banerjee, Mayukh; Leslie, Elaine M

    2016-11-01

    Natural contamination of drinking water with arsenic results in the exposure of millions of people world-wide to unacceptable levels of this metalloid. This is a serious global health problem because arsenic is a Group 1 (proven) human carcinogen and chronic exposure is known to cause skin, lung, and bladder tumors. Furthermore, arsenic exposure can result in a myriad of other adverse health effects including diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, reproductive, and endocrine systems. In addition to chronic environmental exposure to arsenic, arsenic trioxide is approved for the clinical treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, and is in clinical trials for other hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors. Considerable inter-individual variability in susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease and toxicity exists, and the reasons for such differences are incompletely understood. Transport pathways that influence the cellular uptake and export of arsenic contribute to regulating its cellular, tissue, and ultimately body levels. In the current review, membrane proteins (including phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporin channels, solute carrier proteins, and ATP-binding cassette transporters) shown experimentally to contribute to the passage of inorganic, methylated, and/or glutathionylated arsenic species across cellular membranes are discussed. Furthermore, what is known about arsenic transporters in organs involved in absorption, distribution, and metabolism and how transport pathways contribute to arsenic elimination are described. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. HDACi: cellular effects, opportunities for restorative dentistry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H F

    2011-12-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.

  18. their relationship with cellular signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zielniok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroids: 17β-estradiol and progesterone play a major role in modulation of reproductive functions of the organism and participate in regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular processes in target cells via their specific receptors. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms of sex steroid action has significantly developed over the last years. Apart from the well-established effect of sex steroids on regulation of gene expression, some rapid nongenomic mechanisms have been identified, which are involved in modulation of the activity of several cellular, membrane-bound and cytoplasmic regulatory proteins. 17β-estradiol and progesterone regulate several signal transduction pathways, which involve activation of enzymes such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and tyrosine kinases. Biological effects of sex steroids action constitute a complex interplay of genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, and depend on the physiological and genetic context of the target cell. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of sex steroids action is therefore important and may broaden our knowledge about their role in both physiological and pathological processes. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the molecular actions of 17β-estradiol and progesterone, aiming to present the role of these sex steroids in regulation of cellular signaling pathways.

  19. Cellular kinetics of perivascular MSC precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William C W; Park, Tea Soon; Murray, Iain R; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Lazzari, Lorenza; Huard, Johnny; Péault, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  20. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  1. Cellular Hyperproliferation and Cancer as Evolutionary Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in biology have begun to dramatically change the way we think about evolution, development, health and disease. The ability to sequence the genomes of many individuals within a population, and across multiple species, has opened the door to the possibility of answering some long-standing and perplexing questions about our own genetic heritage. One such question revolves around the nature of cellular hyperproliferation. This cellular behavior is used to effect wound healing in most animals, as well as, in some animals, the regeneration of lost body parts. Yet at the same time, cellular hyperproliferation is the fundamental pathological condition responsible for cancers in humans. Here, I will discuss why microevolution, macroevolution and developmental biology all have to be taken into consideration when interpreting studies of both normal and malignant hyperproliferation. I will also illustrate how a synthesis of evolutionary sciences and developmental biology through the study of diverse model organisms can inform our understanding of both health and disease. PMID:22975008

  2. Regulating cellular trace metal economy in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2017-10-01

    As indispensable protein cofactors, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn are at the center of multifaceted acclimation mechanisms that have evolved to ensure extracellular supply meets intracellular demand. Starting with selective transport at the plasma membrane and ending in protein metalation, metal homeostasis in algae involves regulated trafficking of metal ions across membranes, intracellular compartmentalization by proteins and organelles, and metal-sparing/recycling mechanisms to optimize metal-use efficiency. Overlaid on these processes are additional circuits that respond to the metabolic state as well as to the prior metal status of the cell. In this review, we focus on recent progress made toward understanding the pathways by which the single-celled, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii controls its cellular trace metal economy. We also compare these mechanisms to characterized and putative processes in other algal lineages. Photosynthetic microbes continue to provide insight into cellular regulation and handling of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn as a function of the nutritional supply and cellular demand for metal cofactors. New experimental tools such as RNA-Seq and subcellular metal imaging are bringing us closer to a molecular understanding of acclimation to supply dynamics in algae and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  4. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  5. Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten; Rasmussen, Steen

    1994-01-01

    A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping...... as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set...... of fixed points of cellular automata on an infinite lattice....

  6. Distinguishing between biochemical and cellular function: Are there peptide signatures for cellular function of proteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shruti; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bakshi, Rachit; Narang, Ankita; Brahmachari, Vani

    2017-04-01

    The genome annotation and identification of gene function depends on conserved biochemical activity. However, in the cell, proteins with the same biochemical function can participate in different cellular pathways and cannot complement one another. Similarly, two proteins of very different biochemical functions are put in the same class of cellular function; for example, the classification of a gene as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene is not related to its biochemical function, but is related to its cellular function. We have taken an approach to identify peptide signatures for cellular function in proteins with known biochemical function. ATPases as a test case, we classified ATPases (2360 proteins) and kinases (517 proteins) from the human genome into different cellular function categories such as transcriptional, replicative, and chromatin remodelling proteins. Using publicly available tool, MEME, we identify peptide signatures shared among the members of a given category but not between cellular functional categories; for example, no motif sharing is seen between chromatin remodelling and transporter ATPases, similarly between receptor Serine/Threonine Kinase and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase. There are motifs shared within each category with significant E value and high occurrence. This concept of signature for cellular function was applied to developmental regulators, the polycomb and trithorax proteins which led to the prediction of the role of INO80, a chromatin remodelling protein, in development. This has been experimentally validated earlier for its role in homeotic gene regulation and its interaction with regulatory complexes like the Polycomb and Trithorax complex. Proteins 2017; 85:682-693. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) inhibits cellular proliferation in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Irfan; Riggs, Dale R; Jackson, Barbara J; Ng, Alex; Cunningham, Cynthia; McFadden, David W

    2006-06-01

    Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate found in food sources high in fiber content. We have previously reported IP6 to have significant inhibitory effects against pancreatic cancer in vitro. We hypothesized that the IP6 would significantly inhibit cell growth of cutaneous melanoma in vitro. The melanoma line HTB68 was cultured using standard techniques and treated with IP6 at doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mM/well. Cell viability was measured by MTT at 72 h. VEGF production was measured in the cell supernatants by ELISA. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and results calculated using FACS analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Significant reductions (P < 0.001) in cellular proliferation were observed with IP6. Overall, IP6 exhibited a mean inhibition of cell growth of 52.1 +/- 11.5% (range, 1.6-83.0%) at 72 h of incubation. VEGF production was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) by the addition of IP6 (7.5 pg/ml) compared to control (40.9 pg/ml). IP6 significantly increased (P = 0.029) late apoptosis from 5.3 to 7.0% gated events. No changes in necrosis or early apoptosis were observed. Adjuvant treatment of melanoma continues to challenge clinicians and patients. Our findings that IP6 significantly decreased cellular growth, VEGF production and increased late apoptosis in melanoma suggest its potential therapeutic value. Further in vivo studies are planned to evaluate safety and clinical utility of this agent.

  8. Primary cellular meningeal defects cause neocortical dysplasia and dyslamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Jonathan H.; Siegenthaler, Julie A.; Patterson, Katelin P.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cortical malformations are important causes of neurological morbidity, but in many cases their etiology is poorly understood. Mice with Foxc1 mutations have cellular defects in meningeal development. We use hypomorphic and null alleles of Foxc1 to study the effect of meningeal defects on neocortical organization. Methods Embryos with loss of Foxc1 activity were generated using the hypomorphic Foxc1hith allele and the null Foxc1lacZ allele. Immunohistologic analysis was used to assess cerebral basement membrane integrity, marginal zone heterotopia formation, neuronal overmigration, meningeal defects, and changes in basement membrane composition. Dysplasia severity was quantified using two measures. Results Cortical dysplasia resembling cobblestone cortex, with basement membrane breakdown and lamination defects, is seen in Foxc1 mutants. As Foxc1 activity was reduced, abnormalities in basement membrane integrity, heterotopia formation, neuronal overmigration, and meningeal development appeared earlier in gestation and were more severe. Surprisingly, the basement membrane appeared intact at early stages of development in the face of severe deficits in meningeal development. Prominent defects in basement membrane integrity appeared as development proceeded. Molecular analysis of basement membrane laminin subunits demonstrated that loss of the meninges led to changes in basement membrane composition. Interpretation Cortical dysplasia can be caused by cellular defects in the meninges. The meninges are not required for basement membrane establishment but are needed for remodeling as the brain expands. Specific changes in basement membrane composition may contribute to subsequent breakdown. Our study raises the possibility that primary meningeal defects may cortical dysplasia in some cases. PMID:20976766

  9. Corneal molecular and cellular biology update for the refractive surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomao, Marcella Q; Wilson, Steven E

    2009-05-01

    To review clinically relevant progress in understanding cellular and molecular interactions in the cornea that relate to refractive surgical outcomes in patients. Recent published literature focused on femtosecond LASIK and surface ablation procedures, such as photorefractive keratectomy, was reviewed and correlated with clinical results of surgery. The femtosecond laser has a direct necrotic effect on stromal keratocytes, resulting in the release of cellular components that are chemotactic to bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells. Developments of the femtosecond laser led to lower energy delivery to the stroma and altered laser ablation profiles that decrease epithelial damage during the side-cut, and have markedly improved femtosecond LASIK to the point that the overall early postoperative healing response is indistinguishable from microkeratome LASIK. New studies have directly demonstrated the importance of surface irregularity and resulting structural and functional defects in the epithelial basement membrane, in the generation and persistence of anterior stromal myofibroblasts and haze following surface ablation procedures. These defects augment penetration of epithelium-derived TGF-beta, which is a critical modulator of myofibroblast development in the stroma. Studies on the mechanism of action of mitomycin C treatment to prevent haze have confirmed that the most powerful effect is on stromal cell proliferation and, therefore, decreased population of the anterior stroma with myofibroblast progenitor cells. An undesirable long-term effect of mitomycin C is diminished anterior stromal keratocyte density due to diminished keratocyte re-population. This raises concerns regarding future corneal anomalies in treated corneas. Basic research studies of refractive procedures provide important insights into the effects of wound healing on surgical outcomes.

  10. Mapping of cellular iron using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.

  11. Cellular edema regulates tissue capillary perfusion after hemorrhage resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, El Rasheid; Li, Na; Matheson, Paul J; Garrison, Richard N

    2007-10-01

    function, and maximum recruitment of FCD independent of the Na+/H+ -exchanger function. Paradoxical endothelial cell swelling occurs early during hemorrhagic shock because of activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger. This cellular edema, which is not resolved by correction of the vascular volume deficit, explains the persistent postresuscitation endothelial cell dysfunction and gut hypoperfusion. Simulated adjunctive DPR in this study reversed endothelial cell swelling and enhanced gut perfusion by mechanisms that are independent of the Na+/H+ exchanger activity.

  12. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  13. Cellular microparticles: new players in the field of vascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamant, M.; Tushuizen, M. E.; Sturk, A.; Nieuwland, R.

    2004-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane vesicles that are released from cells upon activation or during apoptosis. Cellular microparticles in body fluids constitute a heterogeneous population, differing in cellular origin, numbers, size, antigenic composition and functional properties. Microparticles

  14. Early Events of DNA Photodamage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Wolfgang J.; Gilch, Peter; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a leading external hazard to the integrity of DNA. Exposure to UV radiation triggers a cascade of chemical reactions, and many molecular products (photolesions) have been isolated that are potentially dangerous for the cellular system. The early steps that take place after UV absorption by DNA have been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. The review focuses on the evolution of excited electronic states, the formation of photolesions, and processes suppressing their formation. Emphasis is placed on lesions involving two thymine bases, such as the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, the (6-4) lesion, and its Dewar valence isomer.

  15. Leukocytic promotion of prostate cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kristy L; Begley, Lesa A; Mor-Vaknin, Nirit; Markovitz, David M; Macoska, Jill A

    2010-03-01

    Histological evidence of pervasive inflammatory infiltrate has been noted in both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Cytokines known to attract particular leukocyte subsets are secreted from prostatic stroma consequent to aging and also from malignant prostate epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that leukocytes associated with either acute or chronic inflammation attracted to the prostate consequent to aging or tumorigenesis may promote the abnormal cellular proliferation associated with BPH and PCa. An in vitro system designed to mimic the human prostatic microenvironment incorporating prostatic stroma (primary and immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts), epithelium (N15C6, BPH-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cells), and inflammatory infiltrate (HL-60 cells, HH, and Molt-3 T-lymphocytes) was developed. Modified Boyden chamber assays were used to test the ability of prostate stromal and epithelial cells to attract leukocytes and to test the effect of leukocytes on prostate cellular proliferation. Antibody arrays were used to identify leukocyte-secreted cytokines mediating prostate cellular proliferation. Leukocytic cells migrated towards both prostate stromal and epithelial cells. CD4+ T-lymphocytes promoted the proliferation of both transformed and non-transformed prostate epithelial cell lines tested, whereas CD8+ T-lymphocytes as well as dHL-60M macrophagic and dHL-60N neutrophilic cells selectively promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. The results of these studies show that inflammatory cells can be attracted to the prostate tissue microenvironment and can selectively promote the proliferation of non-transformed or transformed prostate epithelial cells, and are consistent with differential role(s) for inflammatory infiltrate in the etiologies of benign and malignant proliferative disease in the prostate. Prostate 70: 377-389, 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Bursting in Cellular Automata and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Gil; Shrier, Alvin; Glass, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the initiation and continuation of abnormal cardiac arrhythmias are incompletely understood. In this chapter, we summarize work that shows how simple cellular automata models of excitable media can display a range of interesting dynamical behavior including spontaneous bursts of reentrant spiral activity. Since the model incorporates basic physiological properties of excitability, heterogeneity, localized pacemakers, and fatigue in a schematic way, the model captures generic physiological dynamics that should be broadly observed in experimental and clinical settings as well as in more realistic mathematical models.

  17. Cellular Scaling Rules for Primate Spinal Cords

    OpenAIRE

    Burish, Mark J.; Peebles, J. Klint; Baldwin, Mary K.; Tavares, Luciano; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    The spinal cord can be considered a major sensorimotor interface between the body and the brain. How does the spinal cord scale with body and brain mass, and how are its numbers of neurons related to the number of neurons in the brain across species of different body and brain sizes? Here we determine the cellular composition of the spinal cord in eight primate species and find that its number of neurons varies as a linear function of cord length, and accompanies body mass raised to an expone...

  18. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  19. Uncovering principles of cellular decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suel, Gurol

    2012-02-01

    Cells can cope with unpredictable environmental conditions by differentiating into appropriate states. In this talk, I will present our recent attempts to understand the role of genetic circuits in regulating the underlying process of cellular decision-making. Specifically, we are interested in how interactions within and across genetic circuits enable cells to choose among alternative fates. To address this question my laboratory is employing systems and synthetic biology approaches. Our ultimate goal is to uncover possible evolutionary pressures that may have selected for specific gene circuit architectures, dynamics and noise properties.

  20. Immunotherapy in allergy and cellular tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro assay where the activation of basophils upon exposure to various IgE-challenging molecules is measured by flow cytometry. It is a cellular test able to investigate basophil behavior during allergy and allergy immunotherapy. A panoply of critical issues and suggestive advances have rendered this assay a promising yet puzzling tool to endeavor a full comprehension of innate immunity of allergy desensitization and manage allergen or monoclonal anti-IgE therapy. In this review a brief state of art of BAT in immunotherapy is described focusing onto the analytical issue pertaining BAT performance in allergy specific therapy. PMID:24717453

  1. Cellular regulation of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft and is a target for widely abused psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Nonetheless, little is known about the cellular distribution and trafficking of natively expressed DAT. DAT and its trafficking...... in heterologous cells and in cultured DA neurons. DAT has been shown to be regulated by the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), the primary target foranti-psychotics, through a direct interaction. D2R is among other places expressed as an autoreceptor in DA neurons. Transient over-expression of DAT with D2R in HEK293...

  2. Justification identification criterion cellular structures state functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Георгиевич Куликов

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of presenting situations the state of cellular structures functions of the state in the form of regression equations. This allows you to create a replica of an information storage medium on the system status at a given time. The process of system transition from the initial to the final state are invited to formalize a coherent set of regression equations. The regression equations as state functions allow the verbal process of representing the states to replace the system - model. This, in turn, allows the development of parametric methods of management structure formation.

  3. Elliptical Particle Clustering in Cellular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atis, Severine; Sapsis, Themistoklis; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The transport of finite-sized objects by fluid flows is relevant to a wide variety of phenomena, such as debris transport on the ocean surface or bacteria advection in fluid environment. The shape of the advected objects can strongly alter their coupling with the surrounding flow field, and hence, greatly affecting their dispersion by the flow. We present the results of investigations of the behavior of neutrally buoyant, elliptical particles in two-dimensional cellular flows. We find that their trajectories, and overall organization, are markedly different than for spherical particles, with clear clustering for the elliptical particles associated with vortices.

  4. Analysis of Closed Social Structure Models using the Cellular Automaton

    OpenAIRE

    安達, 康生; 安高, 真一郎; 植松, 康祐; アダチ, ヤスオ; アタカ, シンイチロウ; ウエマツ, コウユウ; Adachi, Yasuo; Ataka, Shinichiro; Uematsu, Koyu

    2016-01-01

    The cellular automaton was created by John Von Neumann and Stanislaw Marcin Ulam. What Von Neumann was interested in was a machine which could replicate itself and the first such machine in the logical world was the Neumann cellular automaton. Since then, the cellular automaton has been expanded to many fields such as biology, history, and complex systems. This paper suggests closed social structure models with the method based on the cellular automaton. We succeeded in finding some interesti...

  5. Will Early Retirement Retire Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James W.

    1976-01-01

    Management should recognize and consider both the advantages of early retirement programs and the countervailing forces of financial conditions, individual attitudes, and age discrimination laws. (Available from American Management Associations, Subscription Services, Box 319, Saranac Lake, NY 12983; $15.00 annually) (Author/MLF)

  6. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Discontinuation of medical drug treatment is a serious problem in primary care. The need for a better understanding of the processes, including physician-specific mechanisms, is apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between general practitioners' prescribing....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...... of all drugs and drug-specific early discontinuation showed some degree of positive association - strongest for anti-hypertensive drugs (r = 0.62) and antidepressants (r = 0.43). Conclusion This study confirmed our hypothesis that general practitioners with high levels of prescribing attain higher rates...

  7. Implications of TGFβ on transcriptome and cellular biofunctions of palatal mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan eZhu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of the palate comprises sequential stages of growth, elevation and fusion of the palatal shelves. The mesenchymal component of palates plays a major role in early phases of palatogenesis, such as growth and elevation. Failure in these steps may result in cleft palate, the second most common birth defect in the world. These early stages of palatogenesis require precise and chronological orchestration of key physiological processes, such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. There is compelling evidence for the vital role of TGFβ-mediated regulation of palate development. We hypothesized that the isoforms of TGFβ regulate different cellular biofunctions of the palatal mesenchyme to various extents. Human embryonic palatal mesenchyme (HEPM cells were treated with TGFβ1, β2, and β3 for microarray-based gene expression studies in order to identify the roles of TGFβ in the transcriptome of the palatal mesenchyme. Following normalization and modeling of 28,869 human genes, 566 transcripts were detected as differentially expressed in TGFβ-treated HEPM cells. Out of these altered transcripts, 234 of them were clustered in cellular biofunctions, including growth and proliferation, development, morphology, movement, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Biological interpretation and network analysis of the genes active in cellular biofunctions were performed using IPA. Among the differentially expressed genes, 11 of them were previously identified as being crucial for palatogenesis (EDN1, INHBA, LHX8, PDGFC, PIGA, RUNX1, SNAI1, SMAD3, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβR1. These genes were used for a merged interaction network with cellular behaviors. Overall, we have determined that more than 2% of human transcripts were differentially expressed in response to TGFβ treatment in HEPM cells. Our results suggest that both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 orchestrate major cellular biofunctions within the palatal mesenchyme in vitro by

  8. Alpha-synuclein is a cellular ferrireductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul; Moualla, Dima; Brown, David R

    2011-01-10

    α-synuclein (αS) is a cellular protein mostly known for the association of its aggregated forms with a variety of diseases that include Parkinson's disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. While the role of αS in disease is well documented there is currently no agreement on the physiological function of the normal isoform of the protein. Here we provide strong evidence that αS is a cellular ferrireductase, responsible for reducing iron (III) to bio available iron (II). The recombinant form of the protein has a V(Max) of 2.72 nmols/min/mg and K(m) 23 µM. This activity is also evident in lysates from neuronal cell lines overexpressing αS. This activity is dependent on copper bound to αS as a cofactor and NADH as an electron donor. Overexpression of α-synuclein by cells significantly increases the percentage of iron (II) in cells. The common disease mutations associated with increased susceptibility to PD show no [corrected] differences in activity or iron (II) levels. This discovery may well provide new therapeutic targets for PD and Lewy body dementias.

  9. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Gaudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G. Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell.

  10. Light Based Cellular Interactions: hypotheses and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLaager

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the theoretical possibility of interactions between cells via light. We first take a brief look at the previous research done in the past to have a better understanding of the field and the origins of the concept of cellular interactions. Then we identify the different elements essential for interactions between two parties. We then compare the required elements with the known and studied elements and characteristics which are well defined in biology, chemistry and physics. This way we are able to set up four postulates required for cell interactions: I. A signal is present and subject to secondary modulation by the emitter cells. II. There is a plastic information medium that reacts directly to the metabolic state of the emitter and therefore carries information about the emitter. III. An optical signal can be perceived by cells on a molecular level by a multitude of different receptors. IV. The information can in theory be processed by cells and metabolic changes in reaction to the signals can be observed. We demonstrate that all required elements have been observed. Most of them have important and well-known roles in cells. Therefore we suggest that our hypothetical model is a good explanation for light based cellular interactions.

  11. Characteristics of cellular composition of periodontal pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiuk, Petro; Hasiuk, Nataliya; Kindiy, Dmytro; Ivanchyshyn, Victoriya; Kalashnikov, Dmytro; Zubchenko, Sergiy

    2016-12-01

    The development of inflammatory periodontal disease in young people is an urgent problem of today's periodontology, and requires a development of new methods that would give an opportunity not only to diagnose but also for prognosis of periodontitis course in a given patients contingent. Cellular structure of periodontal pockets is presented by hematogenous and epithelial cells. Our results are confirmed by previous studies, and show that the penetration of periodontal pathogens leads to formation in periodontal tissue of a highly active complex compounds-cytokines that are able to modify the activity of neutrophils and reduce their specific antibacterial properties. Cytokines not only adversely affect the periodontal tissues, but also cause further activation of cells that synthesized them, and inhibit tissue repair and process of resynthesis of connective tissue by fibroblasts. Neutrophilic granulocytes present in each of the types of smear types, but their functional status and quantitative composition is different. The results of our cytological study confirmed the results of immunohistochemical studies, and show that in generalized periodontitis, an inflammatory cellular elements with disorganized epithelial cells and connective tissue of the gums and periodontium, and bacteria form specific types of infiltration in periodontal tissues.

  12. [Cellular phones and cancer: current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Anne

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of the impact of new technologies on the human body is essential in order to impose regulations to limit health risks. The appearance and evolution of cellular phones have been one of the fastest in the history of innovation. Research reported worldwide has tried to evaluate any potential link between adverse health effects and the mobile phone and its broadcasting stations. This article gives an overview of current research knowledge on the impact of radiofrequency waves on health. Epidemiologic, cellular and animal studies have been carried out, but none of them have reached definitive conclusions. Although some biological effects on cell culture have been observed, their link with human cancer development is far from established. Most of the animal studies show negative results. Epidemiologic studies lack a sufficient perspective to be able to evaluate the effect of evolving technologies used today. High levels of concern by the public have urged mobile phone operators, manufacturers and governmental authorities to finance a number of scientific projects aimed at defining adapted and effective regulations.

  13. Biomimetic substrate control of cellular mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Mohammad Nahid; Dzenis, Yuris; Donahue, Henry J; Lim, Jung Yul

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular mechanophysical signals from both static substrate cue and dynamic mechanical loading have strong potential to regulate cell functions. Most of the studies have adopted either static or dynamic cue and shown that each cue can regulate cell adhesion, spreading, migration, proliferation, lineage commitment, and differentiation. However, there is limited information on the integrative control of cell functions by the static and dynamic mechanophysical signals. For example, a majority of dynamic loading studies have tested mechanical stimulation of cells utilizing cultures on flat surfaces without any surface modification. While these approaches have provided significant information on cell mechanotransduction, obtained outcomes may not correctly recapitulate complex cellular mechanosensing milieus in vivo. Several pioneering studies documented cellular response to mechanical stimulations upon cultures with biomimetic substrate modifications. In this min-review, we will highlight key findings on the integrative role of substrate cue (topographic, geometric, etc.) and mechanical stimulation (stretch, fluid shear) in modulating cell function and fate. The integrative approaches, though not fully established yet, will help properly understand cell mechanotransduction under biomimetic mechanophysical environments. This may further lead to advanced functional tissue engineering and regenerative medicine protocols.

  14. Cellular Commitment in the Developing Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan eMarzban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa and is critical for motor coordination and non-motor functions including cognitive and emotional processes. The anatomical structure of cerebellum is distinct with a three-layered cortex. During development, neurogenesis and fate decisions of cerebellar primordium cells are orchestrated through tightly controlled molecular events involving multiple genetic pathways. In this review, we will highlight the anatomical structure of human and mouse cerebellum, the cellular composition of developing cerebellum, and the underlying gene expression programs involved in cell fate commitments in the cerebellum. A critical evaluation of the cell death literature suggests that apoptosis occurs in ~5% of cerebellar cells, most shortly after mitosis. Apoptosis and cellular autophagy likely play significant roles in cerebellar development, we provide a comprehensive discussion of their role in cerebellar development and organization. We also address the possible function of unfolded protein response in regulation of cerebellar neurogenesis. We discuss recent advancements in understanding the epigenetic signature of cerebellar compartments and possible connections between DNA methylation, microRNAs and cerebellar neurodegeneration. Finally, we then discuss genetic diseases associated with cerebellar dysfunction and their role in the aging cerebellum.

  15. Tension and robustness in multitasking cellular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Wong

    Full Text Available Cellular networks multitask by exhibiting distinct, context-dependent dynamics. However, network states (parameters that generate a particular dynamic are often sub-optimal for others, defining a source of "tension" between them. Though multitasking is pervasive, it is not clear where tension arises, what consequences it has, and how it is resolved. We developed a generic computational framework to examine the source and consequences of tension between pairs of dynamics exhibited by the well-studied RB-E2F switch regulating cell cycle entry. We found that tension arose from task-dependent shifts in parameters associated with network modules. Although parameter sets common to distinct dynamics did exist, tension reduced both their accessibility and resilience to perturbation, indicating a trade-off between "one-size-fits-all" solutions and robustness. With high tension, robustness can be preserved by dynamic shifting of modules, enabling the network to toggle between tasks, and by increasing network complexity, in this case by gene duplication. We propose that tension is a general constraint on the architecture and operation of multitasking biological networks. To this end, our work provides a framework to quantify the extent of tension between any network dynamics and how it affects network robustness. Such analysis would suggest new ways to interfere with network elements to elucidate the design principles of cellular networks.

  16. Information theory based approaches to cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermann, Christian; Klipp, Edda

    2011-10-01

    Cells interact with their environment and they have to react adequately to internal and external changes such changes in nutrient composition, physical properties like temperature or osmolarity and other stresses. More specifically, they must be able to evaluate whether the external change is significant or just in the range of noise. Based on multiple external parameters they have to compute an optimal response. Cellular signaling pathways are considered as the major means of information perception and transmission in cells. Here, we review different attempts to quantify information processing on the level of individual cells. We refer to Shannon entropy, mutual information, and informal measures of signaling pathway cross-talk and specificity. Information theory in systems biology has been successfully applied to identification of optimal pathway structures, mutual information and entropy as system response in sensitivity analysis, and quantification of input and output information. While the study of information transmission within the framework of information theory in technical systems is an advanced field with high impact in engineering and telecommunication, its application to biological objects and processes is still restricted to specific fields such as neuroscience, structural and molecular biology. However, in systems biology dealing with a holistic understanding of biochemical systems and cellular signaling only recently a number of examples for the application of information theory have emerged. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Systems Biology of Microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tension and Robustness in Multitasking Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeffrey V.; Li, Bochong; You, Lingchong

    2012-01-01

    Cellular networks multitask by exhibiting distinct, context-dependent dynamics. However, network states (parameters) that generate a particular dynamic are often sub-optimal for others, defining a source of “tension” between them. Though multitasking is pervasive, it is not clear where tension arises, what consequences it has, and how it is resolved. We developed a generic computational framework to examine the source and consequences of tension between pairs of dynamics exhibited by the well-studied RB-E2F switch regulating cell cycle entry. We found that tension arose from task-dependent shifts in parameters associated with network modules. Although parameter sets common to distinct dynamics did exist, tension reduced both their accessibility and resilience to perturbation, indicating a trade-off between “one-size-fits-all” solutions and robustness. With high tension, robustness can be preserved by dynamic shifting of modules, enabling the network to toggle between tasks, and by increasing network complexity, in this case by gene duplication. We propose that tension is a general constraint on the architecture and operation of multitasking biological networks. To this end, our work provides a framework to quantify the extent of tension between any network dynamics and how it affects network robustness. Such analysis would suggest new ways to interfere with network elements to elucidate the design principles of cellular networks. PMID:22577355

  18. Piezoelectric nanoribbons for monitoring cellular deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh D.; Deshmukh, Nikhil; Nagarah, John M.; Kramer, Tal; Purohit, Prashant K.; Berry, Michael J.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2012-09-01

    Methods for probing mechanical responses of mammalian cells to electrical excitations can improve our understanding of cellular physiology and function. The electrical response of neuronal cells to applied voltages has been studied in detail, but less is known about their mechanical response to electrical excitations. Studies using atomic force microscopes (AFMs) have shown that mammalian cells exhibit voltage-induced mechanical deflections at nanometre scales, but AFM measurements can be invasive and difficult to multiplex. Here we show that mechanical deformations of neuronal cells in response to electrical excitations can be measured using piezoelectric PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) nanoribbons, and we find that cells deflect by 1 nm when 120 mV is applied to the cell membrane. The measured cellular forces agree with a theoretical model in which depolarization caused by an applied voltage induces a change in membrane tension, which results in the cell altering its radius so that the pressure remains constant across the membrane. We also transfer arrays of PZT nanoribbons onto a silicone elastomer and measure mechanical deformations on a cow lung that mimics respiration. The PZT nanoribbons offer a minimally invasive and scalable platform for electromechanical biosensing.

  19. Photochemotherapy: Molecular And Cellular Processes Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spikes, John D.

    1989-03-01

    In photochemotherapy, as exemplified by the photodynamic therapy of tumors, a photosensitizing drug is administered to the patient; then, after a period of time to permit the most effective anatomical distribution of the drug, the diseased area is illuminated using an appropriate source of light of wavelengths absorbed by the sensitizer. In the tumor case, this results in the photochemical alteration of critical kinds of biornolecules in the diseased tissue, which interferes with the normal activities of certain cell organelles. This, in turn, leads to the injury or death of diseased cells in the treated area. This paper briefly reviews the reactive chemical species that can be formed in biological systems by illuminated sensitizers (triplet states of sensitizer molecules, free radicals of sensitizers and cellular components, singlet oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical) and the kinds of biochemical changes they produce in essential cellular molecules (nucleic acids, proteins, unsaturated lipids, etc.). Also reviewed are the effects of these molecular changes on the structure and function of mammalian cell organelles (membranes, mitochondria, nuclear components, etc.) and the mechanisms of the resulting injury or killing of the cells.

  20. Cellular senescence and the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Shankar J; Woods, Georgia; Rane, Anand; Demaria, Marco; Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie K

    2015-08-01

    Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that arrests the proliferation of mitotically competent cells to prevent malignant transformation. Senescent cells accumulate with age in a variety of human and mouse tissues where they express a complex 'senescence-associated secretory phenotype' (SASP). The SASP includes many pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and proteases that have the potential to cause or exacerbate age-related pathology, both degenerative and hyperplastic. While cellular senescence in peripheral tissues has recently been linked to a number of age-related pathologies, its involvement in brain aging is just beginning to be explored. Recent data generated by several laboratories suggest that both aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by an increase in SASP-expressing senescent cells of non-neuronal origin in the brain. Moreover, this increase correlates with neurodegeneration. Senescent cells in the brain could therefore constitute novel therapeutic targets for treating age-related neuropathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cellular contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Cinnamon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular contractility, essential for cell movement and proliferation, is regulated by microtubules, RhoA and actomyosin. The RhoA dependent kinase ROCK ensures the phosphorylation of the regulatory Myosin II Light Chain (MLC Ser19, thereby activating actomyosin contractions. Microtubules are upstream inhibitors of contractility and their depolymerization or depletion cause cells to contract by activating RhoA. How microtubule dynamics regulates RhoA remains, a major missing link in understanding contractility. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that contractility is inhibited by microtubules not only, as previously reported, in adherent cells, but also in non-adhering interphase and mitotic cells. Strikingly we observed that contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis by a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase. Inhibition of proteolysis, ubiquitination and neddylation all led to complete cessation of contractility and considerably reduced MLC Ser19 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that cells express a contractility inhibitor that is degraded by ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, either constitutively or in response to microtubule depolymerization. This degradation seems to depend on a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase and is required for cellular contractions.

  2. Alpha-synuclein is a cellular ferrireductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Davies

    Full Text Available α-synuclein (αS is a cellular protein mostly known for the association of its aggregated forms with a variety of diseases that include Parkinson's disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. While the role of αS in disease is well documented there is currently no agreement on the physiological function of the normal isoform of the protein. Here we provide strong evidence that αS is a cellular ferrireductase, responsible for reducing iron (III to bio available iron (II. The recombinant form of the protein has a V(Max of 2.72 nmols/min/mg and K(m 23 µM. This activity is also evident in lysates from neuronal cell lines overexpressing αS. This activity is dependent on copper bound to αS as a cofactor and NADH as an electron donor. Overexpression of α-synuclein by cells significantly increases the percentage of iron (II in cells. The common disease mutations associated with increased susceptibility to PD show no [corrected] differences in activity or iron (II levels. This discovery may well provide new therapeutic targets for PD and Lewy body dementias.

  3. Cellular commitment in the developing cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Hassan; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Alizadeh, Javad; Ghavami, Saeid; Zachariah, Robby M.; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa and is critical for motor coordination and non-motor functions including cognitive and emotional processes. The anatomical structure of cerebellum is distinct with a three-layered cortex. During development, neurogenesis and fate decisions of cerebellar primordium cells are orchestrated through tightly controlled molecular events involving multiple genetic pathways. In this review, we will highlight the anatomical structure of human and mouse cerebellum, the cellular composition of developing cerebellum, and the underlying gene expression programs involved in cell fate commitments in the cerebellum. A critical evaluation of the cell death literature suggests that apoptosis occurs in ~5% of cerebellar cells, most shortly after mitosis. Apoptosis and cellular autophagy likely play significant roles in cerebellar development, we provide a comprehensive discussion of their role in cerebellar development and organization. We also address the possible function of unfolded protein response in regulation of cerebellar neurogenesis. We discuss recent advancements in understanding the epigenetic signature of cerebellar compartments and possible connections between DNA methylation, microRNAs and cerebellar neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss genetic diseases associated with cerebellar dysfunction and their role in the aging cerebellum. PMID:25628535

  4. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Palate Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lan, Y; Jiang, R

    2017-10-01

    Development of the mammalian secondary palate involves highly dynamic morphogenetic processes, including outgrowth of palatal shelves from the oral side of the embryonic maxillary prominences, elevation of the initially vertically oriented palatal shelves to the horizontal position above the embryonic tongue, and subsequently adhesion and fusion of the paired palatal shelves at the midline to separate the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. Perturbation of any of these processes could cause cleft palate, a common birth defect that significantly affects patients' quality of life even after surgical treatment. In addition to identifying a large number of genes required for palate development, recent studies have begun to unravel the extensive cross-regulation of multiple signaling pathways, including Sonic hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β, and Wnt signaling, and multiple transcription factors during palatal shelf growth and patterning. Multiple studies also provide new insights into the gene regulatory networks and/or dynamic cellular processes underlying palatal shelf elevation, adhesion, and fusion. Here we summarize major recent advances and integrate the genes and molecular pathways with the cellular and morphogenetic processes of palatal shelf growth, patterning, elevation, adhesion, and fusion.

  5. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tumor Cell Intravasation Stimulated by TIE2hi Macrophage-Derived VEGFA. Cancer discovery 5, 932-943 (2015). 5. Franklin, R.A. et al. The cellular and...Our work supports the hypothesis that during long periods of the natural history of mammary cancer, and most unexpectedly during early stages...matrix. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 57, 41-64. Grumolato, L., Liu, G., Mong, P., Mudbhary, R., Biswas, R., Arroyave, R., Vijayakumar

  6. Oxidative proteome modifications target specific cellular pathways during oxidative stress, cellular senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraibar, Martin A; Friguet, Bertrand

    2013-07-01

    Oxidatively modified proteins build-up with age results, at least in part, from the increase of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds originating from both cellular metabolism and external factors. Experimental evidence has also indicated that failure of protein maintenance is a major contributor to the age-associated accumulation of damaged proteins. We have previously shown that oxidized proteins as well as proteins modified by lipid peroxidation and glycoxidation adducts are accumulating in senescent human WI-38 fibroblasts and reported that proteins targeted by these modifications are mainly involved in protein maintenance, energy metabolism and cytoskeleton. Alterations in the proteome of human muscle adult stem cells upon oxidative stress have also been recently analyzed. The carbonylated proteins identified were also found to be involved in key cellular functions, such as carbohydrate metabolism, protein maintenance, cellular motility and protein homeostasis. More recently, we have built a database of proteins modified by carbonylation, glycation and lipid peroxidation products during aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. Common pathways evidenced by enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism were found targeted by these modifications, although different tissues have been examined. These results underscore the implication of potential deleterious effects of protein irreversible oxidative modifications in key cellular pathways during aging and in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative stress action in cellular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Cristine de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Various theories try to explain the biological aging by changing the functions and structure of organic systems and cells. During lifetime, free radicals in the oxidative stress lead to lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes, homeostasis imbalance, chemical residues formation, gene mutations in DNA, dysfunction of certain organelles, and the arise of diseases due to cell death and/or injury. This review describes the action of oxidative stress in the cells aging process, emphasizing the factors such as cellular oxidative damage, its consequences and the main protective measures taken to prevent or delay this process. Tests with antioxidants: vitamins A, E and C, flavonoids, carotenoids and minerals, the practice of caloric restriction and physical exercise, seeking the beneficial effects on human health, increasing longevity, reducing the level of oxidative stress, slowing the cellular senescence and origin of certain diseases, are discussed.Diferentes teorias tentam explicar o envelhecimento biológico através da alteração das funções e estrutura dos sistemas orgânicos e células. Ao longo da vida, os radicais livres presentes no estresse oxidativo conduzem à peroxidação dos lipídios das membranas celulares, desequilíbrio da homeostase, formação de resíduos químicos, mutações gênicas no DNA, disfunção de certas organelas, bem como ao surgimento de doenças devido à lesão e/ou morte celular. Nesta revisão descreve-se a ação do estresse oxidativo no processo de envelhecimento das células, enfatizando fatores como os danos oxidativos celulares, suas conseqüências e as principais medidas protetoras adotadas para se prevenir ou retardar este processo. Testes com antioxidantes: vitaminas A, E e C, flavonóides, carotenóides e minerais; a prática de restrição calórica e exercícios físicos, que buscam efeitos benéficos sobre a saúde humana, aumentando a longevidade, reduzindo o nível de estresse oxidativo

  8. Agent-Based Modeling of Mitochondria Links Sub-Cellular Dynamics to Cellular Homeostasis and Heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy. While mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are highly-integrated processes, it is not fully understood how systemic control in the cell is established to maintain homeostasis, or respond to bioenergetic demands. Here we used agent-based modeling (ABM to integrate molecular and imaging knowledge sets, and simulate population dynamics of mitochondria and their response to environmental energy demand. Using high-dimensional parameter searches we integrated experimentally-measured rates of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and using sensitivity analysis we identified parameter influences on population homeostasis. By studying the dynamics of cellular subpopulations with distinct mitochondrial masses, our approach uncovered system properties of mitochondrial populations: (1 mitochondrial fusion and fission activities rapidly establish mitochondrial sub-population homeostasis, and total cellular levels of mitochondria alter fusion and fission activities and subpopulation distributions; (2 restricting the directionality of mitochondrial mobility does not alter morphology subpopulation distributions, but increases network transmission dynamics; and (3 maintaining mitochondrial mass homeostasis and responding to bioenergetic stress requires the integration of mitochondrial dynamics with the cellular bioenergetic state. Finally, (4 our model suggests sources of, and stress conditions

  9. Correlation between membrane fluidity cellular development and stem cell differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Noutsi, Pakiza

    2016-12-01

    Cell membranes are made up of a complex structure of lipids and proteins that diffuse laterally giving rise to what we call membrane fluidity. During cellular development, such as neuronal differentiation, cell membranes undergo dramatic structural changes induced by proteins such as ARC and Cofilin among others in the case of synaptic modification. In this study we used the generalized polarization (GP) property of fluorescent probe Laurdan using two-photon microscopy to determine membrane fluidity as a function of time and for various cell lines. A low GP value corresponds to a higher fluidity and a higher GP value is associated with a more rigid membrane. Four different cell lines were monitored such as hN2, NIH3T3, HEK293 and L6 cells. As expected, NIH3T3 cells have more rigid membrane at earlier stages of their development. On the other hand neurons tend to have the highest membrane fluidity early in their development emphasizing its correlation with plasticity and the need for this malleability during differentiation. This study sheds light on the involvement of membrane fluidity during neuronal differentiation and development of other cell lines.

  10. The cellular bases of antibody responses during dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yam-Puc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic or memory B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections.This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events like the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation and germinal centers (GCs formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs, till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  11. Mammogram segmentation using maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, J; Peter, J Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer among women. Mammogram is one of the most effective tools for early detection of the breast cancer. Various computer-aided systems have been introduced to detect the breast cancer from mammogram images. In a computer-aided diagnosis system, detection and segmentation of breast masses from the background tissues is an important issue. In this paper, an automatic segmentation method is proposed to identify and segment the suspicious mass regions of mammogram using a modified transition rule named maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata (CA). In coarse-level segmentation, the proposed method performs an adaptive global thresholding based on the histogram peak analysis to obtain the rough region of interest. An automatic seed point selection is proposed using gray-level co-occurrence matrix-based sum average feature in the coarse segmented image. Finally, the method utilizes CA with the identified initial seed point and the modified transition rule to segment the mass region. The proposed approach is evaluated over the dataset of 70 mammograms with mass from mini-MIAS database. Experimental results show that the proposed approach yields promising results to segment the mass region in the mammograms with the sensitivity of 92.25% and accuracy of 93.48%.

  12. Cellular and Humoral Mechanisms Involved in the Control of Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Zuñiga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection is a major international public health problem. One-third of the world's population is thought to have latent tuberculosis, a condition where individuals are infected by the intracellular bacteria without active disease but are at risk for reactivation, if their immune system fails. Here, we discuss the role of nonspecific inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines and chemokines induced by interaction of innate receptors expressed in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. We also review current information regarding the importance of several cytokines including IL-17/IL-23 in the development of protective cellular and antibody-mediated protective responses against Mtb and their influence in containment of the infection. Finally, in this paper, emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of failure of Mtb control, including the immune dysregulation induced by the treatment with biological drugs in different autoimmune diseases. Further functional studies, focused on the mechanisms involved in the early host-Mtb interactions and the interplay between host innate and acquired immunity against Mtb, may be helpful to improve the understanding of protective responses in the lung and in the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic tools in TB.

  13. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  14. Colonization of bone matrices by cellular components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelkunova, E. I.; Voropaeva, A. A.; Korel, A. V.; Mayer, D. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Practical surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, and oncology require bioengineered constructs suitable for replacement of large-area bone defects. Only rigid/elastic matrix containing recipient's bone cells capable of mitosis, differentiation, and synthesizing extracellular matrix that supports cell viability can comply with these requirements. Therefore, the development of the techniques to produce structural and functional substitutes, whose three-dimensional structure corresponds to the recipient's damaged tissues, is the main objective of tissue engineering. This is achieved by developing tissue-engineering constructs represented by cells placed on the matrices. Low effectiveness of carrier matrix colonization with cells and their uneven distribution is one of the major problems in cell culture on various matrixes. In vitro studies of the interactions between cells and material, as well as the development of new techniques for scaffold colonization by cellular components are required to solve this problem.

  15. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  16. Cellular senescence and its effector programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Rafik; Sadaie, Mahito; Hoare, Matthew; Narita, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response that accompanies stable exit from the cell cycle. Classically, senescence, particularly in human cells, involves the p53 and p16/Rb pathways, and often both of these tumor suppressor pathways need to be abrogated to bypass senescence. In parallel, a number of effector mechanisms of senescence have been identified and characterized. These studies suggest that senescence is a collective phenotype of these multiple effectors, and their intensity and combination can be different depending on triggers and cell types, conferring a complex and diverse nature to senescence. Series of studies on senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in particular have revealed various layers of functionality of senescent cells in vivo. Here we discuss some key features of senescence effectors and attempt to functionally link them when it is possible. PMID:24449267

  17. Agent-based models of cellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Nicola; Corradini, Flavio; Merelli, Emanuela; Tesei, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Software agents are particularly suitable for engineering models and simulations of cellular systems. In a very natural and intuitive manner, individual software components are therein delegated to reproduce "in silico" the behavior of individual components of alive systems at a given level of resolution. Individuals' actions and interactions among individuals allow complex collective behavior to emerge. In this chapter we first introduce the readers to software agents and multi-agent systems, reviewing the evolution of agent-based modeling of biomolecular systems in the last decade. We then describe the main tools, platforms, and methodologies available for programming societies of agents, possibly profiting also of toolkits that do not require advanced programming skills.

  18. Simulation of earthquakes with cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Akishin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between cellular automata (CA models of earthquakes and the Burridge–Knopoff (BK model is studied. It is shown that the CA proposed by P. Bak and C. Tang,although they have rather realistic power spectra, do not correspond to the BK model. We present a modification of the CA which establishes the correspondence with the BK model.An analytical method of studying the evolution of the BK-like CA is proposed. By this method a functional quadratic in stress release, which can be regarded as an analog of the event energy, is constructed. The distribution of seismic events with respect to this “energy” shows rather realistic behavior, even in two dimensions. Special attention is paid to two-dimensional automata; the physical restrictions on compression and shear stiffnesses are imposed.

  19. Determining Lineage Pathways from Cellular Barcoding Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leïla Perié

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular barcoding and other single-cell lineage-tracing strategies form experimental methodologies for analysis of in vivo cell fate that have been instrumental in several significant recent discoveries. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of proliferation and differentiation, interrogation of the resulting data for evaluation of potential lineage pathways requires a new quantitative framework complete with appropriate statistical tests. Here, we develop such a framework, illustrating its utility by analyzing data from barcoded multipotent cells of the blood system. This application demonstrates that the data require additional paths beyond those found in the classical model, which leads us to propose that hematopoietic differentiation follows a loss of potential mechanism and to suggest further experiments to test this deduction. Our quantitative framework can evaluate the compatibility of lineage trees with barcoded data from any proliferating and differentiating cell system.

  20. Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, E.; Das, R.; Beasley, C.E.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks.

  1. The Cellular Structure of Carbon Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, B.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P.; Olson, K.; Calder, A. C.; Tufo, H.; MacNeice, P.; Truran, J. W.; Rosner, R.

    2000-05-01

    We compare two and three-dimensional simulations of the cellular structure of carbon detonations. The initial density of the carbon is taken to be 107 g cm-3. This value has been suggested as the density at which a deflagration to detonation transition may occur in Type Ia supernovae. An initial planar detonation front becomes unstable and develops a complex structure due to the generation of transverse waves. Differences in the amount of asymmetry between the 2D and 3D cases, as well as the relative sizes of individual cells will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No. B341495 to the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago under the ASCI Strategic Alliances Program.

  2. Spatial Dynamics of Multilayer Cellular Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Liang; Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the spatial dynamics of one-dimensional multilayer cellular neural networks. We first establish the existence of rightward and leftward spreading speeds of the model. Then we show that the spreading speeds coincide with the minimum wave speeds of the traveling wave fronts in the right and left directions. Moreover, we obtain the asymptotic behavior of the traveling wave fronts when the wave speeds are positive and greater than the spreading speeds. According to the asymptotic behavior and using various kinds of comparison theorems, some front-like entire solutions are constructed by combining the rightward and leftward traveling wave fronts with different speeds and a spatially homogeneous solution of the model. Finally, various qualitative features of such entire solutions are investigated.

  3. On the Cellular Structure of Carbon Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; Olson, K.; Fryxell, B.; Ricker, P.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Tufo, H.; MacNeice, P.; Truran, J. W.; Rosner, R.

    2000-11-01

    We present the results of a numerical study on two-dimensional carbon detonations. For an upstream density of 107 g cm-3 the length-to-width ratio of the detonation cells is about 1.6 and is not strongly dependent on the spatial resolution of the simulation. However, the curvature of the weak incident shocks, strength of the triple points and transverse waves, and sizes of the underreacted and overreacted regions all depend strongly on the spatial resolution of the calculation. These resolution studies help define the minimum resolution required by multidimensional Type Ia supernovae models where the cellular structure of a detonation front is a key feature of the model.

  4. Simulating Complex Systems by Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, Jiri; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2010-01-01

    Deeply rooted in fundamental research in Mathematics and Computer Science, Cellular Automata (CA) are recognized as an intuitive modeling paradigm for Complex Systems. Already very basic CA, with extremely simple micro dynamics such as the Game of Life, show an almost endless display of complex emergent behavior. Conversely, CA can also be designed to produce a desired emergent behavior, using either theoretical methodologies or evolutionary techniques. Meanwhile, beyond the original realm of applications - Physics, Computer Science, and Mathematics – CA have also become work horses in very different disciplines such as epidemiology, immunology, sociology, and finance. In this context of fast and impressive progress, spurred further by the enormous attraction these topics have on students, this book emerges as a welcome overview of the field for its practitioners, as well as a good starting point for detailed study on the graduate and post-graduate level. The book contains three parts, two major parts on th...

  5. Lengthening primary cilia enhances cellular mechanosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, M; Jacobs, C R

    2017-02-20

    The primary cilium is a mechanosensor in a variety of mammalian cell types, initiating and directing intracellular signalling cascades in response to external stimuli. When primary cilia formation is disrupted, cells have diminished mechanosensitivity and an abrogated response to mechanical stimulation. Due to this important role, we hypothesised that increasing primary cilia length would enhance the downstream response and therefore, mechanosensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we increased osteocyte primary cilia length with fenoldopam and lithium and found that cells with longer primary cilia were more mechanosensitive. Furthermore, fenoldopam treatment potentiated adenylyl cyclase activity and was able to recover primary cilia form and sensitivity in cells with impaired cilia. This work demonstrates that modulating the structure of the primary cilium directly impacts cellular mechanosensitivity. Our results implicate cilium length as a potential therapeutic target for combating numerous conditions characterised by impaired cilia function.

  6. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Diana M; Ramirez, Melissa R; Reginato, Anthony M; Medici, Damian

    2014-10-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a debilitating condition in which cartilage and bone forms in soft tissues such as muscle, tendon, and ligament causing immobility. This process is induced by inflammation associated with traumatic injury. In an extremely rare genetic disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progessiva (FOP), a combination of inflammation associated with minor soft tissue injuries and a hereditary genetic mutation causes massive HO that progressively worsens throughout the patients' lifetime leading to the formation of an ectopic skeleton. An activating mutation in the BMP type I receptor ALK2 has been shown to contribute to the heterotopic lesions in FOP patients, yet recent studies have shown that other events are required to stimulate HO including activation of sensory neurons, mast cell degranulation, lymphocyte infiltration, skeletal myocyte cell death, and endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). In this review, we discuss the recent evidence and mechanistic data that describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms that give rise to heterotopic bone.

  7. Computing by Temporal Order: Asynchronous Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vielhaber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our concern is the behaviour of the elementary cellular automata with state set 0,1 over the cell set Z/nZ (one-dimensional finite wrap-around case, under all possible update rules (asynchronicity. Over the torus Z/nZ (n<= 11,we will see that the ECA with Wolfram rule 57 maps any v in F_2^n to any w in F_2^n, varying the update rule. We furthermore show that all even (element of the alternating group bijective functions on the set F_2^n = 0,...,2^n-1, can be computed by ECA57, by iterating it a sufficient number of times with varying update rules, at least for n <= 10. We characterize the non-bijective functions computable by asynchronous rules.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Targets of Menthol Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Oz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions of menthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating that menthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at least some of the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol can be mediated by alterations in cellular excitability. In this article, we examine the results of earlier studies on the actions of menthol with voltage and ligand-gated ion channels.

  9. Multipartite cellular automata and the superposition principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cellular automata (CA) can show well known features of quantum mechanics (QM), such as a linear updating rule that resembles a discretized form of the Schrödinger equation together with its conservation laws. Surprisingly, a whole class of “natural” Hamiltonian CA, which are based entirely on integer-valued variables and couplings and derived from an action principle, can be mapped reversibly to continuum models with the help of sampling theory. This results in “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l, which for l→0 reproduce the familiar continuum limit. Presently, we show, in particular, how such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of non-relativistic many-body QM, while maintaining the linearity of dynamics. Consequently, the superposition principle is fully operative already on the level of these primordial discrete deterministic automata, including the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.

  10. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering: A Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Genevieve; Butler, Peter J.; Chang, David W.; Chien, Shu; Clegg, Robert M.; Dewey, C. Forbes; Dong, Cheng; Guo, X. Edward; Helmke, Brian P.; Hess, Henry; Jacobs, Christopher R.; Kaunas, Roland R.; Kumar, Sanjay; Lu, Helen H.; Mathur, Anshu B.; Mow, Van C.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.; Skoracki, Roman; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yingxiao; Zhu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    In January of 2011, the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES) and the Society for Physical Regulation in Biology and Medicine (SPRBM) held its inaugural Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering (CMBE) conference. The CMBE conference assembled worldwide leaders in the field of CMBE and held a very successful Round Table discussion among leaders. One of the action items was to collectively construct a white paper regarding the future of CMBE. Thus, the goal of this report is to emphasize the impact of CMBE as an emerging field, identify critical gaps in research that may be answered by the expertise of CMBE, and provide perspectives on enabling CMBE to address challenges in improving human health. Our goal is to provide constructive guidelines in shaping the future of CMBE. PMID:23264805

  11. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  12. Cellular imaging electron tomography and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book highlights important techniques for cellular imaging and covers the basics and applications of electron tomography and related techniques. In addition, it considers practical aspects and broadens the technological focus by incorporating techniques that are only now becoming accessible (e.g. block face imaging).  The first part of the book describes the electron microscopy 3D technique available to scientists around the world, allowing them to characterize organelles, cells and tissues. The major emphasis is on new technologies like scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, though the book also reviews some of the more proven technologies like electron tomography. In turn, the second part is dedicated to the reconstruction of data sets, signal improvement and interpretation.

  13. Inhibitors of the Cellular Trafficking of Ricin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gillet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last decade, efforts to identify and develop effective inhibitors of the ricin toxin have focused on targeting its N-glycosidase activity. Alternatively, molecules disrupting intracellular trafficking have been shown to block ricin toxicity. Several research teams have recently developed high-throughput phenotypic screens for small molecules acting on the intracellular targets required for entry of ricin into cells. These screens have identified inhibitory compounds that can protect cells, and sometimes even animals against ricin. We review these newly discovered cellular inhibitors of ricin intoxication, discuss the advantages and drawbacks of chemical-genetics approaches, and address the issues to be resolved so that the therapeutic development of these small-molecule compounds can progress.

  14. Cellular and molecular mechanisms coordinating pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas-Ponce, Aimée; Scheibner, Katharina; Lickert, Heiko; Bakhti, Mostafa

    2017-08-15

    The pancreas is an endoderm-derived glandular organ that participates in the regulation of systemic glucose metabolism and food digestion through the function of its endocrine and exocrine compartments, respectively. While intensive research has explored the signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that govern pancreas development, much remains to be discovered regarding the cellular processes that orchestrate pancreas morphogenesis. Here, we discuss the developmental mechanisms and principles that are known to underlie pancreas development, from induction and lineage formation to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Elucidating such principles will help to identify novel candidate disease genes and unravel the pathogenesis of pancreas-related diseases, such as diabetes, pancreatitis and cancer. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The cellular history of the glomerulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Charles R P

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about the structure and functions of the cells of the glomeruli has accumulated slowly over the past 350 years. Marcello Malpighi originated the work, but it failed to progress far until Schleiden and Schwann developed their cellular theory in 1839. William Bowman linked the glomeruli to the tubules, described the parietal epithelial cells, the basement membranes, and (with Robert Todd) apparently first identified endothelial cells. Electron microscopy contributed especially to an understanding of epithelial and endothelial cell structure. Axel Key first described mesangial cells, but acceptance of these fell into abeyance for many years until Yamada incontrovertibly demonstrated their existence. Techniques such as tissue culture and molecular biological investigations have, more recently, provided much information about glomerular cell function. Progress has, throughout, depended upon the discovery of ever more powerful methods of microscopy, the development of ancillary experimental methods, the formulation of persuasive explanations for observations, and the suggestion of succinct terminology to describe the features observed.

  16. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldine R. Amiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  17. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Aldine R; Johnston, Hereroa T; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  18. An agent-based model of cellular dynamics and circadian variability in human endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung T Nguyen

    Full Text Available As cellular variability and circadian rhythmicity play critical roles in immune and inflammatory responses, we present in this study an agent-based model of human endotoxemia to examine the interplay between circadian controls, cellular variability and stochastic dynamics of inflammatory cytokines. The model is qualitatively validated by its ability to reproduce circadian dynamics of inflammatory mediators and critical inflammatory responses after endotoxin administration in vivo. Novel computational concepts are proposed to characterize the cellular variability and synchronization of inflammatory cytokines in a population of heterogeneous leukocytes. Our results suggest that there is a decrease in cell-to-cell variability of inflammatory cytokines while their synchronization is increased after endotoxin challenge. Model parameters that are responsible for IκB production stimulated by NFκB activation and for the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines have large impacts on system behaviors. Additionally, examining time-dependent systemic responses revealed that the system is least vulnerable to endotoxin in the early morning and most vulnerable around midnight. Although much remains to be explored, proposed computational concepts and the model we have pioneered will provide important insights for future investigations and extensions, especially for single-cell studies to discover how cellular variability contributes to clinical implications.

  19. Molecular and cellular constraints on proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemme, Tanja

    Engineering proteins with new sequences, structures and functions has many exciting practical applications, and provides new ways to dissect design principles for function. Recent successes in computational protein design provide a cause for optimism. Yet many functions are currently too complex to engineer predictively, and successful design of new biological activities also requires an understanding of the functional pressures acting on proteins in the context of cells and organisms. I will present two vignettes describing our progress with dissecting both molecular and cellular constraints on protein function. In the first, we characterized the cost and benefit of protein production upon sequence perturbations in a classic system for gene regulation, the lac operon. Our results were unexpected in light of the common assumption that the dominant fitness costs are due to protein expression. Instead, we discovered a direct linear relationship between cost and lacpermease activity, not protein or mRNA production. The magnitude of the cost of permease activity, relative to protein production, has consequences for regulation. Our model predicts an advantage of direct regulation of protein activity (not just expression), providing a new explanation for the long-known mechanism of ``inducer exclusion'' that inhibits transport through the permease. Similar pressures and cost/benefit tradeoffs may be key to engineering synthetic systems with improved fitness. In the second vignette, I will describe our recent efforts to develop computational approaches that predict protein sequences consistent with multiple functional conformations. We expect such ``multi-constraint'' models to improve predictions of functional sequences determined by deep mutational scanning in bacteria, to provide insights into how the balance between functional conformations shapes sequence space, and to highlight molecular and cellular constraints that cannot be captured by the model.

  20. Cellular scaling rules of insectivore brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overlap somewhat with those for rodents and primates such that the insectivore cortex shares scaling rules with rodents (increasing faster in size than in numbers of neurons, but the insectivore cerebellum shares scaling rules with primates (increasing isometrically. Brain structures pooled as “remaining areas” appear to scale similarly across all three mammalian orders with respect to numbers of neurons, and the numbers of non-neurons appear to scale similarly across all brain structures for all three orders. Therefore, common scaling rules exist, to different extents, between insectivore, rodent and primate brain regions, and it is hypothesized that insectivores represent the common aspects of each order. The olfactory bulbs of insectivores, however, offer a noteworthy exception in that neuronal density increases linearly with increasing structure mass. This implies that the average neuronal cell size decreases with increasing olfactory bulb mass in order to accommodate greater neuronal density, and represents the first documentation of a brain structure gaining neurons at a greater rate than mass. This might allow insectivore brains to concentrate more neurons within the olfactory bulbs without a prohibitively large and metabolically costly increase in structure mass.

  1. Measurements of cellular structure in spray detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavassiliou, J.; Makris, A.; Knystautas, R.; Lee, J.H. (McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The cellular structure of heterogeneous detonations in a low vapor pressure fuel (decane) droplet mixture with oxygen and oxygen-nitrogen was studied in the present investigation. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and the fuel concentration of the mixture was regulated by monitoring the volume flow rate of oxygen and nitrogen through the nebulizer. The vertical detonation tube is 64 mm in diameter and 3 m long and ignition was by a powerful spark (120 joules stored energy) or a high explosive detonator. Velocity was measured with ionization probes, pressure by a PCB piezoelectric transducer and cell size by a smoked metallic foil inserted into the top end or centre of the detonation tube. The initial pressure of all the experiments was 1 atmosphere. In order to compare the time scales associated with the physical processes of droplet breakup, heat transfer, evaporation, and mixing, experiments were also carried out in the tube heated to 100{degree}C and 185{degree}C, using electrical heating tape, to ensure a homogeneous gas phase mixture of decane-oxygen-nitrogen. Comparison of the cell size for the same mixture in the cold and the heated tube permits one to separate the time scales associated with the physical processes and the chemical kinetic rate processes. The results from the heated tube for the homogeneous vapor phase decane detonations are similar to those for the common gaseous fuels in the alkane group (i.e. ethane, propane, butane). Corresponding results for the heterogeneous case (cold tube) of aerosol decane detonation indicate that the cell size is larger by a factor of about 2, for the present case of 5 {mu}m particle size. The measurements of cellular structure obtained experimentally have been compared to the computed results determined using the ZND chemical kinetic detonation model.

  2. Cellular bystander effects and radiation hormesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MARCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bystander effects describe the effects of extracellular mediators from irradiated cells on neighbouring non-irradiated cells resulting in radiation-induced effects in unirradiated cells. Although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, it is widely recognised that two types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or release of molecular messengers into the extracellular environment play an essential role. Additionally, the effects can be significantly modulated by parameters such as cell type, cell-cycle stage and cell density. Some of the common bystander effects or biological end points which are evidenced after low-dose irradiation are: chromosomal instability, cell killing and delayed cell death, mutagenesis, micronucleus formation, gene and protein expression changes. Through these end points it is likely that bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial. By increasing mutation levels of cells bystander effects increase the likelihood of genetic defects and in turn cancer. On the other hand by removing damaged cells from the population and preventing the growth of cancer cells, bystander effects are beneficial.Radiation hormesis is a term used to relate the beneficial effects of small doses of radiation on living cells, whether plant, animal or human. Experiments on bacteria, plants and animals have demonstrated that several biological mechanisms are stimulated by low dose radiation, such as: protein synthesis, gene activation, detoxication of free radicals and stimulation of the immune system. These mechanisms were also observed in humans.The present review paper is a compilation of the most recent data on bystander effects and the possible implications of cellular response to radiation on cell growth and development.

  3. A cellular automata model of bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scoy, Gabrielle K; George, Estee L; Opoku Asantewaa, Flora; Kerns, Lucy; Saunders, Marnie M; Prieto-Langarica, Alicia

    2017-04-01

    Bone remodeling is an elegantly orchestrated process by which osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts function as a syncytium to maintain or modify bone. On the microscopic level, bone consists of cells that create, destroy and monitor the bone matrix. These cells interact in a coordinated manner to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis. It is this regulation that is responsible for the observed increase in bone gain in the dominant arm of a tennis player and the observed increase in bone loss associated with spaceflight and osteoporosis. The manner in which these cells interact to bring about a change in bone quality and quantity has yet to be fully elucidated. But efforts to understand the multicellular complexity can ultimately lead to eradication of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and improved implant longevity. Experimentally validated mathematical models that simulate functional activity and offer eventual predictive capabilities offer tremendous potential in understanding multicellular bone remodeling. Here we undertake the initial challenge to develop a mathematical model of bone formation validated with in vitro data obtained from osteoblastic bone cells induced to mineralize and quantified at 26 days of culture. A cellular automata model was constructed to simulate the in vitro characterization. Permutation tests were performed to compare the distribution of the mineralization in the cultures and the distribution of the mineralization in the mathematical models. The results of the permutation test show the distribution of mineralization from the characterization and mathematical model come from the same probability distribution, therefore validating the cellular automata model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescent Sensing of Fluoride in Cellular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Zhu, Baocun; Chen, Jihua; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride ions have the important roles in a lot of physiological activities related with biological and medical system, such as water fluoridation, caries treatment, and bone disease treatment. Great efforts have been made to develop new methods and strategies for F- detection in the past decades. Traditional methods for the detection of F- including ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and spectroscopic techniques have the limitations in the biomedicine research. The fluorescent probes for F- are very promising that overcome some drawbacks of traditional fluoride detection methods. These probes exhibit high selectivity, high sensitivity as well as quick response to the detection of fluoride anions. The review commences with a brief description of photophysical mechanisms for fluorescent probes for fluoride, including photo induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Followed by a discussion about common dyes for fluorescent fluoride probes, such as anthracene, naphalimide, pyrene, BODIPY, fluorescein, rhodamine, resorufin, coumarin, cyanine, and near-infrared (NIR) dyes. We divide the fluorescent probes for fluoride in cellular application systems into nine groups, for example, type of hydrogen bonds, type of cleavage of Si-O bonds, type of Si-O bond cleavage and cylization reactions, etc. We also review the recent reported carriers in the delivery of fluorescent fluoride probes. Seventy-four typical fluorescent fluoride probes are listed and compared in detail, including quantum yield, reaction medium, excitation and emission wavelengths, linear detection range, selectivity for F-, mechanism, and analytical applications. Finally, we discuss the future challenges of the application of fluorescent fluoride probes in cellular system and in vivo. We wish that more and more excellent fluorescent fluoride probes will be developed

  5. Early steps of retrovirus replicative cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïb Ali

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the last two decades, the profusion of HIV research due to the urge to identify new therapeutic targets has led to a wealth of information on the retroviral replication cycle. However, while the late stages of the retrovirus life cycle, consisting of virus replication and egress, have been partly unraveled, the early steps remain largely enigmatic. These early steps consist of a long and perilous journey from the cell surface to the nucleus where the proviral DNA integrates into the host genome. Retroviral particles must bind specifically to their target cells, cross the plasma membrane, reverse-transcribe their RNA genome, while uncoating the cores, find their way to the nuclear membrane and penetrate into the nucleus to finally dock and integrate into the cellular genome. Along this journey, retroviruses hijack the cellular machinery, while at the same time counteracting cellular defenses. Elucidating these mechanisms and identifying which cellular factors are exploited by the retroviruses and which hinder their life cycle, will certainly lead to the discovery of new ways to inhibit viral replication and to improve retroviral vectors for gene transfer. Finally, as proven by many examples in the past, progresses in retrovirology will undoubtedly also provide some priceless insights into cell biology.

  6. Ultramafic Terranes and Associated Springs as Analogs for Mars and Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David; Schulte, Mitch; Cullings, Ken; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Putative extinct or extant Martian organisms, like their terrestrial counterparts, must adopt metabolic strategies based on the environments in which they live. In order for organisms to derive metabolic energy from the natural environment (Martian or terrestrial), a state of thermodynamic disequilibrium must exist. The most widespread environment of chemical disequilibrium on present-day Earth results from the interaction of mafic rocks of the ocean crust with liquid water. Such environments were even more pervasive and important on the Archean Earth due to increased geothermal heat flow and the absence of widespread continental crust formation. The composition of the lower crust and upper mantle of the Earth is essentially the-same as that of Mars, and the early histories of these two planets are similar. It follows that a knowledge of the mineralogy, water-rock chemistry and microbial ecology of Earth's oceanic crust could be of great value in devising a search strategy for evidence of past or present life on Mars. In some tectonic regimes, cross-sections of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle are exposed on land as so-called "ophiolite suites." Such is the case in the state of California (USA) as a result of its location adjacent to active plate margins. These mafic and ultramafic rocks contain numerous springs that offer an easily accessible field laboratory for studying water/rock interactions and the microbial communities that are supported by the resulting geochemical energy. A preliminary screen of Archaean biodiversity was conducted in a cold spring located in a presently serpentinizing ultramafic terrane. PCR and phylogenetic analysis of partial 16s rRNA, sequences were performed on water and sediment samples. Archaea of recent phylogenetic origin were detected with sequences nearly identical to those of organisms living in ultra-high pH lakes of Africa.

  7. 1,4-Naphthoquinones: From Oxidative Damage to Cellular and Inter-Cellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Oliver Klotz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones may cause oxidative stress in exposed cells and, therefore, affect redox signaling. Here, contributions of redox cycling and alkylating properties of quinones (both natural and synthetic, such as plumbagin, juglone, lawsone, menadione, methoxy-naphthoquinones, and others to cellular and inter-cellular signaling processes are discussed: (i naphthoquinone-induced Nrf2-dependent modulation of gene expression and its potentially beneficial outcome; (ii the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor by naphthoquinones, resulting in altered gap junctional intercellular communication. Generation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of redox signaling are properties of naphthoquinones that render them interesting leads for the development of novel compounds of potential use in various therapeutic settings.

  8. Cellular immune responses towards regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stine Kiær

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results from two published papers identifying spontaneous cellular immune responses against the transcription factors Foxp3 and Foxo3. The tumor microenvironment is infiltrated by cells that hinder effective tumor immunity from developing. Two of these cell types, which have been linked to a bad prognosis for patients, are regulatory T cells (Treg) and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC). Tregs inhibit effector T cells from attacking the tumor through various mechanisms, including secreted factors and cell-to-cell contact. Tregs express the transcription factor Foxp3, which is necessary for their development and suppressive activities. Tolerogenic DCs participate in creating an environment in the tumor where effector T cells become tolerant towards the tumor instead of attacking it. The transcription factor Foxo3 was recently described to be highly expressed by tolerogenic DCs and to programme their tolerogenic influence. This thesis describes for the first time the existence of spontaneous cellular immune responses against peptides derived from Foxp3 and Foxo3. We have detected the presence of cytotoxic T cells that recognise these peptides in an HLA-A2 restricted manner in cancer patients and for Foxp3 in healthy donors as well. In addition, we have demonstrated that the Foxp3- and Foxo3-specific CTLs recognize Foxp3- and Foxo3-expressing cancer cell lines and importantly, suppressive immune cells, namely Tregs and in vitro generated DCs. Cancer immunotherapy is recently emerging as an important treatment modality improving the survival of selected patients. The current progress is largely owing to targeting of the immune suppressive milieu that is dominating the tumor microenvironment. This is being done through immune checkpoint blockade with CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and through lymphodepleting conditioning of patients and ex vivo activation of TILs in adoptive cell transfer. Several strategies are being explored for depletion of

  9. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangil; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Sik Yang, Sang; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  10. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Stimulates Extra-Cellular Matrix Production in Cellular Spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Casco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies have been integrated into drug delivery, and non-invasive imaging applications, into nanostructured scaffolds for the manipulation of cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the physico-chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and their spatial distribution into cellular spheroids stimulated cells to produce an extracellular matrix (ECM. The MNP concentration (0.03 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL and 0.3 mg/mL, type (magnetoferritin, shape (nanorod—85 nm × 425 nm and incorporation method were studied to determine each of their effects on the specific stimulation of four ECM proteins (collagen I, collagen IV, elastin and fibronectin in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cell. Results demonstrated that as MNP concentration increased there was up to a 6.32-fold increase in collagen production over no MNP samples. Semi-quantitative Immunohistochemistry (IHC results demonstrated that MNP type had the greatest influence on elastin production with a 56.28% positive area stain compared to controls and MNP shape favored elastin stimulation with a 50.19% positive area stain. Finally, there are no adverse effects of MNPs on cellular contractile ability. This study provides insight on the stimulation of ECM production in cells and tissues, which is important because it plays a critical role in regulating cellular functions.

  11. Inter-Cellular Exchange of Cellular Components via VE-Cadherin-Dependent Trans-Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Woolls, Melissa J.; Jin, Suk-Won

    2014-01-01

    Cell-cell communications typically involve receptor-mediated signaling initiated by soluble or cell-bound ligands. Here, we report a unique mode of endocytosis: proteins originating from cell-cell junctions and cytosolic cellular components from the neighboring cell are internalized, leading to direct exchange of cellular components between two adjacent endothelial cells. VE-cadherins form transcellular bridges between two endothelial cells that are the basis of adherence junctions. At such adherens junction sites, we observed the movement of the entire VE-cadherin molecule from one endothelial cell into the other with junctional and cytoplasmic components. This phenomenon, here termed trans-endocytosis, requires the establishment of a VE-cadherin homodimer in trans with internalization proceeding in a Rac1-, and actomyosin-dependent manner. Importantly, the trans-endocytosis is not dependent on any known endocytic pathway including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, macropinocytosis or phagocytosis. This novel form of cell-cell communications, leading to a direct exchange of cellular components, was observed in 2D and 3D-cultured endothelial cells as well as in the developing zebrafish vasculature. PMID:24603875

  12. The Pathway Tools cellular overview diagram and Omics Viewer

    OpenAIRE

    Paley, Suzanne M.; Karp, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pathway Tools cellular overview diagram is a visual representation of the biochemical network of an organism. The overview is automatically created from a Pathway/Genome Database describing that organism. The cellular overview includes metabolic, transport and signaling pathways, and other membrane and periplasmic proteins. Pathway Tools supports interrogation and exploration of cellular biochemical networks through the overview diagram. Furthermore, a software component called the Omics ...

  13. Cell biology of the future: Nanometer-scale cellular cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraska, Justin W

    2015-10-26

    Understanding cellular structure is key to understanding cellular regulation. New developments in super-resolution fluorescence imaging, electron microscopy, and quantitative image analysis methods are now providing some of the first three-dimensional dynamic maps of biomolecules at the nanometer scale. These new maps--comprehensive nanometer-scale cellular cartographies--will reveal how the molecular organization of cells influences their diverse and changeable activities. Copyright © 2015 Taraska.

  14. Concept of cellular transport systems in facility logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kamagaew, A.; Stenzel, J.; Nettsträter, A.; ten Hompel, M.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed concept of a Cellular Transport System shows the possibilities to increase the flexibility and changeability of facility logistics systems and enhances the ease of use of complex decentralized control systems. This contribution shows how to enhance these issues compared to conventional facility logistics systems, e.g. static conveyors, by using an autonomous vehicle swarm. Cellular Transport Systems are based on dedicated (cellular) material handling entities. Generally, these ce...

  15. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    OpenAIRE

    Creaser, J.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. Method The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that als...

  16. Fracture of Cellular Media: A Foam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenfeldt, S.; Arif, S.; Tsai, J.

    2008-12-01

    Aqueous foam, almost entirely made of a Newtonian liquid and an ideal gas, shows surprisingly rich rheological behavior, including viscoelasticity and power-law shear thinning. The bubble mesostructure of the foam (seen as a cellular medium) is at the heart of the nontrivial rheology. Quantitative constitutive relations can be derived when properly accounting for the bubble geometry. Beyond linear and nonlinear rheology, we have investigated fracture in a quasi-two-dimensional foam sample as induced by the injection of additional fluid (gas). Depending on the rate and magnitude of applied pressure, the foam yields by either brittle or ductile fracture. The former is characterized by breaking thin films and small strains, the latter involves defect formation and motion (T1 transitions) without cell breakage. The experiments can be interpreted in two ways, both as a model of fracture in (regular, crystalline) atomic solids and as a model of failure in an (irregular, disordered) solid with heterogeneous domains, depending on the foam preparation and scale of the experiment. The latter view offers strong analogies to fracture of soil and its dependence on grain structure and water content.

  17. Noise Reduction Potential of Cellular Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hinze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rising numbers of flights and aircrafts cause increasing aircraft noise, resulting in the development of various approaches to change this trend. One approach is the application of metallic liners in the hot gas path of aero-engines. At temperatures of up to 600 °C only metallic or ceramic structures can be used. Due to fatigue loading and the notch effect of the pores, mechanical properties of porous metals are superior to the ones of ceramic structures. Consequently, cellular metals like metallic foams, sintered metals, or sintered metal felts are most promising materials. However, acoustic absorption depends highly on pore morphology and porosity. Therefore, both parameters must be characterized precisely to analyze the correlation between morphology and noise reduction performance. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between pore morphology and acoustic absorption performance. The absorber materials are characterized using image processing based on two dimensional microscopy images. The sound absorption properties are measured using an impedance tube. Finally, the correlation of acoustic behavior, pore morphology, and porosity is outlined.

  18. Cellular immune response in intraventricular experimental neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Vania B L; Lima, Sarah B; Matos-Silva, Hidelberto; Vinaud, Marina C; Loyola, Patricia R A N; Lino, Ruy S

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. Its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental NCC with Taenia crassiceps. The in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune response were evaluated through the cytokines quantification at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after inoculation and histopathological analysis. All cysticerci were found within the cerebral ventricles. There was a discrete intensity of inflammatory cells of mixed immune profile, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, at the beginning of the infection and predominance of mononuclear cells at the end. The systemic immune response showed a significant increase in all the analysed cytokines and predominance of the Th2 immune profile cytokines at the end of the infection. These results indicate that the location of the cysticerci may lead to ventriculomegaly. The acute phase of the infection showed a mixed Th1/Th17 profile accompanied by high levels of IL-10 while the late phase showed a Th2 immune profile.

  19. CELLULAR RESPONSES TO EGG-OIL (CHARISMON©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg-oil (Charismon© is known for its beneficial action in wound healing and other skin irritancies and its antibacterial activity. The physiological basis for these actions has been investigated using cells in culture: HaCaT-cells (immortalized human keratinocytes, human endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC, peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBML and a full thickness human skin model (FTSM. Emphasis was on the influence of egg-oil on cell migration and IL-8 production in HaCaT cells, respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen (ROS production and proliferation in HUVEC and HaCaT cells, cytokine and interleukin production in PBML and UV-light induced damage of FTSM. IL-8 production by HaCaT cells is stimulated by egg-oil whilst in phythemagglutinin-activated PBMLs production of the interleukins IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ and TFN-α is reduced. ROS-production after H2O2 stimulation first is enhanced but later on reduced. Respiration becomes activated due to partial uncoupling of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and proliferation of HaCaT and HUVEC is reduced. Recovery of human epidermis cells in FTSM after UV-irradiation is strongly supported by egg-oil. These results support the view that egg-oil acts through reduction of inflammatory processes and ROS production. Both these processes are equally important in cellular aging as in healing of chronic wounds.

  20. Urban sprawl modeling using cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Deep

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population settlements in the fast-growing urban world need to be monitored in order to design a sustainable urban habitat. The remote sensing and GIS are considered as an effective monitoring and decision-support tool in urban planning. This study compiles the results of a study undertaken to measure the urban sprawl in Dehradun city, India through cellular automata CA-Markov model. CA-Markov model can effectively be used to study the urban dynamics in rapidly growing cities. Being an effective tool for encoding spatial structures, the information generated by it could be used to predict urban scenarios for sustainable growth. To achieve the goal, the temporal images of LISS IV were used to analyse the spatial pattern of land cover change in the area and the future growth was modeled by applying CA-Markov model. The results clearly suggest that major changes between the periods of 2004 and 2009 occurred in built up classes (about 27% followed by agriculture (17.7% and fallow land (10.2%. The projection as predicted using CA-Markov model suggested a value of kappa coefficient = 0.91 which indicates the validity of the model to predict future projections. Modeling suggested a clear trend of various land use classes’ transformation in the area of urban built up expansions. It is concluded that RS and GIS can be an effective decision support tool for policy makers to design sustainable urban habitats.

  1. Cooperative Handover Management in Dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Arshad, Rabe

    2017-02-07

    Network densification has always been an important factor to cope with the ever increasing capacity demand. Deploying more base stations (BSs) improves the spatial frequency utilization, which increases the network capacity. However, such improvement comes at the expense of shrinking the BSs\\' footprints, which increases the handover (HO) rate and may diminish the foreseen capacity gains. In this paper, we propose a cooperative HO management scheme to mitigate the HO effect on throughput gains achieved via cellular network densification. The proposed HO scheme relies on skipping HO to the nearest BS at some instances along the user\\'s trajectory while enabling cooperative BS service during HO execution at other instances. To this end, we develop a mathematical model, via stochastic geometry, to quantify the performance of the proposed HO scheme in terms of coverage probability and user throughput. The results show that the proposed cooperative HO scheme outperforms the always best connected based association at high mobility. Also, the value of BS cooperation along with handover skipping is quantified with respect to the HO skipping only that has recently appeared in the literature. Particularly, the proposed cooperative HO scheme shows throughput gains of 12% to 27% and 17% on average, when compared to the always best connected and HO skipping only schemes at user velocity ranging from 80 km/h to 160 Km/h, respectively.

  2. Wireless Fractal Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Chen, Min; Hu, Long; Song, Jeungeun; Volk, Mojca; Humar, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-growing number of mobile devices, there is an explosive expansion in mobile data services. This represents a challenge for the traditional cellular network architecture to cope with the massive wireless traffic generated by mobile media applications. To meet this challenge, research is currently focused on the introduction of a small cell base station (BS) due to its low transmit power consumption and flexibility of deployment. However, due to a complex deployment environment and low transmit power of small cell BSs, the coverage boundary of small cell BSs will not have a traditional regular shape. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the coverage boundary of an ultra-dense small cell network and give its main features: aeolotropy of path loss fading and fractal coverage boundary. Simple performance analysis is given, including coverage probability and transmission rate, etc., based on stochastic geometry theory and fractal theory. Finally, we present an application scene and discuss challenges in the ultra-dense small cell network. PMID:28417927

  3. Biophysical Tools to Study Cellular Mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamed, Ismaeel; Chowdhury, Farhan; Maruthamuthu, Venkat

    2017-01-01

    The cell membrane is the interface that volumetrically isolates cellular components from the cell’s environment. Proteins embedded within and on the membrane have varied biological functions: reception of external biochemical signals, as membrane channels, amplification and regulation of chemical signals through secondary messenger molecules, controlled exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, organized recruitment and sequestration of cytosolic complex proteins, cell division processes, organization of the cytoskeleton and more. The membrane’s bioelectrical role is enabled by the physiologically controlled release and accumulation of electrochemical potential modulating molecules across the membrane through specialized ion channels (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, K+ channels). The membrane’s biomechanical functions include sensing external forces and/or the rigidity of the external environment through force transmission, specific conformational changes and/or signaling through mechanoreceptors (e.g., platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, epithelial (E)-cadherin, integrin) embedded in the membrane. Certain mechanical stimulations through specific receptor complexes induce electrical and/or chemical impulses in cells and propagate across cells and tissues. These biomechanical sensory and biochemical responses have profound implications in normal physiology and disease. Here, we discuss the tools that facilitate the understanding of mechanosensitive adhesion receptors. This article is structured to provide a broad biochemical and mechanobiology background to introduce a freshman mechano-biologist to the field of mechanotransduction, with deeper study enabled by many of the references cited herein. PMID:28952491

  4. Tensegrity: the architectural basis of cellular mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Physical forces of gravity, hemodynamic stresses, and movement play a critical role in tissue development. Yet, little is known about how cells convert these mechanical signals into a chemical response. This review attempts to place the potential molecular mediators of mechanotransduction (e.g. stretch-sensitive ion channels, signaling molecules, cytoskeleton, integrins) within the context of the structural complexity of living cells. The model presented relies on recent experimental findings, which suggests that cells use tensegrity architecture for their organization. Tensegrity predicts that cells are hard-wired to respond immediately to mechanical stresses transmitted over cell surface receptors that physically couple the cytoskeleton to extracellular matrix (e.g. integrins) or to other cells (cadherins, selectins, CAMs). Many signal transducing molecules that are activated by cell binding to growth factors and extracellular matrix associate with cytoskeletal scaffolds within focal adhesion complexes. Mechanical signals, therefore, may be integrated with other environmental signals and transduced into a biochemical response through force-dependent changes in scaffold geometry or molecular mechanics. Tensegrity also provides a mechanism to focus mechanical energy on molecular transducers and to orchestrate and tune the cellular response.

  5. SPARC fusion protein induces cellular adhesive signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamei Cheng

    Full Text Available Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC has been described as a counteradhesive matricellular protein with a diversity of biological functions associated with morphogenesis, remodeling, cellular migration, and proliferation. We have produced mouse SPARC with a FLAG-tag at the N-terminus of SPARC (Flag-SPARC, FSP in a Bac-to-Bac baculoviral expression system. After affinity purification, this procedure yields SPARC of high purity, with an electrophoretic mobility of ∼44 kDa under reducing conditions, and ∼38-39 kDa under non-reducing conditions. Unexpectedly, FSP adsorbed to plastic supported cell attachment and spreading, in a calcium-dependent manner. The adhesive activity of native FSP was inhibited by prior incubation with anti-SPARC IgG. Cell adhesion to FSP induced the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia but not focal adhesions that were prominent on cells that were attached to fibronectin. In addition, FSP induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin in attached epithelial cells. Erk1/2 and Rac were also activated in cells attached to FSP, but at a lower level in comparison to cells on fibronectin. This study provides new insight into the biological functions of SPARC, a matricellular protein with important roles in cell-extracellualr matrix interactions.

  6. Cellular-level surgery using nano robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Xi, Ning; Patterson, Kevin Charles; Qu, Chengeng; Lai, King Wai Chiu

    2012-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a popular instrument for studying the nano world. AFM is naturally suitable for imaging living samples and measuring mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a new concept of an AFM-based nano robot that can be applied for cellular-level surgery on living samples. The nano robot has multiple functions of imaging, manipulation, characterizing mechanical properties, and tracking. In addition, the technique of tip functionalization allows the nano robot the ability for precisely delivering a drug locally. Therefore, the nano robot can be used for conducting complicated nano surgery on living samples, such as cells and bacteria. Moreover, to provide a user-friendly interface, the software in this nano robot provides a "videolized" visual feedback for monitoring the dynamic changes on the sample surface. Both the operation of nano surgery and observation of the surgery results can be simultaneously achieved. This nano robot can be easily integrated with extra modules that have the potential applications of characterizing other properties of samples such as local conductance and capacitance.

  7. Multistructural biomimetic substrates for controlled cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orza, Anamaria I.; Mihu, Carmen; Soritau, Olga; Diudea, Mircea; Florea, Adrian; Matei, Horea; Balici, Stefana; Mudalige, Thilak; Kanarpardy, Ganesh K.; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2014-02-01

    Multidimensional scaffolds are considered to be ideal candidates for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering based on their potential to provide an excellent microenvironment and direct the fate of the cultured cells. More recently, the use of stem cells in medicine has opened a new technological opportunity for controlled tissue formation. However, the mechanism through which the substrate directs the differentiation of stem cells is still rather unclear. Data concerning its specific surface chemistry, topology, and its signaling ability need to be further understood and analyzed. In our study, atomic force microscopy was used to study the stiffness, roughness, and topology of the collagen (Coll) and metallized collagen (MC) substrates, proposed as an excellent substrate for regenerative medicine. The importance of signaling molecules was studied by constructing a new hybrid signaling substrate that contains both collagen and laminin extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The cellular response—such as attachment capability, proliferation and cardiac and neuronal phenotype expression on the metallized and non-metallized hybrid substrates (collagen + laminin)—was studied using MTT viability assay and immunohistochemistry studies. Our findings indicate that such hybrid materials could play an important role in the regeneration of complex tissues.

  8. Green Virtualization for Multiple Collaborative Cellular Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-06-05

    This paper proposes and investigates a green virtualization framework for infrastructure sharing among multiple cellular operators whose networks are powered by a combination of conventional and renewable sources of energy. Under the proposed framework, the virtual network formed by unifying radio access infrastructures of all operators is optimized for minimum energy consumption by deactivating base stations (BSs) with low traffic loads. The users initially associated to those BSs are off-loaded to neighboring active ones. A fairness criterion for collaboration based on roaming prices is introduced to cover the additional energy costs incurred by host operators. The framework also ensures that any collaborating operator is not negatively affected by its participation in the proposed virtualization. A multi-objective linear programming problem is formulated to achieve energy and cost efficiency of the networks\\' operation by identifying the set of inter-operator roaming prices. For the case when collaboration among all operators is infeasible due to profitability, capacity, or power constraints, an iterative algorithm is proposed to determine the groups of operators that can viably collaborate. Results show significant energy savings using the proposed virtualization as compared to the standalone case. Moreover, collaborative operators exploiting locally generated renewable energy are rewarded more than traditional ones.

  9. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speca, Silvia; Giusti, Ilaria; Rieder, Florian; Latella, Giovanni

    2012-07-28

    Fibrosis is a chronic and progressive process characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to stiffening and/or scarring of the involved tissue. Intestinal fibrosis may develop in several different enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. It develops through complex cell, extracellular matrix, cytokine and growth factor interactions. Distinct cell types are involved in intestinal fibrosis, such as resident mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) but also ECM-producing cells derived from epithelial and endothelial cells (through a process termed epithelial- and endothelial-mesenchymal transition), stellate cells, pericytes, local or bone marrow-derived stem cells. The most important soluble factors that regulate the activation of these cells include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, components of the renin-angiotensin system, angiogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin, and products of oxidative stress. It soon becomes clear that although inflammation is responsible for triggering the onset of the fibrotic process, it only plays a minor role in the progression of this condition, as fibrosis may advance in a self-perpetuating fashion. Definition of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal fibrosis may provide the key to developing new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Cellular and Molecular Mediators of Intestinal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrance, Ian C; Rogler, Gerhard; Bamias, Giorgos; Breynaert, Christine; Florholmen, Jon; Pellino, Gianluca; Reif, Shimon; Speca, Silvia; Latella, Giovanni

    2015-11-02

    Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and although inflammation is necessary for its development, it would appear that it plays a minor role in its progression as anti-inflammatory treatments in IBD do not prevent fibrosis once it has started. The processes that regulate fibrosis would thus appear to be distinct from those regulating inflammation and, therefore, a detailed understanding of these pathways is vital to the development of anti-fibrogenic strategies. There have been several recent reviews exploring what is known, and what remains unknown, about the development of intestinal fibrosis. This review is designed to add to this literature but with a focus on the cellular components that are involved in the development of fibrogenesis and the major molecular mediators that impact on these cells. The aim is to heighten the understanding of the factors involved in intestinal fibrogenesis so that detailed research can be encouraged in order to advance the processes that could lead to effective treatments. © 2014 Published on behalf of European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation.

  11. Acoustoconvective Drying of Cellular Gas Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The present paper is devoted to the investigation of the gas dynamics of cellular gas concrete by the acoustoconvective method developed at the ITPM of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its comparison with traditional thermoconvective and natural drying. A series of experiments have been performed on humidifying specimens and the dependence has been obtained of the rate of moisture absorption for two humidifying regimes: capillary impregnation and sorption. In the acoustoconvective drying regime, it has been shown that the frequency and intensity of the operating flow strongly influence the dynamics of moisture extraction from the specimens being dried. The obtained kinetic data for thermoconvective drying have a bilinear distribution, and their mathematical treatment permitted determining the velocities of the proceeding processes. The process of natural drying is extremely slow, and the drying velocity is strongly influenced thereby by the environment parameters. For mathematical description of the obtained experimental data, a relaxation model was used, which has made it possible to determine the relaxation time for each drying regime.

  12. Wireless Fractal Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Chen, Min; Hu, Long; Song, Jeungeun; Volk, Mojca; Humar, Iztok

    2017-04-12

    With the ever-growing number of mobile devices, there is an explosive expansion in mobile data services. This represents a challenge for the traditional cellular network architecture to cope with the massive wireless traffic generated by mobile media applications. To meet this challenge, research is currently focused on the introduction of a small cell base station (BS) due to its low transmit power consumption and flexibility of deployment. However, due to a complex deployment environment and low transmit power of small cell BSs, the coverage boundary of small cell BSs will not have a traditional regular shape. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the coverage boundary of an ultra-dense small cell network and give its main features: aeolotropy of path loss fading and fractal coverage boundary. Simple performance analysis is given, including coverage probability and transmission rate, etc., based on stochastic geometry theory and fractal theory. Finally, we present an application scene and discuss challenges in the ultra-dense small cell network.

  13. Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurn, K. Ted; Brown, Eric M. B.; Wu, Aiguo; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jörg; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2007-09-01

    In the following review we discuss several types of nanoparticles (such as TiO2, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) and their impact on the ability to image biological components in fixed cells. The review also discusses factors influencing nanoparticle imaging and uptake in live cells in vitro. Due to their unique size-dependent properties nanoparticles offer numerous advantages over traditional dyes and proteins. For example, the photostability, narrow emission peak, and ability to rationally modify both the size and surface chemistry of Quantum Dots allow for simultaneous analyses of multiple targets within the same cell. On the other hand, the surface characteristics of nanometer sized TiO2 allow efficient conjugation to nucleic acids which enables their retention in specific subcellular compartments. We discuss cellular uptake mechanisms for the internalization of nanoparticles and studies showing the influence of nanoparticle size and charge and the cell type targeted on nanoparticle uptake. The predominant nanoparticle uptake mechanisms include clathrin-dependent mechanisms, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis.

  14. Optimal flux patterns in cellular metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaas, E

    2007-01-20

    The availability of whole-cell level metabolic networks of high quality has made it possible to develop a predictive understanding of bacterial metabolism. Using the optimization framework of flux balance analysis, I investigate metabolic response and activity patterns to variations in the availability of nutrient and chemical factors such as oxygen and ammonia by simulating 30,000 random cellular environments. The distribution of reaction fluxes is heavy-tailed for the bacteria H. pylori and E. coli, and the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. While the majority of flux balance investigations have relied on implementations of the simplex method, it is necessary to use interior-point optimization algorithms to adequately characterize the full range of activity patterns on metabolic networks. The interior-point activity pattern is bimodal for E. coli and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that most metabolic reaction are either in frequent use or are rarely active. The trimodal activity pattern of H. pylori indicates that a group of its metabolic reactions (20%) are active in approximately half of the simulated environments. Constructing the high-flux backbone of the network for every environment, there is a clear trend that the more frequently a reaction is active, the more likely it is a part of the backbone. Finally, I briefly discuss the predicted activity patterns of the central-carbon metabolic pathways for the sample of random environments.

  15. Neuroplasticity in addiction: cellular and transcriptional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eMadsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disorder which consists of compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and taking that occurs at the expense of other activities. The transition from casual to compulsive drug use and the enduring propensity to relapse is thought to be underpinned by long lasting neuroadaptations in specific brain circuitry, analogous to those that underlie long-term memory formation. Research spanning the last two decades has made great progress in identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to drug-induced changes in plasticity and behaviour. Alterations in synaptic transmission within the mesocorticolimbic and corticostriatal pathways, and changes in the transcriptional potential of cells by epigenetic mechanisms are two important means by which drugs of abuse can induce lasting changes in behaviour. In this review we provide a summary of more recent research that has furthered our understanding of drug-induced neuroplastic changes both at the level of the synapse, and on a transcriptional level, and how these changes may relate to the human disease of addiction.

  16. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  17. Design, synthesis and cellular metabolism study of 4'-selenonucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinha; Sahu, Pramod K; Kim, Gyudong; Qu, Shuhao; Choi, Yoojin; Song, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Kook; Noh, Minsoo; Park, Sunghyouk; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2015-01-01

    4'-seleno-homonucleosides were synthesized as next-generation nucleosides, and their cellular phosphorylation was studied to confirm the hypothesis that bulky selenium atom can sterically hinder the approach of cellular nucleoside kinase to the 5'-OH for phosphorylation. 4'-seleno-homonucleosides (n = 2), with one-carbon homologation, were synthesized through a tandem seleno-Michael addition-SN2 ring cyclization. LC-MS analysis demonstrated that they were phosphorylated by cellular nucleoside kinases, resulting in anticancer activity. The bulky selenium atom played a key role in deciding the phosphorylation by cellular nucleoside kinases. [Formula: see text].

  18. Phosphotyrosine Signaling: Evolving a New Cellular Communication System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Wendell A; Pawson, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation controls many cellular functions. Yet the three-part toolkit that regulates phosphotyrosine signaling-tyrosine kinases, phosphotyrosine phosphatases, and Src Homology 2 (SH2...

  19. [Clinical and cellular studies in a patient with Cockayne syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, C; Petecca, M C; Baricci, D; Lagomarsini, P; Stefanini, M

    1992-12-01

    Hypersensitivity to the lethal effect of ultraviolet light (UV) and other DNA-damaging agents has been observed in cells from patients affected by Cockayne syndrome, suggesting that this syndrome is deficient in the capability to repair damage in cellular DNA. We report a case showing the main clinical features of Cockayne syndrome in which the clinical and cellular photosensitivity described as typical for Cockayne syndrome is not present. These cytological results suggest that there is considerable clinical and cellular heterogeneity in Cockayne syndrome and that cellular sensitivity to UV might not be as essential for the diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome as previously thought.

  20. Phase separation and the formation of cellular bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Broedersz, Chase P.; Meir, Yigal; Wingreen, Ned S.

    Cellular bodies in eukaryotic cells spontaneously assemble to form cellular compartments. Among other functions, these bodies carry out essential biochemical reactions. Cellular bodies form micron-sized structures, which, unlike canonical cell organelles, are not surrounded by membranes. A recent in vitro experiment has shown that phase separation of polymers in solution can explain the formation of cellular bodies. We constructed a lattice-polymer model to capture the essential mechanism leading to this phase separation. We used both analytical and numerical tools to predict the phase diagram of a system of two interacting polymers, including the concentration of each polymer type in the condensed and dilute phase.

  1. Some Properties of topological pressure on cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ergodicity and the power rule of the topological pressure of a cellular automaton. If a cellular automaton is either leftmost or rightmost premutive (due to the terminology given by Hedlund [Math.~Syst.~Theor.~3, 320-375, 1969], then it is ergodic with respect to the uniform Bernoulli measure. More than that, the relation of topological pressure between the original cellular automaton and its power rule is expressed in a closed form. As an application, the topological pressure of a linear cellular automaton can be computed explicitly.

  2. Movies of cellular and sub-cellular motion by digital holographic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lingfeng

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological specimens, such as living cells and their intracellular components, often exhibit very little amplitude contrast, making it difficult for conventional bright field microscopes to distinguish them from their surroundings. To overcome this problem phase contrast techniques such as Zernike, Normarsky and dark-field microscopies have been developed to improve specimen visibility without chemically or physically altering them by the process of staining. These techniques have proven to be invaluable tools for studying living cells and furthering scientific understanding of fundamental cellular processes such as mitosis. However a drawback of these techniques is that direct quantitative phase imaging is not possible. Quantitative phase imaging is important because it enables determination of either the refractive index or optical thickness variations from the measured optical path length with sub-wavelength accuracy. Digital holography is an emergent phase contrast technique that offers an excellent approach in obtaining both qualitative and quantitative phase information from the hologram. A CCD camera is used to record a hologram onto a computer and numerical methods are subsequently applied to reconstruct the hologram to enable direct access to both phase and amplitude information. Another attractive feature of digital holography is the ability to focus on multiple focal planes from a single hologram, emulating the focusing control of a conventional microscope. Methods A modified Mach-Zender off-axis setup in transmission is used to record and reconstruct a number of holographic amplitude and phase images of cellular and sub-cellular features. Results Both cellular and sub-cellular features are imaged with sub-micron, diffraction-limited resolution. Movies of holographic amplitude and phase images of living microbes and cells are created from a series of holograms and reconstructed with numerically adjustable

  3. Resident corneal c-fms+ macrophages and dendritic cells mediate early cellular infiltration in adenovirus keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Mirja; Zhou, Xiaohong; Materne, Emma Caroline; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James

    2016-01-01

    The cornea contains a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells with the capacity to contribute to immune responses. Adenovirus keratitis is a severe corneal infection with acute and chronic phases. The role of resident corneal antigen-presenting cells in adenovirus keratitis has not been studied. We utilized transgenic MaFIA mice in which c-fms expressing macrophages and dendritic cells can be induced to undergo apoptosis, in a mouse model of adenovirus keratitis. Clinical keratitis and recruitment of myeloperoxidase and CD45+ cells were diminished in c-fms depleted, adenovirus infected mice, as compared to controls, consistent with a role for myeloid-lineage cells in adenovirus keratitis. PMID:27185163

  4. Resident corneal c-fms(+) macrophages and dendritic cells mediate early cellular infiltration in adenovirus keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Mirja; Zhou, Xiaohong; Materne, Emma Caroline; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James

    2016-06-01

    The cornea contains a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells with the capacity to contribute to immune responses. Adenovirus keratitis is a severe corneal infection with acute and chronic phases. The role of resident corneal antigen-presenting cells in adenovirus keratitis has not been studied. We utilized transgenic MaFIA mice in which c-fms expressing macrophages and dendritic cells can be induced to undergo apoptosis, in a mouse model of adenovirus keratitis. Clinical keratitis and recruitment of myeloperoxidase and CD45(+) cells were diminished in c-fms depleted, adenovirus infected mice, as compared to controls, consistent with a role for myeloid-lineage cells in adenovirus keratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histologic Evaluation of Apical Early Cellular Activity Utilizing Variable Endodontic Regeneration Treatment Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Words: Pulpal regeneration, Endodontic regeneration, Porcine model, MTA, Biodentine Corresponding Author: Dr. Kimberly Lindsey, U.S. Army Dental...coronal barrier and bleeding: Blood clot with MTA or Biodentine , no bioceramic, or no induced bleeding (negative controls). Continuously erupting canines...preventing bacterial infection and coronal microleakage. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine ™ are two bioceramic sealing materials with

  6. Analysis of the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Which Underlie Sensitivity to Bacterial Endotoxin and Early Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-24

    kid and taught me the dillerence between igneous and sedimentary. You made terrariums for the salamanders I caught, and (for a girl that was raised...endotoxic shock. Three prototype antibodies are under close scrutiny: (i) those that are of murine origin, (ii) those that are of human origin, (iii) and...the Materials and Methods. Open circles, closed triangles, and closed squares indicate the results for three separate experiments. en a. ~ " o

  7. Analysis of HPV-16 early gene regulationin cellular differentiation, includingcharacterisation of the possiblerole of CPEB proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    E6/E7 expression. HPV-16 preferably infects the proliferating cells of the continually renewing stratified epithelium lining the genital tract. These proliferating cells will differentiate as they are pushed upwards in the epithelium by newly produced daughter cells. The virus life cycle is tightly...

  8. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Receptors and Cellular Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Enrico Rovati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs exert a range of proinflammatory effects, such as constriction of airways and vascular smooth muscle, increase of endothelial cell permeability leading to plasma exudation and edema, and enhanced mucus secretion. They have proved to be important mediators in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. The classification into subtypes of the cysteinyl-LT receptors (CysLTRs was based initially on binding and functional data, obtained using the natural agonists and a wide range of antagonists. CysLTRs have proved remarkably resistant to cloning. However, in 1999 and 2000, the CysLT1R and CysLT2R were successfully cloned and both shown to be members of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs superfamily. Molecular cloning has confirmed most of the previous pharmacological characterization and identified distinct expression patterns only partially overlapping. Recombinant CysLTRs couple to the Gq/11 pathway that modulates inositol phospholipids hydrolysis and calcium mobilization, whereas in native systems, they often activate a pertussis toxin-insensitive Gi/o-protein, or are coupled promiscuously to both G-proteins. Interestingly, recent data provide evidence for the existence of an additional receptor subtype that seems to respond to both cysteinyl-LTs and uracil nucleosides, and of an intracellular pool of CysLTRs that may have roles different from those of plasma membrane receptors. Finally, a cross-talk between the cysteinyl-LT and the purine systems is being delineated. This review will summarize recent data derived from studies on the molecular and cellular pharmacology of CysLTRs.

  9. Cellular microbiology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, B Brett

    2006-12-01

    Dr Finlay is a Professor in the Michael Smith Laboratories, and the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Microbiology and Immunology at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada. He obtained a BSc (Honors) in Biochemistry at the University of Alberta, Canada, where he also studied for his PhD (1986) in Biochemistry under Dr William Paranchych, studying F-like plasmid conjugation. His postdoctoral studies were performed with Dr Stanley Falkow at the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA, where he studied Salmonella invasion into host cells. In 1989, he joined UBC as an Assistant Professor in the Biotechnology Laboratory. Dr Finlay's research interests are focused on host-pathogen interactions, at the molecular level. By combining cell biology with microbiology, he has been at the forefront of the emerging field known as Cellular Microbiology, making several fundamental discoveries in this field, and publishing over 250 papers. His laboratory studies cover several pathogenic bacteria, with Salmonella and pathogenic Eschericia coli interactions with host cells being the primary focus. He is well recognized internationally for his work, and has won several prestigious awards including the E.W.R. Steacie Prize, the CSM Fisher Scientific Award, five Howard Hughes International Research Scholar Awards, BC Biotech Innovation Award, the Michael Smith Health Research Prize, the IDSA Squibb award, the Jacob Biely Prize, he is an MRC Scientist, a CIHR Distinguished Investigator, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences and is the UBC Peter Wall Distinguished Professor. He is a cofounder of Inimex Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Director of the SARS Accelerated Vaccine Initiative. He also serves on several editorial and advisory boards, and is a strong supporter of communicating science to the public.

  10. Fungal aquaporins: cellular functions and ecophysiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe; Dietz, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Three aspects have to be taken into consideration when discussing cellular water and solute permeability of fungal cells: cell wall properties, membrane permeability, and transport through proteinaceous pores (the main focus of this review). Yet, characterized major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) can be grouped into three functional categories: (mainly) water transporting aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins that confer preferentially solute permeability (e.g., glycerol and ammonia), and bifunctional aquaglyceroporins that can facilitate efficient water and solute transfer. Two ancestor proteins, a water (orthodox aquaporin) and a solute facilitator (aquaglyceroporin), are supposed to give rise to today's MIPs. Based on primary sequences of fungal MIPs, orthodox aquaporins/X-intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and FPS1-like/Yfl054-like/other aquaglyceroporins are supposed to be respective sister groups. However, at least within the fungal kingdom, no easy functional conclusion can be drawn from the phylogenetic position of a given protein within the MIP pedigree. In consequence, ecophysiological prediction of MIP relevance is not feasible without detailed functional analysis of the respective protein and expression studies. To illuminate the diverse MIP implications in fungal lifestyle, our current knowledge about protein function in two organisms, baker's yeast and the Basidiomycotic Laccaria bicolor, an ectomycorrhizal model fungus, was exemplarily summarized in this review. MIP function has been investigated in such a depth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that a system-wide view is possible. Yeast lifestyle, however, is special in many circumstances. Therefore, L. bicolor as filamentous Basidiomycete was added and allows insight into a very different way of life. Special emphasis was laid in this review onto ecophysiological interpretation of MIP function.

  11. [Multiple sclerosis: molecular and cellular mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, A N; Favorova, O O

    1995-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disease of considerable medical and social impact. It is characterized by destruction of the myelin, the axon proteolipid sheath, or demyelination. While the etiology of MS remains unknown, one of the most well-grounded theories of its pathogenesis postulates that immunomediated inflammatory processes play the main role in myelin damage. The leading role in the autoimmune disturbance development belongs to T-cell system, however, B-cells also participate in the pathological process. Both genetical predisposition and environmental influence are involved in MS development. Correlations were found between MS and numerous environmental factors, including ecology and different infectious agents. However, no single environmental factor and no single infection was confirmed to be the primary cause of MS. The predisposition to MS seems to depend on several genes. Alleles and haplotypes of HLA genes which are the main human immune-response genes are undoubtedly associated with MS. Serological methods have shown weak association of MS with A3 and B7 loci of HLA class I. Stronger association was found for HLA class II haplotype specified to DR2(DR15), DQ6(DQ1) in serology typing nomenclature or DRB1*1501, DQA1*0102, DQB1*0602 in sequence-based genotyping terminology. Besides, MS was found to be associated with alleles of genes of T-cell receptors, cytokines, myelin components and some others, although these results are sometimes contradictory. The analysis of genetical predisposition factors and of possible mechanisms of their involvement in demyelination process on molecular and cellular levels should enlighten the MS pathogenesis and provide new ways of medical treatment and prevention of MS.

  12. Brugada Syndrome. Clinical, Genetic, Molecular, Cellular and Ionic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antzelevitch, Charles; Patocskai, Bence

    2015-01-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndrome first described as a new clinical entity in 1992. Electrocardiographically characterized by distinct coved type ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads, the syndrome is associated with a high risk for sudden cardiac death in young adults, and less frequently in infants and children. The ECG manifestations of the BrS are often concealed and may be unmasked or aggravated by sodium channel blockers, a febrile state, vagotonic agents, as well as by tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the most widely accepted approach to therapy. Pharmacological therapy is designed to produce an inward shift in the balance of currents active during the early phases of the right ventricular action potential and can be used to abort electrical storms or as an adjunct or alternative to device therapy when use of an ICD is not possible. Isoproterenol, cilostazol and milrinone boost calcium channel current and drugs like quinidine, bepridil and the Chinese herb extract Wenxin Keli inhibit the transient outward current, acting to diminish the action potential (AP) notch and thus to suppress the substrate and trigger for VT/VF. Radiofrequency ablation of the right ventricular outflow tract epicardium of BrS patients has recently been shown to reduce arrhythmia-vulnerability and the ECG-manifestation of the disease, presumably by destroying the cells with more prominent AP notch. This review provides an overview of the clinical, genetic, molecular and cellular aspects of the BrS as well as the approach to therapy. PMID:26671757

  13. Sources of Uncertainty in Rainfall Maps from Cellular Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    Accurate measurements of rainfall are important in many hydrological applications, for instance, flash-flood early-warning systems, hydraulic structures design, agriculture, weather forecasting, and climate modelling. Rainfall intensities can be retrieved from (commercial) microwave link networks. Whenever possible, link networks measure and store the decrease in power of the electromagnetic signal at regular intervals. The decrease in power is largely due to the attenuation by raindrops along the link paths. Such an alternative technique fulfills the continuous strive for measurements of rainfall in time and space at higher resolutions, especially in places where traditional rain gauge networks are scarce or poorly maintained. Rainfall maps from microwave link networks have recently been introduced at country-wide scales. Despite their potential in rainfall estimation at high spatiotemporal resolutions, the uncertainties present in rainfall maps from link networks are not yet fully comprehended. The aim of this work is to identify and quantify the sources of uncertainty present in interpolated rainfall maps from link rainfall depths. In order to disentangle these sources of uncertainty, we classified them into two categories: (1) those associated with the individual microwave link measurements, i.e., the physics involved in the measurements such as wet antenna attenuation, sampling interval of measurements, wet/dry period classification, drop size distribution (DSD), and multi-path propagation; (2) those associated with mapping, i.e., the combined effect of the interpolation methodology, the spatial density of the network, and the availability of link measurements. We computed ~ 3500 rainfall maps from real and simulated link rainfall depths for 12 days for the land surface of The Netherlands. These rainfall maps were compared against quality-controlled gauge-adjusted radar rainfall fields (assumed to be the ground truth). Thus, we were able to not only identify

  14. Cellular Chaperones As Therapeutic Targets in ALS to Restore Protein Homeostasis and Improve Cellular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Kalmar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps are ubiquitously expressed chaperone proteins that enable cells to cope with environmental stresses that cause misfolding and denaturation of proteins. With aging this protein quality control machinery becomes less effective, reducing the ability of cells to cope with damaging environmental stresses and disease-causing mutations. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, such mutations are known to result in protein misfolding, which in turn results in the formation of intracellular aggregates cellular dysfunction and eventual neuronal death. The exact cellular pathology of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases has been elusive and thus, hindering the development of effective therapies. However, a common scheme has emerged across these “protein misfolding” disorders, in that the mechanism of disease involves one or more aspects of proteostasis; from DNA transcription, RNA translation, to protein folding, transport and degradation via proteosomal and autophagic pathways. Interestingly, members of the Hsp family are involved in each of these steps facilitating normal protein folding, regulating the rate of protein synthesis and degradation. In this short review we summarize the evidence that suggests that ALS is a disease of protein dyshomeostasis in which Hsps may play a key role. Overwhelming evidence now indicates that enabling protein homeostasis to cope with disease-causing mutations might be a successful therapeutic strategy in ALS, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. Novel small molecule co-inducers of Hsps appear to be able to achieve this aim. Arimoclomol, a hydroxylamine derivative, has shown promising results in cellular and animal models of ALS, as well as other protein misfolding diseases such as Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM. Initial clinical investigations of Arimoclomol have shown promising results. Therefore, it is possible that the long series of

  15. Basic Ideas to Approach Metastability in Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Nardi, Francesca R.; Spitoni, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Cellular Automata are discrete--time dynamical systems on a spatially extended discrete space which provide paradigmatic examples of nonlinear phenomena. Their stochastic generalizations, i.e., Probabilistic Cellular Automata, are discrete time Markov chains on lattice with finite single--cell

  16. Is Glutathione the Major Cellular Target of Cisplatin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasherman, Yonit; Stürup, Stefan; gibson, dan

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin is an anticancer drug whose efficacy is limited because tumors develop resistance to the drug. Resistant cells often have elevated levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), believed to be the major cellular target of cisplatin that inactivates the drug by binding to it irreversibly, forming...

  17. Analysis of Drop Call Probability in Well Established Cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology in Africa has increased over the past decade. The increase in modern cellular networks requires stringent quality of service (QoS). Drop call probability is one of the most important indices of QoS evaluation in a large scale well-established cellular network. In this work we started from an accurate statistical ...

  18. Cellular Automata Ideas in Digital Circuits and Switching Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwak, Pawel P.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two examples which illustrate the usefulness of ideas from cellular automata. First, Lee's algorithm is recalled and its cellular nature shown. Then a problem from digraphs, which has arisen from analyzing predecessing configurations in the famous Conway's "game of life," is considered. (Author/JN)

  19. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay (ELISA), while cellular immune response was investigated by analysis of spleen cytokine profile. (TNFα, IFN γ and IL2) ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses. Tropical ..... factors associated with non-response to hepatitis. B vaccine included ...

  20. Cellular phones: to talk or not to talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Anusheel

    2011-01-01

    Cellular phone use has exponentially increased in recent years. There have been some reports of an association of use of these phones with brain tumours. This article gives a summary view of the possible effects related to cellular phone use. It further discusses if we need to observe precautions while using these devices.

  1. Optimizing Cellular Networks Enabled with Renewal Energy via Strategic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Insoo; Liu, Huaping; Ansari, Nirwan

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the cellular industry is the rising energy cost and carbon footprint due to the rapid expansion of the cellular infrastructure. Greening cellular networks has thus attracted attention. Among the promising green cellular network techniques, the renewable energy-powered cellular network has drawn increasing attention as a critical element towards reducing carbon emissions due to massive energy consumption in the base stations deployed in cellular networks. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is used to evaluate and optimize systems with multiple players with conflicting objectives and has been successfully used to solve various problems in cellular networks. In this paper, we model the green energy utilization and power consumption optimization problem of a green cellular network as a pilot power selection strategic game and propose a novel distributed algorithm based on a strategic learning method. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves correlated equilibrium of the pilot power selection game, resulting in optimum green energy utilization and power consumption reduction.

  2. Analysis of Human Mobility Based on Cellular Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifiansyah, F.; Saptawati, G. A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays not only adult but even teenager and children have then own mobile phones. This phenomena indicates that the mobile phone becomes an important part of everyday’s life. Based on these indication, the amount of cellular data also increased rapidly. Cellular data defined as the data that records communication among mobile phone users. Cellular data is easy to obtain because the telecommunications company had made a record of the data for the billing system of the company. Billing data keeps a log of the users cellular data usage each time. We can obtained information from the data about communication between users. Through data visualization process, an interesting pattern can be seen in the raw cellular data, so that users can obtain prior knowledge to perform data analysis. Cellular data processing can be done using data mining to find out human mobility patterns and on the existing data. In this paper, we use frequent pattern mining and finding association rules to observe the relation between attributes in cellular data and then visualize them. We used weka tools for finding the rules in stage of data mining. Generally, the utilization of cellular data can provide supporting information for the decision making process and become a data support to provide solutions and information needed by the decision makers.

  3. Insights Into Quantitative Biology: analysis of cellular adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Agoni, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    In the last years many powerful techniques have emerged to measure protein interactions as well as gene expression. Many progresses have been done since the introduction of these techniques but not toward quantitative analysis of data. In this paper we show how to study cellular adaptation and how to detect cellular subpopulations. Moreover we go deeper in analyzing signal transduction pathways dynamics.

  4. A Wireless Communications Laboratory on Cellular Network Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawy, Z.; Husseini, A.; Yaacoub, E.; Al-Kanj, L.

    2010-01-01

    The field of radio network planning and optimization (RNPO) is central for wireless cellular network design, deployment, and enhancement. Wireless cellular operators invest huge sums of capital on deploying, launching, and maintaining their networks in order to ensure competitive performance and high user satisfaction. This work presents a lab…

  5. Cellular Phone Text Communication in English Language Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the place of English in Nigeria, pupils and students are enjoined to use it constantly in their activities including phone calls. In view of the significant roles that cellular phones play in the lives of youths, and sustainable development of the economy, this paper looks into Nigerian youths' cellular phone text ...

  6. The Nobel Prize for understanding autophagy, a cellular mechanism ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This processof autophagy (self-eating) maintains cellular homeostasis and helps the cell and the organism to surviveduring periods of stress, such as starvation, by recycling the cellular components to generate amino acidsand nutrients needed for producing energy. Autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system are the two ...

  7. Submicron and nano formulations of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide stimulate unique cellular toxicological responses in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, Cindy, E-mail: c.gunawan@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Sirimanoonphan, Aunchisa [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Teoh, Wey Yang [Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Marquis, Christopher P., E-mail: c.marquis@unsw.edu.au [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Amal, Rose [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Uptake of TiO{sub 2} solids by C. reinhardtii generates ROS as an early stress response. • Submicron and nanoTiO{sub 2} exhibit benign effect on cell proliferation. • Uptake of ZnO solids and leached zinc by C. reinhardtii inhibit the alga growth. • No cellular oxidative stress is detected with submicron and nano ZnO exposure. • The toxicity of particles is not necessarily mediated by cellular oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The work investigates the eco-cytoxicity of submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, arising from the unique interactions of freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to soluble and undissolved components of the metal oxides. In a freshwater medium, submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} exist as suspended aggregates with no-observable leaching. Submicron and nano ZnO undergo comparable concentration-dependent fractional leaching, and exist as dissolved zinc and aggregates of undissolved ZnO. Cellular internalisation of solid TiO{sub 2} stimulates cellular ROS generation as an early stress response. The cellular redox imbalance was observed for both submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} exposure, despite exhibiting benign effects on the alga proliferation (8-day EC50 > 100 mg TiO{sub 2}/L). Parallel exposure of C. reinhardtii to submicron and nano ZnO saw cellular uptake of both the leached zinc and solid ZnO and resulting in inhibition of the alga growth (8-day EC50 ≥ 0.01 mg ZnO/L). Despite the sensitivity, no zinc-induced cellular ROS generation was detected, even at 100 mg ZnO/L exposure. Taken together, the observations confront the generally accepted paradigm of cellular oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of particles. The knowledge of speciation of particles and the corresponding stimulation of unique cellular responses and cytotoxicity is vital for assessment of the environmental implications of these materials.

  8. Behaviour of cellular structures with fluid fillers under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vesenjak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the behaviour of closed- and open-cell cellular structures under uniaxial impact loading by means of computational simulations using the explicit nonlinear finite element code LS-DYNA. Simulations also consider the influence of pore fillers and the base material strain rate sensitivity. The behaviour of closed-cell cellular structure has been evaluated with use of the representative volume element, where the influence of residual gas inside the closed pores has been studied. Open- cell cellular structure was modelled as a whole to properly account for considered fluid flow through the cells, which significantly influences macroscopic behaviour of the cellular structure. The fluid has been modelled by applying a meshless Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH method. Parametric computational simulations provide grounds for optimization of cellular structures to satisfy different requirements, which makes them very attractive for use in general engineering applications.

  9. Application of Digital Cellular Radio for Mobile Location Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Anwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The capability to locate the position of mobiles is a prerequisite to implement a wide range of evolving ITS services. Radiolocation has the potential to serve a wide geographical area. This paper reports an investigation regarding the feasibility of utilizing cellular radio for the purpose of mobile location estimation. Basic strategies to be utilized for location estimation are elaborated. Two possible approaches for cellular based location estimation are investigated with the help of computer simulation. Their effectiveness and relative merits and demerits are identified. An algorithm specifically adapted for cellular environment is reported with specific features where mobiles, irrespective of their numbers, can locate their position without adversely loading the cellular system.Key Words: ITS, GSM, Cellular Radio, DRGS, GPS.

  10. Bromodomain 4: a cellular Swiss army knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaiah, Ballachanda N; Gegonne, Anne; Singer, Dinah S

    2016-10-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) is a transcriptional and epigenetic regulator that plays a pivotal role in cancer and inflammatory diseases. BRD4 binds and stays associated with chromatin during mitosis, bookmarking early G1 genes and reactivating transcription after mitotic silencing. BRD4 plays an important role in transcription, both as a passive scaffold via its recruitment of vital transcription factors and as an active kinase that phosphorylates RNA polymerase II, directly and indirectly regulating transcription. Through its HAT activity, BRD4 contributes to the maintenance of chromatin structure and nucleosome clearance. This review summarizes the known functions of BRD4 and proposes a model in which BRD4 actively coordinates chromatin structure and transcription. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. Biological cellular response to carbon nanoparticle toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panessa-Warren, B. J.; Warren, J. B.; Wong, S. S.; Misewich, J. A.

    2006-08-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have increased the development and production of many new nanomaterials with unique characteristics for industrial and biomedical uses. The size of these new nanoparticles (cytotoxicity to carbon nanoparticles characteristic of lipid membrane peroxidation, gene down regulation of adhesive proteins, and increased cell death (necrosis, apoptosis), as well as images of nontoxic carbon nanoparticle interactions with human cells. Although it is imperative that nanomaterials be systematically tested for their biocompatibility and safety for industrial and biomedical use, there are now ways to develop and redesign these materials to be less cytotoxic, and even benign to cell systems. With this new opportunity to utilize the unique properties of nanoparticles for research, industry and medicine, there is a responsibility to test and optimize these new nanomaterials early during the development process, to eliminate or ameliorate identified toxic characteristics.

  12. Cellular aging: theories and technological influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mercado-Sáenz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to review the factors that influence the aging, relationship of aging with the biological rhythms and new technologies as well as the main theories to explain the aging, and to analysis the causes of aging. The theories to explain the aging could be put into two groups: those based on a program that controlled the regression of the organism and those that postulated that the deterioration was due to mutations. It was concluded that aging was a multifactorial process. Genetic factors indicated the maximum longevity of the individual and environmental factors responsible for the real longevity of the individual. It would be necessary to guarantee from early age the conservation of a natural life rhythm.

  13. Reprogramming cellular phenotype by soft collagen gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Yakut; Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Saif, M Taher A

    2014-11-28

    clusters also show augmented spreading/wetting on soft collagen gels and eventually form confluent monolayers as on rigid glass substrates and MLP is completely inhibited on soft collagen gels. Overall, these results suggest that cell-material interactions (soft collagen gels in this case) can induce cellular phenotype and cytoskeleton organization in a remarkably distinct manner compared to a classical synthetic polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogel cell culture model and may contribute in designing new functional biomaterials.

  14. A Cellular GWAS Approach to Define Human Variation in Cellular Pathways Important to Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Miller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of common human diversity in innate immune pathways should be beneficial in understanding autoimmune diseases, susceptibility to infection, and choices of anti-inflammatory treatment. Such understanding could also result in definition of currently unknown components of human inflammation pathways. A cellular genome-wide association studies (GWAS platform, termed Hi-HOST (High-throughput human in vitro susceptibility testing, was developed to assay in vitro cellular phenotypes of infection in genotyped lymphoblastoid cells from genetically diverse human populations. Hi-HOST allows for measurement of multiple host and pathogen parameters of infection/inflammation including: bacterial invasion and intracellular replication, host cell death, and cytokine production. Hi-HOST has been used to successfully define a significant portion of the heritable human diversity in inflammatory cell death in response to Salmonella typhimurium. It also led to the discovery of genetic variants important to protection against systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and protection against death and bacteremia in individuals with SIRS. Our laboratory is currently using this platform to define human diversity in autophagy and the NLPR3 inflammasome pathways, and to define new components that can impact the expression of phenotypes related to these pathways.

  15. Overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms cellular metabolism and promotes glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C Matrka

    Full Text Available The DEK oncogene is overexpressed in many human malignancies including at early tumor stages. Our reported in vitro and in vivo models of squamous cell carcinoma have demonstrated that DEK contributes functionally to cellular and tumor survival and to proliferation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Based on recent RNA sequencing experiments, DEK expression was necessary for the transcription of several metabolic enzymes involved in anabolic pathways. This identified a possible mechanism whereby DEK may drive cellular metabolism to enable cell proliferation. Functional metabolic Seahorse analysis demonstrated increased baseline and maximum extracellular acidification rates, a readout of glycolysis, in DEK-overexpressing keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DEK overexpression also increased the maximum rate of oxygen consumption and therefore increased the potential for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos. To detect small metabolites that participate in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA that supplies substrate for OxPhos, we carried out NMR-based metabolomics studies. We found that high levels of DEK significantly reprogrammed cellular metabolism and altered the abundances of amino acids, TCA cycle intermediates and the glycolytic end products lactate, alanine and NAD+. Taken together, these data support a scenario whereby overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms keratinocyte metabolism to fulfill energy and macromolecule demands required to enable and sustain cancer cell growth.

  16. Overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms cellular metabolism and promotes glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Muraleedharan, Ranjithmenon; Lambert, Paul F.; Lane, Andrew N.; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2017-01-01

    The DEK oncogene is overexpressed in many human malignancies including at early tumor stages. Our reported in vitro and in vivo models of squamous cell carcinoma have demonstrated that DEK contributes functionally to cellular and tumor survival and to proliferation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Based on recent RNA sequencing experiments, DEK expression was necessary for the transcription of several metabolic enzymes involved in anabolic pathways. This identified a possible mechanism whereby DEK may drive cellular metabolism to enable cell proliferation. Functional metabolic Seahorse analysis demonstrated increased baseline and maximum extracellular acidification rates, a readout of glycolysis, in DEK-overexpressing keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DEK overexpression also increased the maximum rate of oxygen consumption and therefore increased the potential for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). To detect small metabolites that participate in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) that supplies substrate for OxPhos, we carried out NMR-based metabolomics studies. We found that high levels of DEK significantly reprogrammed cellular metabolism and altered the abundances of amino acids, TCA cycle intermediates and the glycolytic end products lactate, alanine and NAD+. Taken together, these data support a scenario whereby overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms keratinocyte metabolism to fulfill energy and macromolecule demands required to enable and sustain cancer cell growth. PMID:28558019

  17. Detection of silent cells, synchronization and modulatory activity in developing cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Johannes J J; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Pires, Johny; Dassen, Valerie J; Berkhout, Janna A; Emperador Melero, Javier; Nadadhur, Aish G; Alevra, Mihai; Toonen, Ruud F; Heine, Vivi M; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Meredith, Rhiannon M

    2016-04-01

    Developing networks in the immature nervous system and in cellular cultures are characterized by waves of synchronous activity in restricted clusters of cells. Synchronized activity in immature networks is proposed to regulate many different developmental processes, from neuron growth and cell migration, to the refinement of synapses, topographic maps, and the mature composition of ion channels. These emergent activity patterns are not present in all cells simultaneously within the network and more immature "silent" cells, potentially correlated with the presence of silent synapses, are prominent in different networks during early developmental periods. Many current network analyses for detection of synchronous cellular activity utilize activity-based pixel correlations to identify cellular-based regions of interest (ROIs) and coincident cell activity. However, using activity-based correlations, these methods first underestimate or ignore the inactive silent cells within the developing network and second, are difficult to apply within cell-dense regions commonly found in developing brain networks. In addition, previous methods may ignore ROIs within a network that shows transient activity patterns comprising both inactive and active periods. We developed analysis software to semi-automatically detect cells within developing neuronal networks that were imaged using calcium-sensitive reporter dyes. Using an iterative threshold, modulation of activity was tracked within individual cells across the network. The distribution pattern of both inactive and active, including synchronous cells, could be determined based on distance measures to neighboring cells and according to different anatomical layers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Regeneration in Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes): cellular dynamics in the neoblast stem cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeth, Katharina Theresia; Egger, Bernhard; Rieger, Reinhard; Salvenmoser, Willi; Peter, Roland; Gschwentner, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Neoblasts are potentially totipotent stem cells and the only proliferating cells in adult Platyhelminthes. We have examined the cellular dynamics of neoblasts during the posterior regeneration of Macrostomum lignano. Double-labeling of neoblasts with bromodeoxyuridine and the anti-phospho histone H3 mitosis marker has revealed a complex cellular response in the first 48 h after amputation; this response is different from that known to occur during regeneration in triclad platyhelminths and in starvation/feeding experiments in M. lignano. Mitotic activity is reduced during the first 8 h of regeneration but, at 48 h after amputation, reaches almost twice the value of control animals. The total number of S-phase cells significantly increases after 1 day of regeneration. A subpopulation of fast-cycling neoblasts surprisingly shows the same dynamics during regeneration as those in control animals. Wound healing and regeneration are accompanied by the formation of a distinct blastema. These results present new insights, at the cellular level, into the early regeneration of rhabditophoran Platyhelminthes.

  19. The jejunal cellular responses in chickens infected with a single dose of Ascaridia galli eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Ferdushy, Tania

    2015-01-01

    to uninfected at 3, 7, 10, 14 and 28 dpi (P mast cells was high, but this high level of mast cells remained for a longer period in the infected group compared to the control group. Significantly higher counts were thus found in the infected group at 21 (P ..., A. galli larvae have elicited a moderate cellular response in the lamina propria, mainly consisting of eosinophils in the early phase and later of mast cells....

  20. Page 1 Studies on Archaean Dharwar Tectonic Province 429 The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interrelation of the Peninsular Gneiss, charnockite and Closepet Granite. The sequence of development of the Peninsular Gneiss, the charnockites and basic granulites, and the Closepet Granite in relation to the deformational episodes affecting the Dharwar supracrustal rocks leads us to the following inferences regarding ...

  1. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  2. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    For all the 13 samples analysed, there is too lit- tle spread in 147Sm/144Nd (from 0.1012 to 0.1460; table 2) to construct an isochron. Compilation of partition coefficient (KD) values show that the dif- ference in KD values between Rb and Sr is con- siderable during the process of crystallisation of ultramafic magma generated ...

  3. Page 1 Geochemistry of Archaean volcanic rocks from Iron Ore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    constitute a significant component of the Eastern cration. In the Eastern Indian Craton petrogenesis of. Indian Craton. Dunn (1940) identified the supracrus- the sialic rocks have been studied in detail. (Baksi et all tal rocks as belonging to one stratigraphic unit named 1987; Sengupta et al 1983; Sengupta et al 1991; Saha ,.

  4. Reduced labor and condensed schedules with cellular concrete solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavis, D. [CEMATRIX Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of cellular concrete materials in oil sands tank base foundation systems, shallow buried utility insulation systems, roadways, slabs, and buried modules. The concrete is formed from Portland cement, water, specialized pre-formed foaming agents, and air mixed in controlled proportions. Fly ash and polypropylene or glass fibers can also be used as additions. Cellular concrete can often be used to speed up construction and minimize labour requirements. Cellular concrete can be cast-in-place, and has soil-stabilizing and self-compacting features. The concrete can be produced and placed on-site at rates exceeding 120 cubic meters per hour. Cellular concrete can be pumped into place over long distances through flexible hoses. A case study comparing the cellular concrete to traditional plastic foam insulation was used to demonstrate the equivalency and adequacy of insulation, structural properties and installation costs. The study showed that although the cellular concrete had a high installation cost, greater compressive strength was gained. The concrete was self-levelling and did not require compaction or vibration. The use of the cellular concrete resulted in an accelerated construction schedule. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Manufacturing processes of cellular concrete products for the construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhratov Мuhammet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete takes the lead in the world of construction as a structural insulation material used in the construction and reconstruction of buildings and constructions of various purposes. In this artificial stone building material, pores are distributed relatively evenly and occupy from 20 to 90% of the concrete volume, ensuring good thermal qualities, which allows cellular concrete houses to keep warmth well. For production of cellular concrete, Portland cement, “burnt lime”, and fine-pulverized blast furnace slags, with a hardening activator are used as binders. As silica components, quartz sand or “fly ash” obtained by combustion of pulverized fuel in power plants as well as secondary products of different ore dressing treatments are used. The low density and high thermal insulation properties of cellular concrete enables 3 times lighter wall weight than the weight of brick walls and 1.7 times lighter than the walls of ceramsite concrete. Thermal insulation and mechanical properties of cellular concrete make possible to construct of it single-layer protecting structures with the desired thermal resistance. Cellular concrete is divided into aerated concretes and foam concretes, whose physical/mechanical and operational performance is, ceteris paribus, almost identical. By the method of hydrothermal treatment cellular concretes are divided into two groups: concrete of autoclave and non-autoclave curing.

  6. Biological cellular response to carbon nanoparticle toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panessa-Warren, B J [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, PO Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Warren, J B [Instrumentation Division, Building 535B, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, S S [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, PO Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Misewich, J A [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, PO Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2006-08-23

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have increased the development and production of many new nanomaterials with unique characteristics for industrial and biomedical uses. The size of these new nanoparticles (<100 nm) with their high surface area and unusual surface chemistry and reactivity poses unique problems for biological cells and the environment. This paper reviews the current research on the reactivity and interactions of carbon nanoparticles with biological cells in vivo and in vitro, with ultrastructural images demonstrating evidence of human cell cytotoxicity to carbon nanoparticles characteristic of lipid membrane peroxidation, gene down regulation of adhesive proteins, and increased cell death (necrosis, apoptosis), as well as images of nontoxic carbon nanoparticle interactions with human cells. Although it is imperative that nanomaterials be systematically tested for their biocompatibility and safety for industrial and biomedical use, there are now ways to develop and redesign these materials to be less cytotoxic, and even benign to cell systems. With this new opportunity to utilize the unique properties of nanoparticles for research, industry and medicine, there is a responsibility to test and optimize these new nanomaterials early during the development process, to eliminate or ameliorate identified toxic characteristics.

  7. Silence of the fathers: early X inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mimi K; Disteche, Christine M

    2004-08-01

    X chromosome inactivation is the mammalian answer to the dilemma of dosage compensation between males and females. The study of this fascinating form of chromosome-wide gene regulation has yielded surprising insights into early development and cellular memory. In the past few months, three papers reported unexpected findings about the paternal X chromosome (X(p)). All three studies agree that the X(p) is imprinted to become inactive earlier than ever suspected during embryonic development. Although apparently incomplete, this early form of inactivation insures dosage compensation throughout development. Silencing of the X(p) persists in cells of extraembryonic tissues, but it is erased and followed by random X inactivation in cells of the embryo proper. These findings challenge several aspects of the current view of X inactivation during early development and may have profound impact on studies of pluripotency and epigenetics.

  8. Study of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Systems Study of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Solorio-Meza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas, el interés por explicar el efecto de la radiación no ionizante, como es el caso de los campos electromagnéticos (CEM sobre sistemas celulares ha aumentado considerablemente. En este artículo se describe la interacción que existe entre los CEM y sistemas biológicos. Se discute el efecto de la estimulación electromagnética a diferentes frecuencias e intensidades en cultivos celulares. Resultados preliminares al estimular células de neuroblastomas SK-NSH con campos electromagnéticos de extra baja frecuencia (CEM-EBF, CEM que van del rango de 3 a 30 Hz, indican que se induce un estrés celularque se refleja en variaciones en la expresión de proteínas respecto al grupo de células no estimuladas. En particular, la expresión de las proteínas muestra que los CEM-EBF producen cambios en las proteínas presentes en condiciones normales o basales en las células, es decir, aparecen nuevas proteínas o existe un aumento en la cantidad de ellas.In the last decades the interest to study the effect of non-ionizing radiation, such as the electromagnetic fields (EMF on cellular systems has increased. In this article the interaction between EMF and biological systems is described. An analysis of the effect of the electromagnetic stimulation at different frequencies and intensities on cell cultures is performed. Preliminary results show that the stimulation with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF, EMF from 3 to 30 Hz, on the cellular line of neuroblastomaSK-NSH induces cellular stress. This is reflected by a variation in the proteins expression in comparison with the group of cells no stimulated. In particular, the proteins expression shows that the ELF-EMF produce changes in the current proteins in normal or basal conditionsin the cells, that is, new proteins appear or there is evidence of an increasing in theamount of them.

  9. Longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Teirlinck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, in particular interferon-gamma (IFNγ production, play an important role in anti-malarial immunity. However, clinical immunity to malaria develops slowly amongst naturally exposed populations, the dynamics of cellular responses in relation to exposure are difficult to study and data about the persistence of such responses are controversial. Here we assess the longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental malaria infection in human volunteers. We conducted a longitudinal study of cellular immunological responses to sporozoites (PfSpz and asexual blood-stage (PfRBC malaria parasites in naïve human volunteers undergoing single (n = 5 or multiple (n = 10 experimental P. falciparum infections under highly controlled conditions. IFNγ and interleukin-2 (IL-2 responses following in vitro re-stimulation were measured by flow-cytometry prior to, during and more than one year post infection. We show that cellular responses to both PfSpz and PfRBC are induced and remain almost undiminished up to 14 months after even a single malaria episode. Remarkably, not only 'adaptive' but also 'innate' lymphocyte subsets contribute to the increased IFNγ response, including αβT cells, γδT cells and NK cells. Furthermore, results from depletion and autologous recombination experiments of lymphocyte subsets suggest that immunological memory for PfRBC is carried within both the αβT cells and γδT compartments. Indeed, the majority of cytokine producing T lymphocytes express an CD45RO(+ CD62L(- effector memory (EM phenotype both early and late post infection. Finally, we demonstrate that malaria infection induces and maintains polyfunctional (IFNγ(+IL-2(+ EM responses against both PfRBC and PfSpz, previously found to be associated with protection. These data demonstrate that cellular responses can be readily induced and are long-lived following infection with P

  10. Role of Cellular Immunity in Cow’s Milk Allergy: Pathogenesis, Tolerance Induction, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juandy Jo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow’s milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow’s milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow’s milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow’s milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune responses, that is, elevation of specific immunoglobulin E levels. There is growing evidence indicating that cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity play significant roles during the pathogenesis of cow’s milk allergy. This is true for the initiation of the allergic phenotype (stimulation and skewing towards sensitization, development and outgrowth of the allergic disease. This review discusses findings pertaining to roles of cellular immunity in allergic inflammation, and tolerance induction against cow’s milk proteins. In addition, a possible interaction between immune mechanisms underlying cow’s milk allergy and other types of inflammation (infections and noncommunicable diseases is discussed.

  11. Traffic safety in using cellular phones while driving a car

    OpenAIRE

    Mikula, Miroslav; Saric, Slauko; Kavran, Zvonko

    2000-01-01

    The use of cellular phones in cars offers a number of possibilities, but represents also a real danger while speaking, and especially while dialling the number of another subscriber. The number of cellular phones in cars is growing constantly, as unfortunately also the number of traffic accidents caused by the use of cellular phones while driving. This was the reason for studying the possibilities of hand-free dialling, e.g. by using speech only. This requires a high level of speech dialling ...

  12. Piracy on the molecular level: human herpesviruses manipulate cellular chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaby, Caleb; Tanner, Anne; Stutz, Eric W; Poole, Brian D; Berges, Bradford K

    2016-03-01

    Cellular chemotaxis is important to tissue homeostasis and proper development. Human herpesvirus species influence cellular chemotaxis by regulating cellular chemokines and chemokine receptors. Herpesviruses also express various viral chemokines and chemokine receptors during infection. These changes to chemokine concentrations and receptor availability assist in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses and contribute to a variety of diseases and malignancies. By interfering with the positioning of host cells during herpesvirus infection, viral spread is assisted, latency can be established and the immune system is prevented from eradicating viral infection.

  13. Extended Cellular Automata Models of Particles and Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Models of particles and space-time are explored through simulations and theoretical models that use Extended Cellular Automata models. The expanded Cellular Automata Models consist go beyond simple scalar binary cell-fields, into discrete multi-level group representations like S0(2), SU(2), SU(3), SPIN(3,1). The propagation and evolution of these expanded cellular automatas are then compared to quantum field theories based on the "harmonic paradigm" i.e. built by an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, and with gravitational models.

  14. Inhibition of cholesterol recycling impairs cellular PrPSc propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilch, Sabine; Bach, Christian; Lutzny, Gloria; Vorberg, Ina; Sch?tzl, Hermann M.

    2009-01-01

    The infectious agent in prion diseases consists of an aberrantly folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPc), termed PrPSc, which accumulates in brains of affected individuals. Studies on prion-infected cultured cells indicate that cellular cholesterol homeostasis influences PrPSc propagation. Here, we demonstrate that the cellular PrPSc content decreases upon accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes, as induced by NPC-1 knock-down or treatment with U18666A. PrPc trafficking, lip...

  15. Multilevel Cellular Automata as a Tool for Studying Bioinformatic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeweg, Paulien

    The signature feature of Cellular Automata is the realization that "simple rules can give rise to complex behavior". In particular how fixed "rock-bottom" simple rules can give rise to multiple levels of organization. Here we describe Multilevel Cellular Automata, in which the microscopic entities (states) and their transition rules themselves are adjusted by the mesoscale patterns that they themselves generate. Thus we study the feedback of higher levels of organization on the lower levels. Such an approach is preeminently important for studying bioinformatic systems. We will here focus on an evolutionary approach to formalize such Multilevel Cellular Automata, and review examples of studies that use them.

  16. Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Cognitive, Cellular and Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwen Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue consists of a collection of papers on the latest advances in cognitive, cellular, and mobile networks. It consists of the top papers selected and extended from The Cognitive, Cellular, and Mobile Networks (CCM Track of 24th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN 2015, held in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. August 3 – August 6, 2015, as well as open call submissions. We hope that this SI will serve as good references for engineers, scientists, researchers, and academics in the field of Cognitive, Cellular, and Mobile Networks.

  17. Evolution of full phononic band gaps in periodic cellular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Maximilian; Warmuth, Franziska; Körner, Carolin

    2017-10-01

    Cellular materials not only show interesting static properties, but can also be used to manipulate dynamic mechanical waves. In this contribution, the existence of phononic band gaps in periodic cellular structures is experimentally shown via sonic transmission experiment. Cellular structures with varying numbers of cells are excited by piezoceramic actuators and the transmitted waves are measured by piezoceramic sensors. The minimum number of cells necessary to form a clear band gap is determined. A rotation of the cells does not have an influence on the formation of the gap, indicating a complete phononic band gap. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerically obtained dispersion relation.

  18. Blue LED light exposure develops intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent cellular injuries in cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi-Ueda, T; Majima, H J; Watanabe, K; Ueda, T; Indo, H P; Suenaga, S; Hisamitsu, T; Ozawa, T; Yasuhara, H; Koide, R

    2013-10-01

    The effects of blue light emitter diode (LED) light exposure on retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) were examined to detect cellular damage or change and to clarify its mechanisms. The RPE cells were cultured and exposed by blue (470 nm) LED at 4.8 mW/cm(2). The cellular viability was determined by XTT assay and cellular injury was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase activity in medium. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by confocal laser microscope image analysis using dihydrorhodamine 123 and lipid peroxidation was determined by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein-adducts immunofluorescent staining (HNE). At 24 h after 50 J/cm(2) exposures, cellular viability was significantly decreased to 74% and cellular injury was significantly increased to 365% of control. Immediately after the light exposure, ROS generation was significantly increased to 154%, 177%, and 395% of control and HNE intensity was increased to 211%, 359%, and 746% of control by 1, 10, and 50 J/cm(2), respectively. These results suggest, at least in part, that oxidative stress is an early step leading to cellular damage by blue LED exposure and cellular oxidative damage would be caused by the blue light exposure at even lower dose (1, 10 J/cm(2)).

  19. Extracellular matrix motion and early morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Rajprasad; Rongish, Brenda J; Smith, Christopher M; Filla, Michael B; Czirok, Andras; Bénazéraf, Bertrand; Little, Charles D

    2016-06-15

    For over a century, embryologists who studied cellular motion in early amniotes generally assumed that morphogenetic movement reflected migration relative to a static extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold. However, as we discuss in this Review, recent investigations reveal that the ECM is also moving during morphogenesis. Time-lapse studies show how convective tissue displacement patterns, as visualized by ECM markers, contribute to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Computational image analysis distinguishes between cell-autonomous (active) displacements and convection caused by large-scale (composite) tissue movements. Modern quantification of large-scale 'total' cellular motion and the accompanying ECM motion in the embryo demonstrates that a dynamic ECM is required for generation of the emergent motion patterns that drive amniote morphogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. A Cellular Automata Models of Evolution of Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Paszkowski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to modelling of transportation networks. Supply of resources and their influence on the evolution of the consuming environment is a princqral problem considered. ne present two concepts, which are based on cellular automata paradigm. In the first model SCAM4N (Simple Cellular Automata Model of Anastomosing Network, the system is represented by a 2D mesh of elementary cells. The rules of interaction between them are introduced for modelling ofthe water flow and other phenomena connected with anastomosing river: Due to limitations of SCAMAN model, we introduce a supplementary model. The MANGraCA (Model of Anastomosing Network with Graph of Cellular Automata model beside the classical mesh of automata, introduces an additional structure: the graph of cellular automata, which represents the network pattern. Finally we discuss the prospective applications ofthe models. The concepts of juture implementation are also presented.