Sample records for early anther development

  1. Identification of anther-specific/predominant genes regulated by gibberellin during development of lily anthers. (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Tzeng, Jhih-Deng; Liu, Ming-Che; Yei, Fung-Ling; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Co-Shine


    We successfully identify anther-specific/predominant genes induced by gibberellin (GA) at the microspore stage of lily (Lilium longiflorum) anthers. We used a suppression-subtractive hybridization strategy to identify 22 individual cDNAs followed by a reverse RNA dot plot to determine their specificities at the microspore stage. Of the 22 genes, 12 are clearly anther-specific and three are anther-predominant. Sequence analysis revealed that five anther-specific/predominant genes are novel. The transcripts of anther-specific/predominant genes were differentially detected at the microspore development phase; some began accumulating in level as early as the occurrence of meiosis. When uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis was applied in young lily plants we found that all of the anther-specific/predominant genes, with the exception of LLA-139, were up-regulated by GAs in the anther while only some were responsive to the exogenous addition of 100 microM GA3. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes of selected genes in the anther showed a strong signal localized to the tapetal layer. The different actions of GA on gene expression in anthers are discussed.

  2. Biochemical Changes during Development Process of Anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 20, 2012 ... development process. DNA contents and total nucleic acid contents had the same change trend during the development of anther-derived embryos. The DNA synthesis peaks appeared at the embryogenic callus stage. RNA contents were very low at embryogenic callus stage and cotyledon stage, while ...

  3. Biochemical Changes during Development Process of Anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 20, 2012 ... development of loquat anther embryos, the dynamics of protein synthesis were roughly in "S" shape. The two accumulation peaks appeared at globular and cotyledon stage, respectively, in accordance with the change of sugar and starch. Alkaline protein contents were higher than acidic protein contents.

  4. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Anther at Different Development Stages.

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    Zhanjie Li

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen

  5. An anther development F-box (ADF) protein regulated by tapetum degeneration retardation (TDR) controls rice anther development. (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Yixing; Song, Shufeng; Deng, Huafeng; Li, Na; Fu, Xiqin; Chen, Guanghui; Yuan, Longping


    In this study, we reported that a F-box protein, OsADF, as one of the direct targets of TDR , plays a critical role in rice tapetum cell development and pollen formation. The tapetum, the innermost sporophytic tissue of anther, plays an important supportive role in male reproduction in flowering plants. After meiosis, tapetal cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD) and provide nutrients for pollen development. Previously we showed that tapetum degeneration retardation (TDR), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, can trigger tapetal PCD and control pollen wall development during anther development. However, the comprehensive regulatory network of TDR remains to be investigated. In this study, we cloned and characterized a panicle-specific expression F-box protein, anther development F-box (OsADF). By qRT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, we further confirmed that OsADF expressed specially in tapetal cells from stage 9 to stage 12 during anther development. In consistent with this specific expression pattern, the RNAi transgenic lines of OsADF exhibited abnormal tapetal degeneration and aborted microspores development, which eventually grew pollens with reduced fertility. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TDR, a key regulator in controlling rice anther development, could regulate directly the expression of OsADF by binding to E-box motifs of its promoter. Therefore, this work highlighted the possible regulatory role of TDR, which regulates tapetal cell development and pollen formation via triggering the possible ADF-mediated proteolysis pathway.

  6. The Distribution Features of Polysaccharides and Lipids in the Development of Tomato Anthers

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    Zhu Yun


    Full Text Available The regulation of nutrient transportation and transformation in developing anthers is very complex. We analyzed the distribution and features of polysaccharides and lipids in the developing anthers of tomatoes using histochemical methods. Some starches appeared in the connective somatic tissue of anthers during the sporogenous cell stage. Before meiosis of the microspore mother cell, a thick polysaccharide callose wall was formed, accompanied by a reduction in the connective tissue starches. During the tetrad stage after meiosis, the polysaccharide material in the anther did not change. At the early microspore stage, the starches in the connective cells again increased, and polysaccharide material appeared in the partial intine of pollen. At the late microspore stage, a large vacuole formed that did not contain lipids or starches, and only the pollen wall contained red polysaccharides. At this stage, the connective somatic cell starch amounts decreased, and the tapetal cells changed shape and degenerated. After microspore division, abundant lipids appeared in the bicellular pollen, and starches accumulated following pollen development. As the anthers matured, many lipids and some starches accumulated in the epidermal cells. Nutrient metabolism within the tomato pollen characteristically accumulated lipids first and then starches, while the mature pollen accumulated starches and lipids simultaneously. This characteristic pattern of nutrient metabolism in tomato pollen shows species specificity among plants.

  7. Analyzing Maize Anther Development Using Transposons (United States)

    Han, S.


    Over the summer, we tackled two projects in studying more about transposons (moving/jumping genes) such as Mutator genes in corn for this project, and how the plants switch from the stages of mitosis to meiosis without a germ line. We use a transgenic corn line containing RescueMu (an artificial Mutator containing a plasmid in it), so we can keep track of the insertion events. This is a long term project so we haven't come to any final conclusions or results with tracking what happens in Mutator transposition during different stages of corn development but our process shows to work so we continue with what we've been doing.


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    Iswari S. Dewi


    Full Text Available The polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were reported to increase green plant regeneration in rice anther culture. Low response of anther culture of rice sub-species indica may be improved with the addition of putrescine in the culture media. Four experiments were conducted to study the role of polyamines in inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis and their effects on rice anther culture development. Anthers of two subspecies of rice, indica (IR64, Krowal, Jatiluhur and japonica (Taipei 309 were cultured onto media supplemented with putrescine (N6P and without putrescine (N6. Youngpanicles containing the anthers at mid-to-late nucleate microspores were cold pretreated at 5 + 2°C and incubated in the dark for 8 days before the anthers were cultured. Resultsshowed that medium without putrescine produced an earlier senescence of indica rice anther than that of japonica. The addition of 10-3 M putrescine into the culture media inhibited ethylene biosynthesis as anther senescence delayed, increased the three polyamines contents, and decreased the ACC content as well as ACC oxydase activity in anther-derived calli. In the anther and anther-derived calli of subspecies indica, the totalpolyamines content was lower (10.14 nM g-1 anther and 8.48 nM g-1 calli than that of subspecies japonica (12.61 nM g-1 anther and 10.16 nM g-1 calli, whereas the ethylene production was higher (32.31 nM g-1 anther and 2.48 nM g-1 calli than the japonica (31.68 nM g-1 anther and 1.76 nM g-1 calli. This study suggests that application of 10-3 M putrescine in anther culture of rice subspecies indica improves androgenesis by inhibitingearly senescence of cultured anthers and enhancing embryo or callus formation from microspores.

  9. Analysis of anther transcriptomes to identify genes contributing to meiosis and male gametophyte development in rice

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    Sharma Rita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the anther is the site of male gametophyte development. Two major events in the development of the male germline are meiosis and the asymmetric division in the male gametophyte that gives rise to the vegetative and generative cells, and the following mitotic division in the generative cell that produces two sperm cells. Anther transcriptomes have been analyzed in many plant species at progressive stages of development by using microarray and sequence-by synthesis-technologies to identify genes that regulate anther development. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of rice anther transcriptomes at four distinct stages, focusing on identifying regulatory components that contribute to male meiosis and germline development. Further, these transcriptomes have been compared with the transcriptomes of 10 stages of rice vegetative and seed development to identify genes that express specifically during anther development. Results Transcriptome profiling of four stages of anther development in rice including pre-meiotic (PMA, meiotic (MA, anthers at single-celled (SCP and tri-nucleate pollen (TPA revealed about 22,000 genes expressing in at least one of the anther developmental stages, with the highest number in MA (18,090 and the lowest (15,465 in TPA. Comparison of these transcriptome profiles to an in-house generated microarray-based transcriptomics database comprising of 10 stages/tissues of vegetative as well as reproductive development in rice resulted in the identification of 1,000 genes specifically expressed in anther stages. From this sub-set, 453 genes were specific to TPA, while 78 and 184 genes were expressed specifically in MA and SCP, respectively. The expression pattern of selected genes has been validated using real time PCR and in situ hybridizations. Gene ontology and pathway analysis of stage-specific genes revealed that those encoding transcription factors and components of protein folding

  10. An Arabidopsis F-box protein regulates tapetum degeneration and pollen maturation during anther development. (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Kyoung; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo


    The Arabidopsis anther has a bilateral symmetry with four lobes, each consisting of four distinct layers of somatic cells from the outer to inner side: epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The tapetum is a layer of cells comprising the inner surface of the pollen wall. It plays an important role in anther development by providing enzymes, materials and nutrients required for pollen maturation. Genes and molecular mechanisms underlying tapetum formation and pollen wall biosynthesis have been studied in Arabidopsis. However, tapetum degeneration and anther dehiscence have not been well characterized at the molecular level. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis gene, designated reduced male fertility (RMF), regulates degeneration of tapetum and middle layer during anther development. The Arabidopsis dominant mutant rmf-1D overexpressing the RMF gene exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including dwarfed growth with small, dark-green leaves and low male fertility. Tapetum development and subsequent degeneration were impaired in the mutant. Accordingly, pollen maturation was disturbed, reducing the male fertility. In contrast, tapetum degeneration was somewhat accelerated in the RMF RNAi plants. The RMF gene was expressed predominantly in the anther, particularly in the pollen grains. Notably, the RMF protein contains an F-box motif and is localized to the nucleus. It physically interacts with the Arabidopsis-Skp1-like1 protein via the F-box motif. These observations indicate that the RMF gene encodes an F-box protein functioning in tapetum degeneration during anther development.

  11. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

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    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail:; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais


    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  12. Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers. (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl


    Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10(35)) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10(35) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10(35) gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10(35) mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10(35) regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10(35) plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Map-Based Cloning of Genes Important for Maize Anther Development (United States)

    Anaya, Y.; Walbot, V.; Nan, G.


    Map-Based cloning for maize mutant MS13 . Scientists still do not understand what decides the fate of a cell in plants. Many maize genes are important for anther development and when they are disrupted, the anthers do not shed pollen, i.e. male sterile. Since the maize genome has been fully sequenced, we conduct map-based cloning using a bulk segregant analysis strategy. Using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), we look for biomarkers that are linked to our gene of interest, Male Sterile 13 (MS13). Recombinations occur more often if the biomarkers are further away from the gene, therefore we can estimate where the gene is and design more PCR primers to get closer to our gene. Genetic and molecular analysis will help distinguish the role of key genes in setting cell fates before meiosis and for being in charge of the switch from mitosis to meiosis.

  14. The haploid embryoids development in anther culture of transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    Jaroslava Dubová


    Full Text Available Induction of pollen embryogenesis was used for the test of cytokinin influence on the development of pollen grain. Gene for maize cytokinin-specific β-glucosidase were introduced into tobacco genome together with the methotrexate resistance marker (Brzobohatý et al. 1994. Anther culture of T1 generation of transformed Nicotiana tabacum L. plants revealed that high activity of β-glucosidase caused a reduced regeneration of pollen embryoids. The stages of pollen embryoid development were comparable with those of zygotic embryos. Optimal nutritive medium contained charcoal and chelated iron. The absence of iron in the initiation medium caused a distinct decrease of pollen embryoid regeneration.

  15. Anther ontogeny in Brachypodium distachyon. (United States)

    Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L


    Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a model plant for the improvement of grain crops such as wheat, barley and oats and for understanding basic biological processes to facilitate the development of grasses as superior energy crops. Brachypodium is also the first species of the grass subfamily Pooideae with a sequenced genome. For obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling male gametophyte development in B. distachyon, here we report the cellular changes during the stages of anther development, with special reference to the development of the anther wall. Brachypodium anthers are tetrasporangiate and follow the typical monocotyledonous-type anther wall formation pattern. Anther differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells, which divide to generate primary parietal and primary sporogenous cells. The primary parietal cells form two secondary parietal layers. Later, the outer secondary parietal layer directly develops into the endothecium and the inner secondary parietal layer forms an outer middle layer and inner tapetum by periclinal division. The anther wall comprises an epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and the secretory-type tapetum. Major documented events of anther development include the degradation of a secretory-type tapetum and middle layer during the course of development and the rapid formation of U-shaped endothecial thickenings in the mature pollen grain stage. The tapetum undergoes degeneration at the tetrad stage and disintegrates completely at the bicellular stage of pollen development. The distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the anther layers and connective tissue through progressive developmental stages suggests their role in the development of male gametophytes. Until sporogenous cell stage, the amount of insoluble polysaccharides in the anther wall was negligible. However, abundant levels of insoluble polysaccharides were observed during microspore mother cell and tetrad stages and gradually

  16. Ensuring Reproduction at High Temperatures: The Heat Stress Response during Anther and Pollen Development

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    Filomena Giorno


    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is very sensitive to environmental stresses, particularly to thermal insults which frequently occur when plants grow in field conditions in the warm season. Although abnormalities in both male and female reproductive organs due to high temperatures have been described in several crops, the failure to set fruits has mainly been attributed to the high sensitivity of developing anthers and pollen grains, particularly at certain developmental stages. A global view of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to high temperatures in the male reproductive organs will be presented in this review. In addition, transcriptome and proteomic data, currently available, will be discussed in the light of physiological and metabolic changes occurring during anther and pollen development. A deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the stress response to high temperatures in flowers and, particularly, in the male reproductive organs will be a major step towards development of effective breeding strategies for high and stable production in crop plants.

  17. MALE STERILE6021 (MS6021) is required for the development of anther cuticle and pollen exine in maize. (United States)

    Tian, Youhui; Xiao, Senlin; Liu, Juan; Somaratne, Yamuna; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Mingming; Zhang, Huairen; Zhao, Li; Chen, Huabang


    The anther cuticle and pollen wall function as physical barriers that protect genetic material from various environmental stresses. The anther cuticle is composed of wax and cutin, the pollen wall includes exine and intine, and the components of the outer exine are collectively called sporopollenin. Other than cuticle wax, cutin and sporopollenin are biopolymers compounds. The precise constituents and developmental mechanism of these biopolymeric are poorly understood. Here, we reported a complete male sterile mutant, male sterile6021, in maize. The mutant displayed a smooth anther surface and irregular pollen wall formation before anthesis, and its tapetum was degraded immaturely. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed a severe reduction of lipid derivatives in the mutant anther. We cloned the gene by map based cloning. It encoded a fatty acyl carrier protein reductase that was localized in plastids. Expression analysis indicated that MS6021 was mainly expressed in the tapetum and microspore after the microspore was released from the tetrad. Functional complementation of the orthologous Arabidopsis mutant demonstrated that MS6021 is conserved between monocots and dicots and potentially even in flowering plants. MS6021 plays a conserved, essential role in the successful development of anther cuticle and pollen exine in maize.

  18. Convergent evolution within the genus Solanum: the specialised anther cone develops through alternative pathways. (United States)

    Glover, Beverley J; Bunnewell, Sue; Martin, Cathie


    Many angiosperm species produce cones of anthers which release pollen through pores in response to vibration by pollinating bees ("buzz-pollination"). Anther cones of varying degrees of strength are a defining morphological trait for the genus Solanum. Anthers arranged in a robust ('pepper pot') cone are restricted to a single clade within the genus, and may therefore be assumed to be monophyletic. We show that in some species within this clade, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the anther cone is held together by interlocking hairs (trichomes) along the edges of the anthers. In other species within the clade, such as woody nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), the expanded anther surfaces are closely appressed to form the tightly bound cone, strengthened by extracellular secretions. Ectopic expression of the MIXTA gene from Antirrhinum majus in S. dulcamara results in the formation of ectopic trichomes on the anthers which cause the cone to disintegrate. Therefore, these two species produce the same macroscopic structure through two mutually exclusive developmental routes and the robust anther cone is derived differently within the clade. This example demonstrates that convergence between closely related species can be easily mistaken for homology, and may thus be underestimated.

  19. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

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    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.


    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  20. Analysis of the Maize dicer-like1 Mutant, fuzzy tassel, Implicates MicroRNAs in Anther Maturation and Dehiscence.

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    Sterling Field

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction in plants requires development of haploid gametophytes from somatic tissues. Pollen is the male gametophyte and develops within the stamen; defects in the somatic tissues of the stamen and in the male gametophyte itself can result in male sterility. The maize fuzzy tassel (fzt mutant has a mutation in dicer-like1 (dcl1, which encodes a key enzyme required for microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. Many miRNAs are reduced in fzt, and fzt mutants exhibit a broad range of developmental defects, including male sterility. To gain further insight into the roles of miRNAs in maize stamen development, we conducted a detailed analysis of the male sterility defects in fzt mutants. Early development was normal in fzt mutant anthers, however fzt anthers arrested in late stages of anther maturation and did not dehisce. A minority of locules in fzt anthers also exhibited anther wall defects. At maturity, very little pollen in fzt anthers was viable or able to germinate. Normal pollen is tricellular at maturity; pollen from fzt anthers included a mixture of unicellular, bicellular, and tricellular pollen. Pollen from normal anthers is loaded with starch before dehiscence, however pollen from fzt anthers failed to accumulate starch. Our results indicate an absolute requirement for miRNAs in the final stages of anther and pollen maturation in maize. Anther wall defects also suggest that miRNAs have key roles earlier in anther development. We discuss candidate miRNAs and pathways that might underlie fzt anther defects, and also note that male sterility in fzt resembles water deficit-induced male sterility, highlighting a possible link between development and stress responses in plants.

  1. High-Temperature-Induced Defects in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Anther and Pollen Development Are Associated with Reduced Expression of B-Class Floral Patterning Genes (United States)

    Kristensen, Lieke; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Jansma, Stuart Y.; Mariani, Celestina; Park, Sunghun


    Sexual reproduction is a critical process in the life-cycle of plants and very sensitive to environmental perturbations. To better understand the effect of high temperature on plant reproduction, we cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in continuous mild heat. Under this condition we observed a simultaneous reduction in pollen viability and appearance of anthers with pistil-like structures, while in a more thermotolerant genotype, both traits were improved. Ectopic expression of two pistil-specific genes, TRANSMITTING TISSUE SPECIFIC and TOMATO AGAMOUS LIKE11, in the anthers confirmed that the anthers had gained partial pistil identity. Concomitantly, expression of the B-class genes TOMATO APETALA3, TOMATO MADS BOX GENE6 (TM6) and LePISTILLATA was reduced in anthers under continuous mild heat. Plants in which TM6 was partially silenced reacted hypersensitively to temperature elevation with regard to the frequency of pistilloid anthers, pollen viability and pollen quantity. Taken together, these results suggest that high-temperature-induced down-regulation of tomato B-class genes contributes to anther deformations and reduced male fertility. Improving our understanding of how temperature perturbs the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen development will be important in the view of maintaining agricultural output under current climate changes. PMID:27936079

  2. Down-Regulation of OsEMF2b Caused Semi-sterility Due to Anther and Pollen Development Defects in Rice

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    Luchang Deng


    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development are crucial processes of plant male reproduction. Although a number of genes involved in these processes have been identified, the regulatory networks of pollen and anther development are still unclear. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2b (OsEMF2b is important for rice development. Its biological function in floral organ, flowering time and meristem determinacy have been well-studied, but its role, if only, on male reproduction is still unknown, because null mutants of OsEMF2b barely have anthers. In this study, we identified a weak allele of OsEMF2b, osemf2b-4. The T-DNA insertion was located in the promoter region of OsEMF2b, and OsEMF2b expression was significantly decreased in osemf2b-4. The osemf2b-4 mutant exhibited much more normal anthers than null mutants of OsEMF2b, and also showed defective floret development similar to null mutants. Cytological analysis showed various defects of anther wall and pollen development in osemf2b-4, such as slightly or extremely enlarged tapetum, irregular or normal morphology microspores, and partial or complete sterility. OsEMF2b was highly expressed in tapetum and microspores, and the protein was localized in the nucleus. The expression of 15 genes essential for anther and pollen development was investigated in both WT and osemf2b-4. Fourteen genes including GAMYB was up-regulated, and only PTC1 was down-regulated in osemf2b-4. This suggests that up-regulated GAMYB and down-regulated PTC1 might contribute to the defective anther and pollen development in osemf2b-4. Overall, our work suggests that OsEMF2b plays an essential role during post-meiotic anther and pollen development.

  3. Rice CYP703A3, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, is essential for development of anther cuticle and pollen exine. (United States)

    Yang, Xijia; Wu, Di; Shi, Jianxin; He, Yi; Pinot, Franck; Grausem, Bernard; Yin, Changsong; Zhu, Lu; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing


    Anther cuticle and pollen exine act as protective envelopes for the male gametophyte or pollen grain, but the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. Previously, a tapetum-expressed CYP703A3, a putative cytochrome P450 fatty acid hydroxylase, was shown to be essential for male fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the biochemical and biological roles of CYP703A3 has not been characterized. Here, we observed that cyp703a3-2 caused by one base insertion in CYP703A3 displays defective pollen exine and anther epicuticular layer, which differs from Arabidopsis cyp703a2 in which only defective pollen exine occurs. Consistently, chemical composition assay showed that levels of cutin monomers and wax components were dramatically reduced in cyp703a3-2 anthers. Unlike the wide range of substrates of Arabidopsis CYP703A2, CYP703A3 functions as an in-chain hydroxylase only for a specific substrate, lauric acid, preferably generating 7-hydroxylated lauric acid. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analyses revealed that the expression of CYP703A3 is directly regulated by Tapetum Degeneration Retardation, a known regulator of tapetum PCD and pollen exine formation. Collectively, our results suggest that CYP703A3 represents a conserved and diversified biochemical pathway for in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid required for the development of male organ in higher plants. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Analyses of advanced rice anther transcriptomes reveal global tapetum secretory functions and potential proteins for lipid exine formation. (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Wei, Fu-Jin; Wu, Cheng-Cheih; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; Huang, Anthony H C


    The anthers in flowers perform important functions in sexual reproduction. Several recent studies used microarrays to study anther transcriptomes to explore genes controlling anther development. To analyze the secretion and other functions of the tapetum, we produced transcriptomes of anthers of rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) at six progressive developmental stages and pollen with sequencing-by-synthesis technology. The transcriptomes included at least 18,000 unique transcripts, about 25% of which had antisense transcripts. In silico anther-minus-pollen subtraction produced transcripts largely unique to the tapetum; these transcripts include all the reported tapetum-specific transcripts of orthologs in other species. The differential developmental profiles of the transcripts and their antisense transcripts signify extensive regulation of gene expression in the anther, especially the tapetum, during development. The transcriptomes were used to dissect two major cell/biochemical functions of the tapetum. First, we categorized and charted the developmental profiles of all transcripts encoding secretory proteins present in the cellular exterior; these transcripts represent about 12% and 30% of the those transcripts having more than 100 and 1,000 transcripts per million, respectively. Second, we successfully selected from hundreds of transcripts several transcripts encoding potential proteins for lipid exine synthesis during early anther development. These proteins include cytochrome P450, acyltransferases, and lipid transfer proteins in our hypothesized mechanism of exine synthesis in and export from the tapetum. Putative functioning of these proteins in exine formation is consistent with proteins and metabolites detected in the anther locule fluid obtained by micropipetting.

  5. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing


    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

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    Ildephonse Habarugira


    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  7. The ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 histone H3 methyltransferase is required for ovule and anther development in Arabidopsis.

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    Paul E Grini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to

  8. Anther Ontogeny and Microsporogenesis in Helianthus annuus L. (Compositae

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    Aslihan ÇETİNBAŞ


    Full Text Available In this study, anther ontogeny and microsporogenesis were analysed in Helianthus annuus L. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and plasmodial tapetum. Endothecial cells show no fibrous thickening. Tapetum is amoeboid type with binucleate cells. Epidermal layer remains intact until anther dehiscence; however, middle layer, endothecium and tapetum disappear during development. At the end of regular meiotic division tetrahedral microspore tetrads are formed. Pollen grains are triporate, suboblate and angulaperturate.

  9. Identification of miRNAs with potential roles in regulation of anther development and male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant. (United States)

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, Irina; Dalmay, Tamas; Fellner, Martin


    The 7B-1 tomato line (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rutgers) is a photoperiod-sensitive male-sterile mutant, with potential application in hybrid seed production. Small RNAs (sRNAs) in tomato have been mainly characterized in fruit development and ripening, but none have been studied with respect to flower development and regulation of male-sterility. Using sRNA sequencing, we identified miRNAs that are potentially involved in anther development and regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1 mutant. Two sRNA libraries from 7B-1 and wild type (WT) anthers were sequenced and thirty two families of known miRNAs and 23 new miRNAs were identified in both libraries. MiR390, miR166, miR159 were up-regulated and miR530, miR167, miR164, miR396, miR168, miR393, miR8006 and two new miRNAs, miR#W and miR#M were down-regulated in 7B-1 anthers. Ta-siRNAs were not differentially expressed and likely not associated with 7B-1 male-sterility. miRNA targets with potential roles in anther development were validated using 5'-RACE. QPCR analysis showed differential expression of miRNA/target pairs of interest in anthers and stem of 7B-1, suggesting that they may regulate different biological processes in these tissues. Expression level of most miRNA/target pairs showed negative correlation, except for few. In situ hybridization showed predominant expression of miR159, GAMYBL1, PMEI and cystatin in tapetum, tetrads and microspores. Overall, we identified miRNAs with potential roles in anther development and regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1. A number of new miRNAs were also identified from tomato for the first time. Our data could be used as a benchmark for future studies of the molecular mechanisms of male-sterility in other crops.

  10. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  11. LAP5 and LAP6 encode anther-specific proteins with similarity to chalcone synthase essential for pollen exine development in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anna A; Lei, Zhentian; Nishikawa, Shuh-Ichi; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Huhman, David V; Preuss, Daphne; Sumner, Lloyd W


    Pollen grains of land plants have evolved remarkably strong outer walls referred to as exine that protect pollen and interact with female stigma cells. Exine is composed of sporopollenin, and while the composition and synthesis of this biopolymer are not well understood, both fatty acids and phenolics are likely components. Here, we describe mutations in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) LESS ADHESIVE POLLEN (LAP5) and LAP6 that affect exine development. Mutation of either gene results in abnormal exine patterning, whereas pollen of double mutants lacked exine deposition and subsequently collapsed, causing male sterility. LAP5 and LAP6 encode anther-specific proteins with homology to chalcone synthase, a key flavonoid biosynthesis enzyme. lap5 and lap6 mutations reduced the accumulation of flavonoid precursors and flavonoids in developing anthers, suggesting a role in the synthesis of phenolic constituents of sporopollenin. Our in vitro functional analysis of LAP5 and LAP6 using 4-coumaroyl-coenzyme A yielded bis-noryangonin (a commonly reported derailment product of chalcone synthase), while similar in vitro analyses using fatty acyl-coenzyme A as the substrate yielded medium-chain alkyl pyrones. Thus, in vitro assays indicate that LAP5 and LAP6 are multifunctional enzymes and may play a role in both the synthesis of pollen fatty acids and phenolics found in exine. Finally, the genetic interaction between LAP5 and an anther gene involved in fatty acid hydroxylation (CYP703A2) demonstrated that they act synergistically in exine production.

  12. Morphological and physiological differences between dehiscent and indehiscent anthers of Chrysanthemum morifolium. (United States)

    Fei, Jiangsong; Tan, Sue; Zhang, Fengjiao; Hua, Lichun; Liao, Yuan; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi; Teng, Nianjun


    Spray cut chrysanthemums ornamental value and vase life are rapidly reduced with an increase in the pollen dispersal of the middle tubular bisexual flowers, and excessive pollen grains floating in the air are usually harmful to people. Thus, two cultivars were selected: the dehiscent 'Qx-097' and the indehiscent 'Qx-007', to investigate the morphological, structural and physiological differences in anthers. (1) Prior to the opening of the tubular flower, the anther was completely dehisced, and the pollen grains of 'Qx-097' were then released. 'Qx-007' inflorescences showed no pollen dispersal, and this cultivar was therefore not contaminated by its own pollen grains during flowering. (2) The anther cell structure of 'Qx-007' was abnormal, such that the entire anther wall exhibited hypertrophy due to the non-selective thickening of the endothecium cell size in different areas. Moreover, cracks did not form in the 'Qx-007' anther due to failure of septum degradation and stomium breakage, which resulted in the anther locules being inwardly crushed. Besides, the indehiscent anther accompanies partial pollen abortion due to the impairment of tapetum development, this is not conducive to pollen dispersal. (3) The 'Qx-007' anther contained higher water levels compared with 'Qx-097', and the dehydration of the 'Qx-007' anther was relatively moderate. Furthermore, the 'Qx-007' anther exhibited higher Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) levels compared with 'Qx-097' during dehiscing periods. (4) The 'Qx-007' anther showed significantly lower jasmonic acid levels and higher indole-3-acetic acid levels compare with the 'Qx-097' anther. These results suggest that the endothecium, septum and stomium constituent of the anther structure exhibit developmental abnormalities, which likely serve as the cellular basis of anther indehiscence. In addition, anther dehydration, the enhancement of anther cell toughness due to a high level of ions, and JA (IAA) dysregulation may be the determining

  13. Dynamic changes of main metabolic substances during anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main metabolic substances changes during the development process of anther-derived embryos in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. 'Dawuxing') were studied. These include water contents, dry mass contents, carbohydrates, soluble proteins and nucleic acids. In the developmental stages of anther-derived ...

  14. Ricinosomes predict programmed cell death leading to anther dehiscence in tomato. (United States)

    Senatore, Adriano; Trobacher, Christopher P; Greenwood, John S


    Successful development and dehiscence of the anther and release of pollen are dependent upon the programmed cell death (PCD) of the tapetum and other sporophytic tissues. Ultrastructural examination of the developing and dehiscing anther of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed that cells of the interlocular septum, the connective tissue, the middle layer/endothecium, and the epidermal cells surrounding the stomium all exhibit features consistent with progression through PCD. Ricinosomes, a subset of precursor protease vesicles that are unique to some incidents of plant PCD, were also present in all of these cell types. These novel organelles are known to harbor KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinases that act in the final stages of corpse processing following cell death. Indeed, a tomato KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase, SlCysEP, was identified and its gene was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. SlCysEP transcript and protein were restricted to the anthers of the senescing tomato flower. Present in the interlocular septum and in the epidermal cells surrounding the stomium relatively early in development, SlCysEP accumulates later in the sporophytic tissues surrounding the locules as dehiscence ensues. At the ultrastuctural level, immunogold labeling localized SlCysEP to the ricinosomes within the cells of these tissues, but not in the tapetum. It is suggested that the accumulation of SlCysEP and the appearance of ricinosomes act as very early predictors of cell death in the tomato anther.

  15. MS26/CYP704B is required for anther and pollen wall development in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and combining mutations in all three homeologs causes male sterility.

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    Manjit Singh

    Full Text Available Development of anthers and pollen represents an important aspect of the life cycle in flowering plants. Genes contributing to anther and pollen development have been widely studied in many plant species. Ms26/CYP704B genes play an important role in pollen development through biosynthesis of sporopollenin for pollen exine formation. To investigate the role of Ms26/CYP704B genes in anther and pollen development of bread wheat, mutations in the A-, B-, and D-homeologs of the putative Ms26/CYP704B gene were analyzed. Single and double homozygous mutants in any of the homeologs did not affect pollen development and male fertility. Triple homozygous mutants resulted in completely male sterile plants that were defective in pollen and anther development. Additionally, double homozygous-single heterozygous mutants were also male sterile although with varying levels of residual fertility. The fertility of these triple mutants was dependent upon the homeolog contributing the wild-type allele. Two heterologous Ms26/CYP704B genes, when transformed into a triple homozygous mutant background, completely restored male fertility, whereas a single gene was unable to restore fertility. Functional analysis of Ms26/CYP704B furthers the understanding of male fertility genes which can be utilized for the development of novel hybrid seed production systems in wheat.

  16. Ustilago maydis reprograms cell proliferation in maize anthers. (United States)

    Gao, Li; Kelliher, Timothy; Nguyen, Linda; Walbot, Virginia


    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize (Zea mays), one of the world's most important cereal crops. Infection by this smut fungus triggers tumor formation in aerial plant parts within which the fungus sporulates. Using confocal microscopy to track U. maydis infection on corn anthers for 7 days post-injection, we found that U. maydis is located on the epidermis during the first 2 days, and has reached all anther lobe cell types by 3 days post-injection. Fungal infection alters cell-fate specification events, cell division patterns, host cell expansion and host cell senescence, depending on the developmental stage and cell type. Fungal effects on tassel and plant growth were also quantified. Transcriptome profiling using a dual organism microarray identified thousands of anther genes affected by fungal infection at 3 days post-injection during the cell-fate specification and rapid cell proliferation phases of anther development. In total, 4147 (17%) of anther-expressed genes were altered by infection, 2018 fungal genes were expressed in anthers, and 206 fungal secretome genes may be anther-specific. The results confirm that U. maydis deploys distinct genes to cause disease in specific maize organs, and suggest mechanisms by which the host plant is manipulated to generate a tumor. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Attempts to induce haploids in anther cultures of sugar, fodder and wild species of beet

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    Janina Rogozińska


    Full Text Available In the present investigation, aimed at obtaining beet haploids from anthers, the effect of mineral media, potato and sugar beet extract and p-fluorophenylalanine (PFP in combination with growth substances was tested. Nutrient-starved plants as anther-donors, anther-starvation, cold treatment and photoperiod were also analysed. On all mineral media the anthers produced callus and roots; however, the percentage depended on the combination of growth substances used. The best medium for differentiation was that of Linsmaier and Skoog with 25 µM zeatin or 6-(3-methyl-2-butenylaminopurine with 5 µM naphthalene-l-acetic acid (25.5%. The addition of PFP caused an increase in the percentage of anther differentiation (41.6%. Besides callus and roots on one of the anthers (in ca. 140000 tested, vegetative buds were formed from which numerous plants were obtained (2n. Plant and anther nutrient starvation did not improve the anther response to differentiation, nor did it induce haploid development, similarly as cold treatment of inflorescences or isolated anthers. The anthers of wild species showed lower ability to differentiate than those of sugar or fodder beets. Cytological analyses showed formation of multicellular structures until ca. the 12-th day of anther culture; afterwards, they degenerated.

  18. Linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de antera Dihaploid wheat lines developed via anther culture

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    Luis Carlos da Silva Ramos


    agronomic characteristics, resistance to leaf rust and other yield components. Under laboratory conditions, the genotypes were analysed for their Al3+ toxicity tolerance in nutrient solutions. The dihaploid lines 11, 12, 14, 17 and 18 derived from the hybrid IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24 , demonstrated a short-plant type, resistance to lodging, early cycle from emergence to flowering as well as from emergence to maturity and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In addition these lines showed high average productivity in the four experiments. Line 8 was a good genetic source for long spike, while line 15 was good for large number of spikelets per spike. The cultivar Anahuac produced a large number of grains per spike and per spikelet, while lines 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 and 18 had high grain weight. All genotypes were tolerant to aluminum toxicity except line 5. Anahuac cultivar exhibited high Al3+ sensitivity. The technique used to obtain wheat dihaploid lines via anther culture from plants in the F1 generation after a cross, was efficient in originating productive genotypes, with desirable agronomic characteristics and with tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in a short period of time in relation to the traditional method of genetic breeding used at the Instituto Agronomico.

  19. Temporal Petal Closure Benefits Reproductive Development of Magnolia denudata (Magnoliaceae in Early Spring

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    Liya Liu


    Full Text Available The Magnoliaceae shows strong phylogenetic niche conservatism, in which temporal petal closure has been extensively reported. However, it is yet elusive whether temporal petal closure is an idle floral character inherited from their ancestors or an adaptive trait to their habitats. Here, we monitored the process of temporal floral closure and re-opening in a thermogenic plant, Magnolia denudata (Magnoliaceae. Furthermore, we artificially interrupted temporal petal closure and investigated its effects on development of female and male gametophytes. Intriguingly, we found considerable anatomical changes in the anthers shortly after temporal closure of petals: disintegration of tapeta, crack of anther walls, and release of matured pollens. In comparison with normal flowers, artificially interrupted flowers (no petal closure showed delayed anther development and slower pollen germination on stigmas, while little difference in embryo morphology was observed during the early stage of embryo development. Moreover, seed set and quality were significantly decreased when petal closure was prevented. In addition, we found pollination accelerated floral closure in M. denudata. Taken together, temporal floral closure benefits reproduction of M. denudata in early spring by promoting anther development and pollen function, which suggests that it is an adaptive floral trait to its specific habitat.

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of a new anther-specific gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast to this observation, expression of CaMF4 was not detected in any organs of the male sterile line. Further analysis revealed that CaMF4 was expressed particularly in anthers of the fertile line. Our results suggest that CaMF4 is an anther-specific gene and might be indispensable for anther or pollen development in ...

  1. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.). (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line 'WA' and its maintainer line 'WB' by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops.

  2. Development of library preparation method able to correct gene expression levels in rice anther and isolate a trace expression gene mediated in cold-resistance

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    Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Koike, Setsuo [Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Morioka (Japan)


    When cDNA library is prepared by a previously developed method, genes of which expression level is high are apt to be cloned at a high frequency, whereas genes of which expression level are low, are difficult to be cloned. A low-expression gene has been cloned at very low frequency. Therefore, the gene encoding the key enzyme that is involved in growth disturbance of rice pollen has not been identified. In this study, development of a library preparing method able to correct the expression level was attempted using highly sensitive detection method with radioisotope and some genes related to cold-resistance of rice were isolated. Double strand DNAs were synthesized using mRNA extract from rice anthers and annealed following heat-denaturation. It has been known that single strand DNA molecules abundantly existing in DNA solution can easily aggregate to form double strand DNA, but single stranded DNA molecules poor in the solution are apt to still remain as single strand after annealing. Thus, the amount of single strand DNA would be balanced in the solution between abundant DNA and poor DNA species. The authors succeeded to prepare a gene library including low and high expression genes at similar proportions. Moreover, spin trap method that allows RI labeling of DNA bound to latex particle, was developed to detect with high sensitivity, especially for genes that are expressed at low level. The present method could be used for recovery, detection and quantitative analysis of radiolabeled single strand DNA. Thus, it was demonstrated that the stage from tetrad sperm to small sperm might be easily affected by cold stress. The present results suggest that the expressions of {beta}-1 and {beta}-3 glucanase, which are involved in the release of small sperms following meiosis in the pollen formation, might be easily affected by cold stress. (M.N.)

  3. Embryogenesis induction, callogenesis, and plant regeneration by in vitro culture of tomato isolated microspores and whole anthers. (United States)

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Nuez, Fernando


    In this work, some of the different in vitro developmental pathways into which tomato microspores or microsporocytes can be deviated experimentally were explored. The two principal ones are direct embryogenesis from isolated microspores and callus formation from meiocyte-containing anthers. By means of light and electron microscopy, the process of early embryogenesis from isolated microspores and the disruption of normal meiotic development and change of developmental fate towards callus proliferation, morphogenesis, and plant regeneration have been shown. From microspores isolated at the vacuolate stage, embryos can be directly induced, thus avoiding non-androgenic products. In contrast, several different morphogenic events can be triggered in cultures of microsporocyte-containing anthers under adequate conditions, including indirect embryogenesis, adventitious organogenesis, and plant regeneration. Both callus and regenerated plants may be haploid, diploid, and mostly mixoploid. The results demonstrate that both gametophytic and sporophytic calli occur in cultured tomato anthers, and point to an in vitro-induced disturbance of cytokinesis and subsequent fusion of daughter nuclei as a putative cause for mixoploidy and genome doubling during both tetrad compartmentalization and callus proliferation. The potential implications of the different alternative pathways are discussed in the context of their application to the production of doubled-haploid plants in tomato, which is still very poorly developed.

  4. Anther-specific carbohydrate supply and restoration of metabolically engineered male sterility (United States)

    Engelke, T.; Hirsche, J.; Roitsch, T.


    Male-sterile plants are used in hybrid breeding as well as for gene confinement for genetically modified plants in field trials and agricultural production. Apart from naturally occurring mutations leading to male sterility, biotechnology has added new possibilities for obtaining male-sterile plants, although so far only one system is used in practical breeding due to limitations in propagating male-sterile plants without segregations in the next generation or insufficient restoration of fertility when fruits or seeds are to be harvested from the hybrid varieties. Here a novel mechanism of restoration for male sterility is presented that has been achieved by interference with extracellular invertase activity, which is normally specifically expressed in the anthers to supply the developing microspores with carbohydrates. Microspores are symplastically isolated in the locular space of the anthers, and thus an unloading pathway of assimilates via the apoplasmic space is mandatory for proper development of pollen. Antisense repression of the anther-specific cell wall invertase or interference with invertase activity by expressing a proteinacious inhibitor under the control of the anther-specific invertase promoter results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus causing male sterility without having any pleiotropic effects. Restoration of fertility was successfully achieved by substituting the down-regulated endogenous plant invertase activity by a yeast invertase fused to the N-terminal portion of potato-derived vacuolar protein proteinase II (PiII–ScSuc2), under control of the orthologous anther-specific invertase promoter Nin88 from tobacco. The chimeric fusion PiII–ScSuc2 is known to be N-glycosylated and efficiently secreted from plant cells, leading to its apoplastic location. Furthermore, the Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 fusion does not show effects on pollen development in the wild-type background. Thus, such plants can be used as paternal parents

  5. Anther and pollen development in some species of Poaceae (Poales Desenvolvimento da antera e do grão de pólen em espécies de Poaceae (Poales

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    AT. Nakamura


    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development were studied in Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr, (Bambusoideae, Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae, Eragrostis solida Nees, and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae. The objective of this study was to characterise, embryologically, these species of subfamilies which are considered basal, intermediate and derivate, respectively. The species are similar to each other and to other Poaceae. They present the following characters: tetrasporangiate anthers; monocotyledonous-type anther wall development, endothecium showing annular thickenings, secretory tapetum; successive microsporogenesis; isobilateral tetrads; spheroidal, tricellular, monoporate pollen grains with annulus and operculum. Nevertheless, the exine patterns of the species studied are distinct. Olyra humilis and Sucrea monophylla (Bambusoideae show a granulose pattern, whereas in the other species, it is insular. In addition, Axonopus aureus and Paspalum polyphyllum (Panicoideae have a compactly insular spinule pattern, while Chloris elata and Eragrostis solida (Chloridoideae show a sparsely insular spinule pattern. The exine ornamentation may be considered an important feature at the infrafamiliar level.O desenvolvimento da antera e do grão de pólen de Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr. (Bambusoideae, Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae, Eragrostis solida Nees and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae foi estudado visando caracterizar embriologicamente essas espécies de subfamílias consideradas basal, intermediária e derivada, respectivamente. As espécies são similares entre si e entre as demais Poaceae. Apresentam os seguintes caracteres: anteras tetrasporangiadas; desenvolvimento da parede da antera do tipo monocotiledôneo, endotécio com espessamento de parede anelar, tapete secretor; microsporogênese sucessiva; tétrades isobilaterais; grãos de

  6. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers. (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna


    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag 1 (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Smith, Roberta H.; Finer, John J.


    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. `Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663273

  8. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag. (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J


    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable.

  9. Addition of rye chromosome 4R to wheat increases anther length and pollen grain number. (United States)

    Nguyen, Vy; Fleury, Delphine; Timmins, Andy; Laga, Hamid; Hayden, Matthew; Mather, Diane; Okada, Takashi


    The research identified rye chromosome 4R arms associated with good pollinator traits, and demonstrated possible use of rye genetic resources to develop elite pollinators for hybrid wheat breeding. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a predominantly self-pollinating plant which has relatively small-sized anthers and produces a low number of pollen grains. These features limit the suitability of most wheat lines as pollinators for hybrid seed production. One strategy for improving the pollination ability of wheat is to introgress cross-pollination traits from related species. One such species is rye (Secale cereale L.), which has suitable traits such as high anther extrusion, long anthers containing large amounts of pollen and long pollen viability. Therefore, introducing these traits into wheat is of great interest in hybrid wheat breeding. Here, we investigated wheat-rye chromosome addition lines for the effects of rye chromosomes on anther and pollen development in wheat. Using a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array, we detected 984 polymorphic markers that showed expected syntenic relationships between wheat and rye. Our results revealed that the addition of rye chromosomes 1R or 2R reduced pollen fertility, while addition of rye chromosome 4R increased anther size by 16% and pollen grain number by 33%. The effect on anther length was associated with increases in both cell size and the number of endothecium cells and was attributed to the long arm of chromosome 4R. In contrast, the effect on pollen grain number was attributed to the short arm of chromosome 4R. These results indicate that rye chromosome 4R contains at least two genetic factors associated with increased anther size and pollen grain number that can favourably affect pollination traits in wheat.

  10. Early Developments in Crystallography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    molecules to treat different diseases, make materials of desired properties and attempt to understand unknown territories far away from the Earth such as the exploration of the surface of. Mars. In this article, we will try to trace the early historical events in the development of X-ray crystallography, and the Indian contributions ...

  11. Efficient callus induction and plant regeneration from anther of Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta L. var. chinensis Roem). (United States)

    Chen, LinJiao; Zhu, XueYi; Gu, Li; Wu, Jian


    Callus culture has, to date, been reported only in a few species of Narcissus. We used anthers of Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta L. var. chinensis Roem) as explants for callus induction and plant regeneration. A high percentage of anthers at the early- to mid-uninucleate microspore stage were responsive on the basal MS medium supplemented with 0.5-1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5-2 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine under dark conditions. Calli were initiated from anther connective tissue or anther wall tissue, and no division of microspores occurred during callus formation, as determined by histological observation. Using 20 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers, we verified the genetic integrity of the anther-derived plants of Chinese narcissus with respect to the donor plants. These results suggest that anther culture in vitro can provide an efficient new micropropagation technique for Chinese narcissus as well as a new strategy for in vitro mass propagation of other daffodils.

  12. Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer factor 4 (AHP4) negatively regulates secondary wall thickening of the anther endothecium during flowering. (United States)

    Jung, Kwang Wook; Oh, Seung-Ick; Kim, Yun Young; Yoo, Kyoung Shin; Cui, Mei Hua; Shin, Jeong Sheop


    Cytokinins are essential hormones in plant development. Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs) are mediators in a multistep phosphorelay pathway for cytokinin signaling. The exact role of AHP4 has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated young flower-specific expression of AHP4, and compared AHP4-overexpressing (Ox) trangenic Arabidopsis lines and an ahp4 knock-out line. AHP4-Ox plants had reduced fertility due to a lack of secondary cell wall thickening in the anther endothecium and inhibition of IRREGURAR XYLEMs (IRXs) expression in young flowers. Conversely, ahp4 anthers had more lignified anther walls than the wild type, and increased IRXs expression. Our study indicates that AHP4 negatively regulates thickening of the secondary cell wall of the anther endothecium, and provides new insight into the role of cytokinins in formation of secondary cell walls via the action of AHP4.

  13. Anther Wall Formation in Solanaceae Species (United States)



    Anther wall formation was studied in 32 species belonging to 27 genera of Solanaceae. Dicotyledonous and basic types of wall formation were observed, as well as several deviations due to subsequent periclinal divisions in the layers formed (middle layers and sometimes the endothecium). One type of wall formation was observed in each species. Some genera are uniform in their type of wall formation, while others are heterogeneous; a similar situation was observed at the tribal level. Summarizing all reported information on anther wall formation in the Solanaceae, 64 % of species show the basic type, while the remaining 36 % show the dicotyledonous type. Thus, neither type predominates, and no single type characterizes genera, tribes or the entire family. PMID:12451025

  14. Anther culture of some perennial triticeae. (United States)

    Marburger, J E; Wang, R R


    Three field grown Agropyron spp. (crested wheatgrasses) and two Thinopyrum spp. (intermediate and tall wheatgrasses) were evaluated for anther culture response. Hormonally modified potato extract and 85D12 media induced pollen embryogenesis. Modified Murashige and Skoog media were tested for their effects on callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration. Callus induction frequency and plantlet production were highest (25.0% and 45.8%, respectively) for Thinopyrum ponticum (2N=70) (tall wheatgrass). One-hundred and nine albino plantlets were produced from T. ponticum 'Jose' both by direct regeneration on 85D12 medium and through a callus phase from potato extract media. This is the first report of plantlet production from anther culture of a Triticeae perennial forage grass. Further experimentation with environmental and cultural conditions may result in the production of green plantlets.

  15. Chloroplasts in anther endothecium of Zea mays (Poaceae). (United States)

    Murphy, Katherine M; Egger, Rachel L; Walbot, Virginia


    Although anthers of Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Arabidopsis thaliana have been studied intensively using genetic and biochemical analyses in the past 20 years, few updates to anther anatomical and ultrastructural descriptions have been reported. For example, no transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the premeiotic maize anther have been published. Here we report the presence of chloroplasts in maize anthers. TEM imaging, electron acceptor photosynthesis assay, in planta photon detection, microarray analysis, and light and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate the presence of chloroplasts in the maize anther. Most cells of the maize subepidermal endothecium have starch-containing chloroplasts that do not conduct measurable photosynthesis in vitro. The maize anther contains chloroplasts in most subepidermal, endothecial cells. Although maize anthers receive sufficient light to photosynthesize in vivo and the maize anther transcribes >96% of photosynthesis-associated genes found in the maize leaf, no photosynthetic light reaction activity was detected in vitro. The endothecial cell layer should no longer be defined as a complete circle viewed transversely in anther lobes, because chloroplasts are observed only in cells directly beneath the epidermis and not those adjacent to the connective tissue. We propose that chloroplasts be a defining characteristic of differentiated endothecial cells and that nonsubepidermal endothecial cells that lack chloroplasts be defined as a separate cell type, the interendothecium. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Haploid plant production in Zantedeschia aethiopica ‘Hong Gan’ using anther culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, Q.; Li, X.; Zheng, S.; Wang, S.; Guo, L.; Zhang, L.; Custers, J.B.M.


    This report describes advances in the anther culture of Zantedeschia aethiopica. Important factors for improvement as compared to the earlier procedure were: (1) using flowers from inflorescences developed at relatively low temperature during winter, (2) high temperature stress treatment at 32 °C

  17. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.


    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids...

  18. Effect of AgNO 3 on androgenesis of Brassica oleracea L. anthers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present article is a synthesis study accomplished at Vegetable Research and Development Station Bacau regarding the implication of silver nitrate (AgNO3) in modulating the morphogenetic reaction of white cabbage anthers cultivated in vitro. According to literature, silver nitrate is a strong inhibitor of ethylene action.

  19. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) (United States)

    Binti Kayat, Fatimah; Ermiena Surya Mat Hussin, Zeti; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed


    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

  20. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmood Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  1. Diallel analysis of anther culture response in wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes differing in their ability to produce embryogenic callus from anther culture were reciprocally crossed and inheritance of anther culture response [callus induction frequency (CIF, %), embryogenic callus induction frequency (ECIF, %), regeneration capacity of callus (RCC, %) ...

  2. Identification and Functional Analysis of microRNAs Involved in the Anther Development in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Line Yu98-8A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Yang


    Full Text Available Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line. Sequencing revealed 1588 and 1536 known microRNAs and 347 and 351 novel miRNAs from male sterile and male fertile libraries, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiles revealed that 49 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Bioinformatic and degradome analysis indicated the regulatory complexity of microRNAs during flower induction and development. Further RT-qPCR and physiological analysis indicated that, among the different Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes pathways, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid signaling transduction pathways may play pivotal regulatory functions in male sterility.

  3. Early experience and brain development. (United States)

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A


    Healthy brain development takes place within the context of individual experience. Here, we describe how certain early experiences are necessary for typical brain development. We present evidence from multiple studies showing that severe early life neglect leads to alterations in brain development, which compromises emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. We also show how early intervention can reverse some of the deleterious effects of neglect on brain development. We conclude by emphasizing that early interventions that start at the earliest possible point in human development are most likely to support maximal recovery from early adverse experiences. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1387. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The metabolic incorporation of label from myoinositol-2-3H by the growing young anther of Lilium lorlgiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miki-Hirosige


    Full Text Available Fine structural autoradiography involving the incorporation of myo-inositol-2-3H (MI-2-3H unto lily anther during development has been used to explore the metabolic processes of microspore development and the interation between the devlaping microspore and degenerating tapetal cells.

  5. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers (United States)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.


    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  6. Epigenetics of Early Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eMurgatroyd


    Full Text Available Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood.To date, the study of gene-environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene-environment interactions can predispose individuals towards psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give raise to lasting epigenetic memories conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions.

  7. Early Development Economics Debates Revisited


    Alacevich, Michele


    Development economics in its early years created the image of a fierce fight between advocates of contrasting theories or approaches- "balanced growth" vs. "unbalanced growth" or "program loans" vs. "project loans." This view has the merit to highlight such conflicts in great detail; yet it fails to take into account the reality of development economics as it was practiced in the field. Th...

  8. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wu


    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  9. Quantitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis of Rice Anther Proteins after Exposure to High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Kim


    Full Text Available In rice, the stage of development most sensitive to high temperature stress is flowering, and exposure at this stage can result in spikelet sterility, thereby leading to significant yield losses. In this study, protein expression patterns of rice anthers from Dianxi4, a high temperature tolerant Japonica rice variety, were compared between samples exposed to high temperature and those grown in natural field conditions in Korea. Shotgun proteomics analysis of three replicate control and high-temperature-treated samples identified 3,266 nonredundant rice anther proteins (false discovery rate < 0.01. We found that high levels of ATP synthase, cupin domain-containing proteins, and pollen allergen proteins were present in rice anthers. Comparative analyses of 1,944 reproducibly expressed proteins identified 139 differentially expressed proteins, with 95 increased and 44 decreased in response to high temperature conditions. Heat shock, DnaK family, and chaperone proteins showed highly increased expression, suggesting that the high temperature tolerance of Dianxi4 is achieved by stabilization of proteins in pollen cells. Trehalose synthase was also highly increased after heat treatment, suggesting a possible role for trehalose in preventing protein denaturation through desiccation.

  10. Is there 'anther-anther interference' within a flower? Evidences from one-by-one stamen movement in an insect-pollinated plant. (United States)

    Ren, Ming-Xun; Bu, Zhao-Jun


    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing anthers has received little attention and few experimental tests to date. Here, using one-by-one stamen movement in the generalist-pollinated Parnassia palustris, we test this hypothesis by manipulation experiments in two years. Under natural conditions, the five fertile stamens in P. palustris flowers elongate their filaments individually, and anthers dehisce successively one-by-one. More importantly, the anther-dehisced stamen bends out of the floral center by filament deflexion before the next stamen's anther dehiscence. Experimental manipulations show that flowers with dehisced anther remaining at the floral center experience shorter (1/3-1/2 less) visit durations by pollen-collecting insects (mainly hoverflies and wasps) because these 'hungry' insects are discouraged by the scant and non-fresh pollen in the dehisced anther. Furthermore, the dehisced anther blocks the dehiscing anther's access to floral visitors, resulting in a nearly one third decrease in their contact frequency. As a result, pollen removal of the dehiscing anther decreases dramatically. These results provide the first direct experimental evidence that anther-anther interference is possible in a flower, and that the selection to reduce such interferences can be a strong force in floral evolution. We also propose that some other floral traits, usually interpreted as pollen dispensing mechanisms, may function, at least partially, as mechanisms to promote pollen dispersal by reducing interferences between

  11. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Marcus Vinicius


    Full Text Available The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.

  12. Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae). (United States)

    Pang, Chun-Chiu; Scharaschkin, Tanya; Su, Yvonne C F; Saunders, Richard M K


    Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The phenology and pollination ecology of the Australian endemic species Pseuduvaria mulgraveana are studied in detail, including evaluations of floral scent chemistry, pollen viability, and floral visitors. Results showed that the flowers are pollinated by small diurnal nitidulid beetles and are protogynous. Pollen from both hermaphroditic and staminate flowers are shown to be equally viable. The structurally hermaphroditic flowers are nevertheless functionally pistillate as anther dehiscence is delayed until after petal abscission and hence after the departure of pollinators. This mechanism to achieve functional unisexuality of flowers has not previously been reported in angiosperms. It is known that protogyny is widespread amongst early-divergent angiosperms, including the Annonaceae, and is effective in preventing autogamy. Delayed anther dehiscence represents a further elaboration of this, and is effective in preventing geitonogamy since very few sexually mature flowers occur simultaneously in an individual. We highlight the necessity for field-based empirical interpretations of functional floral sex expression prior to evaluations of evolutionary processes.

  13. Early prosocial development across cultures. (United States)

    Callaghan, Tara; Corbit, John


    Human prosociality is ubiquitous, even though it may be manifested differently across cultures. Low cost helping and sharing emerge early in development, and at similar levels, across cultures having vastly different sociocultural niches. Developmental trajectories for costly sharing diverge across cultures around middle childhood, in line with differences in the sociocultural niches that children experience. Cultural developmental research has focussed primarily on the emergence and development of prosocial behaviour, and would benefit from an examination of the interplay between psychological (cognitive, motivational) and sociocultural (norms, developmental niche) foundations over ontogeny. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organelles genome stability of wheat plantlets produced by anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 15, 2012 ... genetic stability of wheat organelles genomes for plantlets produced by anther culture using restriction fragment length polymorphism ... information regarding recombination and genetic control of chromosomal pairing .... DNAMAN™ software (Iynnon Biosoft, Quebec., Canada and. Version 5.2.9) and the ...

  15. Induction of microspore-derived embryos by anther culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five pepper genotypes (A71, A269, A313, A109 and A74) and four different culture media were tested in this study carried out at the University of Çukurova, Turkey. The anthers were cultured at different periods in order to optimize the frequency of embryo production. Moreover, the embryos that were unable to complete ...

  16. Comparison of anther and microspore culture in androgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of broccoli anther and microspore culture methods for doubled haploid (DH) lines production. We evaluated the main influencing factors and optimized the culture methods to improve embryo induction and plant regeneration for efficient doubled haploid production in ...

  17. Cryopreservation and plant regeneration of anther callus in Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Callus induced from anther of Hevea brasiliensis was successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) by vitrification method and subsequently regenerated into plants. The effects of different preculture time, loading and dehydration duration on callus viability after cryopreservation were evaluated. The effective ...

  18. Induction of microspore-derived embryos by anther culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Nov 28, 2011 ... Mersin, Turkey, were examined in the present study. Seeds were planted in plugs containing soil mixture (2 volumes peat: 1 volume perlite). Throughout the growing period, normal horticultural cultivation practices were implemented, while during the flowering period of the plants, every month, anthers were ...

  19. Androgenic potential and anther in vitro culture of Lagenaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Androgenic potential and anther in vitro culture of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl an edible-seed cucurbit. Kouakou Laurent Kouakou, Tra Serge Doubi, Tra Serge Koffi, Kouadio Ignace Kouassi, Tanoh Hilaire Kouakou, Jean-Pierre Baudoin, Irié Arsène Zoro Bi ...

  20. Organelles genome stability of wheat plantlets produced by anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to test the genetic stability of wheat organelles genomes for plantlets produced by anther culture using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. One of the intergenic regions of cpDNA and one of mtDNA introns were amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR ...

  1. Anther culture response in indica rice and variations in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic adjuvants, synthetic plant hormones and diverse carbon sources in influencing anther culture response in five indica rice genotypes (IR 72, Mansarovar, Tarori Basmati, Pusa Basmati and Karnal local 95) were assessed. Androgenic callus induction as well as green plantlet regeneration was more when ...

  2. Identification of the tapetum/microspore-specific promoter of the pathogenesis-related 10 gene and its regulation in the anther of Lilium longiflorum. (United States)

    Hsu, Ssu-Wei; Liu, Ming-Che; Zen, Kuo-Chang; Wang, Co-Shine


    A tapetum/microspore-specific pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene was previously identified in lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) anthers. In situ hybridization and RNA blot analysis indicated that the lily PR10 genes are expressed specifically and differentially in the tapetum of the anther wall and in microspores during anther development. The accumulation of PR10 transcripts was exogenously induced by gibberellic acid (GA) and was suppressed by ethylene. Studies using inhibitors of GA and ethylene revealed that the lily PR10 is modulated by an antagonistic interaction between GA and ethylene. The treatment of norbornadien, an ethylene inhibitor, caused the tapetum to become densely cytoplasmic and highly polarized, whereas uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, arrested tapetal development to a status close to that of control. The expression of the lily PR10g promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis was determined using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene indicated that the decisive fragment required for anther specificity is located -1183 bp to -880 bp upstream of the transcription start site. The PR10gPro::barnase transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility because of the disruption of the tapetum and the deformation of microspore/pollen. The anther specificity of lily PR10 highlights the importance of the tapetum/microspore-specific PR10g promoter for future biotechnological and agricultural applications. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  4. Anther culture properties of oat x wild red oat progenies and a search for RAPD markers associated with anther culture ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A study was carried out to improve anther culture ability of the non-responsive cultivated oat, Avena sativa L. cv. Puhti by introgressing favourable alleles from the responsive wild red oat, Avena sterilis L. acc. CAV 2648. Anther culture ability of these parental lines and F2 progenies of their cross and two backcrosses was tested. Genotype effects were significant on all anther culture traits measured. The number of anther culture derived embryo-like structures was highest in acc. CAV 2648, and the number of green regenerants from the Puhti × CAV 2648 progeny. Anther culture response was greatly reduced in backcross progeny and was least in cv. Puhti. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD was used to test for marker associations with oat anther culture traits in a population of 38 F2 progenies. Two RAPD markers were putatively associated with improved production of green regenerants (one derived from acc. CAV 2648 and the other from cv. Puhti. One marker putatively associated with decreased albino plant regeneration (derived from acc. CAV 2648. These markers might be useful for selecting alleles for better anther culture ability among progeny of planned crosses. In addition, three markers, derived from acc. CAV 2648, were putatively associated with decreased anther culture response rates.;

  5. Orchid mating: the anther steps onto the stigma


    Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian


    In a bisexual flower, the male and female organ of which have a space separation, individing into the pistil and stamen. Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollinati...

  6. A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures. (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B


    This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava.

  7. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica


    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  8. Strategies for Supporting Early Literacy Development (United States)

    Dennis, Lindsay R.; Horn, Eva


    The development of early literacy skills is critical to children's later success in reading and reading-related activities; therefore, understanding how teachers can support early literacy development is equally important. In this article, the authors provide information on how early childhood teachers can use specific strategies and techniques as…

  9. Supporting Mathematical Development in the Early Years (United States)

    Pound, Linda


    This book provides practical guidance for parents, teachers, and other early years workers who want to give children a good start in mathematical development. Showing how competent children are as mathematicians from an early age, the book offers an overview of young children's mathematical behaviour at home and in early years settings. This book…

  10. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi


    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  11. Multiploidy occurrence in tomato calli from anther culture | Julião ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anther culture has long been used for the production of fully homozygous lines in order to produce, mainly, doubled haploid plants, which are of great interest in plant breeding. For tomato, a recalcitrant species for androgenesis production protocols have not been standardized. It is known that the genotype, anther size, the ...

  12. Violence prevention and early childhood development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early ...

  13. Artificial selection on anther exsertion in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum. (United States)

    Conner, Jeffrey K; Mills, Cynthia J; Koelling, Vanessa A; Karoly, Keith


    To study the genetic architecture of anther exsertion, a trait under stabilizing selection in wild radish, artificial selection on anther exsertion was applied for 11 generations. Two replicate lines each of increased and decreased exsertion plus two randomly-mated controls were included. Full pedigree information is available from generation five. To estimate correlated responses to selection, 571 plants from all lines and matrilines were grown in the greenhouse and a number of floral, growth, and phenology traits were measured. To create an outbred F2 mapping population, all possible crosses among the two high and two low exsertion lines were made, using a multiple-family design to capture the genetic variance still present after 11 generations of selection. Six floral traits were measured on 40 parents, 240 F1, and 4,868 F2 offspring. Opportunities for reuse of these data include traits not previously analyzed, other analyses, especially using the pedigree and fitness data, and seeds from all generations and photos of flowers in the later generations are available.

  14. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galli


    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  15. Orchid mating: the anther steps onto the stigma. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian


    In a bisexual flower, the male and female organ of which have a space separation, individing into the pistil and stamen. Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs) flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. The mode of pollination in Paphiopedilum parishii is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid.

  16. Trisomy and early brain development (United States)

    Haydar, Tarik F.; Reeves, Roger H.


    Trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) results in Down syndrome (DS). The finished human genome sequence provides a thorough catalog of the genetic elements whose altered dosage perturbs development and function in DS. However, understanding how small alterations in the steady state transcript levels for <2% of human genes can disrupt development and function of essentially every cell presents a more complicated problem. Mouse models that recapitulate specific aspects of DS have been used to identify changes in brain morphogenesis and function. Here we provide a few examples of how trisomy for specific genes affects the development of the cortex and cerebellum to illustrate how gene dosage effects might contribute to divergence between the trisomic and euploid brains. PMID:22169531

  17. Rozwój warstw ściennych i otwieranie się pylnika u kilku dzikich gatunków ziemniaka (Solarium chacoense Bitt., S. phureja Juz. et Buk., 5. giberulosum Juz. et Buk., S. Commersonii Dun. [The development of the parietal layers and dehiscence of the anthers at some wild potato species (Solanum chacoense Bitt., S. phureja Juz. et Buk., S. giberulosum Juz. et Buk., and S. Commersonii Dun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hausbrandt


    Full Text Available The anthers in these species like in whole genus Solanum are poricidal still some differences have been observed in structure of their anther walls. The fibrous cells associated with dehiscence restricted usually to the area around the pore may form a single layer or may form compact mass often irregular in thickness or it may be lacking at all. Besides the apical pore one can observe a lateral dehiscence. By desintegra-tion of cells a gap is forming in the wall separating the two anther chambers which causes breaking it down. Then stomium like cells in epidermis contribute to the lateral opening.

  18. Early Child Development: A Framework for Collaboration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Mary Eming

    The convergence of knowledge from neuroscience, social science and economics on the importance of early life or experiences on brain development has tremendous implication on the future of societies...

  19. Androgenesis-inducing stress treatments change phytohormone levels in anthers of three legume species (Fabaceae). (United States)

    Lulsdorf, Monika; Yuan, Hai Ying; Slater, Susan; Vandenberg, Albert; Han, Xiumei; Zaharia, L Irina


    Legumes are recalcitrant to androgenesis and induction protocols were only recently developed for pea (Pisum sativum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), albeit with low regeneration frequencies. Androgenesis is thought to be mediated through abscisic acid (ABA) but other phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins, have also been implicated. In view of improving induction protocols, the hormone content of pea, chickpea, and lentil anthers was measured after exposure to cold, centrifugation, electroporation, sonication, osmotic shock, or various combinations thereof using an analytical mass spectrometer. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) had a key function during the induction process. In pea, high concentrations of IAA-asparagine (IAA-Asp), a putative IAA metabolite, accumulated during the application of the different stresses. In chickpea, the IAA-Asp concentration increased 30-fold compared to pea but only during the osmotic shock treatment and likely as a result of the presence of exogenous IAA in the medium. In contrast, no treatment in lentil (Lens culinaris) invoked such an increase in IAA-Asp content. Of the various cytokinins monitored, only cis zeatin riboside increased after centrifugation and electroporation in pea and possibly chickpea. No bioactive gibberellins were detected in any species investigated, indicating that this hormone group is likely not linked to androgenesis in legumes. In contrast to the other stresses, osmotic shock treatment caused a reduction in the levels of all hormones analyzed, with the exception of IAA-Asp in chickpea. A short period of low hormone content might be a necessary transition phase for androgenesis induction of legumes. Five androgenesis-inducing stress treatments changed content of ABA, auxin and cytokinin in anthers of three legumes. Osmotic shock treatment differed because it reduced hormone content to very low levels.

  20. Genetic analysis of anther culture response in maize. (United States)

    Petolino, J F; Thompson, S A


    Response frequencies in maize (Zea mays L.) anthers cultured in vitro were examined in a diallel set of crosses among four commercial inbred lines. Significant differences among the genotypes were observed, with the crosses H99xFR16 and Pa91xFR16 displaying the highest responses. General (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability mean squares were calculated and determined to be highly significant. GCA effects among the parental lines were highest for FR16 and lowest for LH38. Nongenotypic, plant-toplant differences were also found to make a significant contribution to the overall variation observed. The results from this study indicate that parents which give rise to highly responsive hybrids can be identified and that genetic improvement is possible through selection.

  1. Specification of tapetum and microsporocyte cells within the anther. (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Li


    Flowering plants form male reproductive cells (microsporocytes) during sporophytic generation, which subsequently differentiate into multicellular male gametes in the gametophytic generation. The tapetum is a somatic helper tissue neighboring microsporocytes and supporting gametogenesis. The mechanism controlling the specification of the tapetum and microsporocyte cell fate within the anther has long been a mystery in biology. Recent investigations have revealed molecular switches and signaling pathways underlying the establishment of somatic and reproductive cells in plants. In this review we discuss common and diversified signaling molecules and regulatory pathways including receptor-like protein kinases, redox status, glycoprotein, transcription factors, hormones and microRNA implicated in the specification of tapetum and microsporocytes in plants. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard


    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system. The m...... of the early anlagen of the circular body wall muscles does not show the anterior-posterior mode of formation that is typical for annelids, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a non-segmented ancestry of Mollusca....

  3. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update (United States)

    Schiller, Pam


    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  4. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria


    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  5. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences (United States)

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen


    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  6. Mapping the anther culture response genes in maize (Zea mays L.). (United States)

    Beaumont, V H; Rocheford, T R; Widholm, J M


    In order to map the genes conditioning the induction of embryos during our anther culture process, we evaluated F2 plants from three different crosses for their anther culture ability and also performed RFLP analysis on these plants. The results showed that six chromosomal regions appear to be associated with the ability to induce embryo-like structures from maize microspores. These regions are located on chromosomes 1 (two regions), 3, 5, 7, and 8. Some of these chromosomes are identical to those found in previous studies and we have localized the regions more precisely. Notably, all chromosome regions identified, except one, are near viviparous mutant loci. Since the viviparous mutations are known to involve the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), these results suggest that ABA or its antagonist, gibberellic acid (GA3), might somehow be related to anther culture ability. We also propose some combinations of probes to screen for anther culture ability in the three genotypes studied.

  7. Age-dependent and jasmonic acid-induced laticifer-cell differentiation in anther callus cultures of rubber tree. (United States)

    Tan, Deguan; Sun, Xuepiao; Zhang, Jiaming


    Callus cultures of rubber tree may serve as an efficient model to screen and study environmental factors and phytohormones that stimulate laticifer cell differentiation and improve latex yield. The number of laticifer cells in bark is one of the most important factors determining the biosynthesis and economic value of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis). The differentiation of laticifer cells in planta has been characterized, whereas laticifer-cell differentiation in callus cultures in vitro is largely unknown. In this study, we present molecular and physiological evidences for laticifer-cell differentiation in calli derived from rubber tree anthers. RT-PCR analysis showed that three key genes rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP), and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT) that are essential in latex biosynthesis in rubber tree bark also were transcribed in anther calli. Laticifer cell development in callus cultures was age-dependent; the cells began to appear at 58 days after initiation of culture, and the percentage of laticifer cells increased steadily with increasing callus age. Addition of 0-2 mg/L jasmonic acid (JA) to the media significantly promoted the differentiation of laticifer cells in callus cultures. However, JA concentrations higher than 3 mg/L were not optimum for laticifer cells differentiation; this result was not observed in previous in planta studies. Laticifer cells differentiated on media with pH 5.8-7.0, with an optimum of pH 6.2, whereas a higher pH inhibited differentiation. These results indicate that the anther-derived rubber tree callus may serve as a new and more efficient model to study environmental factors that influence laticifer cell differentiation, and may be useful for research on new technologies to improve latex yield, and to screen for commercially useful phytohormones.

  8. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K


    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  9. Early executive function predicts reasoning development. (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R


    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  10. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel


    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on poliomyelitis, benign histoplasmosis, dental caries and certain other diseases. (Davis 1963 .... The skin became sensitive to touch very early. It was ..... parts of the body. The development of the ears, toes, incisors and eyes were studied and response to sound became apparent after about two weeks. Although ...

  12. A Development Systems Model for Early Intervention. (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.


    A rationale for and components of a development systems model are presented to guide early intervention programs. Core principles emphasizing a developmental framework, integration, and inclusion are expressed in the context of a multicomponent interactive system. The model's focus on maximizing family patterns of interaction by addressing…

  13. Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniela De Cesaro


    Full Text Available Oat (Avena spp. is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be identified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.A aveia (Avena spp. tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em geral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das

  14. Temperature stress differentially modulates transcription in meiotic anthers of heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzotti Mario


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in temperature occur naturally during plant growth and reproduction. However, in the hot summers this variation may become stressful and damaging for the molecular mechanisms involved in proper cell growth, impairing thus plant development and particularly fruit-set in many crop plants. Tolerance to such a stress can be achieved by constitutive gene expression or by rapid changes in gene expression, which ultimately leads to protection against thermal damage. We have used cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses to compare the early response of the tomato meiotic anther transcriptome to moderate heat stress conditions (32°C in a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype. In the light of the expected global temperature increases, elucidating such protective mechanisms and identifying candidate tolerance genes can be used to improve breeding strategies for crop tolerance to heat stress. Results The cDNA-AFLP analysis shows that 30 h of moderate heat stress (MHS alter the expression of approximately 1% of the studied transcript-derived fragments in a heat-sensitive genotype. The major effect is gene down-regulation after the first 2 h of stress. The microarray analysis subsequently applied to elucidate early responses of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype, also shows about 1% of the genes having significant changes in expression after the 2 h of stress. The tolerant genotype not only reacts with moderate transcriptomic changes but also exhibits constitutively higher expression levels of genes involved in protection and thermotolerance. Conclusion In contrast to the heat-sensitive genotype, the heat-tolerant genotype exhibits moderate transcriptional changes under moderate heat stress. Moreover, the heat-tolerant genotype also shows a different constitutive gene expression profile compared to the heat-sensitive genotype, indicating genetic differences in adaptation to increased temperatures. In

  15. Early social cognition : development and Influences


    Mink, Daniela


    This dissertation investigated the development of early social-cognitive development in the first three years of life. While for a long time research on Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to attribute mental states as wishes, intentions, and beliefs to self and others, has focused on preschool age, in recent years also earlier social-cognitive development has gained attention. The assumption of continuity in social-cognitive development is one question we considered in the present work. M...

  16. Microbotryum silenes-saxifragae sp. nov. sporulating in the anthers of Silene saxifraga in southern European mountains


    Pi?tek, Marcin; Lutz, Matthias; Kemler, Martin


    Currently, the monophyletic lineage of anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae includes 22 species classified in the genus Microbotryum. They are model organisms studied in many disciplines of fungal biology. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to resolve species boundaries within the caryophyllaceous anther smuts, as species delimitation based solely on phenotypic characters was problematic. Several cryptic species were found amongst the anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae, although some morpholo...

  17. Breastfeeding, parenting, and early cognitive development. (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata


    To explain why breastfeeding is associated with children's cognitive development. By using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of early childhood (N = 7500), we examined how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods, and putting an infant to bed with a bottle were associated with cognitive development across early childhood. We also explored whether this link can be explained by parenting behaviors and maternal education. There is a positive relationship between predominant breastfeeding for 3 months or more and child reading skills, but this link is the result of cognitively supportive parenting behaviors and greater levels of education among women who predominantly breastfed. We found little-to-no relationship between infant feeding practices and the cognitive development of children with less-educated mothers. Instead, reading to a child every day and being sensitive to a child's development were significant predictors of math and reading readiness outcomes. Although breastfeeding has important benefits in other settings, the encouragement of breastfeeding to promote school readiness does not appear to be a key intervention point. Promoting parenting behaviors that improve child cognitive development may be a more effective and direct strategy for practitioners to adopt, especially for disadvantaged children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early development and regression in Rett syndrome. (United States)

    Lee, J Y L; Leonard, H; Piek, J P; Downs, J


    This study utilized developmental profiling to examine symptoms in 14 girls with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome and whose families were participating in the Australian Rett syndrome or InterRett database. Regression was mostly characterized by loss of hand and/or communication skills (13/14) except one girl demonstrated slowing of skill development. Social withdrawal and inconsolable crying often developed simultaneously (9/14), with social withdrawal for shorter duration than inconsolable crying. Previously acquired gross motor skills declined in just over half of the sample (8/14), mostly observed as a loss of balance. Early abnormalities such as vomiting and strabismus were also seen. Our findings provide additional insight into the early clinical profile of Rett syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)


    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  1. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael


    that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...... time. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota....

  2. Heteranthery as a solution to the demand for pollen as food and for pollination - Legitimate flower visitors reject flowers without feeding anthers. (United States)

    Mesquita-Neto, J N; Costa, B K P; Schlindwein, C


    Heteranthery, the presence of feeding and pollinating anthers in the same flower, seems to mediate the evolutionary dilemma for plants to protect their gametes and yet provide food for pollinators. This study aims to elucidate the role of heteranthery in the buzz-pollinated Senna reniformis. The fecundity of pollen from long-, medium- and short-sized anthers was determined by hand cross-pollination experiments, and the quantity, size, ornamentation and viability of pollen of different anthers were compared. Rates of flower rejection by bees were measured in anther removal experiments to assess the preferences of flower visitors for feeding or pollinating anthers. Large bees, which were the effective pollinators of self-incompatible S. reniformis, avoided flowers without short feeding anthers, but not those without medium or long anthers. Illegitimate small and medium-sized bees were unresponsive to anther exclusion experiments. Long anthers deposited pollen on the back and short anthers on the venter of large bees. Pollen from long anthers had higher in vitro viability and higher fruit and seed set after cross-pollination than pollen from other sized anthers. Short anthers produce feeding pollen to effective pollinators and long anthers are related to pollination of S. reniformis. Bee behaviour and size was found to directly influence the role of anthers in the 'division of labour'. Only large bee pollinators that carry the pollinating pollen from long anthers in 'safe sites' associated short anthers with the presence of food. In the absence of these larger bee pollinators, the role of heteranthery in S. reniformis would be strongly compromised and its function would be lost. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  4. Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios.The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination

  5. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-D-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum. (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila


    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms. One isoform, which was previously identified in the tetrad stage, displayed maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the remaining two isoforms, which were novel, were most active at pH 6.0 and 7.3. The corresponding in vivo values ranged from pH 4.75 to 6.0. In contrast, in A. atropurpureum, a sexually propagating species, three callase isoforms, active at pH 4.8-5.2, 6.1, and 7.3, were identified in samples of microsporangia that had released their microspores. The corresponding in vivo value for this plant was 5.9. The callose wall persists around A. sativum meiotic cells, whereas only one callase isoform, with an optimum activity of pH 4.8, is active in the acidic environment of the microsporangium. However, this isoform is degraded when the pH rises to 6.0 and two other callase isoforms, maximally active at pH 6.0 and 7.3, appear. Thus, factors that alter the pH of the microsporangium may indirectly affect the male gametophyte development by modulating the activity of callase and thereby regulating the degradation of the callose wall.

  6. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta


    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported.

  7. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life. (United States)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes


    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  8. Early androgen exposure and human gender development. (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra


    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  9. [Analysis of genetic control of maize response in anther culture within a diallelic set]. (United States)

    Satarova, T N


    The androgenic ability in anther culture in vitro was examined within a diallel set of five maize lines. The complex analysis of genetic variation components, Hayman's diagram, and genetic parameters showed that the anther response is under the control of an additive-dominant genetic system. The examined lines possessed the different correlation of dominant and recessive alleles controlling androgenesis. And 44 was the line with the biggest number of recessive genes, which determined the increase in the trait. The level of dominance varied in different loci, though in the whole the degree of dominance approached to the complete one.

  10. Vegfa Impacts Early Myocardium Development in Zebrafish. (United States)

    Zhu, Diqi; Fang, Yabo; Gao, Kun; Shen, Jie; Zhong, Tao P; Li, Fen


    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach was utilized to study the effect of Vegfa signaling in cardiogenesis. Both morphants and mutants for vegfaa display defects in cardiac looping and chamber formation, especially the ventricle. Vegfa regulates the heart morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardium population is delayed rather than endocardium. The results demonstrate that Vegfa signaling plays a direct impact on myocardium fusion, indicating that it is the initial cause of the heart defects. The heart morphogenesis is regulated by Vegfa in a dose-dependent manner, and later endocardium defects may be secondary to impaired myocardium-endocardium crosstalk.

  11. Vegfa Impacts Early Myocardium Development in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diqi Zhu


    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach was utilized to study the effect of Vegfa signaling in cardiogenesis. Both morphants and mutants for vegfaa display defects in cardiac looping and chamber formation, especially the ventricle. Vegfa regulates the heart morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardium population is delayed rather than endocardium. The results demonstrate that Vegfa signaling plays a direct impact on myocardium fusion, indicating that it is the initial cause of the heart defects. The heart morphogenesis is regulated by Vegfa in a dose-dependent manner, and later endocardium defects may be secondary to impaired myocardium–endocardium crosstalk.

  12. Development of Life on Early Mars (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.


    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  13. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development. (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M


    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women's underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression.

  14. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education and early childhood development. 1304.21... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.21 Education and early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  15. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  16. Communication and community development: early child development programs. (United States)

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J


    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.

  17. Purpose and Character Development in Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Malin, Heather; Liauw, Indrawati; Damon, William


    Character development in adolescence is of growing interest among psychology researchers and educators, yet there is little consensus about how character should be defined and studied among developmental scientists. In particular, there is no fully developed framework for investigating the developmental relationships among different character strengths. This study examines the developmental relations between purpose and three other key character strengths that emerge during early adolescence: gratitude, compassion, and grit. We analyzed survey (n = 1005, 50.1% female, 24.1% Caucasian, 43.6% African American, 18.9% Hispanic, 11.9% Asian American) and interview (n = 98) data from a longitudinal study of character development among middle school students from the United States. Data were collected over the course of 2 years, with surveys conducted four times at 6-month intervals and interviews conducted twice at 12-month intervals. Data analyses showed small but significant correlations between purpose and each of the other three character strengths under investigation. Interview data revealed patterns in ways that adolescents acted on their purposeful aspirations; and interview analyses identified qualitative differences in expressions of gratitude and compassion between adolescents who were fully purposeful and those who were not. The findings suggest that character development can be better understood by investigating the multidirectional developmental relationships among different character strengths.

  18. Microsporogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Autofluorescence of pollen wall of Lilium and changes in pollen wall of Gasteria in Lilium anther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Willemse


    Full Text Available Autafluarescence of the pollen wall of Lilium shows a correlative change with its development. When the pollen of Gasteria is injected into the anther of Lilium, it exhibits almost the same characteristics of wall autofluorescence as those of Lilium. Only the last stages of wall development are dissimilar. During this period the pollenkitt sticks to the pollen wall in Lilium only. The conclusion is that in the exine of Gasteria pollen, in contact with the locular fluid of Lilium, polymerization of Lilium sporapollenin occurs instead of a structural addition to the wall. This polymerization is a continuous process during the entire development.

  19. Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Ovules Is Anther-Dependent at Maturation and Changes Dynamically upon Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Larsson


    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin is a vital component for plant reproduction as it regulates the development of both male and female reproductive organs, including ovules and gynoecia. Furthermore, auxin plays important roles in the development and growth of seeds and fruits. Auxin responses can be detected in ovules shortly after fertilization, and it has been suggested that this accumulation is a prerequisite for the developmental reprogramming of the ovules to seeds, and of the gynoecium to a fruit. However, the roles of auxin at the final stages of ovule development, and the sources of auxin leading to the observed responses in ovules after fertilization have remained elusive. Here we have characterized the auxin readout in Arabidopsis ovules, at the pre-anthesis, anthesis and in the immediate post-fertilization stages, using the R2D2 auxin sensor. In addition we have mapped the expression of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation genes, as well as that of auxin transporting proteins, during the same developmental stages. These analyses reveal specific spatiotemporal patterns of the different auxin homeostasis regulators. Auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin transport proteins define a pre-patterning of vascular cell identity in the pre-anthesis funiculus. Furthermore, our data suggests that auxin efflux from the ovule is restricted in an anther-dependent manner, presumably to synchronize reproductive organ development and thereby optimizing the chances of successful fertilization. Finally, de novo auxin biosynthesis together with reduced auxin conjugation and transport result in an enhanced auxin readout throughout the sporophytic tissues of the ovules soon after fertilization. Together, our results suggest a sophisticated set of regulatory cascades that allow successful fertilization and the subsequent transition of the female reproductive structures into seeds and fruits.

  20. Anther and isolated microspore culture of wheat lines from northwestern and eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, I B; Olesen, A; Hansen, N J P


    Hexaploid wheat genotypes from north-western Europe show low responses to current anther culture techniques. This phenomenon was investigated on 145 north-western European wheat lines. Twenty-seven lines from eastern Europe were included to observe the response pattern of wheat from an area, wher...

  1. Aquaporins of the PIP2 class are required for efficient anther dehiscence in tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, M.L.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Weterings, K.; As, van H.; Mariani, C.


    Several processes during sexual reproduction in higher plants involve the movement of water between cells or tissues. Before flower anthesis, anther and pollen dehydration takes place before the release of mature pollen at dehiscence. Aquaporins represent a class of proteins that mediates the

  2. Microspore embryogenesis in barley: anther pre-treatment stimulates plant defence gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquard, C.; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, F.; Devaux, P.; Boutilier, K.A.


    Microspore embryogenesis (ME) is a process in which the gametophytic pollen programme of the microspore is reorientated towards a new embryo sporophytic programme. This process requires a stress treatment, usually performed in the anther or isolated microspores for several days. Despite the

  3. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number. (United States)

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R


    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Nutrition and brain development in early life. (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G


    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen


    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  6. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L


    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  7. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development. (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine


    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. The emergence of functional architecture during early brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, Kristin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413751953; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J.N.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185214266


    Early human brain development constitutes a sequence of intricate processes resulting in the ontogeny of functionally operative neural circuits. Developmental trajectories of early brain network formation are genetically programmed and can be modified by epigenetic and environmental influences. Such

  9. Oil-collecting bee–flower interaction network: do bee size and anther type influence the use of pollen sources?


    Rabelo, Laíce S.; Vilhena, Alice M. G. F.; Bastos, Esther M. A. F.; Aguiar, Cândida M.L.; Augusto, Solange Cristina


    International audience; AbstractPollination is an ecosystem service sustained by a differentiated use of resources among sympatric species. The bee size can influence the similarity in the use of resources, and poricidal anthers limit the access to pollen. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of body size and the anther type of pollen sources in Centridini–flower interaction network. We expected that the low niche overlap, promoted by these morphological parameters, would result in the forma...

  10. Early Intervention Paraprofessional Standards: Development and Field Validation (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine


    Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…

  11. Microbotryum silenes-saxifragae sp. nov. sporulating in the anthers of Silene saxifraga in southern European mountains. (United States)

    Piątek, Marcin; Lutz, Matthias; Kemler, Martin


    Currently, the monophyletic lineage of anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae includes 22 species classified in the genus Microbotryum. They are model organisms studied in many disciplines of fungal biology. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to resolve species boundaries within the caryophyllaceous anther smuts, as species delimitation based solely on phenotypic characters was problematic. Several cryptic species were found amongst the anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae, although some morphologically distinct species were discernible, and most species were characterized by high host-specificity. In this study, anther smut specimens infecting Silene saxifraga were analysed using rDNA sequences (ITS and LSU) and morphology to resolve their specific status and to discuss their phylogenetic position within the lineage of caryophyllaceous anther smuts. The molecular phylogeny revealed that all specimens form a monophyletic lineage that is supported by the morphological trait of reticulate spores with tuberculate interspaces (observed in certain spores). This lineage cannot be attributed to any of the previously described species, and the anther smut on Silene saxifraga is described and illustrated here as a new species, Microbotryum silenes-saxifragae. This species clusters in a clade that includes Microbotryum species, which infect both closely and distantly related host plants growing in diverse ecological habitats. It appears possible that host shifts combined with changes to ecological host niches drove the evolution of Microbotryum species within this clade.

  12. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly


    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  13. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls


    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  14. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G


    .... Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children...

  15. Early gonad development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 13, 2014 ... reproductive characteristics of early zebrafish gonads are scattered. Oogenesis is typically studied in adult ovary. ..... changes of nuclear structure. One of the ultrastructural characteristics of oocytes at ... meiosis. The process is preceded by DNA replication and begins with the pairing and condensation of ...

  16. Early Developments in Argumentation in Physics. (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    An evaluation of four seventeenth and eighteenth century essays on optics revealed early trends in the evolution of scientific articles. The later articles showed a growing tendency to (1) separate practice from pure knowledge, (2) organize information around problems of knowledge and theory rather than around chronological events, (3) emphasize…

  17. Early Pregnancy Development and Obstetric Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.F. van Oppenraaij


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The following research objectives were defined: 1. To determine an unambiguous Dutch terminology to describe events in early pregnancy (Chapter 1.2) 2. To explore whether determining the due date by the last period is influenced by preference for certain dates,

  18. Microsporogenesis in two types of anther in Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gębura


    Full Text Available Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke belongs to the genus Tinantia (Commelinaceae which is endemic to the tropical region of Central America. This species has adapted to the conditions in the greenhouse (Botanic Garden in Lublin, Poland (Faden 2006. We studied T. anomala due to the occurrence of two types of strikingly different stamens in one flower. During the investigations of T. anomala, we compared the morphology and anatomy of two types of stamens. In T. anomala’s flower six stamens are present. Three of them are located above the pistil and other three are located under the ovary near the stigma (Simpson et al. 1986. The upper stamens have round anthers, short filaments and many long brightly colored staminal hairs. The lower stamens are bigger with longitudinal anthers and alongated filaments. The last ones have only short, violet staminal hairs growing at the base of their filaments. Stamens of one type differ also with each other in size and shape of individual elements. The viability tests showed that during the microsporogenesis both types of anther produced viable pollen grains in 80%. This process differs in two types of anther because of the various chemical composition of tapetum. The pollen grains from the two types of stamen in T. anomala also differ in their texture, shape, exine pattern and chemical composition. The upper stamens produce grains with a concave triangular profile, while pollen grains from the lower stamens are smaller and exhibit convex triangular profile. Both types of pollen grains has three pores.

  19. The Anther Steps onto the Stigma for Self-Fertilization in a Slipper Orchid


    Li-Jun Chen; Ke-Wei Liu; Xin-Ju Xiao; Wen-Chieh Tsai; Yu-Yun Hsiao; Jie Huang; Zhong-Jian Liu


    BACKGROUND: Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly) to transport the pollen grains from t...

  20. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz


    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  1. The anther steps onto the stigma for self-fertilization in a slipper orchid. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Ke-Wei; Xiao, Xin-Ju; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Jie; Liu, Zhong-Jian


    Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly) to transport the pollen grains from the anther onto its own stigma. Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new self-pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs) flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. The mode of self-pollination discussed here is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present self-contained pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid.

  2. The anther steps onto the stigma for self-fertilization in a slipper orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly to transport the pollen grains from the anther onto its own stigma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new self-pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. CONCLUSIONS: The mode of self-pollination discussed here is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present self-contained pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid.

  3. The effect of genotype on anther culture response of cultivated and wild oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Anther culture ability was tested for 44 oat (Avena sativa L., six naked oat (A. sativa L., naked type and 15 wild oat (Avena sterilis L. genotypes, in addition to progeny of five intraspecific crosses of A. sativa and two interspecific crosses of A. sativa x A. sterilis. Anther culture response was affected considerably by genotype. Thirty one oat genotypes responded by callus growth on induction medium and seven of them produced embryo structures, two of the lines consistently. All naked oat genotypes produced embryo structures. Embryo production rates for the wild oat lines were comparable with those for the naked oat genotypes, and higher than for oat: 13 of the 15 genotypes tested produced embryo structures. Plant regeneration was possible only from wild oat. The regeneration ability was inherited in the progeny of the A. sativa x A. sterilis cross cv. Puhti x CAV 2648. The response of anthers of oat genotypes was inhibited by auxin on the induction medium, while naked oat, wild oat and A. sativa x A. sterilis crosses responded better on a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid .;

  4. Structural Analysis of Reproductive Development in Staminate Flowers of Laurus nobilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AYTÜRK


    Full Text Available Male (staminat flower development, being separated in 8 phases, was investigated in Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae through the usage of histological sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Flower development starts when apical meristem differentiates, followed by the conversion of this structure to floral meristem. Initial development phases comprise incidents similar to the ones of the female flower. 4 tepals and 8-10 stamens primordia develop through floral meristem in turn. In early stages of the development, sexual dimorphism occurs when the carpel primordium arrests. Filaments carry 2 nectaries in stamens which arise in 3 whorls. Anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, 2 or 3 middle layers and a single-layered glandular tapetum. Anthers are bisporangiate. Meiotic division is regular in pollen mother cells, and pollen grains do not contain aperture. Beside the pollen scattered individually within the pollen sacs, groups which contain some pollen tied to each other are rarely observed, as well. Pollen grains seldom germinate within microsporangium. Anthers are opened with 2 valves which widen from the base through the top. Accumulation of polysaccharides, lipids and proteins were identified by histochemical methods in stamens. These organic substances are greater within and around the vascular bundle compared to other tissues.

  5. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention (United States)

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla


    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  6. Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling (United States)

    Ding, Cody


    There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

  7. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum


    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  8. History and early development of INCAP. (United States)

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S


    Nevin Scrimshaw was the founding Director of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), serving as Director from 1949 to 1961. In this article, he reviews the history of the founding of INCAP, including the role of the Rockefeller and Kellogg Foundations, the Central American governments, and the Pan American Health Organization. The objectives pursued by INCAP in its early years were to assess the nutrition and related health problems of Central America, to carry out research to find practical solutions to these problems, and to provide technical assistance to its member countries to implement solutions. INCAP pursued a strategy of selecting promising Central Americans for advanced education and training in the US who assumed positions of leadership on their return. After this early phase, talented non-Central Americans of diverse origins were brought to INCAP, as well as additional researchers from the region. Growth of INCAP, as reflected in its annual budget and in the physical plant, was rapid and this was accompanied by high scientific productivity. Several field studies were launched that contributed impetus and design elements for the Oriente Longitudinal Study, which is the focus of this supplement.

  9. Comparative transcriptomics of early dipteran development (United States)


    Background Modern sequencing technologies have massively increased the amount of data available for comparative genomics. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a powerful basis for comparative studies. In particular, this approach holds great promise for emerging model species in fields such as evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Results We have sequenced early embryonic transcriptomes of two non-drosophilid dipteran species: the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, and the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. Our analysis includes a third, published, transcriptome for the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus. These emerging models for comparative developmental studies close an important phylogenetic gap between Drosophila melanogaster and other insect model systems. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of early embryonic transcriptomes across species, and use our data for a phylogenomic re-evaluation of dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Conclusions We show how comparative transcriptomics can be used to create useful resources for evo-devo, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Our results demonstrate that de novo assembly of short (Illumina) reads yields high-quality, high-coverage transcriptomic data sets. We use these data to investigate deep dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Our results, based on a concatenation of 160 orthologous genes, provide support for the traditional view of Clogmia being the sister group of Brachycera (Megaselia, Episyrphus, Drosophila), rather than that of Culicomorpha (which includes mosquitoes and blackflies). PMID:23432914

  10. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning (United States)

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari


    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  11. Early development of artificially spawned southern mullet,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 2, 1988 ... The embryonic development of artificially spawned southern mullet, Liza richardsonii, eggs and the development of the larvae to 46 days are described and illustrated using drawings and photographs. The floating eggs hatched in sea water at 18-24°C after 46-60 h. Newly stripped eggs usually had more ...

  12. Early influences on cardiovascular and renal development. (United States)

    Geelhoed, J J Miranda; Jaddoe, Vincent W V


    The hypothesis that a developmental component plays a role in subsequent disease initially arose from epidemiological studies relating birth size to both risk factors for cardiovascular disease and actual cardiovascular disease prevalence in later life. The findings that small size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease have led to concerns about the effect size and the causality of the associations. However, recent studies have overcome most methodological flaws and suggested small effect sizes for these associations for the individual, but an potential important effect size on a population level. Various mechanisms underlying these associations have been hypothesized, including fetal undernutrition, genetic susceptibility and postnatal accelerated growth. The specific adverse exposures in fetal and early postnatal life leading to cardiovascular disease in adult life are not yet fully understood. Current studies suggest that both environmental and genetic factors in various periods of life may underlie the complex associations of fetal growth retardation and low birth weight with cardiovascular disease in later life. To estimate the population effect size and to identify the underlying mechanisms, well-designed epidemiological studies are needed. This review is focused on specific adverse fetal exposures, cardiovascular adaptations and perspectives for new studies.

  13. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity (United States)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of /micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from /1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in /micro-g compared to those developing on earth.

  14. Framing Early Childhood Development: Strategic Communications and Public Preferences (United States)

    Gilliam, Franklin D.; Bales, Susan Nall


    This brief focuses on the potential role that strategic communications can play in helping state (Maternal Child Health) MCH programs and their collaborating partners frame their message to enhance the public's understanding of the importance of early child development and the need for a comprehensive and integrated early childhood system. The…

  15. The Status of Early Childhood Care and Development in Aboadze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the unavailability of facilities to promote quality childhood care, government's and community's poor involvement in preschool education and lack of training of the. Kindergarten teachers. Keywords: Early Childhood Care and Development, Early Childhood Care Education, Pre-School. International Journal of Educational ...

  16. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.


    OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  17. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood (United States)

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.


    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  18. development of an epidemic early warning system in Mpwapwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to develop an early warning system in Mpwapwa district of central Tanzania. Retrospective epidemiological and ... Key words: malaria, epidemics, surveillance, early warning system, Tanzania. Introduction Muheza, Lushoto, Babati, ..... used to provide both alert and action lines. These kinds of charts have been tested and ...

  19. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development (United States)

    Messonnier, Nancy


    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  20. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression (United States)

    Fung, Annis L. C.


    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  1. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.


    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  2. Global health and development in early childhood. (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E; Yousafzai, Aisha K


    Health and nutritional risks co-occur in the lives of children under the age of 2 years who live in developing countries. We review evidence showing how these risks, in addition to inadequate psychosocial stimulation, prevent children from developing expected cognitive and language abilities. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 interventions aimed at enhancing stimulation and 18 interventions that provided better nutrition--all conducted since 2000--revealed that stimulation had a medium effect size of 0.42 and 0.47 on cognitive and language development, respectively, whereas nutrition by itself had a small effect size of 0.09. The implementation processes of these interventions are described and compared. A number of unresolved issues are outlined and discussed, including ways to maximize parental health behavior change, assess mediators that account for intervention effects, and expand the assessment of young children's brain functions that underlie language and cognition and are affected by nutrition and stimulation.

  3. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field. (United States)

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne


    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Early developments in solar cooling equipment (United States)

    Price, J. M.


    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  5. Early development of the costovertebral joints. (United States)

    Chen, Po-Jung; Wozniak, Witold


    Researches on the development of the vertebral column were focused mainly on the growth of lumbar and cervical regions. However, none of them were related to the development of costovertebral joints. To our knowledge, the relationship between ribs and thoracic vertebrae has never been addressed. The aims of the presented study are: (1) to trace the formation of processes of vertebral arches and articular surfaces of the vertebral bodies, and (2) to trace the development of the ribs, particularly their joint surfaces. Study subjects are staged human embryos (from the 5th week) from the collection of the Department of Anatomy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poland. Serial sections were stained according to methods allowed for tracing the development of investigated structures. The primordia of costovertebral joints are interzones from which differentiate all structures of synovial joints such as joint surfaces, capsule and cavity. Based on the result of this study, these interzones appeared in the embryonic stages 17 and 18 with approximately 40 to 42 postfertilizational days, and the cavitation within the interzone was observed in some embryos from stage 19 with approximately postfertilizational 44 days.

  6. Penicillin: its discovery and early development. (United States)

    Ligon, B Lee


    In August 1928, Alexander Fleming returned from a vacation to his usually messy, disordered laboratory. In one of the Petri dishes that had not been touched by the Lysol, he noticed an unusual phenomenon: separate colonies of staphylococci and, near the dish's edge, a colony of mold approximately 20 mm in diameter. The finding proved to be a watershed in the history of medicine. This discovery lay dormant for some time before other researchers took up the challenge to investigate its clinical possibilities. Two investigators at Oxford, Sir Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, brought penicillin's potential for medical use to fruition and, along with Fleming, shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The discovery and development of penicillin represent one of the most important developments in the annals of medical history. This article presents a brief overview of the events that occurred in the progress from discovery to implementation as a therapeutic agent.

  7. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential. (United States)

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin


    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Early Development of Children with Sex Chromosome Aberrations. (United States)

    Haka-Ilse, Katerina; And Others


    Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. A prospective study was made of the early development of 42 children with sex chromosome aberrations. (Author)

  9. Sources of inequality in South African early child development services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carol Aubrey


    This article seeks to examine critically South African early child development (ECD) in order to uncover some of the challenges that lie ahead in creating a more equitable future for its youngest children...

  10. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development. (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise


    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.


    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  12. Variation of Callus Induction Through Anther Culture in Water Chestnut (Trapa sp.)


    Hoque, Aminul; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Alam, Shamiul


    Effects of culture media and genotypes of water chestnut (Trapa sp.) on the frequency of callus induction from anther culture were investigated. Results revealed that the N6 media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA, 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.1 mg/l GA3 were suitable for callus induction. Callus yielded poorly in MS-containing media compared to that of N6 media. No callus was induced on 2, 4-D containing media. Among the tested 18 genotypes, only 15 genotypes produced calli.

  13. Assessment of early child development: what, why, and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Brajović


    Full Text Available Motor skills, language, social and personal development as well as cognitive abilities are often the focus of early child development assessment and monitoring. The article presents some of the developmental milestones in these areas of child development. At the same time the article demonstrates that early child development assessment surpasses merely the orientation acording to developmental milestones. As a part of primary health prevention in Slovenia, identification of children with potential developmental delays is performed with the Denver developmental screening test II and the Systematical psychological examination of the three-year-old procedure. The purpose of applying developmental screening tests is early identification of children with developmental problems, as well as preparation of effective early interventions. By applying an appropriate psychological test material, a psychologist is able to assess the type and the stage of child' s psychological problems and delays in different developmental domains. Only psychometrically sound, and standardized tests should be applied in the process of early child development assessment. The work presents some of the practical and theoretical difficulties which practitioners are facing in the process of early child development assessment. Some feasible solutions are provided as well.

  14. Page 1 Figs, 12-27. Fig. 12, Cross-section of anther, X200. Figs. 13 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figs, 12-27. Fig. 12, Cross-section of anther, X200. Figs. 13-15. A part of anther icte, x1,620. Figs. 16-18. Pollen grains, x2,125. Fig. 19. Archesporial cell, X2,125. Fig. 20. Megaspore mother cell, X2,125. Figs. 21-22. Tetrads, X2,125. Fig. 23. Functional nega- spore, X2,125. Fig. 24. Four-nucleate embryo-sac, X2,125. Fig. 25.

  15. Early origins of allergic disease: a review of processes and influences during early immune development. (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L


    With the disturbing increase in allergic disease, there is a pressing need to determine the causes, pathogenesis and safe avenues for disease prevention. Although events in early life appear important, no causal pathways have been identified. This review examines new developments in the area of foetal and early postnatal immune maturation. It secondly addresses early predisposing influences and protective factors that may have a future role in allergy prevention. New developments in the understanding of the ontogeny of allergen-specific immune responses in atopic infants are discussed, including the role of early type 1 and 2 immune responses, and how these are influenced by perinatal antigen presenting cell and T-cell immaturity. The controversial role of early dietary exposures including breastfeeding, food allergens, hydrolyzed formulae and other dietary factors including omega-3 fatty acids are discussed in the context of the most recent literature. Equally contentious, the role of early house dust and pet allergen exposure is discussed in light of new epidemiological studies and disappointing early results of multicentre allergen avoidance studies. Finally, a number of studies in animals and humans suggest that bacterial products can influence early immune development, providing a new potential therapeutic avenue for disease treatment and prevention. Complex multifactorial genetic and environmental interactions make research in this area difficult and apparent associations with allergic disease may not be causal in nature. Many current targets for prevention, such as early allergen exposure and infant feeding practices, are proving to be ineffective and may not be directly implicated in rising rates of disease.

  16. The Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale: A Validation Study. (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Ma, Kitty; Becher, Yvonne; Lee, Diana; Lau, Carrie; Zhang, Li; Chow, Chun Bong; Ip, Patrick


    This paper reports on the development and validation of the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale (HKECDS), a holistic measure of child development designed specifically for preschool children in Hong Kong. Scale development was an iterative process and the first version of the scale contained 190 items whereas the final version includes only 95. Children ranging in age from three to six years were administered trial versions of the HKECDS in Studies 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 240). Item analyses indicated that it is a developmental scale and that it has an appropriate level of difficulty for preschool children. It also discriminates between three- to six-year-olds from different social backgrounds in Hong Kong. The final version of the HKECDS includes items from the following eight subscales: Personal, Social and Self-Care (7 items), Language Development (13 items), Pre-academic Learning (27 items), Cognitive Development (10 items), Gross Motor (12 items), Fine Motor (9 items), Physical Fitness, Health and Safety (7 items), and Self and Society (10 items). The HKECDS is the first early child development scale which considers both the holistic development of preschool children and incorporates current expectations of early child development in Hong Kong. In this era of evidence-based decision making, it can be used to evaluate both the efficacy of targeted interventions and broader child-related public policies on early child development in Hong Kong.

  17. Early life origins of psychological development and mental health. (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina


    According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.

  18. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions. (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G


    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.


    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  20. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood. (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  1. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development (United States)

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage


    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  2. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...

  3. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne


    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  4. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.


    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  5. Development of Early Measures of Comprehension: Innovation in Individual Growth and Development Indicators (United States)

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Rodriguez, Megan I.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.


    Early comprehension is an important, but not well-understood, contribution to early literacy and language development. Specifically, research regarding the nature of skills representative of early comprehension, including how they contribute to later reading success, is needed to support best practices to adequately prepare students. This article…

  6. Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. (United States)

    Walker, Susan P; Wachs, Theodore D; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Black, Maureen M; Nelson, Charles A; Huffman, Sandra L; Baker-Henningham, Helen; Chang, Susan M; Hamadani, Jena D; Lozoff, Betsy; Gardner, Julie M Meeks; Powell, Christine A; Rahman, Atif; Richter, Linda


    Inequality between and within populations has origins in adverse early experiences. Developmental neuroscience shows how early biological and psychosocial experiences affect brain development. We previously identified inadequate cognitive stimulation, stunting, iodine deficiency, and iron-deficiency anaemia as key risks that prevent millions of young children from attaining their developmental potential. Recent research emphasises the importance of these risks, strengthens the evidence for other risk factors including intrauterine growth restriction, malaria, lead exposure, HIV infection, maternal depression, institutionalisation, and exposure to societal violence, and identifies protective factors such as breastfeeding and maternal education. Evidence on risks resulting from prenatal maternal nutrition, maternal stress, and families affected with HIV is emerging. Interventions are urgently needed to reduce children's risk exposure and to promote development in affected children. Our goal is to provide information to help the setting of priorities for early child development programmes and policies to benefit the world's poorest children and reduce persistent inequalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian


    are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were...... asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early......Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who...

  8. On the evolution of early development in the Nematoda.


    Goldstein, B.


    The phylum Nematoda serves as an excellent model system for exploring how development evolves, using a comparative approach to developmental genetics. More than 100 laboratories are studying developmental mechanisms in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and many of the methods that have been developed for C. elegans can be applied to other nematodes. This review summarizes what is known so far about steps in early development that have evolved in the nematodes, and proposes potential experi...

  9. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini


    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  10. Anther-stigma separation is associated with inbreeding depression in Datura stramonium, a predominantly self-fertilizing annual. (United States)

    Stone, Judy L; Motten, Alexander F


    Genetically based variation in outcrossing rate generates lineages within populations that differ in their history of inbreeding. According to some models, mating-system modifiers in such populations will demonstrate both linkage and identity disequilibrium with fitness loci, resulting in lineage-specific inbreeding depression. Other models assert that differences among families in levels of inbreeding depression are mainly attributable to random accumulation of genetic load, unrelated to variation at mating-system loci. We measured female reproductive success of selfed and outcrossed progeny from naturally occurring lineages of Datura stramonium, a predominantly self-fertilizing annual weed that has heritable variation in stigma-anther separation, a trait that influences selfing rates. Progeny from inbred lineages (as identified by high degree of anther-stigma overlap) showed equal levels of seed production, regardless of cross type. Progeny from mixed lineages (as identified by relatively high separation between anthers and stigma) showed moderate levels of inbreeding depression. We found a significant correlation between anther-stigma separation and relative fitness of selfed and outcrossed progeny, suggesting that family-level inbreeding depression may be related to differences among lineages in inbreeding history in this population. Negative inbreeding depression in putatively inbred lineages may be due in part to additive effects or to epistatic interactions among loci.

  11. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower (United States)

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  12. Risk factors for early metachronous tumor development after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yong Park

    Full Text Available Metachronous gastric tumor (MGT is one of major concerns after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD for early gastric cancer (EGC. Optimal follow-up strategy has not been yet well-established. The aim of this study was to identify the different clinical features of the patients according to the time interval to development of MGT.Among 1,780 consecutive patients with EGC who underwent ESD between 2005 and 2014, 115 patients with MGT were retrospectively reviewed. MGT was defined as secondary gastric cancer or dysplasia detected > 1 year after initial ESD. Clinicopathological factors associated with early development of MGT were evaluated.The median interval to development of MGT was 37 months. In univariate analysis, the median interval to MGT was shorter if EGC lesion was non-elevated type (39.4 vs 57.0 months, p = 0.011, or synchronous primary lesion was absent (39.8 vs 51.4 months, p = 0.050. In multivariate Cox's proportional hazards analysis, the hazard ratios for early occurrence of MGT were 1.966 (95% CI: 1.141-3.386, p = 0.015 and 1.911 (95% CI: 1.163-3.141, p = 0.011, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival after diagnosis of MGT between the early occurrence group and the late occurrence group.Non-elevated gross type and absence of synchronous gastric tumor were independent risk factors for early development of MGT. Meticulous endoscopic inspection is especially important for the detection of MGT during the early follow-up period in patients with these initial tumor characteristics.

  13. Does preterm period sleep development predict early childhood growth trajectories? (United States)

    Winkler, M R; Park, J; Pan, W; Brandon, D H; Scher, M; Holditch-Davis, D


    The current study examined the relationship between sleep state development across the preterm and early post-term periods and subsequent growth trajectories from 1 to 27 months corrected age. Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively from 111 preterm infants (⩽34 weeks gestation) who participated in a multi-site longitudinal study. Separate longitudinal parallel process models were calculated for each sleep state (active and quiet sleep) and growth (weight, length and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores) variable to estimate the associations between their developmental trajectories. Significant associations were identified between the trajectories of quiet sleep and weight, active sleep and weight, quiet sleep and BMI, and active sleep and BMI. No statistically meaningful associations were identified between the trajectories of early childhood length and the preterm sleep states. Faster preterm period sleep development appears to predict more favorable early childhood growth trajectories, particularly for weight, indicating preterm sleep may be an important biomarker for subsequent growth outcomes.

  14. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching (United States)

    Amendum, Steven J.


    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  15. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina


    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  16. Developing Teacher Understanding of Early Algebraic Concepts Using Lesson Study (United States)

    Hunter, Jodie


    This paper reports on the use of lesson study as a professional development tool. In particular the paper focuses on the way in which the teachers increased their understanding of how tasks, classroom activity and teacher actions scaffolded student learning of early algebraic reasoning of equivalence and the commutative principle. Teacher voice is…

  17. Modern developments in early weaning of pigs | Bellis | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Modern developments in early weaning of pigs.

  18. Awareness of Pattern and Structure in Early Mathematical Development (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Mitchelmore, Michael


    Recent educational research has turned increasing attention to the structural development of young students' mathematical thinking. Early algebra, multiplicative reasoning, and spatial structuring are three areas central to this research. There is increasing evidence that an awareness of mathematical structure is crucial to mathematical competence…

  19. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.


    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  20. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan (United States)

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah


    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  1. Note on artificial fertilization and early development of Synodontis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Note on artificial fertilization and early development of Synodontis nigromaculatus (Pisces: Mochokidae). B.C.W. van der Waal. Abstract. Eggs obtained from β wild gravid spotted squeaker (Synodontis nigromaculatus Boulenger, 1905) were (entitled and incubated in plastic containers. Eggs are non-sticky, negatively ...

  2. Effects of early starvation on the development and survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots) has been identified as a crustacean species with great culture potential. The effects of starvation on development and survival of early larval stages of the African river prawn M. vollenhovenii were investigated. As an aspect of the ongoing effort to determine the culturability of the ...

  3. Home-School Communication in the Early Childhood Development Phase (United States)

    Bridgemohan, Radhike; van Wyk, Noleen; van Staden, Christie


    This article examines the practices of home-school communication in the Early Childhood Development (ECD) phase in South Africa. The aims of this qualitative investigation were to determine the nature and effectiveness of home-school communication practices and to make recommendations on how communication can be improved to facilitate better…

  4. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  5. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger


    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  6. Technology and Early Childhood Professional Development: A Policy Discussion. (United States)

    McMaken, Jessica; Kauerz, Kristie; DeCesare, Dale; Hale, Genevieve

    In July 2002, Knowledge Works Foundation and the Education Commission of the States assembled key stakeholders to focus on the policy opportunities, needs, and challenges of utilizing technology for coordinated early childhood professional development across the nation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions held at the meeting…

  7. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.


    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  8. Child care center staff composition and early child development


    Drange, Nina; Rønning, Marte


    We estimate effects of child care center staff composition on early child development. During the years our data covers, child care centers in Oslo were oversubscribed, and child care slots were allocated through a lottery. This allow us to explore how staff education, experience and stability, as well as proportion of male and immigrant staff, affect the cognitive development of children whose parents initially applied for the same center(s), but where children got offers from di...

  9. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus


    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  10. Evolutionary origins and early development of number processing

    CERN Document Server

    Geary, David C; Mann Koepke, Kathleen


    The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition.The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant

  11. Genetic and epigenetic control of early mouse development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Mareike; Peters, Antoine H F M


    , exceedingly more efficient than in reproductive cloning or in transcription factor-based reprogramming. Understanding the molecular mechanisms directing acquisition of totipotency during early embryogenesis may enable optimization of protocols for induced reprogramming. Recent studies in mouse embryonic stem...... and primitive endoderm) is controlled by transcription factors that are regulated by autoactivating and reciprocal repressive mechanisms as well as by ERK-mediated signaling. Chromatin-based regulatory mechanisms also contribute to the identity of ESCs and early embryos. During gametogenesis, genomes undergo...... extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This may underlie the efficient acquisition of totipotency during subsequent preimplantation development....

  12. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri


    Full Text Available Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation, can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction.

  13. Biometrical characteristics of R2 generation of anther-derived pepper (Capsicum spp. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kisiała


    Full Text Available Eight anther-derived DH lines of pepper hybrids: two red-fruited (AP14, AP15 and two yellow lines (AP25 and AP32 of C. annuum (ATZ1 × POF2, two lines of (C. frutescens × C. annuumF1 (FA1, FA2, and two of (C. frutescens × C. chinenseF1 (FCH2, FCH3, were studied regarding important morphological plant and fruit characters. C. annuum breeding line 'ATZ1' was used as a standard. The following traits were evaluated: total fruit yield, fruit weight, weight of placenta with seeds, technological matter, pericarp thickness, extract content, dry matter content, weight and number of seeds per fruit. The level of homogeneity within the DH lines was analysed with a one-way analysis of variance, additionally the values of coefficient of variation (CV were determined for the tested plant characters. The highest phenotypic uniformity was noted for the red-fruited lines obtained from anthers of (ATZ1 × POF2 and for the DH lines of (C. frutescens × C. annuum F1, while the least uniform were FCH2 and FCH3 lines of (C. frutescens × C. chinenseF1. The DH lines AP14 and AP15, as well as FA1 and FA2 were phenotype homogeneous in respect of weight of fruit, technological matter, pericarp thickness and extract content. For these parameters, also the values of CV were the lowest. Statistically significant interline polymorphism between the androgenic lines of the same origin was detected among the lines of C. annuum (ATZ1 × POF2.

  14. Evaluation of early stimulation programs for enhancing brain development. (United States)

    Bonnier, Christine


    The term 'early intervention' designates educational and neuroprotection strategies aimed at enhancing brain development. Early educational strategies seek to take advantage of cerebral plasticity. Neuroprotection, a term initially used to characterize substances capable of preventing cell death, now encompasses all interventions that promote normal development and prevent disabilities, including organisational, therapeutic and environment-modifying measures, such as early stimulation programs. Early stimulation programs were first devised in the United States for vulnerable children in low-income families; positive effects were recorded regarding school failure rates and social problems. Programs have also been implemented in several countries for premature infants and low-birth-weight infants, who are at high risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The programs target the child, the parents or both. The best evaluated programs are the NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) in Sweden for babiesneonatal intensive care units and the longitudinal multisite program IHDP (Infant Health and Development Program) created in the United States for infantsstimulation improved cognitive outcomes and child-parent interactions; cognition showed greater improvements than motor skills and larger benefits were obtained in families that combined several risk factors including low education attainment by the mothers.

  15. Gene expression changes and early events in cotton fibre development. (United States)

    Lee, Jinsuk J; Woodward, Andrew W; Chen, Z Jeffrey


    Cotton is the dominant source of natural textile fibre and a significant oil crop. Cotton fibres, produced by certain species in the genus Gossypium, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fibre development is delineated into four distinct and overlapping developmental stages: fibre initiation, elongation, secondary wall biosynthesis and maturation. Recent advances in gene expression studies are beginning to provide new insights into a better understanding of early events in cotton fibre development. Fibre cell development is a complex process involving many pathways, including various signal transduction and transcriptional regulation components. Several analyses using expressed sequence tags and microarray have identified transcripts that preferentially accumulate during fibre development. These studies, as well as complementation and overexpression experiments using cotton genes in arabidopsis and tobacco, indicate some similar molecular events between trichome development from the leaf epidermis and fibre development from the ovule epidermis. Specifically, MYB transcription factors regulate leaf trichome development in arabidopsis and may regulate seed trichome development in cotton. In addition, transcript profiling and ovule culture experiments both indicate that several phytohormones and other signalling pathways mediate cotton fibre development. Auxin and gibberellins promote early stages of fibre initiation; ethylene- and brassinosteroid-related genes are up-regulated during the fibre elongation phase; and genes associated with calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins are up-regulated in fibre initials. Additional genomic data, mutant and functional analyses, and genome mapping studies promise to reveal the critical factors mediating cotton fibre cell development.

  16. Early motor development, early visual attention and functional outcome in children : insights into functional brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit


    In this thesis, we investigated development of motor behavior and visual attention in the first six months of life, in relation to risk factors for an adverse development and in relation to functional outcome of the children later in life. We investigated variability in motor behavior by assessing

  17. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning. (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J


    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  18. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants. (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila


    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  19. Early exposure to maternal voice: effects on preterm infants development. (United States)

    Picciolini, Odoardo; Porro, Matteo; Meazza, Anna; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Rivoli, Chiara; Lucco, Giovanna; Barretta, Francesco; Bonzini, Matteo; Mosca, Fabio


    Preterm infants complete their development in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit being exposed to environmental stimuli that lead to the early maturation of the sensory systems. It is known that the fetus perceives sounds and reacts to them with movements since the 26th-28th week of gestational age. Maternal voice represents a source of sensory stimulation for the fetus. To investigate the effect of the exposure to maternal voice, administered by bone conduction, on preterm infants autonomic and neurobehavioral development. Longitudinal, explorative, case control study. 71 preterm infants with birth weight Early exposure to maternal voice exerts a beneficial effect on preterm infants autonomic and neurobehavioral development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Early development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. (United States)

    Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Vanholme, Bartel; Vangestel, Sandra; Kane, Saben M; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Pha, Khavong; Garcia, Miguel; Snider, Alyssa; Gheysen, Godelieve


    Detailed descriptions of the early development of parasitic nematodes are seldom available. The embryonic development of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita was studied, focusing on the early events. A fixed pattern of repeated cell cleavages was observed, resulting in the appearance of the six founder cells 3 days after the first cell division. Gastrulation, characterized by the translocation of cells from the ventral side to the center of the embryo, was seen 1 day later. Approximately 10 days after the first cell division a rapidly elongating two-fold stage was reached. The fully developed second stage juvenile hatched approximately 21 days after the first cell division. When compared to the development of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the development of M. incognita occurs approximately 35 times more slowly. Furthermore, M. incognita differs from C. elegans in the order of cell divisions, and the early cleavage patterns of the germ line cells. However, cytoplasmic ruffling and nuclear migration prior to the first cell division as well as the localization of microtubules are similar between C. elegans and M. incognita.

  1. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement. (United States)

    Jackson, Margot I


    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives. (United States)

    Del Giudice, M


    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  3. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents. (United States)

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D


    Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

  4. The Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ): a parental report measure of early motor development. (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Landa, Rebecca J


    Children's early motor skills are critical for development across language, social, and cognitive domains, and warrant close examination. However, examiner-administered motor assessments are time consuming and expensive. Parent-report questionnaires offer an efficient alternative, but validity of parent report is unclear and only few motor questionnaires exist. In this report, we use cross-sectional and longitudinal data to investigate the validity of parent report in comparison to two examiner-administered measures (Mullen Scales of Early Learning, MSEL; Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, PDMS-2), and introduce a new parent-report measure called the Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ). Results indicate strong correlations between parent report on the EMQ and a child's age, robust concurrent and predictive validity of parent report with both the MSEL and PDMS-2, and good test-retest reliability of parent report on the EMQ. Together, our findings support the conclusion that parents provide dependable accounts of early motor and cognitive development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans. (United States)

    Tremblay, Richard E


    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  6. Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy. (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H; Kushnerenko, Elena


    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study]. (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria


    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bonnier


    Full Text Available We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development.

  9. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children. (United States)

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico


    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  10. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.


    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  11. Early development of selenium-induced cataract: slit lamp evaluation. (United States)

    Shearer, T R; Anderson, R S; Britton, J L; Palmer, E A


    The purpose of our research was to document early lenticular changes preceding cataract formation in rats receiving an elevated dose of selenium. The following stages were observed after selenium injection: Stage 1 (13-24 hr post-injection), formation of posterior equatorial subcapsular cataract (PESC); Stage 2 (24-72 hr), decline of the PESC, development of a prominent 'washer' shaped change in the refraction of the cortex, and first appearance of swollen fibers around the nucleus; Stage 3 (three to five days), appearance of bilateral dense central nuclear cataracts and further development of perinuclear swollen fibers; Stage 4 (five to 10 days), some nuclear cataracts became more opaque and/or angular. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the initial site of action of selenium in nuclear cataract formation is not in the lens nucleus. Rather, selenium causes early changes outside the nucleus, which are followed by nuclear cataracts.

  12. Anther wall formation, sporogenesis and gametogenesis of Tripterospermum chinense (Gentianaceae), with emphasis on uniformity of characters in Tripterospermum and its systematic values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ao, C.


    Tripterospermum sensu T.N.Ho comprises two sections that are readily discriminated morphologically. In the present paper, embryological characters in anther wall formation, sporogenesis and gametogenesis of Tripterospermum chinense, a member of sect. Platyspermum, are reported. Comparisons based on

  13. Development of SED Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN)


    Kim, Sanghyuk; Jeon, Yiseul; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Ji, Tae-Geun; Hyun, Minhee; Choi, Changsu; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong


    We describe the characteristics and performance of a camera system, Spectral energy distribution Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN). It was developed to measure SEDs of high redshift quasar candidates (z $\\gtrsim$ 5) and other targets, e.g., young stellar objects, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts, and to trace the time variability of SEDs of objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SQUEAN consists of an on-axis focal plane camera module, an auto-guiding system, and mechanical...

  14. Educational homogamy, parenting practices and children’s early development



    This thesis investigates the pattern of parental educational homogamy and its implications for parenting practices and children’s early development in contemporary Britain. At the heart of the thesis lies an interest in the mechanisms behind the intergenerational transmission of educational success and, more specifically, the consequences for children of new patterns of parental resemblance in education. The thesis is composed of three empirical chapters, each of which is concerned with a...

  15. Early development and replacement of the stickleback dentition. (United States)

    Ellis, Nicholas A; Donde, Nikunj N; Miller, Craig T


    Teeth have long served as a model system to study basic questions about vertebrate organogenesis, morphogenesis, and evolution. In nonmammalian vertebrates, teeth typically regenerate throughout adult life. Fish have evolved a tremendous diversity in dental patterning in both their oral and pharyngeal dentitions, offering numerous opportunities to study how morphology develops, regenerates, and evolves in different lineages. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a new system to study how morphology evolves, and provide a particularly powerful system to study the development and evolution of dental morphology. Here, we describe the oral and pharyngeal dentitions of stickleback fish, providing additional morphological, histological, and molecular evidence for homology of oral and pharyngeal teeth. Focusing on the ventral pharyngeal dentition in a dense developmental time course of lab-reared fish, we describe the temporal and spatial consensus sequence of early tooth formation. Early in development, this sequence is highly stereotypical and consists of seventeen primary teeth forming the early tooth field, followed by the first tooth replacement event. Comparing this detailed morphological and ontogenetic sequence to that described in other fish reveals that major changes to how dental morphology arises and regenerates have evolved across different fish lineages. J. Morphol. 277:1072-1083, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hazards to Early Development: The Biological Embedding of Early Life Adversity. (United States)

    Nelson, Charles A


    The number of children under 18 years of age has increased worldwide over the past decade. This growth spurt is due, in part, to remarkable progress in child survival. Alas, surviving early hazards, like prematurity or infectious disease, does not guarantee that children's development will not be compromised by other hazards as they grow older. Throughout the world, children continue to be confronted with a large number of biological and psychosocial challenges that greatly limit their developmental potential. The focus of this article is how such adverse experiences impact the developing brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter


    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  18. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges (United States)

    Wächter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.


    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean. Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP) and event-driven architecture (EDA)) are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  19. Global Sustainable Development Starts With Investment in the Early Brain Development of Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benard P Dreyer


    .... Bann et al present the results of longitudinal analyses of a randomized controlled trial of a home-based early developmental intervention on trajectories of cognitive development among young children...

  20. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education. (United States)

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J


    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Thyroid Function during Early Life and Dental Development. (United States)

    Vucic, S; Korevaar, T I M; Dhamo, B; Jaddoe, V W V; Peeters, R P; Wolvius, E B; Ongkosuwito, E M


    Children with low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism) have delayed tooth eruption, enamel hypoplasia, micrognathia, and anterior open bite, whereas children with hyperthyroidism may suffer from accelerated tooth eruption, maxillary, and mandibular osteoporosis. However, it is still unknown whether thyroid function variations within the normal or subclinical range also have an impact on hard dental tissues in healthy children. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the association between thyroid function from the fetal period until early childhood and dental development at school age. This study is embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study established in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Maternal thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free thyroxine [FT4], and thyroid peroxidase antibody [TPOAb] concentrations) was measured during early pregnancy, and thyroid function of the offspring (TSH and FT4) was measured in cord blood at birth and in early childhood (6 y). Dental development was assessed from panoramic radiographs of children of school-going age (9 y). In total, 2,387 to 2,706 subjects were available for the multivariable linear regression analysis, depending on the point in time of thyroid function measurement. There was an inverse association between cord blood and early childhood TSH concentrations with dental development, with a -0.06 lower standard deviation (SD) per 1 mU/L of TSH (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.11 to -0.01) and a -0.06 lower SD per 1 mU/L of TSH (95% CI, -0.11 to 0.00), respectively. There was no association between the maternal thyroid function during pregnancy and the dental development score of the child. However, TPOAb-positive mothers had children with a -0.20 SD (adjusted 95% CI, -0.35 to -0.04) lower dental development score compared with TPOAb-negative mothers. The findings of this study suggest that the thyroid hormone is involved in the maturation of teeth from

  2. Media representations of early human development: protecting, feeding and loving the developing brain.


    O Connor, C.; Joffe, H.


    The public profile of neurodevelopmental research has expanded in recent years. This paper applies social representations theory to explore how early brain development was represented in the UK print media in the first decade of the 21st century. A thematic analysis was performed on 505 newspaper articles published between 2000 and 2010 that discussed early brain development. Media coverage centred around concern with ‘protecting’ the prenatal brain (identifying threats to foetal neurodevelop...

  3. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary. (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja


    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early motor development of children with a congenital cytomegalovirus infection. (United States)

    De Kegel, Alexandra; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg; van Hoecke, Helen; De Leenheer, Els; Van Waelvelde, Hilde


    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most important etiology of non-hereditary childhood hearing loss and an important cause of neurodevelopmental delay. The current study aimed to investigate the early motor development of symptomatic and asymptomatic cCMV infected children with and without sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Sixty-four children with a cCMV infection, without cerebral palsy, were compared to a control group of 107 normal hearing children. They were assessed around the ages of 6, 12, and 24 months with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2), Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS), and Ghent Developmental Balance Test (GDBT). The cCMV infected children were subdivided into a symptomatic (n=26) and asymptomatic cCMV group (n=38) but also into a cCMV group with SNHL (n=19) and without SNHL (n=45). Symptomatic cCMV infected children and cCMV infected children with SNHL performed significantly weaker for all gross motor outcome measures. A congenital CMV infection is a risk factor for a delay in the early motor development. Follow-up will be necessary to gain insight into the exact cause of this motor delay and to define the predictive value of early motor assessment of cCMV infected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. BMP regulates vegetal pole induction centres in early xenopus development. (United States)

    Nachaliel, N; Re'Em-Kalma, Y; Eshed, O; Elias, S; Frank, D


    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in mesoderm patterning in Xenopus. The ectopic expression of BMP-4 protein hyperventralizes embryos, whereas embryos expressing a BMP-2/4 dominant-negative receptor (DNR) are hyperdorsalized. Mesoderm is initially induced in the marginal zone by cells in the underlying vegetal pole. While much is known about BMP's expression and role in patterning the marginal zone, little is known about its early role in regulating vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation. The role of BMP in regulating formation of vegetal mesoderm inducing centres during early Xenopus development was examined. Ectopic BMP-4 expression in vegetal pole cells inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction but increased ventral mesoderm induction when recombined with animal cap ectoderm in Nieuwkoop explants. 32-cell embryos injected with BMP-4 RNA in the most vegetal blastomere tier were not hyperdorsalized by LiCl treatment. The ectopic expression of Smad or Mix.1 proteins in the vegetal pole also inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. Expression of the BMP 2/4 DNR in the vegetal pole increased dorsal mesoderm induction and inhibited ventral mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. These results support a role for BMP signalling in regulating ventral vegetal and dorsal vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation during early Xenopus development.

  6. Children's health and development: approaches to early identification and intervention. (United States)

    Oberklaid, Frank; Baird, Gillian; Blair, Mitch; Melhuish, Edward; Hall, David


    Many children arrive at school with problems of development and behaviour which affect their educational achievement and social interaction and can have lifelong consequences. There is a strong association between developmental vulnerability at school entry and a well-documented series of parent and family risk factors, often linked to social disadvantage. Strategies which are likely to make a difference to these children and improve outcomes include family support, high-quality early education and care programmes in the preschool years, and early detection of emerging problems and risk factors. The evidence suggests that these services and programmes are best delivered within a framework of progressive universalism--a universal basket of services for all children and families, with additional support commensurate with additional needs. This provides the best opportunity for early identification and appropriate intervention for emerging developmental problems and family issues that impact on children's development. While there are a number of challenges that need to be addressed and overcome, such an approach is an important investment that will yield measurable educational, social and economic benefits over the long term.

  7. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory. (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang


    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of Sox family genes in early lamprey development. (United States)

    Uy, Benjamin R; Simoes-Costa, Marcos; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Bronner, Marianne E


    Members of the Sox (Sry-related high mobility group box) family of transcription factors play a variety of roles during development of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A marked expansion in gene number occurred during the emergence of vertebrates, apparently via gene duplication events that are thought to have facilitated new functions. By screening a macroarrayed library as well as the lamprey genome, we have isolated genes of the Sox B, D, E and F subfamilies in the basal jawless vertebrate, lamprey. The expression patterns of all identified Sox genes were examined from gastrulation through early organogenesis (embryonic day 4-14), with particular emphasis on the neural crest, a vertebrate innovation. Coupled with phylogenetic analysis of these Sox genes, the results provide insight into gene duplication and di-vergence in paralog deployment occurring during early vertebrate evolution.

  9. Early environmental exposure and the development of lupus. (United States)

    Edwards, C J; Cooper, C


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex trait with evidence of polygenic inheritance influenced by environmental factors. However, the precise underlying causes of SLE remain unclear. A number of environmental exposures have been associated with lupus or related autoimmune phenomena. Evidence suggests that some environmental exposures need to be present many years before the onset of SLE. Both SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can occur in very young children and this supports the possibility that important environmental factors must be present during or before this time. In addition, the immune pathology, including autoantibody production, in adult lupus may begin years before clinical disease. There is also evidence that the developing immune system demonstrates developmental plasticity and can be permanently altered or 'programmed' by the early environment. We describe how early life environmental influences including infectious exposure may lead to autoantibody production in later life thus beginning the journey that leads to autoimmune diseases such as lupus in susceptible individuals.

  10. On the evolution of early development in the Nematoda. (United States)

    Goldstein, B


    The phylum Nematoda serves as an excellent model system for exploring how development evolves, using a comparative approach to developmental genetics. More than 100 laboratories are studying developmental mechanisms in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and many of the methods that have been developed for C. elegans can be applied to other nematodes. This review summarizes what is known so far about steps in early development that have evolved in the nematodes, and proposes potential experiments that could make use of these data to further our understanding of how development evolves. The promise of such a comparative approach to developmental genetics is to fill a wide gap in our understanding of evolution--a gap spanning from mutations in developmental genes through to their phenotypic results, on which natural selection may act.

  11. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael


    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  12. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth. (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne


    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. The MYB transcription factor GhMYB25 regulates early fibre and trichome development. (United States)

    Machado, Adriane; Wu, Yingru; Yang, Youming; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S


    Little is still known about the developmental control of the long seed coat trichomes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In Arabidopsis, leaf trichome initiation is regulated by a group of well-defined transcription factors that includes MYB and homeodomain types. Many MYBs are expressed in fibres, but their roles in fibre development remain unclear. We analysed the function of one MYB transcription factor, GhMYB25, identified from transcriptome comparisons between wild-type and fibreless cotton mutants. A GhMYB25 promoter-GUS construct in transgenic cotton was expressed in the epidermis of ovules, developing fibre initials and fibres, in the trichomes of a number of tissues including leaves, stems and petals, as well as in the anthers, pollen and the epidermal layers of roots and root initials, but not in root hairs. Cotton is an allotetraploid with two very similar GhMYB25 genes that were silenced by a single RNAi construct. GhMYB25-silenced cotton showed alterations in the timing of rapid fibre elongation, resulting in short fibres, dramatic reductions in trichomes on other parts of the plant, and reductions in seed production. Reciprocal crosses between transgenic and non-transgenic plants indicated that pollen and ovule viability per se were not disrupted. Ectopic over-expression of GhMYB25 had more subtle impacts, with increases in cotton fibre initiation and leaf trichome number. High expression appeared to adversely affect fertility. Our results provide convincing evidence for a role of GhMYB25, like other MIXTA-like MYBS, in regulating specialized outgrowths of epidermal cells, including, in this case, cotton fibres.

  14. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eHagenmuller


    Full Text Available Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20 high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses.Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n=25, individuals with high-risk status (n= 59 and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n= 73 and a gender and age-matched control group (n=45. Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups.Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load.These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia.

  15. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses. (United States)

    Hagenmuller, Florence; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Walitza, Susanne; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram


    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses. Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n = 25), individuals with high-risk status (n = 59) and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n = 73) and a gender and age-matched control group (n = 45). Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups. Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load. These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia.

  16. Fathers’ Sensitive Parenting and the Development of Early Executive Functioning (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.


    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers’ sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children’s early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children’s early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers’ and mothers’ sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24-months predicted children’s executive functioning at 3-years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7-months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children’s executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills. PMID:25347539

  17. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders. (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos


    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Growth and Morphogenesis during Early Heart Development in Amniotes. (United States)

    Ivanovitch, Kenzo; Esteban, Isaac; Torres, Miguel


    In this review, we will focus on the growth and morphogenesis of the developing heart, an aspect of cardiovascular development to which Antoon Moorman and colleagues have extensively contributed. Over the last decades, genetic studies and characterization of regionally regulated gene programs have provided abundant novel insights into heart development essential to understand the basis of congenital heart disease. Heart morphogenesis, however, is inherently a complex and dynamic three-dimensional process and we are far from understanding its cellular basis. Here, we discuss recent advances in studying heart morphogenesis and regionalization under the light of the pioneering work of Moorman and colleagues, which allowed the reinterpretation of regional gene expression patterns under a new morphogenetic framework. Two aspects of early heart formation will be discussed in particular: (1) the initial formation of the heart tube and (2) the formation of the cardiac chambers by the ballooning process. Finally, we emphasize that in addition to analyses based on fixed samples, new approaches including clonal analysis, single-cell sequencing, live-imaging and quantitative analysis of the data generated will likely lead to novel insights in understanding early heart tube regionalization and morphogenesis in the near future.

  19. Growth and Morphogenesis during Early Heart Development in Amniotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Ivanovitch


    Full Text Available In this review, we will focus on the growth and morphogenesis of the developing heart, an aspect of cardiovascular development to which Antoon Moorman and colleagues have extensively contributed. Over the last decades, genetic studies and characterization of regionally regulated gene programs have provided abundant novel insights into heart development essential to understand the basis of congenital heart disease. Heart morphogenesis, however, is inherently a complex and dynamic three-dimensional process and we are far from understanding its cellular basis. Here, we discuss recent advances in studying heart morphogenesis and regionalization under the light of the pioneering work of Moorman and colleagues, which allowed the reinterpretation of regional gene expression patterns under a new morphogenetic framework. Two aspects of early heart formation will be discussed in particular: (1 the initial formation of the heart tube and (2 the formation of the cardiac chambers by the ballooning process. Finally, we emphasize that in addition to analyses based on fixed samples, new approaches including clonal analysis, single-cell sequencing, live-imaging and quantitative analysis of the data generated will likely lead to novel insights in understanding early heart tube regionalization and morphogenesis in the near future.

  20. Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Richard Kin Ting


    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoic acid (RA is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR which then regulate the target gene expression. In this review, we have discussed the metabolism of RA and the important components of RA signaling pathway, and highlighted current understanding of the functions of RA during early embryonic development.

  1. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development (United States)

    Enderlin, E. M.


    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online ( The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  2. Gene Regulatory Network for Tapetum Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Li


    Full Text Available In flowering plants, male gametophyte development occurs in the anther. Tapetum, the innermost of the four anther somatic layers, surrounds the developing reproductive cells to provide materials for pollen development. A genetic pathway of DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 in regulating tapetum development has been proven. Here we used laser microdissection and pressure catapulting to capture and analyze the transcriptome data for the Arabidopsis tapetum at two stages. With a comprehensive analysis by the microarray data of dyt1, tdf1, ams, and ms188 mutants, we identified possible downstream genes for each transcription factor. These transcription factors regulate many biological processes in addition to activating the expression of the other transcription factor. Briefly, DYT1 may also regulate early tapetum development via E3 ubiquitin ligases and many other transcription factors. TDF1 is likely involved in redox and cell degradation. AMS probably regulates lipid transfer proteins, which are involved in pollen wall formation, and other E3 ubiquitin ligases, functioning in degradating proteins produced in previous processes. MS188 is responsible for most cell wall-related genes, functioning both in tapetum cell wall degradation and pollen wall formation. These results propose a more complex gene regulatory network for tapetum development and function.

  3. Influence of seizures on early development in tuberous sclerosis complex. (United States)

    Capal, Jamie K; Bernardino-Cuesta, Beatriz; Horn, Paul S; Murray, Donna; Byars, Anna Weber; Bing, Nicole M; Kent, Bridget; Pearson, Deborah A; Sahin, Mustafa; Krueger, Darcy A


    Epilepsy is commonly seen in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The relationship between seizures and developmental outcomes has been reported, but few studies have examined this relationship in a prospective, longitudinal manner. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between seizures and early development in TSC. Analysis of 130 patients ages 0-36months with TSC participating in the TSC Autism Center of Excellence Network, a large multicenter, prospective observational study evaluating biomarkers predictive of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), was performed. Infants were evaluated longitudinally with standardized evaluations, including cognitive, adaptive, and autism-specific measures. Seizure history was collected continuously throughout, including seizure type and frequency. Data were analyzed at 6, 12, 18, and 24months of age. Patients without a history of seizures performed better on all developmental assessments at all time points compared to patients with a history of seizures and exhibited normal development at 24months. Patients with a history of seizures not only performed worse, but developmental progress lagged behind the group without seizures. All patients with a history of infantile spasms performed worse on all developmental assessments at 12, 18, and 24months. Higher seizure frequency correlated with poorer outcomes on developmental testing at all time points, but particularly at 12months and beyond. Patients with higher seizure frequency during infancy continued to perform worse developmentally through 24months. A logistic model looking at the individual impact of infantile spasms, seizure frequency, and age of seizure onset as predictors of developmental delay revealed that age of seizure onset was the most important factor in determining developmental outcome. Results of this study further define the relationship between seizures and developmental outcomes in young children with TSC. Early seizure onset in infants with TSC

  4. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Francino


    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction.

  5. Early Childhood Development and Iranian Parents' Knowledge: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Habibi, Elham; Sajedi, Firouzeh; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Shahshahanipour, Soheila; Glascoe, Frances Page


    Early childhood is the most important step throughout the lifespan and it is a critical period continuing to the end of 8-year-old. Mothers' knowledge is one of the important aspects of child development. The goals of this study were to determine the situation of knowledge in Iranian parents about the concept and the importance of early childhood development (ECD) and determining the sources of parental knowledge about ECD from the perspective of parents and grandparents. This qualitative study was conducted based on the directional content analysis in 2016. The purposive sampling method is utilized to select 24 participants among parents and grandparents in Tehran. The inclusion criteria consisted of speaking in Persian and having a child or grandchild growth of children. According to the results, the knowledge of Iranian parent is not enough about ECD; therefore, actions must be taken to increase their knowledge in these domains. Parents look for reliable and valid sources to enhance their knowledge and they rely the most on pediatricians in this regard. Therefore, more studies on assessing parents' knowledge in community and the practical methods for knowledge promotion in this field is recommended.

  6. Development of children’s early understanding of numeric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva, Marina


    Full Text Available Understanding of the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers is one of the critical aspects in early mathematics learning. It has been documented that children from different countries vary in their use of base-10 representations. Questions concerning potential sources of this variability have been debated for decades. One commonly posited explanation is that some languages provide explicit cues about the structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 representations. In the present study, we tested this view against an alternative view, positing that variability in children’s learning of numeric structure may reflect differences in their experiences with numbers. The study examined kindergartners and first-graders from four countries: Taiwan, South Korea, the USA, and Russia. Results showed that the use of base-10 representations by American first-graders increased dramatically over the last decades, following changes in curricular guidelines. First-graders across the four countries showed some differences in performance (however, not consistent with the language account, whereas kindergartners performed comparably despite the differences in their languages. The results suggest that the nature of early math instruction may be critical for children’s developing understanding of numeric structure.

  7. Rem sleep, early experience, and the development of reproductive strategies. (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Dowdall, Jayme; Auerbach, Sanford


    We hypothesize that rapid eye movement or REM sleep evolved, in part, to mediate sexual/reproductive behaviors and strategies. Because development of sexual and mating strategies depends crucially on early attachment experiences, we further hypothesize that REM functions to mediate attachment processes early in life. Evidence for these hypotheses comes from (1) the correlation of REM variables with both attachment and sexual/reproductive variables; (2) attachment-related and sex-related hormonal release during REM; (3) selective activation during REM of brain sites implicated in attachment and sexual processes; (4) effects of maternal deprivation on REM; (5) effects of REM deprivation on sexual behaviors; and (6) the REM-associated sexual excitation. To explain why we find associations among REM sleep, attachment, and adult reproductive strategies, we rely on recent extensions of parent-offspring conflict theory. Using data from recent findings on genomic imprinting, Haig (2000) and others suggest that paternally expressed genes are selected to promote growth of the developing fetus/child at the expense of the mother, while maternally expressed genes counter these effects. Because developmental REM facilitates attachment-related outcomes in the child, developmental REM may be regulated by paternally expressed genes. In that case, REM may have evolved to support the "aims" of paternal genes at the expense of maternal genes.

  8. Does bilingual experience affect early visual perceptual development?

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    Christina eSchonberg


    Full Text Available Visual attention and perception develop rapidly during the first few months after birth, and these behaviors are critical components in the development of language and cognitive abilities. Here we ask how early bilingual experiences might lead to differences in visual attention and perception. Experiments 1-3 investigated the looking behavior of monolingual and bilingual infants when presented with social (Experiment 1, mixed (Experiment 2, or nonsocial (Experiment 3 stimuli. In each of these experiments, infants’ dwell times (DT and number of fixations to areas of interest (AOIs were analyzed, giving a sense of where the infants looked. To examine how the infants looked at the stimuli in a more global sense, Experiment 4 combined and analyzed the saccade data collected in Experiments 1-3. There were no significant differences between monolingual and bilingual infants’ DTs, AOI fixations, or saccade characteristics (specifically, frequency and amplitude in any of the experiments. These results suggest that monolingual and bilingual infants process their visual environments similarly, supporting the idea that the substantial cognitive differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in early childhood are more related to active vocabulary production than perception of the environment.

  9. Language, bilingualism, and executive functioning in early development. (United States)

    Morton, J Bruce


    Okanda, et al. (2010) reported new evidence concerning associations between language ability, bilingualism, and executive functioning early in development. The paper adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that bilingualism is associated with advantages in executive functioning generally, and the Dimensional Change Card Sort task in particular. However, as with all findings that hinge on between-group comparisons, there is a need to exercise caution before drawing firm conclusions about the effects of bilingualism on the development of executive control. Several lines of recent evidence are outlined that challenge key assumptions underlying the standard account of the bilingual advantage. Okanda, et al.'s findings are discussed in light of this evidence.

  10. Challenges facing the early childhood development sector in South Africa

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    Eric Atmore


    Full Text Available In this review article, the context of young children in South Africa in 2012 is described and the main challenges affecting children and the early childhood development sector (ECD in South Africa are investigated. A situation analysis of ECD in South Africa was undertaken using South African government ECD policy and programme implementation reports. There has been progress since 1994, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The number of children in Grade R has trebled since 2001, government education and social development budgets have increased substantially and 58% of children at ECD centres nationally are now subsidised. More children are in provision and in better quality provision than before. However, much still remains to be done before we can say with confidence that the needs of our youngest children are being met. This study identifies infrastructure, nutrition, ECD programmes, teacher training, institutional capacity and funding as the major gaps in ECD provision.

  11. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

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    Brad M. Farrant


    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  12. Immunolocalization of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in reproductive structures of an early-divergent angiosperm, Trithuria (Hydatellaceae). (United States)

    Costa, Mário; Pereira, Ana Marta; Rudall, Paula J; Coimbra, Sílvia


    Trithuria is the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, a family of the early-divergent angiosperm lineage Nymphaeales (water-lilies). In this study different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes in T. submersa were evaluated in order to understand the diversity of these proteins and their functions in flowering plants. Immunolabelling of different AGPs and pectin epitopes in reproductive structures of T. submersa at the stage of early seed development was achieved by immunofluorescence of specific antibodies. AGPs in Trithuria pistil tissues could be important as structural proteins and also as possible signalling molecules. Intense labelling was obtained with anti-AGP antibodies both in the anthers and in the intine wall, the latter associated with pollen tube emergence. AGPs could play a significant role in Trithuria reproduction, due to their specific presence in the pollen tube pathway. The results agree with labellings obtained for Arabidopsis and confirms the importance of AGPs in angiosperm reproductive structures as essential structural components and probably important signalling molecules.

  13. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung


    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  14. Early life precursors, epigenetics, and the development of food allergy. (United States)

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin


    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of nongenetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birth weight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the interrelationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations, and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA.

  15. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

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    Kim, Chang-Woon [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Changyong [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ik [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sook-Young [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 135-081 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dawon, E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)


    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  16. PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome: early tumour development in children. (United States)

    Smpokou, Patroula; Fox, Victor L; Tan, Wen-Hann


    The aim of this study was to report the earliest age of diagnosis of common clinical findings in children with PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (PHTS). Medical records of children with PHTS were reviewed; data included growth measurements, presence or absence of specific clinical manifestations and tumours, and documented ages of diagnosis. Children with PHTS evaluated at Boston Children's Hospital from 1996 to 2011. The cohort included 34 children diagnosed with PHTS via genetic testing, under the age of 21 years. Of these, 23 were male and 11 female. The mean age at their last documented clinical evaluation was 13.6 years. The mean follow-up time was 7.5 years. Macrocephaly and developmental/intellectual disability were consistent findings. Pigmented penile macules were noted in all males examined for this finding. Thyroid nodules, found in half the children screened with ultrasound, were diagnosed as early as at 5 years of age. Thyroid carcinoma, identified in 12% of the children in this cohort, was diagnosed as early as at 7 years of age. Other tumours included renal cell carcinoma diagnosed at 11 years of age and granulosa cell tumour of the ovary and colonic ganglioneuroma, each diagnosed at 16 years of age. Specific clinical findings and tumours are characteristic in children with PHTS. Tumour development occurs in young children with this condition, which necessitates early surveillance, especially of the thyroid. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. Macrosomia has its roots in early placental development. (United States)

    Schwartz, N; Quant, H S; Sammel, M D; Parry, S


    We sought to determine if early placental size, as measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography, is associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic or large-for-gestational age (LGA) infant. We prospectively collected 3-dimensional ultrasound volume sets of singleton pregnancies at 11-14 weeks and 18-24 weeks. Birth weights were collected from the medical records. After delivery, the ultrasound volume set were used to measure the placental volume (PV) and placental quotient (PQ = PV/gestational age), as well as the mean placental and chorionic diameters (MPD and MCD, respectively). Placental measures were analyzed as predictors of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) and LGA (birth weight ≥90th percentile). The 578 pregnancies with first trimester volumes included 44 (7.6%) macrosomic and 43 (7.4%) LGA infants. 373 subjects also had second trimester volumes available. A higher PV and PQ were both significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA in both the first and second trimesters. Second trimester MPD was significantly associated with both outcomes as well, while second trimester MCD was only associated with LGA. The above associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, age and diabetes. Adjusted models yielded moderate prediction of macrosomia and LGA (AUC: 0.71-0.77). Sonographic measurement of the early placenta can identify pregnancies at greater risk of macrosomia and LGA. Macrosomia and LGA are already determined in part by early placental growth and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers. (United States)

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes


    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  19. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development. (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L


    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigational drugs in early development for treating dengue infection. (United States)

    Beesetti, Hemalatha; Khanna, Navin; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam


    Dengue has emerged as the most significant arboviral disease of the current century. A drug for dengue is an urgent unmet need. As conventional drug discovery efforts have not produced any promising clinical candidates, there is a shift toward re-positioning pre-existing drugs for dengue to fast-track dengue drug development. This article provides an update on the current status of recently completed and ongoing dengue drug trials. All dengue drug trials described in this article were identified from a list of >230 trials that were returned upon searching the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform web portal using the search term 'dengue' on December 31(st), 2015. None of the handful of drugs tested so far has yielded encouraging results. Early trial experience has served to emphasize the challenge of drug testing in the short therapeutic time window available, the need for tools to predict 'high-risk' patients early on and the limitations of the existing pre-clinical model systems. Significant investment of efforts and resources is a must before the availability of a safe, effective and inexpensive dengue drug becomes a reality. Currently, supportive fluid therapy remains the only option available for dengue treatment.

  1. Early development of the thymus in Xenopus laevis (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Williams, Allison; Hong, Chang-Soo; You, Youngjae; Senoo, Makoto; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre


    Background Although Xenopus laevis has been a model of choice for comparative and developmental studies of the immune system, little is known about organogenesis of the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ in vertebrates. Here we examined the expression of three transcription factors that have been functionally associated with pharyngeal gland development, gcm2, hoxa3 and foxn1, and evaluated the neural crest contribution to thymus development. Results In most species Hoxa3 is expressed in the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm where it directs thymus formation. In Xenopus, the thymus primordium is derived from the second pharyngeal pouch endoderm, which is hoxa3-negative, suggesting that a different mechanism regulates thymus formation in frogs. Unlike other species foxn1 is not detected in the epithelium of the pharyngeal pouch in Xenopus, rather, its expression is initiated as thymic epithelial cell starts to differentiate and express MHC class II molecules. Using transplantation experiments we show that while neural crest cells populate the thymus primordia, they are not required for the specification and initial development of this organ or for T cell differentiation in frogs. Conclusions These studies provide novel information on early thymus development in Xenopus, and highlight a number of features that distinguish Xenopus from other organisms. PMID:23172757

  2. Mini-review: hyaluronidases in early embryonic development. (United States)

    Stern, C D


    The foregoing discussion indicates that hyaluronidases probably play an important part in the control of development. In morphogenesis, they may be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal inductive interactions, in non-malignant invasion when one tissue displaces another in normal development, in controlling cell movements, in modulating changes of shape of cells and sheets of cells, in controlling the permeability of tissues and regulating the ionic environment within the embryo. There is also evidence indicating that hyaluronidases are involved in the initiation of cytodifferentiation pathways, perhaps via direct or indirect effects upon the cell division cycle and histone-DNA interactions. The evidence presented indicates that hyaluronidases are important repeatedly at different stages of embryonic development and differentiation, where periods of high activity follow others of reduced activity in localized regions of the embryo. Some new results were also presented, showing the presence of different hyaluronidase activities at early stages of chick embryo development. The highest levels of hyaluronidase activity were found in the primitive streak and mesoderm.

  3. Lack of carbon air filtration impacts early embryo development. (United States)

    Munch, Erika M; Sparks, Amy E; Duran, Hakan E; Van Voorhis, Bradley J


    To assess human fertilization and preimplantation embryo development in the presence and in the absence of carbon filtration This is a retrospective cohort analysis of fresh, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles as well as previously cryopreserved pronuclear stage embryo transfer cycles in a single IVF center. Embryo development and cycle-based outcomes were compared among three groups: 1) when carbon filtration was present, 2) when carbon filtration was absent, and 3) when carbon filtration had been restored. A total of 524 fresh cycles and 156 cryopreserved embryo cycles were analyzed. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst conversion rates for fresh cycles all declined during the period of absent carbon filtration and recovered after the restoration of carbon filtration. Cryopreserved embryos that were thawed and cultured during the period of absent filtration did not have changes in cleavage or blastocyst conversion rates compared to periods where carbon filtration was present. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were unchanged among the three time periods. The absence of carbon filtration in an IVF laboratory air handler is associated with poor fertilization and early embryo development for fresh cycles. Because development of previously frozen pronuclear stage embryos was unaffected, the lack of carbon filtration may preferentially affect embryos in the peri-fertilization period. Carbon filtration is an integral part to a successful human in-vitro fertilization laboratory.

  4. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry


    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  5. Recent psychological explanations of infant development and scales of early mental development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič


    Full Text Available This paper reviews early infant measures based on standardised scales of development – both traditional ones and those based on Piaget's sensory-motor theory – and assesses their validity in predicting later mental development. The extremely low predictive power of test scores based on these measures in infancy has provided additional support for discontinuity theories of mental development from infancy to childhood. Conversely, the constructs implicit in earlier measures have been thoroughly criticised, and the search for valid measures of infant development that would reflect a construct similar to mental abilities in childhood has begun. At the outset, research was mostly influenced by the information processing theory. Two broad measures of information processing have been shown to be the most relevant indicators of an infant's mental development, namely habituation and dishabituation. Recent mental scales, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, thus include items that measure the efficiency of an infant's information processing. Examples of such items are presented and interpreted, as are items reflecting the development of object permanence, the only early sensory-motor measure that shows better predictive effectiveness when compared to traditional developmental test scores. Several newly-developed indicators of infants' mental development, which utilize other measures than those derived from the information-processing approach, are surveyed (understanding causal relations, joint attention behaviours, representation of number, and their possible application within the context of potential items for early mental scales is discussed. Finally, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, currently one of the best measures of early development, and presently undergoing a standardisation procedure in Slovenia, is evaluated, with analyses of some items from the Mental scale presented within the text.

  6. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar


    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1......Increasing pressure to the environment due to human activities manifests the necessity of applying new approaches to determine the environmental impact of a new product before scale-up. Nanoadsorbents as an emerging product and a special application of nanomaterial play an important role...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  7. Roles of Pel and Psl in very early biofilm development (United States)

    Cooley, B. J.; Thatcher, Travis; L'Her, Guillaume; Reed, Erin; Stuart, Jamie; Kissinger, April; Gordon, Vernita


    Biofilms are dynamic, multicellular communities of unicellular organisms. Biofilms cause many chronic infections; an important case is the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacteria in biofilms produce an extracellular matrix that binds bacteria to each other and to a surface. The two primary extracellular matrix components produced by P. aeruginosa are the polysaccharides Pel and Psl. Here we examine the roles of Pel and Psl in the very early stages of biofilm development, just after initial surface attachment. We use high-throughput automated tracking and analysis to compare wild-type bacteria with mutants incapable of producing Pel, Psl, or both. We examine motion on a surface as well as inter-bacterial interactions. These results quantify the unique roles played by Pel and Psl and show an unexpected relationship between Pel expression and adhesion to a surface.

  8. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coppa


    Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

  9. From universal to language-specific in early grammatical development. (United States)

    Bowerman, M


    Attempts to explain children's grammatical development often assume a close initial match between units of meaning and units of form; for example, agents are said to map to sentence-subjects and actions to verbs. The meanings themselves, according to this view, are not influenced by language, but reflect children's universal non-linguistic way of understanding the world. This paper argues that, contrary to this position, meaning as it is expressed in children's early sentences is, from the beginning, organized on the basis of experience with the grammar and lexicon of a particular language. As a case in point, children learning English and Korean are shown to express meanings having to do with direct motion according to language-specific principles of semantic and grammatical structuring from the earliest stages of word combination.

  10. Nuclear lamins during gametogenesis, fertilization and early development (United States)

    Maul, G. G.; Schatten, G.


    The distribution of lamins (described by Gerace, 1978, as major proteins of nuclear envelope) during gametogenesis, fertilization, and early development was investigated in germ cells of a mouse (Mus musculus), an echinoderm (Lytechinus variegatus), and the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) was investigated in order to determine whether the differences detected could be correlated with differences in the function of cells in these stages of the germ cells. In order to monitor the behavior of lamins, the gametes and embryos were labeled with antibodies to lamins A, C, and B extracted from autoimmune sera of patients with scleroderma and Lupus erythematosus. Results indicated that lamin B could be identified in nuclear envelopes on only those nuclei where chromatin is attached and where RNA synthesis takes place.

  11. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia (United States)

    Morley, C. K.


    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  12. Serum Amyloid A Facilitates Early Lesion Development in Ldlr-/- Mice. (United States)

    Krishack, Paulette A; Bhanvadia, Clarissa V; Lukens, John; Sontag, Timothy J; De Beer, Maria C; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A


    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, and several studies have demonstrated a positive association between plasma serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of the study was to examine whether SAA has a role in atherogenesis, the underlying basis of most cardiovascular disease. Mice globally deficient in acute-phase isoforms Saa1 and Saa2 (Saa(-/-)) were crossed to Ldlr(-/-) mice (Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-)). Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in lesional area in the ascending aorta but not in the aortic root or innominate artery after consuming a high-fat, high-cholesterol Western-type diet for 6 weeks. The lesions were predominantly macrophage foam cells. The phenotype was lost in more mature lesions in mice fed a Western-type diet for 12 weeks, suggesting that SAA is involved in early lesion development. The decreased atherosclerosis in the Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice occurred despite increased levels of blood monocytes and was independent of plasma lipid levels. SAA is produced predominantly by hepatocytes and macrophages. To determine which source of SAA may have a dominant role in lesion development, bone marrow transplantation was performed. Ldlr(-/-) mice that received bone marrow from Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice had slightly reduced ascending aorta atherosclerosis compared with Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice receiving bone marrow from Ldlr(-/-) mice, indicating that the expression of SAA by macrophages may have an important influence on atherogenesis. The results indicate that SAA produced by macrophages promotes early lesion formation in the ascending aorta. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Diversity. Early Developments. Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2004 (United States)

    Manuel, John


    What is it about cultural diversity that challenges early childhood programs? One factor is that children enter early childhood and early intervention programs from families with a wide range of values and cultural experiences. Sometimes those values and experiences differ from those of the teachers and caregivers in those programs. Another factor…

  14. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development. (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim


    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development. (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H


    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  16. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

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    Johannes G. Wittig


    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  17. The development of numerical representations in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Svetina


    Full Text Available Recent studies of numerosity in the field of developmental psychology indicate that numerical representation in children might be regarded in terms of Fechner's law of logarithmic relations between stimuli and response. The data also suggest that the shift from logarithmic to linear pattern of mental representation relates to different factors such as age, number scale, and culture. However, very little is known whether cognitive factors such as procedural and conceptual development have any impact on numerical representations, particularly in the preschoolers. The aim of our study was to provide an explanation of relations between numerical concepts and numerical representations in preschool children. In the study, 39 3-6 year-olds were presented with both, task of conceptual understanding of numbers and the number line task. The results indicate that the development of conceptual understanding of numbers may act as a threshold condition to the development of linear numerical representations in early childhood. Implications of these findings, such as representations of height, distance or value are further discussed.

  18. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development (United States)

    Keels, Micere


    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  19. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison


    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  20. Exploring Parental Involvement in Early Years Education in China: Development and Validation of the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS) (United States)

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala


    This study developed and validated an instrument, the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS), that can be widely used in both local and international contexts to assess Chinese parental involvement in early childhood education. The study was carried out in two stages: (1) focus group interviews were conducted with 41 teachers and 35…

  1. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela López-Villavicencio


    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  2. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development. (United States)

    Lora, J; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I


    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angiosperms and makes Annona cherimola an interesting model to study the effect of varying environmental conditions on subsequent pollen performance during the final stages of pollen development. In this work, we study the influence of changes in temperature and humidity during the final stages of pollen development on subsequent pollen performance, evaluating pollen germination, presence of carbohydrates, number of nuclei, and water content. At 25 °C, which is the average field temperature during the flowering period of this species, pollen had a viability of 60-70 %, starch hydrolyzed just prior to shedding, and pollen mitosis II was taking place, resulting in a mixture of bi- and tricellular pollen. This activity may be related to the pollen retaining 70 % water content at shedding. Temperatures above 30 °C resulted in a decrease in pollen germination, whereas lower temperatures did not have a clear influence on pollen germination, although they did have a clear effect on starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, slightly higher dehydration accelerated mitosis II, whereas strong dehydration arrested starch hydrolysis and reduced pollen germination. These results show a significant influence of environmental conditions on myriad pollen characteristics during the final stages of pollen development modifying subsequent pollen behavior and contributing to our understanding of the variability observed in pollen tube performance.

  3. Preschoolers Know, but How Do They Know? Developing a Framework for Early Epistemology Development (United States)

    Winsor, Denise L.; Blake, Sally


    Two areas that are lacking for the purpose of training high-quality preschool teachers; and constructing developmentally appropriate learning standards and curriculum for preschool children are awareness of early epistemic development (beliefs about knowledge and knowing) and understanding preschoolers' cognitive processes during epistemic…

  4. Sex and parasites: genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, the biotrophic and plant-castrating anther smut fungus. (United States)

    Perlin, Michael H; Amselem, Joelle; Fontanillas, Eric; Toh, Su San; Chen, Zehua; Goldberg, Jonathan; Duplessis, Sebastien; Henrissat, Bernard; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Aguileta, Gabriela; Petit, Elsa; Badouin, Helene; Andrews, Jared; Razeeq, Dominique; Gabaldón, Toni; Quesneville, Hadi; Giraud, Tatiana; Hood, Michael E; Schultz, David J; Cuomo, Christina A


    The genus Microbotryum includes plant pathogenic fungi afflicting a wide variety of hosts with anther smut disease. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects Silene latifolia and replaces host pollen with fungal spores, exhibiting biotrophy and necrosis associated with altering plant development. We determined the haploid genome sequence for M. lychnidis-dioicae and analyzed whole transcriptome data from plant infections and other stages of the fungal lifecycle, revealing the inventory and expression level of genes that facilitate pathogenic growth. Compared to related fungi, an expanded number of major facilitator superfamily transporters and secretory lipases were detected; lipase gene expression was found to be altered by exposure to lipid compounds, which signaled a switch to dikaryotic, pathogenic growth. In addition, while enzymes to digest cellulose, xylan, xyloglucan, and highly substituted forms of pectin were absent, along with depletion of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases that protect the fungus from oxidative stress, the repertoire of glycosyltransferases and of enzymes that could manipulate host development has expanded. A total of 14% of the genome was categorized as repetitive sequences. Transposable elements have accumulated in mating-type chromosomal regions and were also associated across the genome with gene clusters of small secreted proteins, which may mediate host interactions. The unique absence of enzyme classes for plant cell wall degradation and maintenance of enzymes that break down components of pollen tubes and flowers provides a striking example of biotrophic host adaptation.

  5. Developing an Early Warning System for Machu Picchu Pueblo, Peru. (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony


    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, is linked to Ollantaytambo and Cusco by rail and serves as the main station for the 400,000+ tourists visiting Machu Picchu. Due to the tourist industry the town grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Today, due to the limited availability of low-lying ground, construction is occurring higher up on the unstable valley slopes. The town is located at 2000 m asl while the surrounding peaks rise to over 4000 m asl. Slopes range from 70° in the surrounding granite mountains. The town has grown on the downstream right bank of the Vilcanota River, at the confluence of the Alcamayo and the Aguas Calientes Rivers. Broadly, a dry winter season runs from May to August with a rainy summer season running from October to March. The rainy months provide around 80% of the annual rainfall average, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,300 mm. Seasonal temperature variations are considered modest. An assessment of the geohazards in and around the town has been undertaken. Those of particular concern to the town are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. To improve the existing municipal warning system a prototype early warning system incorporating suitable technologies that could monitor weather, river flow and slope satability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing most components to be installed, maintained, swapped, salvaged, repaired and/or replaced by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was deployed and evaluated. Most of the candidate technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  6. Impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on voice development.

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    Leila Grisa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT in childhood. METHODS: The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0, vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. RESULTS: Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89% had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5% at 8.16 years, and 1 (5% at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19 of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors.

  7. Origins and early development of human body knowledge. (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle


    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  8. Infant feeding effects on early neurocognitive development in Asian children. (United States)

    Cai, Shirong; Pang, Wei Wei; Low, Yen Ling; Sim, Lit Wee; Sam, Suet Chian; Bruntraeger, Michaela Bianka; Wong, Eric Qinlong; Fok, Doris; Broekman, Birit F P; Singh, Leher; Richmond, Jenny; Agarwal, Pratibha; Qiu, Anqi; Saw, Seang Mei; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Kramer, Michael S; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne


    Breastfeeding has been shown to enhance global measures of intelligence in children. However, few studies have examined associations between breastfeeding and specific cognitive task performance in the first 2 y of life, particularly in an Asian population. We assessed associations between early infant feeding and detailed measures of cognitive development in the first 2 y of life in healthy Asian children born at term. In a prospective cohort study, neurocognitive testing was performed in 408 healthy children (aged 6, 18, and 24 mo) from uncomplicated pregnancies (i.e., birth weight >2500 and <4000 g, gestational age ≥37 wk, and 5-min Apgar score ≥9). Tests included memory (deferred imitation, relational binding, habituation) and attention tasks (visual expectation, auditory oddball) as well as the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Children were stratified into 3 groups (low, intermediate, and high) on the basis of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. After potential confounding variables were controlled for, significant associations and dose-response relations were observed for 4 of the 15 tests. Higher breastfeeding exposure was associated with better memory at 6 mo, demonstrated by greater preferential looking toward correctly matched items during early portions of a relational memory task (i.e., relational binding task: P-trend = 0.015 and 0.050 for the first two 1000-ms time bins, respectively). No effects of breastfeeding were observed at 18 mo. At 24 mo, breastfed children were more likely to display sequential memory during a deferred imitation memory task (P-trend = 0.048), and toddlers with more exposure to breastfeeding scored higher in receptive language [+0.93 (0.23, 1.63) and +1.08 (0.10, 2.07) for intermediate- and high-breastfeeding groups, respectively, compared with the low-breastfeeding group], as well as expressive language [+0.58 (-0.06, 1.23) and +1.22 (0.32, 2.12) for intermediate- and high

  9. Tightly Controlled Expression of bHLH142 Is Essential for Timely Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Rice

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    Swee-Suak Ko


    Full Text Available Male sterility is important for hybrid seed production. Pollen development is regulated by a complex network. We previously showed that knockout of bHLH142 in rice (Oryza sativa causes pollen sterility by interrupting tapetal programmed cell death (PCD and bHLH142 coordinates with TDR to modulate the expression of EAT1. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of bHLH142 (OE142 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter also leads to male sterility in rice by triggering the premature onset of PCD. Protein of bHLH142 was found to accumulate specifically in the OE142 anthers. Overexpression of bHLH142 induced early expression of several key regulatory transcription factors in pollen development. In particular, the upregulation of EAT1 at the early stage of pollen development promoted premature PCD in the OE142 anthers, while its downregulation at the late stage impaired pollen development by suppressing genes involved in pollen wall biosynthesis, ROS scavenging and PCD. Collectively, these events led to male sterility in OE142. Analyses of related mutants further revealed the hierarchy of the pollen development regulatory gene network. Thus, the findings of this study advance our understanding of the central role played by bHLH142 in the regulatory network leading to pollen development in rice and how overexpression of its expression affects pollen development. Exploitation of this novel functionality of bHLH142 may confer a big advantage to hybrid seed production.

  10. Loss of primary cilia occurs early in breast cancer development (United States)


    Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the cell surface. Primary cilia play a critical role in development and disease through regulation of signaling pathways including the Hedgehog pathway. Recent mouse models have also linked ciliary dysfunction to cancer. However, little is known about the role of primary cilia in breast cancer development. Primary cilia expression was characterized in cancer cells as well as their surrounding stromal cells from 86 breast cancer patients by counting cilia and measuring cilia length. In addition, we examined cilia expression in normal epithelial and stromal cells from reduction mammoplasties as well as histologically normal adjacent tissue for comparison. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells on both premalignant lesions as well as in invasive cancers. This loss of cilia does not correlate with increased proliferative index (Ki67-positive cells). However, we did detect rare ciliated cancer cells present in patients with invasive breast cancer and found that these express a marker of basaloid cancers that is associated with poor prognosis (Cytokeratin 5). Interestingly, the percentage of ciliated stromal cells associated with both premalignant and invasive cancers decreased when compared to stromal cells associated with normal tissue. To understand how cilia may be lost during cancer development we analyzed the expression of genes required for ciliogenesis and/or ciliary function and compared their expression in normal versus breast cancer samples. We found that expression of ciliary genes were frequently downregulated in human breast cancers. Conclusions These data suggest that primary cilia are lost early in breast cancer development on both the cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells. PMID:24987519

  11. Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites. (United States)

    Allwood, Abigail C; Grotzinger, John P; Knoll, Andrew H; Burch, Ian W; Anderson, Mark S; Coleman, Max L; Kanik, Isik


    The approximately 3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology--namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics--has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans.

  12. Investigational antiarrhythmic agents: promising drugs in early clinical development. (United States)

    Heijman, Jordi; Ghezelbash, Shokoufeh; Dobrev, Dobromir


    Although there have been important technological advances for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., catheter ablation technology), antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) remain the cornerstone therapy for the majority of patients with arrhythmias. Most of the currently available AADs were coincidental findings and did not result from a systematic development process based on known arrhythmogenic mechanisms and specific targets. During the last 20 years, our understanding of cardiac electrophysiology and fundamental arrhythmia mechanisms has increased significantly, resulting in the identification of new potential targets for mechanism-based antiarrhythmic therapy. Areas covered: Here, we review the state-of-the-art in arrhythmogenic mechanisms and AAD therapy. Thereafter, we focus on a number of antiarrhythmic targets that have received significant attention recently: atrial-specific K+-channels, the late Na+-current, the cardiac ryanodine-receptor channel type-2, and the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel. We highlight for each of these targets available antiarrhythmic agents and the evidence for their antiarrhythmic effect in animal models and early clinical development. Expert opinion: Targeting AADs to specific subgroups of well-phenotyped patients is likely necessary to detect improved outcomes that may be obscured in the population at large. In addition, specific combinations of selective AADs may have synergistic effects and may enable a mechanism-based tailored antiarrhythmic therapy.

  13. Early phonetic and lexical development: a productivity approach. (United States)

    McCune, L; Vihman, M M


    Researchers frequently examine the development of the single-word lexicon in the absence of phonetic data. Yet a large body of literature demonstrates relationships between the phonetics of babble and early speech, and it is clear that production skill is essential for establishing a lexicon. This study uses longitudinal productivity criteria to establish children's phonetic skill. Twenty children were followed from age 9 to 16 months, and their level of consistency of vocal patterns was examined in relation to their lexical production, providing a relatively large-sample demonstration of phonetic/lexical relationships at the transition to language. Number of specific consonants produced consistently across the months of observation predicted referential lexical use at 16 months, whereas the transition to reference itself signaled the onset of a sharp increase in numbers of different words produced in a session. The earliest referential speakers exhibited prior consistency in the production of [p/b], which also predominated in their words. Prior use of at least two supraglottal consonants characterized the referential group. Children varied in the specific consonants they produced consistently, and these same consonants, varying according to individual child repertoire, characterized nearly all consonant-based words produced by each child in both of the final 2 months of observation. These findings are interpreted in relation to the children's contemporaneous development of representational ability and pragmatic skill.

  14. Molecular dissection of heterosis manifestation during early maize root development. (United States)

    Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Hoecker, Nadine; Hochholdinger, Frank


    Heterosis is of paramount agronomic importance and has been successfully exploited in maize hybrid breeding for decades. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of heterosis remains elusive. Heterosis is not only observed in adult traits like yield or plant height, but is already detected during embryo and seedling development. Hence, the maize (Zea mays L.) primary root which is the first organ that emerges after germination is a suitable model to study heterosis manifestation. Various seedling root traits including primary root length and lateral root density display heterosis. Microarray studies suggest organ specific patterns of nonadditive gene expression in maize hybrids. Moreover, such experiments support the notion that global expression trends in maize primary roots are conserved between different hybrids. Furthermore, nonadditive expression patterns of specific genes such as a SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE 2 might contribute to the early manifestation of heterosis. Proteome profiling experiments of maize hybrid primary roots revealed nonadditive accumulation patterns that were distinct from the corresponding RNA profiles underscoring the importance of posttranscriptional processes such as protein modifications that might be related to heterosis. Finally, analysis of selected metabolites imply that a subtle regulation of particular biochemical pathways such as the phenylpropanoid pathway in hybrids might contribute to the manifestation of heterosis in maize primary roots. In the future, recently developed molecular tools will facilitate the analysis of the molecular principles underlying heterosis in maize roots.

  15. Anther Culture Potential of Linseed ( Linum usitatissimumL.): Effects of Genotypes and Pretreatment on Callus Formation and Differentiation


    KURT, Orhan


    This study is concerned with the production of haploids of linseed. Anthers of eight genotypes were cultured both on solid and in liquid medium. It was found that callus induction rate was low in both media and also the cultivars significantly affected callus induction rate both on solid and in liquid medium. The cultivar Blue-Chip gave, on average, the maximum (3.67%) callus induction rate on solid medium and the cultivar Antares gave, on average, the maximum (3.35%) callus induction rate...

  16. Early stages in the development of bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Alda, Martin; Hajek, Tomas; Sherry, Simon B; Grof, Paul


    Numerous studies have observed that offspring of bipolar parents manifest a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. We tested the hypothesis that in high risk offspring, bipolar disorder evolves in a predictable clinical sequence from non-specific (non-mood) to specific (mood) psychopathology. Offspring from well-characterized families with one bipolar parent (high risk) or two well parents (controls) were assessed annually or at anytime symptoms developed using KSADS-PL interviews for up to 15 years. DSM-IV diagnoses were made on blind consensus review using all available clinical material. We compared the age-adjusted risks of lifetime psychopathology between high risk and control subjects and assessed the conditional probability of developing a mood disorder given a history of non-mood disorders. In subjects meeting full DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder, we assessed the sequence of psychopathology against a clinical staging model. High risk offspring manifest higher rates of anxiety and sleep disorders, as well as major mood and substance use disorders compared to controls. Antecedent anxiety increased the age-adjusted risk of mood disorder from 40 to 85% (hazard ratio of 2.6). High risk subjects who developed a mood disorder had an increased risk of a substance use disorder (hazard ratio of 2.4), typically meeting diagnostic criteria during or after the first major mood episode. The evolution of psychopathology leading to bipolar disorder generally followed the proposed sequence, although not all subjects manifest all stages. Larger numbers of high risk offspring prospectively assessed over the risk period would allow confirmation of these preliminary findings. Clinical staging may be a useful approach to refine the early diagnosis and facilitate research into the evolution of bipolar disorder in those at familial risk. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. RFLP analyses and segregation of molecular markers in plants produced by in vitro anther culture, selfing, and reciprocal crosses of two lines of self-incompatible Solanum chacoense. (United States)

    Rivard, S R; Saba-El-Leil, M K; Landry, B S; Cappadocia, M


    RFLP analyses were used to characterize several plant populations of Solanum chacoense Bitt. developed to investigate the generation of new S alleles at the self-incompatibility locus. The plant material consisted of two diploid parental lines, their anther culture derived (AC) progenies, their selfed progenies, and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. The RFLP analyses on the AC plants (121 individuals in total) permitted unambiguous identification of their origin. In particular, a distinction between plants originated from reduced (n) or unreduced (2n) microspores could be made. All the AC plants produced by gametic embryogenesis showed distinct RFLP patterns, whereas a number of clones (i.e., plants with identical RFLP patterns) were found among those regenerated via callus. The analyses conducted on the selfed progenies (69 plants) and the F1 hybrids (66 plants) showed only one case of accidental outcross. Segregation studies of the RFLP markers revealed significant deviations from expected Mendelian ratios in both AC-derived populations, as well as in the selfed progenies. Such deviations, however, were rare in the reciprocal F1 hybrids. These results are discussed in relation to the possible presence of genetic sieves operating during AC, illegitimate selfing, or during normal fertilization.

  18. Development of SED Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN) (United States)

    Kim, Sanghyuk; Jeon, Yiseul; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Ji, Tae-Geun; Hyun, Minhee; Choi, Changsu; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong


    We describe the characteristics and performance of a camera system, Spectral energy distribution Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN). It was developed to measure SEDs of high-redshift quasar candidates (z ≳ 5) and other targets, e.g., young stellar objects, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts, and to trace the time variability of SEDs of objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SQUEAN consists of an on-axis focal plane camera module, an autoguiding system, and mechanical supporting structures. The science camera module is composed of a focal reducer, a customizable filter wheel, and a CCD camera on the focal plane. The filter wheel uses filter cartridges that can house filters with different shapes and sizes, enabling the filter wheel to hold 20 filters of 50 mm × 50 mm size, 10 filters of 86 mm × 86 mm size, or many other combinations. The initial filter mask was applied to calibrate the filter wheel with high accuracy, and we verified that the filter position is repeatable at much less than one pixel accuracy. We installed and tested 50 nm medium bandwidth filters of 600-1050 nm and other filters at the commissioning observation in 2015 February. We found that SQUEAN can reach limiting magnitudes of 23.3-25.3 AB mag at 5σ in a one-hour total integration time.

  19. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.


    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  20. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway. (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas T


    The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway.

  1. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, L.C.


    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  2. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim


    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  3. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai


    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  4. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gonçalo AG


    mycelium with primordia and a second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle.

  5. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.


    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  6. The effects of military deployment on early child development. (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana R; Ee, Juliana; Berry-Cabán, Cristobal S; Hoedebecke, Kyle


    The purpose of this observational, point prevalence study is to determine if parental deployment affects the cognitive, social and emotional development of preschool age children in the military family. Demographic information was collected and an age-appropriate Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) and Ages and Stages Social-Emotional Inventory (ASQ:SE) were administered. The primary outcome measure was the failure rates on the developmental instruments. We identified 151 parents of eligible children; 95 children had a parent that deployed during their lifetime. We found a significant difference in ASQ-3 failure rates for children in the deployed group compared to those in the nondeployed group. Children of deployed parents were at least twice as often to fail the ASQ-3 or ASQ:SE developmental screen compared to children whose parents did not deploy. 30.5% of children in the deployed group failed the ASQ-3 screen while 12.5% of children who did not have a deployed parent failed (P=.009). On the ASQ:SE developmental screen, 16.8% of children who had a parent deploy failed versus 5.4% of children who did not have a parent deploy (P=.031). This study suggests that parental deployment is related to adverse risk for developmental delays in children in military families. The psychological burden on military children could be life-long or require significant resources to address. These adverse outcomes could be possibly mitigated by early detection of developmental delay and firm attention to aggressive screening techniques in military communities.

  7. Early successful orchidopexy does not prevent from developing azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hadziselimovic


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Ad spermatogonia (stem cells for fertility was assessed in 20 cryptorchid patients, all of whom had a successful orchidopexy in childhood but developed azoospermia following puberty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a cohort of 231 patients who had a semen analysis following successful orchidopexy 20 patients (9% had azoospermia. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the time of surgery: A = < 21 months of age (n = 5, mean = 10.7 ± 8.6 months and B = during childhood (n = 15, mean = 10.1 ± 3 years. Nine of the 20 patients (45% had bilateral cryptorchidism: A = 1 and B = 8. Testicular biopsies were performed during orchidopexy and analyzed with semi-thin technique. The number of Ad spermatogonia and entire number of germ cells was determined. The patients' semen analyses were evaluated at least twice; FSH and testosterone plasma values were estimated. RESULTS: In group A, all patients had germ cells at the time of surgery (mean = 1.04 ± 1.4 germ cells per tubular cross section; only 6 patients in group B (40% had no germ cells (mean = 0.17 ± 0.4; A vs. B, p = 0.0133. Importantly, Ad spermatogonia were absent in the entire study population. The plasma FSH of 16 patients (80% was abnormal [median = 16.35 IU/L (Interquartile range of sample - IQR 9.075-27.85 95% CI, 3-53] while the plasma testosterone of all the patients was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The most severe cause of infertility in cryptorchid patients cannot be mitigated by an early successful surgery alone.

  8. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    at three years of age. Bacterial compositions and diversity indices were determined in fecal samples collected from 114 infants in the SKOT cohort at age 9 and 18 months by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These were compared to the presence of older siblings, furred pets and early life infections.......006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...

  9. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović


    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  10. Development of a Tier 3 Curriculum to Teach Early Literacy Skills (United States)

    Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Hommel, Annie; McMahon, Rose; Aguayo, Katherine Bravo


    Children with the lowest oral language and early literacy skills at entry to kindergarten are the most vulnerable to poor literacy outcomes. This article describes the programmatic development of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention for preschool children who are most in need of intensive support to achieve early literacy outcomes. The…

  11. Developing Home-Based Early Learning Systems in East Yakima and White Center. Better Beginnings (United States)

    Hallgren, Kristin; Paulsell, Diane; Del Grosso, Patricia


    In 2006, the Gates Foundation launched the Early Learning Initiative to improve the school readiness of Washington State's children through three main strategies: (1) development of high-quality, community-wide early learning initiatives in two communities; (2) enhancement of statewide systems that support early learning; and (3) support for…

  12. Linking Play to Early Learning and Development Guidelines: Possibility or Polemic? (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Scott-Little, Catherine; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins


    Early learning and development guidelines have often been regarded as a deterrent to an emphasis on play within early learning settings for infants and toddlers. In examining the context for, and the evolution of, early learning guidelines, the article delineates the need to scrutinize and help reverse this mindset. To that end, the authors…

  13. Media representations of early human development: protecting, feeding and loving the developing brain. (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene


    The public profile of neurodevelopmental research has expanded in recent years. This paper applies social representations theory to explore how early brain development was represented in the UK print media in the first decade of the 21st century. A thematic analysis was performed on 505 newspaper articles published between 2000 and 2010 that discussed early brain development. Media coverage centred around concern with 'protecting' the prenatal brain (identifying threats to foetal neurodevelopment), 'feeding' the infant brain (indicating the patterns of nutrition that enhance brain development) and 'loving' the young child's brain (elucidating the developmental significance of emotionally nurturing family environments). The media focused almost exclusively on the role of parental action in promoting optimal neurodevelopment, rarely acknowledging wider structural, cultural or political means of supporting child development. The significance of parental care was intensified by deterministic interpretations of critical periods, which implied that inappropriate parental input would produce profound and enduring neurobiological impairments. Neurodevelopmental research was also used to promulgate normative judgements concerning the acceptability of certain gender roles and family contexts. The paper argues that media representations of neurodevelopment stress parental responsibility for shaping a child's future while relegating the contributions of genetic or wider societal factors, and examines the consequences of these representations for society and family life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ps2, the gene responsible for functional sterility in tomato, due to non-dehiscent anthers, is the result of a mutation in a novel polygalacturonase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Heusden, van A.W.


    The recessive mutation ps-2, which appeared spontaneously in tomato, confers functional male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers. In this study, we isolated and characterized the PS-2 gene. A single nucleotide mutation in a novel tomato polygalacturonase gene is responsible for the ps-2

  15. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.


    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order

  16. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems


    Shaw, Daniel S.


    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of pove...

  17. Early Childhood Development Operations in Latin and Caribbean Region (LCR) : Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil in Focus


    Holland, Peter; Evans, David


    The rationale and evidence of the effectiveness of investing early in children is compelling: early childhood is the most rapid period of development in a human life, with incredible brain development occurring (85 percent of the brain is wired by age 5). Investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) are among the most effective and cost-effective investments a country can make in its p...

  18. Early Childhood Development and Education in Sierra Leone: Constraints and Possibilities


    Athinodorou, Eleni


    The importance of early childhood education as the process for building strong foundation for children’s further learning has been supported by scientific research. Currently, countries in Africa are incorporating early childhood development and education into their country development and policy plans. This study explored the post-war early childhood development through a critical ethnographic case study in order to identify and critically analyse the facilitators and barriers...

  19. The Development of Prosocial Behaviour in Early Childhood: Contributions of Early Parenting and Self-Regulation (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Berthelsen, Donna


    This research considers the role of parenting practices and early self-regulation, on children's prosocial behaviour when they begin school. Data for 4007 children were drawn from "Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). The analyses explored relations between self-reported parenting practices for…

  20. Development of nap neurophysiology: preliminary insights into sleep regulation in early childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurth, Salome; Lassonde, Jonathan M; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Rusterholz, Thomas; Jenni, Oskar G; McClain, Ian J; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K


    .... Longitudinal studies of napping physiology are fundamental to understanding sleep regulation during early childhood, a sensitive period in brain and behaviour development and a time when children...

  1. Effects of child development accounts on early social-emotional development: an experimental test. (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Sherraden, Michael; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret


    This study, based on Oklahoma's statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being. To examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood. A statewide randomized experiment of CDAs was conducted in 2008, drawing a probability sample of 7328 children from all infants born in two 3-month periods in Oklahoma (April 1 through June 30 and August 1 through October 31, 2007). After agreeing to participate in the experiment, caregivers of 2704 infants completed a baseline survey and were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 1358) and control groups (n = 1346). Approximately 84% of participants completed a follow-up survey in the spring of 2011. The intervention offered CDAs, built on the existing Oklahoma 529 college-savings plan, to treatment participants. It also provided additional financial incentives and information. The primary outcome-child social-emotional development-is measured by scores from a 17-item version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Caregivers completed it in the 3-year follow-up survey. Lower scores indicate better functioning. The CDAs have positive effects on social-emotional development for children at approximately age 4 years. The nonweighted treatment-control difference is -1.56 (90% CI, -2.87 to -0.22; P = .06), but the weighted difference is nonsignificant. The effects appear to be greater for disadvantaged subsamples, such as low-income households (weighted mean difference, -2.21; 90% CI, -4.01 to -0.42; P = .04). As a complement to other early education and health interventions, CDAs may improve social-emotional development in early childhood. Their effects may be explained as a mediating

  2. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.


    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  3. Developing Pedagogical Strategies to Promote Structural Thinking in Early Mathematics (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne T.; Mitchelmore, Michael C.


    The Pattern and Structure Mathematical Awareness Program (PASMAP) is an early mathematics program designed to promote structural thinking. PASMAP pedagogy removes the structure commonly provided for students in order to challenge them to construct their own, focusing student attention on spatial and numerical patterns and leading them to formulate…

  4. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander


    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In

  5. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In

  6. Do Fine Motor Skills Contribute to Early Reading Development? (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun


    Background: Little is known about how fine motor skills (FMS) relate to early literacy skills, especially over and above cognitive variables. Moreover, a lack of distinction between FMS, grapho-motor and writing skills may have hampered previous work. Method: In Germany, kindergartners (n = 144, aged 6;1) were recruited before beginning formal…

  7. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality (United States)

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.


    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  8. Developing students' writing skills: an early intervention approach. (United States)

    Hanson Diehl, Susan


    In what seems to be a universal situation, nurse educators are reading student papers and lamenting the fact that their students cannot write. The author explains a successful model of early intervention aimed at improving academic writing for new graduate students. The model and teaching strategies are helpful to nurse educators who struggle with the quality of their students' written work.

  9. Positive Home Environment and Behaviour Development in Early Adolescents (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William


    Early adolescence is a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. This transition involves physical, cognitive and socio- emotional changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degree of disturbance. The changes they undergo sometimes results in…

  10. The Structure and Development of Dispositional Compassion in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Bengtsson, Hans; Söderström, Micael; Terjestam, Yvonne


    Compassion may be directed at a broad range of targets. The present study investigated interrelations among other-directed compassion, self-compassion, and environmental compassion in early adolescence (age = 12-14; n = 256) and examined how the different manifestations of compassion related to age and sex during this age period. Dispositional…

  11. Early development and larval behaviour of a minnow, Barbus anopius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation, Vanderkloof. The chubbyhead barb, Barbus anoplus, underwent a popula- tion explosion in the early ... of the eastern Cape (Gaigher, Ntloko & Visser 1975), Barbus holubi from the Vaal River (Groenewald 1961) and B. natalen- sis of Natal (Wright & Coke 1975) ...

  12. Agency in Early Childhood Learning and Development in Cameroon (United States)

    Nsamenang, A. Bame


    This article focuses on agency, as a natural disposition in children to be active and participative. Africa's parenting attitudes and education in African family traditions encourage and foster children's responsible agency in family life, cultural and economic activities, and their own developmental learning from an early, especially within the…

  13. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff


    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  14. Early gonad development in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) | Okuthe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated events of early gonadogenesis in zebrafish with the aim of unraveling the events surrounding the mitotic/meiotic transition in juvenile ovaries. Primordial germ cells were identified at eight days post fertilization (dpf). Mitotic divisions were apparent at 15 dpf, and meiosis initiated in some gonads after ...

  15. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments (United States)

    Bankovic, Ivana


    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  16. Early Development of Graphical Literacy through Knowledge Building (United States)

    Gan, Yongcheng; Scardamalia, Marlene; Hong, Huang-Yao; Zhang, Jianwei


    This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production,…

  17. An Early Childhood Educator's Guide to Prosocial Development. (United States)

    Floody, Dale R.

    This paper reviews research findings that are related to fostering prosocial behavior in the early childhood and elementary classroom. A collection of "experimental best bets" for increasing prosocial behavior in young children is outlined. This collection covers the role of reinforcement and modeling or imitation, the importance of group norms,…

  18. The extended trajectory of hippocampal development: Implications for early memory development and disorder. (United States)

    Gómez, Rebecca L; Edgin, Jamie O


    Hippocampus has an extended developmental trajectory, with refinements occurring in the trisynaptic circuit until adolescence. While structural change should suggest a protracted course in behavior, some studies find evidence of precocious hippocampal development in the first postnatal year and continuity in memory processes beyond. However, a number of memory functions, including binding and relational inference, can be cortically supported. Evidence from the animal literature suggests that tasks often associated with hippocampus (visual paired comparison, binding of a visuomotor response) can be mediated by structures external to hippocampus. Thus, a complete examination of memory development will have to rule out cortex as a source of early memory competency. We propose that early memory must show properties associated with full function of the trisynaptic circuit to reflect "adult-like" memory function, mainly (1) rapid encoding of contextual details of overlapping patterns, and (2) retention of these details over sleep-dependent delays. A wealth of evidence suggests that these functions are not apparent until 18-24 months, with behavioral discontinuities reflecting shifts in the neural structures subserving memory beginning approximately at this point in development. We discuss the implications of these observations for theories of memory and for identifying and measuring memory function in populations with typical and atypical hippocampal function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Pas de deux: An Intricate Dance of Anther Smut and Its Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su San Toh


    Full Text Available The successful interaction between pathogen/parasite and host requires a delicate balance between fitness of the former and survival of the latter. To optimize fitness a parasite/pathogen must effectively create an environment conducive to reproductive success, while simultaneously avoiding or minimizing detrimental host defense response. The association between Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host Silene latifolia serves as an excellent model to examine such interactions. This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores. In the current study, transcriptome analyses of the fungus and its host were conducted during discrete stages of bud development so as to identify changes in fungal gene expression that lead to spore development and to identify changes associated with infection in the host plant. In contrast to early biotrophic phase stages of infection for the fungus, the latter stages involve tissue necrosis and in the case of infected female flowers, further changes in the developmental program in which the ovary aborts and a pseudoanther is produced. Transcriptome analysis via Illumina RNA sequencing revealed enrichment of fungal genes encoding small secreted proteins, with hallmarks of effectors and genes found to be relatively unique to the Microbotryum species complex. Host gene expression analyses also identified interesting sets of genes up-regulated, including those involving stress response, host defense response, and several agamous-like MADS-box genes (AGL61 and AGL80, predicted to interact and be involved in male gametophyte development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka RAZMOVSKA


    Full Text Available Introduction;· Causes for disorders in the speech development;· Disorders in the speech development, mental retardation and treatment;· Disorders in the speech development, hearing remainders and treatment;· Autism and disorders in the speech development;· Bilingual and disordered speech development;· Speech of neglected children



    Vasilka RAZMOVSKA; Vasilka DOLEVSKA


    Introduction;· Causes for disorders in the speech development;· Disorders in the speech development, mental retardation and treatment;· Disorders in the speech development, hearing remainders and treatment;· Autism and disorders in the speech development;· Bilingual and disordered speech development;· Speech of neglected children

  2. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) (United States)

    ... Snapshot of Pregnancy & Infant Development Advances Snapshot of Child Development Advances Snapshot of Adult & Family Health Advances NICHD ... Meetings and Events BACK TO TOP Content Owner Child Development and Behavior Branch Last Reviewed Date 12/30/ ...

  3. The development and arithmetic foundations of early functional thinking


    Xolocotzin, Ulises; Rojano, Teresa


    International audience; Functional reasoning is a key strand of early algebrai-zation. This paper presents a cross-sectional study that analysed functional thinking in a sample of 94 elementary school students. Aspects such as following and identifying covariation rules showed dramatic differences between Grade 2, Grade 4, and Grade 6, whereas increases in the abilities to command verbal and symbolic representations were much smaller. After controlling for the influence of nonverbal reasoning...

  4. Role of Gut Microbiota in Early Infant Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wall


    Full Text Available Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant, and establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal inflammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to manipulation of the composition of the microbiota through 1 the role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics that positively influence the enteric microbiota by selectively promoting growth of beneficial bacteria and 2 oral administration of probiotic bacteria which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the complex microbiota of the adult is difficult to change in the long-term, there is greater impact of the diet on infant microbiota as this is not as stable as in adults. Decreasing excessive use of antibiotics and increasing the use of pre- and probiotics have shown to be beneficial in the prevention of several important infant diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and atopic eczema as well as improvement of short and long-term health. This review addresses how the composition of the gut microbiota becomes established in early life, its relevance to infant health, and dietary means by which it can be manipulated.

  5. Pollination of Vietnamese Aspidistra xuansonensis (Asparagaceae) by female Cecidomyiidi flies: larvae of pollinator feed on fertile pollen in anthers of anthetic bisexual flowers. (United States)

    Vislobokov, Nikolay A; Galinskaya, Tatiana V; Degtjareva, Galina V; Valiejo-Roman, Carmen M; Samigullin, Tahir H; Kuznetsov, Andrey N; Sokoloff, Dmitry D


    • Aspidistra is a species-rich, herbaceous monocot genus of tropical Southeast Asia. Most species are recently discovered and apparently endangered, though virtually nothing is known about their biology. Species of the genus are primarily distinguished using flower morphology, which is enormously diverse. However, the pollination process has not been directly observed in the center of diversity of the genus (N Vietnam and S China). Indirect and partly direct data on the only widely cultivated species of the genus (A. elatior) placed it among angiosperms with the most unusual pollination biology, though these data are highly controversial, suggesting pollen transfer by mollusks, crustaceans, flies, or possibly tiny soil invertebrates such as collembolans.• Pollination of Aspidistra xuansonensis in the center of diversity of the genus was studied using visual observations and videos and light and scanning electron microscopy investigation of flowers and their pollinators. Pollinators and their larvae were molecularly barcoded.• Aspidistra xuansonensis is pollinated by female cecidomyiid flies (gall midges). They oviposit on anthers, and larvae develop among the pollen mass. Molecular barcoding proved taxonomic identity of the larvae and the flies. The larvae neither damage floral parts nor cause gall formation, but feed on pollen grains by sucking out their content. The larvae move out of the flowers before decomposition starts. Carebara ants steal developing larvae from flowers but do not contribute to pollination.• More than one kind of myiophily is present in Aspidistra. Brood site pollination was documented for the first time in Aspidistra. The pollination system of A. xuansonensis differs from other kinds of brood site pollination in the exit of the larvae prior to the decomposition of floral parts. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.


    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  7. DIALOG: Fostering Early Career Development Across the Aquatic Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD


    A total of 447 dissertation abstracts were received for the DIALOG V Program, with 146 individuals applying for the DIALOG V Symposium; 47 were invited and 45 have accepted. This represents a significant increase compared to the DIALOG IV Program in which 221 abstracts were registered and 124 applied for the symposium. The importance of the dissertation registration service is indicated by the increasing number of individuals who take time to register their dissertation even when they are not interested in applying to the symposium. The number of visits to the webpage has also increased significantly over the years. This also reflects graduate interest in being part of the on-line Dissertation Registry and receiving the weekly electronic DIALOG Newsletter. See for details. The DIALOG symposium reaches approximately 40 new PI's at a pivotal point in their research careers. Based on their comments, the symposium changes the way participants think, communicate, and approach their research. The science community and the general population will benefit from the perspectives these new PI's bring back to their home institutions and share with their students and colleagues. This group should act as a catalyst to move the entire field in exciting new, interdisciplinary directions. To reach more graduates, plans are underway to establish the symposium on an annual basis. By facilitating the development of close collegial ties, symposium participants come away with a network of colleagues from around the globe with interests in aquatic science research and education. Past participants are collaborating on research proposals, and all have noted that participation has enabled them to develop a more interdisciplinary view of their field, influencing the way they interpret, communicate, and approacli their research. The dissertation registry provides a unique introduction to the work of this most recent generation of aquatic scientists. Each

  8. The Place of the Arts in Early Childhood Learning and Development


    French, Geraldine


    This paper has been commissioned by Arts Council Ireland to inform the development of a national strategy for early childhood arts in Ireland. The paper is based on contemporary thinking and knowledge of child psychology, early learning and development and childhood studies, in particular the theoretical principles and pedagogical approaches to early childhood art-based learning. It begins with an exploration of the concept of pedagogy. International research on the importance of effective pe...

  9. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo


    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  10. Polyamine oxidase 7 is a terminal catabolism-type enzyme in Oryza sativa and is specifically expressed in anthers. (United States)

    Liu, Taibo; Kim, Dong Wook; Niitsu, Masaru; Maeda, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Masao; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu


    Polyamine oxidase (PAO), which requires FAD as a cofactor, functions in polyamine catabolism. Plant PAOs are classified into two groups based on their reaction modes. The terminal catabolism (TC) reaction always produces 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP), H2O2, and the respective aldehydes, while the back-conversion (BC) reaction produces spermidine (Spd) from tetraamines, spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm) and/or putrescine from Spd, along with 3-aminopropanal and H2O2. The Oryza sativa genome contains seven PAO-encoded genes termed OsPAO1-OsPAO7. To date, we have characterized four OsPAO genes. The products of these genes, i.e. OsPAO1, OsPAO3, OsPAO4 and OsPAO5, catalyze BC-type reactions. Whereas OsPAO1 remains in the cytoplasm, the other three PAOs localize to peroxisomes. Here, we examined OsPAO7 and its gene product. OsPAO7 shows high identity to maize ZmPAO1, the best characterized plant PAO having TC-type activity. OsPAO7 seems to remain in a peripheral layer of the plant cell with the aid of its predicted signal peptide and transmembrane domain. Recombinant OsPAO7 prefers Spm and Spd as substrates, and it produces DAP from both substrates in a time-dependent manner, indicating that OsPAO7 is the first TC-type enzyme identified in O. sativa. The results clearly show that two types of PAOs co-exist in O. sativa. Furthermore, OsPAO7 is specifically expressed in anthers, with an expressional peak at the bicellular pollen stage. The physiological function of OsPAO7 in anthers is discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  11. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development. (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B


    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  12. Perceptions and Attitudes of Early Childhood Teachers in Korea about Education for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Park, Eunhye; Kim, Heejin; Yu, Sunyoung


    This study investigates the perceptions and attitudes of Korean early childhood teachers about education for sustainable development (ESD). A total of 301 Korean early childhood teachers participated in a survey which was purposefully developed for this research. The survey focused on three areas of interest: understanding of concepts about…

  13. Early Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and the Later Development of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum


    Early exposure to several infectious agents has been associated with the later development of schizophrenia. Two recent studies assessed in utero or early postnatal exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. In one study of 63 individuals, who developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders, maternal sera obtained...

  14. Early assessment of medical devices in development for company decision making : An exploration of best practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Van Til, Janine; IJzerman, Maarten


    To improve successful development and clinical use of medical technologies, it is suggested that manufacturers should start collecting evidence on devices effectiveness and eficiency early in their development. The aim of this study was to explore whether and how Dutch manufacturers perform an early

  15. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development (United States)

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue


    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53 first-time…

  16. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.


    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  17. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming


    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  18. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta


    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  19. Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Thomas, M. Shelley


    In order to explore early childhood educators' cultural competence through a lens of racial identity development theory, a case study was conducted with four White Kindergarten teachers. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to understand their racial identity development as well as perspectives of teaching culturally diverse early childhood…

  20. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der


    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  1. Early Writing Development: Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs about Emergent Writing in Qatari Preschool Settings (United States)

    Al-Maadadi, Fatima; Ihmeideh, Fathi


    Writing often begins during the very early years of childhood; however, some children first learn writing when they begin attending school. Teachers' beliefs about early writing development can influence when and how children learn to write. The purpose of this study was to determine kindergarten teachers' beliefs about the development of…

  2. Early human brain development : the impact of periconceptional maternal and fetal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.V. Koning (Irene)


    textabstractEarly human brain development is an extremely complex process which is highly susceptible to genetic and environmental conditions. These factors may cause subtle changes in early brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment. The main objective of this thesis is to

  3. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.


    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in

  4. Early or pre-coeliac mucosa: development of gluten enteropathy. (United States)

    Egan-Mitchell, B; Fottrell, P F; McNicholl, B


    Duodenal mucosa showed normal morphology, interepithelial lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase, and sucrase in a girl with growth retardation and iron deficiency, but normal absorption of lactose and xylose after two years of abnormal stools. Mucosal lactase was low. Fourteen months later mucosal damage consistent with coeliac disease was evident, and gluten intolerance was subsequently confirmed by gluten challenge. It is probable that, in some children, the mucosal lesion occurs very gradually, so that at an early stage with normal morphology, suppression of lactase activity and possibly interference with iron absorption may be the only abnormalities. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7461478

  5. Pas de deux: An Intricate Dance of Anther Smut and Its Host. (United States)

    Toh, Su San; Chen, Zehua; Rouchka, Eric C; Schultz, David J; Cuomo, Christina A; Perlin, Michael H


    The successful interaction between pathogen/parasite and host requires a delicate balance between fitness of the former and survival of the latter. To optimize fitness a parasite/pathogen must effectively create an environment conducive to reproductive success, while simultaneously avoiding or minimizing detrimental host defense response. The association between Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host, Silene latifolia, serves as an excellent model to examine such interactions. This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores. In the current study, transcriptome analyses of the fungus and its host were conducted during discrete stages of bud development so as to identify changes in fungal gene expression that lead to spore development and to identify changes associated with infection in the host plant. In contrast to early biotrophic phase stages of infection for the fungus, the latter stages involve tissue necrosis and in the case of infected female flowers, further changes in the developmental program in which the ovary aborts and a pseudoanther is produced. Transcriptome analysis via Illumina RNA sequencing revealed enrichment of fungal genes encoding small secreted proteins, with hallmarks of effectors and genes found to be relatively unique to the Microbotryum species complex. Host gene expression analyses also identified interesting sets of genes up-regulated, including those involving stress response, host defense response and several agamous-like MADS-box genes (AGL61 and AGL80), predicted to interact and be involved in male gametophyte development. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  6. Sleep as a window into early neural development: Shifts in sleep-dependent learning effects across early childhood. (United States)

    Gómez, Rebecca L; Edgin, Jamie O


    Sleep is an important physiological state for the consolidation and generalization of new learning in children and adults. We review the literature on sleep-dependent memory consolidation and generalization in infants and preschool children and place the findings in the context of the development of the neural systems underlying memory (hippocampus and its connections to cortex). Based on the extended trajectory of hippocampal development, transitions in the nature of sleep-dependent learning are expected. The studies reviewed here show shifts in the nature of sleep-dependent learning across early childhood, with sleep facilitating generalization in infants but enhancing precise memory after 18-24 months of age. Future studies on sleep-dependent learning in infants and young children must take these transitions in early brain development into account.

  7. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction. (United States)

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries


    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  8. Early Gesture Provides a Helping Hand to Spoken Vocabulary Development for Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Baumann, Stephanie


    Typically developing (TD) children refer to objects uniquely in gesture (e.g., point at a cat) before they produce verbal labels for these objects ("cat"). The onset of such gestures predicts the onset of similar spoken words, showing a strong positive relation between early gestures and early words. We asked whether gesture plays the…

  9. Early development of gait asymmetries in trotting standardbred colts. (United States)

    Drevemo, S; Fredricson, I; Hjertén, G; McMiken, D


    Ten trotting Standardbred colts were recorded by high-speed cinematography at the ages of eight, 12 and 18 months. The horses were trotting on a treadmill operating at 4.0 m/secs. Five horses were subjected to a programme of intensified training from eight months of age, whereas the others were not trained and acted as controls. The films were analysed on a semi-automatic film-reading equipment and a number of variables used to demonstrate the gait symmetry were calculated and scaled by computer. Certain differences between left and right diagonal and contralateral pair of limbs, respectively, were noted, suggesting that laterality in horses may be inherited. The most pronounced systematic differences were found in 18-month old horses in the trained group. The results show the importance of careful gait examination and comprehensive coordination training at an early age.

  10. Early development of executive functions: a differential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sastre-Riba


    Full Text Available The ontogeny of executive functions is essential in explaining differential and normative developmental trends. Executive functions must be studied from an early age given their consequential effects on mental flexibility, monitoring information, planning, and cognitive control. We propose a differential study in alternative developmental courses through observing typical babies, Down syndrome babies, and babies with risk-factors at birth (due to low weight or to congenital hypothyroidism. Applymg Systematic Observational Methodology, spontaneous babies' activity was registered. The results indicated that: a Typical babies showed better shifting and action flexibility in order to obtain a goal, thus better results; b Among the higher risk-babies, the lower efficacy in executive functioning was observed in underweight babies. Those with hypothyroidism were more in line with the typical babies; c Underweight babies showed a good level of combining actions but they obtained inferior results; d Down syndrome babies displayed more executive functioning difficulty, lower flexibility, high perseveration and less error detection.

  11. Early Development of Graphical Literacy through Knowledge Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcheng Gan


    Full Text Available This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production, nor were they required to produce graphics. Results show that students spontaneously produced graphics that advanced along seven dimensions, including effective representation of complex ideas, use of source information and captions, and aesthetic quality. On average, the scores for the seven dimensions were higher for Grade 4 students with two years of experience with Knowledge Building pedagogy and technology (Knowledge Forum® than for Grade 6 students with one year of experience. The overall pattern of results suggests reciprocal enhancement of graphical, textual, digital, and scientific literacy, with students exceeding expectations by available norms, and performance enhanced through extended Knowledge Building experience.

  12. Ethylene production and post-pollination development in Dendrobium flowers treated with foreign pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketsa, S.; Bunya-Atichart, K.; Doorn, van W.G.


    Dendrobium ‘Pompadour’ flowers fade early following pollination. This is associated with increased ethylene production and early epinasty. These effects are also produced by application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) on the stigma. Pollen (one anther each) from Ruellia tuberosa L.

  13. Growth and Morphogenesis during Early Heart Development in Amniotes


    Kenzo Ivanovitch; Isaac Esteban; Miguel Torres


    In this review, we will focus on the growth and morphogenesis of the developing heart, an aspect of cardiovascular development to which Antoon Moorman and colleagues have extensively contributed. Over the last decades, genetic studies and characterization of regionally regulated gene programs have provided abundant novel insights into heart development essential to understand the basis of congenital heart disease. Heart morphogenesis, however, is inherently a complex and dynamic three-dimensi...

  14. Distributional effects of OPORTUNIDADES on early child development


    Figueroa, J.L.


    Adequate health, nutrition, and education during childhood are essential for human development. Deficits in these realms undermine the capacity to acquire the necessary skills to perform in life. Social policies addressing the causes of disadvantages in child development take up an important place in the social agenda. The Mexican Oportunidades program is such a policy. Investments in children’s health, nutrition, and education by the program are expected to facilitate children’s development....

  15. Early Lexical Development in Spanish-Speaking Infants and Toddlers. (United States)

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others


    The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…

  16. Early Grammatical Development in Spanish Children with Down Syndrome (United States)

    Galeote, Miguel; Soto, Pilar; Sebastian, Eugenia; Checa, Elena; Sanchez-Palacios, Concepcion


    The objective of this work was to analyze morphosyntactic development in a wide sample of children with Down syndrome (DS) ("n" = 92) and children with typical development (TD) ("n" = 92) with a mental age (MA) of 20 to 29 months. Children were individually matched for gender and MA (Analysis 1) and for vocabulary size…

  17. The Role of Parents in Early Childhood Development. (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    This address to the National Congress of Parents and Teachers (PTA) discusses programs and services, current knowledge of child development, and national policies relating to child and family development in relation to democratic principles such as cultural pluralism, individual rights, and parent involvement. Conditions which make it difficult…

  18. The effects of military deployment on early child development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Dana R; Ee, Juliana; Berry-Cabán, Cristobal S; Hoedebecke, Kyle


    The purpose of this observational, point prevalence study is to determine if parental deployment affects the cognitive, social and emotional development of preschool age children in the military family...

  19. The neonatal brain : early connectome development and childhood cognition


    Keunen, K.


    The human brain is a vastly complex system that develops rapidly during human gestation. Its developmental pace is unprecedented in any other period of human development. By the time of normal birth the brain's layout verges on the adult human brain. All major structures have come into place, including the white matter pathways. The brain’s white matter forms an intricate network of connections between gray matter regions. This macroscale brain network is referred to as the ‘connectome’. Rece...

  20. Distributional effects of Oportunidades on early child development. (United States)

    Figueroa, José Luis


    The Mexican Oportunidades program is designed to increase human capital through investments in education, health, and nutrition for children in extreme poverty. Although the program is not expressly designed to promote a child's cognitive and non-cognitive development, the set of actions carried out by the program could eventually facilitate improvements in these domains. Previous studies on the Oportunidades program have found little impact on children's cognition but have found positive effects on their non-cognitive development. However, the majority of these studies use the average outcome to measure the impact of the program and thus overlook other "non-average" effects. This paper uses stochastic dominance methods to investigate results beyond the mean by comparing cumulative distributions for both children who are and children who are not aided by the program. Four indicators of cognitive development and one indicator of non-cognitive development are analyzed using a sample of 2595 children aged two to six years. The sample was collected in rural communities in Mexico in 2003 as part of the program evaluation. Similar to previous studies, the program is found to positively influence children's non-cognitive abilities: children enrolled in the program manifest fewer behavioral problems compared with children who are not enrolled. In addition, different program effects are found for girls and boys and for indigenous and non-indigenous children. The ranges where the effect is measured cover a large part of the outcome's distribution, and these ranges include a large proportion of the children in the sample. With regard to cognitive development, only one indicator (short-term memory) shows positive effects. Nevertheless, the results for this indicator demonstrate that children with low values of cognitive development benefit from the program, whereas children with high values do not. Overall, the program has positive effects on child development, especially for

  1. Use Case Evaluation (UCE): A Method for Early Usability Evaluation in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan; Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Hornbæk, K.


    t is often argued that usability problems should be identified as early as possible during software development, but many usability evaluation methods do not fit well in early development activities. We propose a method for usability evaluation of use cases, a widely used representation of design...... ideas produced early in software development processes. The method proceeds by systematic inspection of use cases with reference to a set of guidelines for usable design. To validate the method, four evaluators inspected a set of use cases for a health care application....

  2. Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in Yakutia (Russia): Meeting the Challenges (United States)

    Kotnik, Jure; Shmis, Tigran


    The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development (ECD) system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrolment levels. Currently, a high priority for the Government of Yakutia is to increase access to pre-school education, given the significant…

  3. Early Intervention Practices for Children with Hearing Loss: Impact of Professional Development (United States)

    Martin-Prudent, Angi; Lartz, Maribeth; Borders, Christina; Meehan, Tracy


    Early identification and appropriate intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing significantly increase the likelihood of better language, speech, and social-emotional development. However, current research suggests that there is a critical shortage of professionals trained to provide early intervention services to deaf and…

  4. African Early Childhood Development Curriculum and Pedagogy for Turkana Nomadic Pastoralist Communities of Kenya (United States)

    Ng'asike, John T.


    Western conceptions of child development and the models of early education they engender predominantly shape services for young children in the first eight years of life all over Africa. This chapter brings a reconceptualist perspective to the critique of Kenya's continuing failure to ground early childhood programs and services in local cultural…

  5. Disregard for Rules: The Early Development and Predictors of a Specific Dimension of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (United States)

    Petitclerc, Amelie; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.


    Background: Disregard for rules, an important dimension of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, is frequent during early childhood, but the development of its chronic form has not been studied during this key socialization period. This study aimed to describe the developmental trajectories of disregard for rules during early childhood and…

  6. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias


    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  7. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control during Letter Copying (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.


    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor, and…

  8. Early Identification for Special Education: Implications for Research and Development in the Pacific Rim (United States)

    Cook, Bryan; Gerber, Michael; Hong, Li-Yu; Mannan, Hasheem; Zhang, Weng-jing


    Early identification and intervention for children with disabilities can significantly improve longer term outcomes, but in developing nations like many in the Pacific Rim, such programs and practices can be expensive and must compete against other needs. We argue that early identification and intervention by schools leads not only to life…

  9. Predicting the integrated development of word reading and spelling in the early primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaars, M.M.H.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    Word reading and spelling processes are assumed to be highly related to each other and to early literacy measures. However, the debate on how reading and spelling interact in early development is far from resolved yet. The present study examined the singular and integrated word reading and spelling

  10. Building the Leadership Capacity of Early Childhood Directors: An Evaluation of a Leadership Development Model (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.


    While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…

  11. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy (United States)

    Damsen, Silver


    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the researches conducted in the area of risk factors and difficulties in the early development of children born after assisted conception, to systematize current knowledge in this field and allocate the factors of importance for the early intervention.In order to evaluate the published data on risk factors and early development of children born after assisted conception, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify the published papers related to the obstetric and neonatal outcome of pregnancies after assisted repro­duction technology, the incidence of multiple pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery, the neonatal status, the mean gestational age, the average birth weight, the neuro-developmental outcomes and early cognitive and motor development. The research identified the following factors as the most important for the early intervention: increased rates of multiple gestations, prematurity, delivery by cesarean section, lower average gestational development and average birth weight, small fetal development for gestational age and low Apgar score, related to the an increased risk of developing neurological problems, such as the cerebral palsy.Accepting this research results, it can be concluded that all of these information should be available for couples seeking an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment.The success of the early intervention is directly related to the early detection and assessment that precedes this treatment, creating individual programs and evaluation of the effects of the treatment.

  13. Oviduct: roles in fertilization and early embryo development. (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Winuthayanon, Wipawee


    Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients. Finally, the review compares different aspects of naturally occurring fertilization and assisted reproductive technology (ART)-achieved fertilization and embryo development, giving insight into potential areas for improvement in this technology. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Diez del Corral


    Full Text Available Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, trying to separate the different processes where retinoic acid signaling is involved and to highlight common features, such as its ability to promote transitions along the neuronal differentiation cascade.

  15. Developing analytic thinking skills in early undergraduate education. (United States)

    Bowers, B; McCarthy, D


    This article describes how a required prenursing health issues course was substantially restructured to increase the opportunities for students to develop analytic skills and for faculty to gain greater insight into how the students processed course content. Using writing-to-learn (WTL) strategies based on theories of adult cognitive development (Kinneavy, McCleary, & Nakadate, 1985; Kohlberg, 1978; Perry 1978), course readings, writing assignments, and exam questions were revised continuously over five semesters. This article describes the purpose and process of redesigning the course and some reflections on the outcome.

  16. Applications of alcohol clamping in early drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, Remco Wiebe Martijn


    This thesis describes the development of a novel alcohol clamp, a new method to obtain stable plasma levels of alcohol and its application in CNS-research. The method might have several advantages that were explored in subsequent studies described in this thesis. The stability of the alcohol clamp

  17. Sociocultural Contexts for the Early Development of Semiotic Production (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.


    Children constantly encounter signs during cultural practices, although many theories do not fully acknowledge sociocultural aspects of semiotic development. The author examines research on cultural practices and contexts in which children learn to produce signs involving representational drawing and pretend play. This work is contrasted with more…

  18. Early Vocabulary Development in Children with Bilateral Cochlear Implants (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila


    Background: Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote…

  19. The Role of Early Visual Attention in Social Development (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Luyster, Rhiannon J.; Yim, Jung Yeon; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.


    Faces convey important information about the social environment, and even very young infants are preferentially attentive to face-like over non-face stimuli. Eye-tracking studies have allowed researchers to examine which features of faces infants find most salient across development, and the present study examined scanning of familiar (i.e.,…

  20. Early Spatial Thinking and the Development of Number Sense (United States)

    Bobis, Janette


    Number sense has been recognised as central to young children's development of mathematics for a number of decades. A student with a "good" sense of number normally has a thorough understanding of relationships among numbers and operations--being able flexibly to partition and combine numbers in convenient ways to allow appropriate estimations and…

  1. Early embryo development in Fucus distichus is auxin sensitive (United States)

    Basu, Swati; Sun, Haiguo; Brian, Leigh; Quatrano, Ralph L.; Muday, Gloria K.


    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo development in land plants. The goal of these studies was to determine if auxin and auxin transport are also important during the earliest stages of development in embryos of the brown alga Fucus distichus. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified in F. distichus embryos and mature tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. F. distichus embryos accumulate [(3)H]IAA and an inhibitor of IAA efflux, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), elevates IAA accumulation, suggesting the presence of an auxin efflux protein complex similar to that found in land plants. F. distichus embryos normally develop with a single unbranched rhizoid, but growth on IAA leads to formation of multiple rhizoids and growth on NPA leads to formation of embryos with branched rhizoids, at concentrations that are active in auxin accumulation assays. The effects of IAA and NPA are complete before 6 h after fertilization (AF), which is before rhizoid germination and cell division. The maximal effects of IAA and NPA are between 3.5 and 5 h AF and 4 and 5.5 h AF, respectively. Although, the location of the planes of cell division was significantly altered in NPA- and IAA-treated embryos, these abnormal divisions occurred after abnormal rhizoid initiation and branching was observed. The results of this study suggest that auxin acts in the formation of apical basal patterns in F. distichus embryo development.

  2. Classroom Pets and Young Children: Supporting Early Development (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Jegatheesan, Brinda


    Many young children have a natural attraction to and curiosity about animals. They like to observe, touch, talk to, and ask questions about them. Teachers and parents both can use this broad interest to facilitate children's development and learning in a variety of domains. Research shows that children across ages find emotional comfort in their…

  3. Accelerating Early Language Development with Multi-Sensory Training (United States)

    Bjorn, Piia M.; Kakkuri, Irma; Karvonen, Pirkko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.


    This paper reports the outcome of a multi-sensory intervention on infant language skills. A programme titled "Rhyming Game and Exercise Club", which included kinaesthetic-tactile mother-child rhyming games performed in natural joint attention situations, was intended to accelerate Finnish six- to eight-month-old infants' language development. The…

  4. DNA methylation plays a crucial role during early Nasonia development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, M. V.; Verhulst, E. C.; Zwahlen, R. D.; Beukeboom, L. W.; van de Zande, L.

    Although the role of DNA methylation in insect development is still poorly understood, the number and role of DNA methyltransferases in insects vary strongly between species. DNA methylation appears to be widely present among the social hymenoptera and functional studies in Apis have suggested a

  5. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.


    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future

  6. Correlates of Early Language Development in Chinese Children (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Jin, Xingming; Shen, Xiamong; Zhang, Jinming; Hoff, Erika


    Caregivers of 608 (331 boys and 277 girls) children in Shanghai, China reported on their children's language development and on the language teaching practices used in the home. The children were between 24 and 47 months old. The relation of age-corrected language level to paternal education, child gender, and teaching practice use was examined.…

  7. Family-School Connectedness and Children's Early Social Development (United States)

    Serpell, Zewelanji N.; Mashburn, Andrew J.


    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of the frequency of parent-teacher contacts and quality of parent-teacher relationships in prekindergarten were associated with teachers' perceptions of the quality of their relationship with children and children's social development. Participants were a diverse sample of 2966 four-year-olds…

  8. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life. (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K


    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics of DNA replication during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat. (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar


    Meiosis is a specialised cell division that involves chromosome replication, two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in the formation of the gametes. Meiotic DNA replication generally precedes chromosome pairing, recombination and synapsis in sexually developing eukaryotes. In this work, replication has been studied during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat using flow cytometry, which has allowed the quantification of the amount of DNA in wheat anther in each phase of the cell cycle during premeiosis and each stage of early meiosis. Flow cytometry has been revealed as a suitable and user-friendly tool to detect and quantify DNA replication during early meiosis in wheat. Chromosome replication was detected in wheat during premeiosis and early meiosis until the stage of pachytene, when chromosomes are associated in pairs to further recombine and correctly segregate in the gametes. In addition, the effect of the Ph1 locus, which controls chromosome pairing and affects replication in wheat, was also studied by flow cytometry. Here we showed that the Ph1 locus plays an important role on the length of meiotic DNA replication in wheat, particularly affecting the rate of replication during early meiosis in wheat.

  10. Dynamics of DNA replication during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Rey

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialised cell division that involves chromosome replication, two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in the formation of the gametes. Meiotic DNA replication generally precedes chromosome pairing, recombination and synapsis in sexually developing eukaryotes. In this work, replication has been studied during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat using flow cytometry, which has allowed the quantification of the amount of DNA in wheat anther in each phase of the cell cycle during premeiosis and each stage of early meiosis. Flow cytometry has been revealed as a suitable and user-friendly tool to detect and quantify DNA replication during early meiosis in wheat. Chromosome replication was detected in wheat during premeiosis and early meiosis until the stage of pachytene, when chromosomes are associated in pairs to further recombine and correctly segregate in the gametes. In addition, the effect of the Ph1 locus, which controls chromosome pairing and affects replication in wheat, was also studied by flow cytometry. Here we showed that the Ph1 locus plays an important role on the length of meiotic DNA replication in wheat, particularly affecting the rate of replication during early meiosis in wheat.

  11. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt


    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  12. Early development and replacement of the stickleback dentition


    Ellis, Nicholas A.; Donde, Nikunj N.; Miller, Craig T.


    Teeth have long served as a model system to study basic questions about vertebrate organogenesis, morphogenesis, and evolution. In non-mammalian vertebrates, teeth typically regenerate throughout adult life. Fish have evolved a tremendous diversity in dental patterning in both their oral and pharyngeal dentitions, offering numerous opportunities to study how morphology develops, regenerates, and evolves in different lineages. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged a...

  13. White matter development and early cognition in babies and toddlers. (United States)

    O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dean, Douglas C; Ginestet, Cedric E; Walker, Lindsay; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean C L


    The normal myelination of neuronal axons is essential to neurodevelopment, allowing fast inter-neuronal communication. The most dynamic period of myelination occurs in the first few years of life, in concert with a dramatic increase in cognitive abilities. How these processes relate, however, is still unclear. Here we aimed to use a data-driven technique to parcellate developing white matter into regions with consistent white matter growth trajectories and investigate how these regions related to cognitive development. In a large sample of 183 children aged 3 months to 4 years, we calculated whole brain myelin volume fraction (VFM ) maps using quantitative multicomponent relaxometry. We used spatial independent component analysis (ICA) to blindly segment these quantitative VFM images into anatomically meaningful parcels with distinct developmental trajectories. We further investigated the relationship of these trajectories with standardized cognitive scores in the same children. The resulting components represented a mix of unilateral and bilateral white matter regions (e.g., cortico-spinal tract, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, white matter underlying the inferior frontal gyrus) as well as structured noise (misregistration, image artifact). The trajectories of these regions were associated with individual differences in cognitive abilities. Specifically, components in white matter underlying frontal and temporal cortices showed significant relationships to expressive and receptive language abilities. Many of these relationships had a significant interaction with age, with VFM becoming more strongly associated with language skills with age. These data provide evidence for a changing coupling between developing myelin and cognitive development. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. HPMA copolymers: Origins, early developments, present, and future☆


    Kopeček, Jindřich; Kopečková, Pavla


    The overview covers the discovery of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers, initial studies on their synthesis, evaluation of biological properties, and explorations of their potential as carriers of biologically active compounds in general and anticancer drugs in particular. The focus is on the research in the authors’ laboratory – the development of macromolecular therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and musculoskeletal diseases. In addition, the evaluation of HPMA (co)pol...

  15. Scrambled eggs: mechanical forces as ecological factors in early development. (United States)

    Moore, Steven W


    Many ecological interactions involve, at some level, mechanical forces and the movements or structural deformations they produce. Although the most familiar examples involve the functional morphology of adult structures, all life history stages (not just the adults) are subject to the laws of physics. Moreover, the success of every lineage depends on the success of every life history stage (again, not just the adults). Therefore, insights gained by using mechanical engineering principles and techniques to study ecological interactions between gametes, embryos, larvae, and their environment are essential to a well-rounded understanding of development, ecology, and evolution. Here I draw on examples from the literature and my own research to illustrate ways in which mechanical forces in the environment shape development. These include mechanical forces acting as selective factors (e.g., when coral gamete size and shape interact with turbulent water flow to determine fertilization success) and as developmental cues (e.g., when plant growth responds to gravity or bone growth responds to mechanical loading). I also examine the opposite cause-and-effect relationship by considering examples in which the development of organisms impacts ecologically relevant mechanical forces. Finally, I discuss the potential for ecological pattern formation as a result of feedback loops created by such bidirectional interactions between developmental processes and mechanical forces in the environment.

  16. Early vocabulary development in Mandarin (Putonghua) and Cantonese. (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Kaciroti, Niko


    Parent report instruments adapted from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) examined vocabulary development in children aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6 for two Chinese languages, Mandarin (n=1694) and Cantonese (n=1625). Parental reports suggested higher overall scores for Mandarin- than for Cantonese-speaking children from approximately 1 ; 4 onward. Factors relevant to the difference were only-child status, monolingual households and caregiver education. In addition to the comparison of vocabulary scores overall, the development of noun classifiers, grammatical function words common to the two languages, was assessed both in terms of the age and the vocabulary size at which these terms are acquired. Whereas age-based developmental trajectories again showed an advantage for Beijing children, Hong Kong children used classifiers when they had smaller vocabularies, reflecting the higher frequencies and greater precision of classifier use in adult Cantonese. The data speak to the importance of using not just age, but also vocabulary size, as a metric by which the acquisition of particular linguistic elements can be examined across languages.

  17. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolijn Vanderauwera


    Full Text Available Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n = 61 of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n = 15. We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF, with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter.

  18. Halloween Costume Choices: Reflections of Gender Development in Early Childhood. (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M


    The author examined whether preschoolers' Halloween costume choices reflect their gender development. The sample consisted of 110 (53 boys, 57 girls) infant through preschool-aged participants, and 1 parent of each child. Both observational methodologies and parent-report surveys were used to assess the gender-typed nature of children's Halloween costumes, information about the Halloween costume choice process, and about the children's gender development. Boys' costumes were more masculine and girls' costumes were more feminine. Younger children's costumes were consistently less gender typed than the older children's costumes were. Children whose parents chose their Halloween costumes for them had Halloween costumes that were less gender typed than did children who were involved in the Halloween costume decision-making process. Moreover, children's gender-typed play and desire to wear gender-stereotyped clothes were related to the gender stereotyped nature of their Halloween costume. Unexpectedly, gender typicality, a dimension of gender identity, was not related to children's Halloween costume choices. Overall, the findings support that children's Halloween costume choice is an indicator of children's gender development processes.

  19. Development and validation of an early childhood development scale for use in low-resourced settings. (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Bellinger, David C; Muhihi, Alfa; Ashery, Geofrey; Weary, Taylor E; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther


    Low-cost, cross-culturally comparable measures of the motor, cognitive, and socioemotional skills of children under 3 years remain scarce. In the present paper, we aim to develop a new caregiver-reported early childhood development (ECD) scale designed to be implemented as part of household surveys in low-resourced settings. We evaluate the acceptability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the new ECD items, subscales, and full scale in a sample of 2481 18- to 36-month-old children from peri-urban and rural Tanzania. We also compare total and subscale scores with performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) in a subsample of 1036 children. Qualitative interviews from 10 mothers and 10 field workers are used to inform quantitative data. Adequate levels of acceptability and internal consistency were found for the new scale and its motor, cognitive, and socioemotional subscales. Correlations between the new scale and the BSID-III were high (r > .50) for the motor and cognitive subscales, but low (r < .20) for the socioemotional subscale. The new scale discriminated between children's skills based on age, stunting status, caregiver-reported disability, and adult stimulation. Test-retest reliability scores were variable among a subset of items tested. Results of this study provide empirical support from a low-income country setting for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of a new caregiver-reported ECD scale. Additional research is needed to test these and other caregiver reported items in children in the full 0 to 3 year range across multiple cultural and linguistic settings.

  20. Dynamic changes in the interchromosomal interaction of early histone gene loci during development of sea urchin. (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaya; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Hayashi, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takashi; Awazu, Akinori; Sakamoto, Naoaki


    The nuclear positioning and chromatin dynamics of eukaryotic genes are closely related to the regulation of gene expression, but they have not been well examined during early development, which is accompanied by rapid cell cycle progression and dynamic changes in nuclear organization, such as nuclear size and chromatin constitution. In this study, we focused on the early development of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization of gene loci encoding early histones (one of the types of histone in sea urchin). There are two non-allelic early histone gene loci per sea urchin genome. We found that during the morula stage, when the early histone gene expression levels are at their maximum, interchromosomal interactions were often formed between the early histone gene loci on separate chromosomes and that the gene loci were directed to locate to more interior positions. Furthermore, these interactions were associated with the active transcription of the early histone genes. Thus, such dynamic interchromosomal interactions may contribute to the efficient synthesis of early histone mRNA during the morula stage of sea urchin development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. The Development of Prosodic Focus-marking in Early Bilinguals’ L2: A Study of Bai-Mandarin Early Bilinguals’ Mandarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui


    This study investigates the development of prosodic focus-marking in early bilinguals’ L2 by examining Bai (L1)-Mandarin (L2) early bilingual’s Mandarin. By investigating Bai-Mandarin early bilingual children aged from six to thirteen and bilingual adults, we have established the developmental

  2. We Are Your Children: The Kushanda Early Childhood Education and Care Dissemination Programme, Zimbabwe 1985-1993. Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections, Number 7. (United States)

    Booker, Salih

    Part of the series "Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections," this report details the Kushanda Project, an early childhood education program in Zimbabwe. The Kushanda Project is a 16-person organization that has helped parents in rural Zimbabwe communities to understand the value of early childhood education and…

  3. Developmental Domains: The Mother of All Interventions; or, the Subterranean Early Development Blues. (United States)

    Berkeley, Terry R.; Ludlow, Barbara L.


    This paper argues for the integration of traditional concepts of developmental domains to provide more unified early intervention programing for young children with disabilities and their families. Research is reviewed which supports an integrated approach to child development. (DB)

  4. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  5. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  6. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  7. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries (United States)

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos


    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development. PMID:25983344


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Maksimovich


    Full Text Available We analyzed question of formation of cognitive activity in early childhood development of means of information and communications technologies. We propose to study material by using the web-media environment «Preschooler»

  9. Parental mental health and early social-emotional development of children born very preterm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Lee, Katherine J; Woodward, Lianne J; Newnham, Carol; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J


    The aims of this study were to describe the mental health of parents of children born very preterm and examine relations between parental mental health and early social-emotional development in very...

  10. Sleep-wake transitions in premature neonates predict early development. (United States)

    Weisman, Omri; Magori-Cohen, Reuma; Louzoun, Yoram; Eidelman, Arthur I; Feldman, Ruth


    To identify patterns of sleep-wake transitions in the neonatal period that might differentiate premature infants who would show better or worse outcomes in multiple developmental domains across the first 5 years of life. Participants were 143 low birth weight premature infants (mean birth weight: 1482 g; mean gestational age [GA]: 31.82 weeks). Sleep states were observed at a GA of 37 weeks in 10-second epochs over 4 consecutive evening hours and were analyzed through mathematical clustering. Neurobehavioral maturation was evaluated with the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale at discharge, emotional regulation was assessed during infant-mother and infant-father interactions at 3 and 6 months, cognitive development was measured at 6, 12, and 24 months, and verbal IQ, executive functions, and symbolic competence were tested at 5 years. Three types of state-transition patterns were identified, and no differences in birth weight, GA, or medical risk between the 3 groups were found. Infants whose sleep-state transitions were mainly characterized by shifts between quiet sleep and wakefulness exhibited the best development, including greater neonatal neuromaturation, less negative emotionality, better cognitive development, and better verbal, symbolic, and executive competences at 5 years. In comparison, infants who cycled mainly between states of high arousal, such as active sleep and cry, or between short episodes of active and quiet sleep showed poorer outcomes. Defining sleep organization on the basis of transitions between states proved useful for identifying risk and resilience indicators in neonatal behavior to predict trajectories of neurobehavioral, emotional, and cognitive growth.

  11. Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior. (United States)

    Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A


    The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Boundaries of the personality and their early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The first part of this paper reviews different notions of personality boundaries in dynamic psychology. Although the explicit treatment of this topic was scarce, three different approaches may be discerned. Paul Federn's introduction of the concept, the notion of boundaries in object relation theories, and various contemporary notions subsumed under the heading “relational theories.” In the second part, the author reviews both experimental and clinical research and theory regarding the emergence of personality boundaries during the first eight weeks of development. Special attention is paid to the importance of developmentally most primitive mental representations of skin experiences for this process.

  13. [Interactive formats and executive functions in early development]. (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S; Merino-Moreno, N; Poch-Olivé, M L


    Cognitive control improve planning, action selection to get a goal (flexibly) and their modifiability. Executive functions are a functional construct related with solving process and goal maintenance. Among executive functions we will study the resistance of interference, stopping irrelevant information and the inhibition of a dominant but inapropiate scheme as well as the influence of the type of tutoring during action execution. We studied 15 infants with alternative courses of development (typical babies and Down' syndrome babies) at a developmental level equivalent to 15 months old, and 6 months later. Infant' spontaneous activity is videotaped longitudinally for a 15 minutes period, activity units are codified by a mixed system of categories and quantified in order to know the significative differences on tutoring types, their dynamic an effects associated with infant's executive functions. a) Adult's directive tutoring is more frequent with Down's syndrome babies than with typical babies; b) Directive tutoring is less adjusted and produces more interferences; c) There is a differential capacity to interference resistance, less present in the Down's syndrome babies; d) Executive functioning shows developmental and differential trends. If development is individual and socially influenced, the individual differential efficacy of executive functions and the type of tutoring contributes to typical or atypical developmental course. Educational and health consequences are proposed.

  14. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen


    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  15. The arotinoids: early clinical experience and discussion of future development. (United States)

    Arnold, A; Kowaleski, B; Tozer, R; Hirte, H


    There has been great interest in the use of drugs attempting to modify the properties of malignant cells without necessarily destroying them. The family of compounds known as the retinoids have shown particular promise in this area. Current interest is directed towards established retinoids such as ATRA and 13-CRA. Newer synthetic retinoids such as fenretinide, the arotinoid Ro 40-8757, and 9-cis retinoic acid have been entering clinical trials. Ro 40-8757 is a particularly interesting new arotinoid with properties quite distinct from the other retinoids. It has different binding proteins and appears to regulate different genes than the classical retinoids such as ATRA or 13-CRA. Furthermore, it appears active against a different spectrum of malignancies. It also appears to have a relatively favourable side-effect profile. In addition to its anti-proliferative effects, this arotinoid may play a role in protection of bone marrow function after use of cytotoxic drugs. Development of Ro 40-8757 was halted before the compound had entered phase II testing due to lack of resources. Future developmental programmes for retinoids should move rapidly to explore the potential of interesting combinations identified in preclinical models. Retinoids should be considered primarily as drugs which modulate and enhance the effects of other active anticancer agents. Their development should not be prevented because they are unlikely to be active as single agents against common solid tumours.

  16. Development of tight junctions between odontoblasts in early dentinogenesis as revealed by freeze-fracture


    Arana-Chavez, V.E.; Katchburian, Eduardo


    Background: Mature odontoblasts possess junctional structures constituted by adherens, gap, and tight junctions. Although adherens and gap junctions appear early between odontoblasts, there is no information on the appearance and development of tight junctions between odontoblasts. in this study, we have examined freeze-fracture replicas of early dentinogenesis to study the development of tight junctions between odontoblasts and to determine whether these junctions are of zonular or macular t...

  17. The early development of the onychopod cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda)


    Alwes, Frederike; Scholtz, Gerhard


    Introduction Within arthropods, several crustacean groups are unique in their early development due to their stereotyped cell division patterns and cell lineages. However, it is still unclear whether these cell division patterns are homologous between the various crustacean groups and whether they could indicate the ground pattern of Tetraconata (Crustacea and Hexapoda). In this study we describe the early development of the raptorial water flea Bythotrephes longimanus as a representative of ...

  18. Early school dropouts in developing countries: An integer approach to guide intervention. The case of Uruguay


    Rossana Patrón


    Are early leavers from the education system irrational or ill informed? They might be, but this approach shows that with underperforming education sectors – typical in developing countries – early dropout may be perfectly rational and well informed, even in the absence of liquidity constraints. This paper provides an integer approach to guide intervention in developing countries, though there are no clear-cut policies. Long-term measures should be aimed at improving the productivity of the ac...

  19. The Role of the Early-Life Environment in the Development of Allergic Disease


    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole


    A consensus has been reached that the development of incident allergic disorders are likely strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, Vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Despite a large proportion of the studi...

  20. Parents' perceptions of early childhood development in the Langkloof farming communities / S.L.D. Kemmies.


    Kemmies, Sharelda Luanshia Davidene


    Early childhood development has a lifelong impact on the future of each human being. However, all South Africans do not have equal access to the same quality ECD opportunities and services. As a means to advance knowledge in this regard, this study explores parents' perceptions regarding early childhood development (ECD) and their involvement therein, particularly within the Langkloof farming communities. Furthermore, the objective is to formulate guidelines, which can be applied to promote p...

  1. Early neural network development history: the age of Camelot. (United States)

    Eberhart, R C; Dobbins, R W


    What the authors refer to as the first of four ages in the development of neural networks is discussed. It begins about a century ago with the American psychologist William James, and ends in 1969 with the publication of the book by M. Minsky and S. Papert on perceptrons. The history of this period is reviewed, focusing on people rather than just on theory or technology. The contributions of a number of individuals are discussed and related to how neural network tools are being implemented today. The selection of individuals discussed is somewhat arbitrary and not exhaustive, as the intent is to provide a broad sampling of people who contributed to current neural network technology. Besides James, the authors cover the work of W.C. McCulloch and W. Pitts (1943), D. Hebb (1949), and B. Widrow and M. Hoff (1960).

  2. The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development. (United States)

    Gomez de Agüero, Mercedes; Ganal-Vonarburg, Stephanie C; Fuhrer, Tobias; Rupp, Sandra; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Li, Hai; Steinert, Anna; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Sauer, Uwe; McCoy, Kathy D; Macpherson, Andrew J


    Postnatal colonization of the body with microbes is assumed to be the main stimulus to postnatal immune development. By transiently colonizing pregnant female mice, we show that the maternal microbiota shapes the immune system of the offspring. Gestational colonization increases intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells and F4/80(+)CD11c(+) mononuclear cells in the pups. Maternal colonization reprograms intestinal transcriptional profiles of the offspring, including increased expression of genes encoding epithelial antibacterial peptides and metabolism of microbial molecules. Some of these effects are dependent on maternal antibodies that potentially retain microbial molecules and transmit them to the offspring during pregnancy and in milk. Pups born to mothers transiently colonized in pregnancy are better able to avoid inflammatory responses to microbial molecules and penetration of intestinal microbes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Cumulative Chemical Exposures During Pregnancy and Early Development (United States)

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Zota, Ami R.


    Industrial and consumer product chemicals are widely used, leading to ubiquitous human exposure to the most common classes. Because these chemicals may affect developmental milestones, exposures in pregnant women and developing fetuses are of particular interest. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of chemical exposures in pregnant women, the chemical class-specific relationships between maternal and fetal exposures, and the major sources of exposures for six chemical classes of concern: phthalates, phenols, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCs). Additionally, we describe the current efforts to characterize cumulative exposures to synthetic chemicals during pregnancy. We conclude by highlighting gaps in the literature and discussing possible applications of the findings to reduce the prevalence of cumulative exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26341623

  4. Links between early pollen development and aperture pattern in monocots. (United States)

    Nadot, S; Forchioni, A; Penet, L; Sannier, J; Ressayre, A


    Although the pollen grains produced in monocots are predominantly monosulcate (or monoporate), other aperture types are also found within this taxonomic group, such as the trichotomosulcate, inaperturate, zonaperturate, di-, or triaperturate types. The aperture pattern is determined during the young-tetrad stage of pollen development and it is known that some features of microsporogenesis can constrain the aperture type. For example, trichotomosulcate pollen is always associated with simultaneous cytokinesis, a condition considered as derived in the monocots. Our observations of the microsporogenesis pathway in a range of monocot species show that this pathway is surprisingly variable. Our results, however preliminary, reveal that variation in microsporogenesis concerns not only cytokinesis but also callose deposition among the microspores and shape of the tetrads. The role played by these features in aperture pattern determination is discussed.

  5. The Progressive Development of Early Embodied Algebraic Thinking (United States)

    Radford, Luis


    In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning—the theory of objectification. Within this theory, thinking is conceived of as a form of reflection and action that is simultaneously material and ideal: It includes inner and outer speech, sensuous forms of imagination and visualisation, gestures, rhythm, and their intertwinement with material culture (symbols, artifacts, etc.). The theory articulates a cultural view of development as an unfolding dialectic process between culturally and historically constituted forms of mathematical knowing and semiotically mediated classroom activity. Looking at the experimental data through these theoretical lenses reveals a developmental path where embodied forms of thinking are sublated or subsumed into more sophisticated ones through the mediation of properly designed classroom activity.

  6. Sleep, synaptic connectivity, and hippocampal memory during early development. (United States)

    Huber, Reto; Born, Jan


    Sleep, specifically sleep slow-wave activity (SWA), contributes to global synaptic homeostasis in neocortical networks by downscaling synaptic connections that were potentiated during prior wakefulness. In parallel, SWA supports the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent episodic memory, a process linked to local increases in synaptic connectivity. During development, both SWA and episodic memory show parallel time courses: distinct SWA and capabilities to form episodic memory become established during infancy and then profoundly increase across childhood until puberty. We propose that the parallel increases across childhood reflect an imbalance in the underlying regulation of synaptic connectivity during sleep; although memory consolidation favoring synaptic potentiation is enhanced, global synaptic downscaling during sleep SWA does not attain complete recovery of homeostatic baseline levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. miR-200 Regulates Endometrial Development During Early Pregnancy (United States)

    Mainigi, Monica A.; Word, R. Ann; Kraus, W. Lee; Mendelson, Carole R.


    For successful embryo implantation, endometrial stromal cells must undergo functional and morphological changes, referred to as decidualization. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate implantation and decidualization are not well defined. Here we demonstrate that the estradiol- and progesterone-regulated microRNA (miR)-200 family was markedly down-regulated in mouse endometrial stromal cells prior to implantation, whereas zinc finger E-box binding homeobox-1 and -2 and other known and predicted targets were up-regulated. Conversely, miR-200 was up-regulated during in vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Knockdown of miR-200 negatively affected decidualization and prevented the mesenchymal-epithelial transition-like changes that accompanied decidual differentiation. Notably, superovulation of mice and humans altered miR-200 expression. Our findings suggest that hormonal alterations that accompany superovulation may negatively impact endometrial development and decidualization by causing aberrant miR-200 expression. PMID:27533790


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lurdes Cró


    Full Text Available Evaluation is a process used in various sectors of a society. Are numerous actions that could be evaluated, and multiple projects that are altered by being subjected to evaluations. Similarly, the evaluation in education must also be taken into consideration. In all grades of education required to evaluate and thus the education of children should be no exception. Evaluation as part of the teaching-learning process involves the use of techniques and tools of observation and recording diverse, enabling to organize the information collected, in order to tailor this process to children of different ages. The assessment involves planning, collecting and interpreting data and adaptation of educational practices. Keywords: assessment, personal and social development, kindergarten.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Pišot


    Full Text Available Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance. This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/- 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/- 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height, were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children's motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec Momirović criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys and five (girls factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.

  10. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally


    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Childhood Brain Development and Elementary Music Curricula: Are They in Tune? (United States)

    Scott, Larissa K.


    This article examines elementary music curricula. It presents an overview of research on childhood mental development; the importance of the early experiences of children on childhood development; the impact of environmental factors on language development; children's acquisition of music ability; enhancing elementary music curriculum; and…

  12. Early Deictic but "Not" Other Gestures Predict Later Vocabulary in Both Typical Development and Autism (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena


    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children…

  13. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan


    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  14. B cells: from early development to regulating allergic diseases. (United States)

    Samitas, Konstantinos; Lötvall, Jan; Bossios, Apostolos


    B lymphocytes are characterized by a unique and highly specialized developmental pathway that is responsible for their vast phenotypic and function diversity. B cell development is strictly regulated to ensure sufficient specific humoral immunity while at the same time avoiding any errors that would compromise B cell functionality. The generation and maintenance of mature B cells from the constant flux of bone marrow progenitors is a complex process that is generally poorly understood, although great progress has been made in recent years. B cells have for long been considered mainly as antibody-producing cells and therefore believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, primarily through their ability to produce IgE antibodies. However, recent findings have revealed new aspects of their role in immune responses that place them again under the spotlight as important immune regulators, independent of antibody production. This review focuses on the developmental processes responsible for the numerous phenotypes and functions of the B-lymphocyte pool and the different aspects of effector B cell functionality in the context of allergy.

  15. doublesex functions early and late in gustatory sense organ development. (United States)

    Mellert, David J; Robinett, Carmen C; Baker, Bruce S


    Somatic sexual dimorphisms outside of the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster are largely controlled by the male- and female-specific Doublesex transcription factors (DSX(M) and DSX(F), respectively). The DSX proteins must act at the right times and places in development to regulate the diverse array of genes that sculpt male and female characteristics across a variety of tissues. To explore how cellular and developmental contexts integrate with doublesex (dsx) gene function, we focused on the sexually dimorphic number of gustatory sense organs (GSOs) in the foreleg. We show that DSX(M) and DSX(F) promote and repress GSO formation, respectively, and that their relative contribution to this dimorphism varies along the proximodistal axis of the foreleg. Our results suggest that the DSX proteins impact specification of the gustatory sensory organ precursors (SOPs). DSX(F) then acts later in the foreleg to regulate gustatory receptor neuron axon guidance. These results suggest that the foreleg provides a unique opportunity for examining the context-dependent functions of DSX.

  16. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša


    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  17. Concept and early development of solid-phase peptide synthesis. (United States)

    Merrifield, B


    There are several reasons for the success of the solid-phase approach to peptide synthesis. The first is the ease of the procedure, the acceleration of the overall process, and the ability to achieve good yields of purified products. The second was the unanticipated discovery of many new biologically active peptides and the expanded need for synthetic peptides to help solve problems in virtually all disciplines of biology. In many cases, the solid-phase technique has been the method of choice. This approach, of course, does not replace the classic solution synthesis methods, but rather supplements them. The choice of techniques depends on the objectives of the synthesis. When carefully worked out, the solution methods can give high yields of highly purified products in large quantities. Many superb syntheses of active peptides have been achieved in this way. The solid-phase method has also yielded many large active peptides. It is particularly useful when large numbers of analogs, in relatively small quantities, are required as in structure-function studies on hormones, growth factors, antibiotics, and other biologically active peptides or for determining the antigenic epitopes of proteins. In addition, it has on occasion been scaled up for production of kilogram quantities. One of the unique uses of solid-phase synthesis has been the synthesis of peptide libraries. Most of the work on this new field in which thousands or millions of peptides are prepared simultaneously has been by solid-phase methods. This new technique is proving to be of great practical importance in rapid drug discovery of peptide, peptide mimetic, and nonpeptide compounds. Developments in screening methods now allow the examination of large numbers of compounds, and active products with structures unpredictable from natural product sequences are being found in this way. The properties of the solid-phase system, the changes in the chemistry, and the applications of the technique to biological

  18. The Early Development of Indian Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective (United States)

    Swarup, Govind

    In this chapter I recall my initiation into the field of radio astronomy during 1953-1955 at CSIRO, Australia; the transfer of thirty-two 6-feet (1.8-m) diameter parabolic dishes from Potts Hill, Sydney, to India in 1958; and their erection at Kalyan, near Bombay (Mumbai), in 1963-1965. The Kalyan Radio Telescope was the first modern radio telescope built in India. This led to the establishment of a very active radio astronomy group at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, which subsequently built two world-class radio telescopes during the last 50 years and also contributed to the development of an indigenous microwave antenna industry in India. The Ooty Radio Telescope, built during 1965-1970, has an ingenious design which takes advantage of India's location near the Earth's Equator. The long axis of this 530-m × 30-m parabolic cylinder was made parallel to the Equator, by placing it on a hill with the same slope as the geographic latitude ( 11°), thus allowing it to track celestial sources continuously for 9.5 h every day. By utilizing lunar occultations, the telescope was able to measure the angular sizes of a large number of faint radio galaxies and quasars with arc-second resolution for the first time. Subsequently, during the 1990s, the group set up the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) near Pune in western India, in order to investigate certain astrophysical phenomena which are best studied at decimetre and metre wavelengths. The GMRT is an array of 30 fully steerable 45-m diameter parabolic dishes, which operates at several frequencies below 1.43 GHz. These efforts have also contributed to the international proposal to construct the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). This chapter is a revised version of Swarup (Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 9: 21-33, 2006).

  19. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula. (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa


    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  20. Degeneration of the Nonrecombining Regions in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungi (United States)

    Fontanillas, Eric; Hood, Michael E.; Badouin, Hélène; Petit, Elsa; Barbe, Valérie; Gouzy, Jérôme; de Vienne, Damien M.; Aguileta, Gabriela; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Chen, Zehua; Toh, Su San; Cuomo, Christina A.; Perlin, Michael H.; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana


    Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence. The a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes were both isolated electrophoretically and sequenced. Integration with restriction-digest optical maps identified regions of recombination and nonrecombination in the mating-type chromosomes. Genome sequence data were also obtained for 12 other Microbotryum species. We found strong evidence of degeneration across the genus in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes, with significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (dN/dS) than in nonmating-type chromosomes or in recombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes also showed high transposable element content, weak gene expression, and gene losses. The levels of degeneration did not differ between the a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes, consistent with the lack of homogametic/heterogametic asymmetry between them, and contrasting with X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes. PMID:25534033