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Sample records for early age strength

  1. Early-age concrete strength estimation based on piezoelectric sensor using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junkyeong; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Seunghee

    2014-04-01

    Recently, novel methods to estimate the strength of concrete have been reported based on numerous NDT methods. Especially, electro-mechanical impedance technique using piezoelectric sensors are studied to estimate the strength of concrete. However, the previous research works could not provide the general information about the early-age strength important to manage the quality of concrete and/or the construction process. In order to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, the electro-mechanical impedance method and the artificial neural network(ANN) is utilized in this study. The electro-mechanical impedance varies with the mechanical properties of host structures. Because the strength development is most influential factor among the change of mechanical properties at early-age of curing, it is possible to estimate the strength of concrete by analyzing the change of E/M impedance. The strength of concrete is a complex function of several factors like mix proportion, temperature, elasticity, etc. Because of this, it is hard to mathematically derive equations about strength of concrete. The ANN can provide the solution about early-age strength of concrete without mathematical equations. To verify the proposed approach, a series of experimental studies are conducted. The impedance signals are measured using embedded piezoelectric sensors during curing process and the resonant frequency of impedance is extracted as a strength feature. The strength of concrete is calculated by regression of strength development curve obtained by destructive test. Then ANN model is established by trained using experimental results. Finally the ANN model is verified using impedance data of other sensors.

  2. Evaluation of Early-Age Concrete Compressive Strength with Ultrasonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hee Seok; Kang, Jun Won; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2017-08-07

    Surface wave velocity measurement of concrete using ultrasonic sensors requires testing on only one side of a member. Thus, it is applicable to concrete cast inside a form and is often used to detect flaws and evaluate the compressive strength of hardened concrete. Predicting the in situ concrete strength at a very early stage inside the form helps with determining the appropriate form removal time and reducing construction time and costs. In this paper, the feasibility of using surface wave velocities to predict the strength of in situ concrete inside the form at a very early stage was evaluated. Ultrasonic sensors were used to measure a series of surface waves for concrete inside a form in the first 24 h after placement. A continuous wavelet transform was used to compute the travel time of the propagating surface waves. The cylindrical compressive strength and penetration resistance tests were also performed during the test period. Four mixtures and five curing temperatures were used for the specimens. The surface wave velocity was confirmed to be applicable to estimating the concrete strength at a very early age in wall-like elements. An empirical formula is proposed for evaluating the early-age compressive strength of concrete considering the 95% prediction intervals.

  3. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-06-07

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process.

  4. Mix design of concrete with high content of mineral additions: Optimisation to improve early age strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I.A. Khokhar; E. Roziere; P. Turcry; F. Grondin; A. Loukili [Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (GeM), Nantes (France)

    2010-05-15

    The concrete industry is an important source of CO{sub 2} gas emissions. The cement used in the design of concrete is the result of a chemical process linked to the decarbonation of limestone conducted at high temperature and results in a significant release of carbon dioxide. Under the project EcoBeton (Green concrete) funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), concrete mixtures have been designed with a low cement quantity, by replacing cement by mineral additions i.e., blast-furnace slag, fly ash or limestone fillers. Replacement of cement by other materials at high percentages generally lowers the early age strength of the resulting concrete. To cope with this problem, an optimisation method for mix design of concrete using Bolomey's law has been used. Following the encouraging results obtained from mortar, a series of tests on concretes with various substitution percentages were carried out to validate the optimisation method.

  5. Nondestructive Wireless Monitoring of Early-Age Concrete Strength Gain Using an Innovative Electromechanical Impedance Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Providakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the concrete early-age strength gain at any arbitrary time from a few minutes to a few hours after mixing is crucial for operations such as removal of frameworks, prestress, or cracking control. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a potential active wireless USB sensing tool that consists of a miniaturized electromechanical impedance measuring chip and a reusable piezoelectric transducer appropriately installed in a Teflon-based enclosure to monitor the concrete strength development at early ages and initial hydration states. In this study, the changes of the measured electromechanical impedance signatures as obtained by using the proposed sensing system during the whole early-age concrete hydration process are experimentally investigated. It is found that the proposed electromechanical impedance (EMI sensing system associated with a properly defined statistical index which evaluates the rate of concrete strength development is very sensitive to the strength gain of concrete structures from their earliest stages.

  6. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    objective measures: grip strength, standing balance, chair rising, and timed get-up-and-go (TUG) tests. RESULTS: There were associations between reports of frequent fatigue at both ages and poorer grip strength, chair rise, and TUG performance at 60 to 64 years. Furthermore, individuals reporting frequent...... fatigue at both ages had weaker grip strength (β = -4.09 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -6.71 to -1.48) and slower chair rise (β = -4.65 repetitions/min, 95% CI = -6.65 to -2.64) and TUG (β = -4.22 cm/s, 95% CI = -12.16 to -2.28) speeds when compared with those who reported no fatigue at both time...

  7. Ternary blended cement concrete. Part I: early age properties and mechanical strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is ample information in the literature on the mechanical performance and durability of concrete made with either limestone or granulated blast furnace slag,very little is known about the effect of the combined action of these two additions on concrete properties. The present paper evaluates the early stage properties and mechanical strength of binary and ternary cement concrete containing up to 18% limestone and 20% granulated blast furnace slag. The results show that the use of ternary cements has no substantial effect on concrete setting time, although it does reduce bleeding and enhance mechanical strength with respect to unadditioned Portland and/or binary cement concrete.En la bibliografía existe abundante información acerca del comportamiento mecánico y durable de hormigones elaborados con la incorporación individual de caliza y de escoria granulada de alto horno. Sin embargo, la modificación de las propiedades por la acción conjunta de las mismas es prácticamente desconocida. En este trabajo se evalúan las propiedades en estado fresco y el comportamiento mecánico de hormigones elaborados con cementos compuestos binarios y ternarios conteniendo hasta 18% de caliza y 20% de escoria granulada de alto horno. Los resultados indican que la utilización de cementos ternarios en hormigones no modifican sustancialmente el tiempo de fraguado, disminuyen la exudación y presentan un mejor comportamiento mecánico que los hormigones elaborados con cemento Portland sin adición y/o binarios.

  8. Early Age Compressive Strength of Pastes by Electrical Resistivity Method and Maturity Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Lianzhen; WEI Xiaosheng

    2011-01-01

    The compressive strength development of Portland cement pastes was investigated by the electrical resistivity method and the maturity method.The experiments were carried out on the cement pastes with different water-cement ratios at different curing temperatures.The results show that the application of the maturity method has limitation to obtain the strength.It is found that both of the compressive strength and the electrical resistivity follow hyperbolic trend for all the mixes.The hyperbolic equation of each mix is obtained to estimate the ultimate resistivity value which can probably be reached.The relationship between electrical resistivity and compressive strength of the cement pastes is established based on the test results and interpreted by the empirical Archie equation and a strength-porosity equation.The relationship between the electrical resistivity after temperature correction and the compressive strength was linear and independent of curing temperature and water-cement ratio.

  9. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eonho; Dear, Alexis; Ferguson, Steven L; Seo, Dongil; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    This study compared SuperSlow resistance training (SRT) to traditional resistance training (TRT) during early phase adaptations in strength, aerobic capacity, and flexibility in college-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to SRT (n = 14); TRT (n = 13); or control (CON; n = 8) groups. To equalize training times, TRT trained 3 times per week for 25 minutes each session, whereas SRT trained twice a week for 35 minutes each session. Both groups trained for 4 weeks, whereas the CON group maintained normal daily activities. Workouts consisted of 5 exercises: shoulder press, chest press, leg press, low row, and lat pull down. The SRT group completed 1 set of each exercise at 50% 1RM until momentary failure with a 10-second concentric and a 10-second eccentric phase. The TRT group completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM for each exercise, with 4 seconds of contraction time for each repetition. Groups were statistically similar at baseline. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effect for flexibility with the greatest improvements occurring for the training groups (SRT 14.7% and TRT 11%). All strength tests had significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effects but no group or group by time interactions. Both training groups had large percent improvements in strength compared to CON, but the large variability associated with the SRT group resulted in only the TRT group being significantly different from the CON group. In conclusion, percent improvements were similar for the TRT and SRT groups, but only the TRT group reached statistical significance for the strength improvements, and both groups were equally effective for improving flexibility.

  10. Strength evolution and deformation behaviour of cemented paste backfill at early ages:Effect of curing stress, filling strategy and drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghirian Alireza; Fall Mamadou⇑

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a pressure cell apparatus is developed to investigate the early age evolution of the strength and deformation behaviour of cemented paste backfill (CPB) when subjected to various loading condi-tions under different curing scenarios. The different curing scenarios that are simulated include: (1) drained and undrained conditions, (2) different filling rates, (3) different filling sequences, and (4) differ-ent curing stresses. The findings show that drainage, curing stress, curing time and filling rate influence the mechanical and deformation behaviours of CPB materials. The coupled effects of consolidation, drai-nage and suction contribute to the strength development of drained CPB subjected to curing stress. On the other hand, particle rearrangement caused by the applied pressure and suction development due to self-desiccation plays a significant role in the strength gain of undrained CPB cured under stress. Furthermore, curing stress induces slightly faster rate of cement hydration, which can contribute to strength acquisition.

  11. Influence of Nano-SiO2 on the Consistency, Setting Time, Early-Age Strength, and Shrinkage of Composite Cement Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study outlined the raw materials and mix proportions to prepare composite cement pastes with the addition of silica-based micro- and nanoparticles. The effects of amorphous nano-SiO2 on the early-age properties, including the consistency, setting time, early-age strength, and chemical and autogenous shrinkages, were investigated. Under the condition of the same dosage of superplasticizer used, the consistency of cement paste with nano-SiO2 is higher than that with silica fume. Significant reductions of the initial and final setting times are observed especially for nano-SiO2 addition groups, and the time difference between the initial and final setting times goes up with the increasing proportions of nano-SiO2. The addition of nano-SiO2 is more helpful to the improvement of early-age strengths of the paste with or without fly ash admixed than silica fume additive for the same mass proportion. Both the chemical and autogenous shrinkages of cement paste develop with the increasing amount of micro- or nanolevel silica particles; however, nano-SiO2 plays a more active role than silica fume in inspiring early-age shrinkage. The physical and chemical mechanisms of nano-SiO2 in cement paste are also discussed.

  12. Development of a polycarboxylate superplasticizer with early-age strength on reactive powder concrete%超高强RPC专用早强型聚羧酸系减水剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝利炜

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a preparation method of polycarboxylate superplasticizer with early-age strength on reactive powder concrete (RPC). The best synthesis formula of the polycarboxylate superplasticizer is determined by the orthogonal test. The performance of RPC with polycarboxylate superplasticizer that include strength, setting time,fluidity were tested. The results showed that the polycarboxylate superlastieizer has excellent properties of early strength and high water reduction ratio, can satisfy the working performance and mechanical property of RPC. It can be applicable to the production of RPC.%主要介绍一种RPC专用早强型聚羧酸系减水剂的制备方法.采用正交试验确定了减水剂的最佳合成配方,通过对所制备RPC的强度、流动度、凝结时间等性能测试结果表明,自制减水剂具有早强、减水率高的特点,能满足RPC的工作性能和力学性能要求,适用于 RPC的生产.

  13. High Strength, Weldable Precipitation Aged Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexander D.

    1987-03-01

    The family of plate steels represented by ASTM Specification A7101 is finding increasing applications. These low carbon, Cu-Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb, copper precipitation hardened steels have been identified by a number of designations over the years. During early development in the late 1960's and first commercial production in 1970, the steels were known as IN-787 (trademark of International Nickel Company).2 ASTM specifications were subsequently developed for structural (A710) and pressure vessel (A736) applications over ten years ago. More recent interest and application of this family of steels by the U.S. Navy has lead to development of a military specification MIL-S-24645 (SH),3 also initially known as "HSLA-80." Significant tonnage is being produced for the U.S. Navy as a replacement for HY80 (MIL-S-16216) in cruiser deck, bulkhead and hull applications.4 In these applications, the enhanced weldability and requirement of no preheat at this high strength and toughness level has been the main motivation for its use. Over the past 15 years, A710 type steels have also been used in a variety of applications, including off-shore platforms, pressure vessels, arctic linepipe valves and off-highway mining truck frames.

  14. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S

    2010-05-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers' leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers' leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults' leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer.

  15. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  16. Uniaxial Tension Test of Slender Reinforced Early Age Concrete Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to obtain the tensile properties of early age concrete based on a uniaxial tension test employing RC slender members. First, the paper shows that concrete strain is equal to the strain of rebar at the mid-span of the RC member. The tensile Young’s modulus and the strain capacity of early age concrete are estimated using strain measurements. The experiment indicated that the tensile Young’s modulus at an early age is higher than the compressive modulus. This observation was similar to one found in a previous investigation which used a direct tension test of early age concrete. Moreover, the paper describes how an empirical equation for mature concrete can be applied to the relation between uniaxial tensile strength and splitting tensile strength even in early age concrete. Based on a uniaxial tension test, the paper proposes an empirical equation for the relationship between standard bond stresses and relative slip.

  17. Shoulder Strength Requirements for Upper Limb Functional Tasks: Do age and Rotator Cuff Tear Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R

    2017-07-17

    Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for five upper limb tasks performed by three groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p<.001, p<.001) and external rotation (p<.001, p=.017) strength than the young adults respectively. Presence of a tear signficantly increased percentage of internal rotation strength compared to young (p<.001) and uninjured older adults (p=.008). Marked differences in strength demand across tasks indicate the need for evaluating a diversity of functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss which may lead to disability.

  18. Improvement of Early Strength of Cement Mortar Containing Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Using Industrial Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyoung Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of construction, securing the early strength of concrete (on the first and third days of aging has been an important problem in deciding the mold release time (i.e., shortening the construction time period. Therefore, the problem of reduced compressive strength in the early aging stage caused by mixing granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS with concrete must certainly be resolved. In this study, we conduct experiments to explore methods for generating a concrete that develops an early strength equivalent to that of 100% OPC. The objective of this study is the development of an early-strength accelerator (ESA made from an industrial by-product, for a GBFS-mixed cement mortar. This study also analyzes the mechanism of the early-strength generation in the concrete to evaluate the influence of the burning temperature of ESA on the optimal compressive strength of the concrete. According to the results of the experiment, GBFS, whose ESA is burnt at 800 °C, shows an activation factor of 102.6–104.7% in comparison with 100% OPC on the first and third days during early aging, thereby meeting the target compressive strength. The results of the micro-analytic experiment are as follows: ESA showed a pH of strongly alkaline. In addition, it was found that the content of SO3 was high in the chemical components, thus activating the hydration reaction of GBFS in the early age. This initial hydration reaction was thought to be due to the increase in the filling effect of the hydrate and the generation of C-S-H of the early age by the mass production of Ettringite.

  19. Prediction of 28-day Compressive Strength of Concrete from Early Strength and Accelerated Curing Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Neelakantan; S. Ramasundaram; Shanmugavel, R.; R. Vinoth

    2013-01-01

    Predicting 28-day compressive strength of concrete is an important research task for many years. In this study, concrete specimens were cured in two phases, initially at room temperature for a maximum of 30 h and later at a higher temperature for accelerated curing for a maximum of 3 h. Using the early strength obtained after the two-phase curing and the curing parameters, regression equations were developed to predict the 28-day compressive strength. For the accelerated curing (higher temper...

  20. Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age.

  1. Early Age Fracture Mechanics and Cracking of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Modern high performance concretes have low water cement ratios and do often include silica fume. Also early age high strength cements are often applied and when all these factors sum up, it turns out that the cracking sensibility is dramatically increased in com- parison with ordinary concrete...... if applied in early age. The results are only valid after 24 hours for fast and normal hardening cements and after 48 hours for slow hardening cements. This is con¯rmed in a finite element model. The fracture properties of early age concrete have been determined. The framework of the investigations has been...

  2. Cracking Tendency of Restrained Concrete at Early Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA Hengjing; SU Anshuang; GAO Xiaojian; TAO Qi

    2008-01-01

    A modified testing system characterized by full automation, steady operation and high accuracy of strain and stress measurements was developed to determine the cracking tendency of high strength concrete (HSC) in restrained condition at early ages. The shrinkage stress and the tensile creep behavior of HSC at early ages were investigated. The influence of W/C ratio and curing conditions on the early-age shrinkage stress and tensile creep was evaluated. It was found that the lower W/C ratio and drying curing condition resulted in higher shrinkage stress, stress induced tensile creep and greater cracking tendency.

  3. Control of Early Age Concrete. Phase 3: Creep in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the "Road Directorate Concrete" at early ages are studied. Creep in tension at 24 and 72 maturity hours are measured on dogbone shaped specimens. The development of tensile modulus of elasticity and strength are measured with a method developed here. The results...... are compared to compression values and splitting strengths. It is found that the properties of creep in tension are similar to the properties in compression. Further the influence form temperature on creep is found to be significant....

  4. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  5. Implementing Paraprofessional Strength-Based Early Intervention Home Visitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykota, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the implementation process for Parenting Plus, an early intervention program in a rural, western Canadian health district. Parenting Plus, as modeled after Hawaii Healthy Start, provides strength-based paraprofessional home visitations to overburdened parents of newborns. The general inductive…

  6. High strength hot rolled and aged microalloyed 5%Ni steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Lis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper was to give information about low temperature strength and impact CharpyVtoughness of low carbon microalloyed 5%Ni bainitic steel after thermomechanical rolling (TMR orthermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP and ageing at different temperatures: 580°C/2 h, 640°C/1hand 680°C/1h.Design/methodology/approach: The tensile strength tests were performed at -196, -60 and 20°C and Charpy Vsamples were broken at -100, -80, -60, -40, -20 and 20°C temperatures. The tensile strength TS, yield strengthYS, elongation A5 and reduction of area RA were established from tensile experiments. After TMCP 16 mm steelplate had YS = 730MPa, TS = 950 MPa, A5 = 22,5% and RA = 61% and impact energy > 50 J at -196°C.Findings: The best combination of mechanical properties; yield strength and Charpy V toughness was achieved forsteel after TMR and ageing 580°C/ 2h; YS = 800MPa, TS = 900 MPa, A5 = 22.5%, at -1000C KVmin.= 110 J.Research limitations/implications: The precise methodology for retained austenite identification and itsamount content determination in the investigated microstructures is still metallographic problem which needsto be resolved.Practical implications: The best combination of yield strength and Charpy V toughness was achieved for steelafter TMR and ageing 580°C/ 2h. At liquid nitrogen temperature ultrahigh strength properties were: YS = 1140MPa, TS = 1280 MPa, A5 = 26%, RA = 55% and KV 122 J at -100°C.Originality/value: The detailed microstructure examination of the steel with optical and mainly scanningtransmission electron microscopy was needed to explain its good properties at very low temperature. TRIP effectwas observed due to the presence of highly alloyed retained austenite in the microstructure. That type of steelmay be used for contemporary military and structural applications working at low temperatures.

  7. Effects of strength training on osteogenic differentiation and bone strength in aging female Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singulani, Monique Patricio; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-01-01

    The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was lower in BMSCs of the aged exercised group. The ST practice was able to improve the bone mechanical properties in aged female rats, increasing the potential for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reducing the adipogenic differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In summary, the data achieved in this study showed that strength training triggers physiological responses that result in changes in the bone microenvironment and bring benefits to biomechanical parameters of bone tissue, which could reduce the risk of fractures during senescent. PMID:28211481

  8. Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaming; Prado, Armando; Porras, Rocío; Hafez, Omar M.; Bolander, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential. PMID:28772590

  9. Preparation for Retarding and High Early Strength Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhijian; FENG Hao; WANG Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to determine optimum dosage of mixing concrete containing plasticizers and lfy ash, consistent with desirable structural grade concrete properties. Factorial tests were also conducted to investigate the four main factors: water-cementing materials ratio, water content, content of superplasticizers (SP) and fly ash content. It was found that the requirement for setting time played the dominant role in shrinkage and anti-cracking, and lfy ash played a critical role in workability and reducing heat of hydration but showed insigniifcant effects on slump, early strength and initial setting time of concrete.

  10. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.;

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  11. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…

  12. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood.

  13. [Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults. A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers. Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; Pcardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The Early Strength of Slag Cements with Addition of Hydrate Microcrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of hydrate microcrystals such as calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) and ettringite on the early strength of slag cements was studied.The authors explored the possibility of improving the early strength of the slag cement by applying crystal seed technology.It is shown that slag crystal seeds make the early strength of the cement increased due to the action of hydrate crystal seeds,which speed up the hydration of clinker minerals in the nucleation of ettringite.Therefore,the early strength of the slag cement is obviously improved.

  15. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Freiesleben Hansen, Per

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete which includes the transitional thermal effect. The model govern both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model are assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of the water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  16. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard, A. B.; Damkilde, L.; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete that includes the transitional thermal effect. The model governs both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model is assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle, and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of the experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  17. Monitoring early age cementitious materials using ultrasonic guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerson, Jacob L.

    The evaluation of early age concrete is critical for reducing construction times and ensuring quality. In this study, the use of ultrasonic guided waves for monitoring the development of early age cementitious materials is investigated. A torsional wave is transmitted and received through a waveguide that is embedded in early age mortar or concrete. As the cementitious material sets and hardens, the received wave(s) change, indicating the transition from a semifluid to a solid state. This thesis proposes two systems. The first system is a through-transmission system; a wave is transmitted on one end of an embedded waveguide using a sensor arrangement and then it is received on the opposite end of the rod with another sensor. This approach monitors the attenuation of the fundamental torsional wave mode, resulting from the leakage of energy from the cylindrical steel rod to the surrounding cementitious material. The evolution of the material's properties is related to the energy leakage or attenuation of the guided wave. The second system is a pulse-echo system; a wave is transmitted on one end of a partially embedded waveguide via a sensor arrangement that also receives the reflected signals. This approach monitors both the reflection from the end of the rod and the reflection from the point where the waveguide enters the material. The development of the cementitious material's mechanical properties is related to both the energy leaked into the surrounding material and the energy reflected at the point of entry. The ability of this method to only require access to one side of the specimen makes it attractive for monitoring early age cementitious materials in the field. Experiments were performed on mixtures with varying water-cement ratios (w/c = 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60), chemical admixtures (accelerant and retardant), mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash), and coarse aggregate (pea gravel). The time of setting and compressive strength of the various mixtures

  18. Micromechanical Modeling of Concrete at Early Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleubekov, Kairat

    The focus of this research is a micromechanical characterization of Portland cement concrete at early age (less than 28 days). Concrete's viscoelastic properties change significantly at early age due to solidification of its matrix component. Bazant's solidification theory models concrete as a material solidifying in time. This approach is generalized to a three-dimensional characterization of a composite material with a solidifying matrix and elastic inclusions. An integral constitutive relationship was obtained using a generalized correspondence principle and homogenization techniques for elastic composite materials. In light of this approach, effective creep properties of composite spherical assemblage with an aging matrix are obtained. In addition, the elastic Hashin-Monteiro model is generalized to account for the effect of the interfacial transition zone properties on concrete creep. An effective computational platform was developed to evaluate operator expressions in order to obtain relaxation and creep functions numerically. Through numerical examples, it is shown that triaxial generalization of Bazant's solidification model enables robust and computationally efficient prediction of creep deformations in Portland cement concrete.

  19. Flexural strength and microhardness of anterior composites after accelerated aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Kanşad; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Öznurhan, Fatih; Serim, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the flexural strength and microhardness of three different anterior composites after 10 000 thermocycles. Material and Methods The mechanical properties of a nano-fill composite (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (FUR) (Enamel)), a nano-hybrid composite (Clearfil Majesty ES2 (ES2) (Enamel)), and a micro-hybrid composite (G Aenial Anterior (GAA)) were investigated in this study. For the microhardness test, 8-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness composite discs were used (n = 10), and for the flexural strength test, 25x2x2 mm bar-shaped specimens were prepared (n = 13). The specimens were tested at 24 h and after 10 000 thermocycles. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the post-hoc Tukey test (p .05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that there was a negative relationship between the mean hardness and flexural strength values (correlation coefficient = -0.367, p = .043). After 10 000 thermocycles, microhardness values of each material and flexural strength of ES2 and GAA decreased significantly according to 24 h. Conclusions The nano-fill composite FUR displayed significantly higher microhardness values. However, each resin composite was statistically similar for flexural strength values. Ten thousand thermocycles significantly affected microhardness and flexural strength. Key words:Flexural strength, microhardness, anterior composites. PMID:28298986

  20. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka;

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity...... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... teachers. Danish National Registers were used to measure the outcome of any first time ICD-10 diagnosis for hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit disorder and/or prescription of central stimulants during years 2005-2012. Screening potentials of the SDQ's predictive algorithms were described, and Cox...

  1. Age trajectories of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal data among 8,342 Danes aged 46 to 102

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Mortensen, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    with increasing age. Estimates were obtained by using full-information methods from large population-representative studies. Equations of expected grip strength, as well as tables with sex-, age-, and height-stratified reference data, provide an opportunity to include grip-strength measurement in clinical care...

  2. Influence of aging conditions on the microstructure and tensile strength of aluminium alloy 6063

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R.Q. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sapa Technology, Finspang (Sweden); Stiller, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Hansen, V. [Hogskolen i Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Oskarsson, A. [Sapa Technology, Finspang (Sweden); Danoix, F. [Lab. de Microscopie Iouique, URACNRS Univ. de Rouen, Mount Saint Aignan (France)

    2002-07-01

    The influences of ageing conditions on the strength of a commercial aluminium alloy 6063 (AA 6063) were studied. Materials in three pre-ageing conditions: 288 h natural ageing (i.e. ageing at room temperature (RT)); 3 h natural ageing; and 3 h natural ageing plus 5 h ageing at 80 C, were subsequently aged at 165 C, 185 C and 205 C from 0.25 to 64 hours. Tensile tests were performed after ageing. Microstructural study was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM). The results show that for materials with the same pre-ageing condition, the higher the subsequent ageing temperature, the lower the peak strength and the shorter time it takes to reach peak strength. Specimens exposed to longer natural ageing exhibit higher strength during subsequent artificial ageing than those with shorter natural ageing. The contribution of 3-h natural ageing plus 5 h ageing at 80 C to strength is comparable to that of longer natural ageing. Possible causes for such impacts are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Effect of physicochemical aging conditions on the composite-composite repair bond strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brendeke, Johannes; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of different physicochemical aging methods and surface conditioning techniques on the repair bond strength of composite. It was hypothesized that the aging conditions would decrease the repair bond strength and surface conditioning methods would perform simil

  4. Effect of rapid set binder on early strength and permeability of HES latex modified road repair pre-packed concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. W.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, C.; Park, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    The early strength development characteristics and permeability resistance of high early strength (HES) pre-packed road repair concrete incorporating a rapid-set binder material were evaluated for emergency repairs to road pavement. The rapid-set binder is a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sands whose fluidity improves with the addition of styrene butadiene latex (latex). The resulting mixture has a compressive strength of 21 MPa or higher and a flexural strength of greater than 3.5 MPa after 4 hours, the maximum curing age allowed for emergency repair materials. This study examines the strength development properties and permeability resistance of HES latex-modified pre-packed road repair concrete using a rapid- set binder as a function of the latex-to-binder mixing ratio at values of 0.40, 0.33, 0.29 and 0.25. Both early strength development properties and permeability resistance increased as the ratio of latex to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture showed a compressive strength of 21 MPa or higher after 4 hours, which is the design standard of emergency repair concrete, only when this ratio was 0.29 or lower. A flexural strength of 3.5 MPa or greater was observed after hours only when this ratio was 0.33 or lower. The standard for permeability resistance, less than 2,000 C of chloride after 7 days of curing, was satisfied by all ratios. The ratio of latex to rapid-set binder satisfying all of the conditions for an emergency road repair material was 0.29 or less.

  5. Spent FCC catalyst for improving early strength Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan; Vunda, Christian; VELÁZQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ, SERGIO; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst from the petrol industry has proven to be a very active pozzolanic material. This behavior leads to an additional increase in the strength of the mortar that contains this catalyst. Pozzolanic effects tend to be considered for periods above three days, whereas in shorter times, the influence of pozzolan is usually negligible. The reactivity of FCC is so high, however, that both pozzolanic effects and acceleration of cement hydration are evident in...

  6. Using Strengths-Based Approaches in Early Years Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Angela; Walsh, Kerryann; Wong, Sandie; Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches draw upon frameworks and perspectives from social work and psychology but have not necessarily been consistently defined or well articulated across disciplines. Internationally, there are increasing calls for professionals in early years settings to work in strengths-based ways to support the access and participation of…

  7. Age and gender, two key factors in the associations between physical activity and strength during the ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Carnicero, Jose A; Alonso-Bouzón, Cristina; Tresguerres, Jesús Ángel; Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Ara, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; García-García, Francisco-José

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify if the associations of physical activity (PA) and muscle strength may vary throughout the ageing process; to study the differences among genders in the relationships between PA and strength in elderly people and to test whether these differences are explained by the hormonal, nutritional and inflammatory status. A total of 1741 people ≥65 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Upper- and lower-limbs maximal voluntary isometric strength was obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. PA was recorded by a validated questionnaire. The associations of PA with strength were assessed using generalized linear regression models with a Gamma-distributed dependent variable. A significant gender by PA interaction was found for all strength-related variables (all P<0.01). Moreover, when sexual hormones, albumin or C-Reactive protein were taken into account in the model, the results did not significantly change. In women, PA was positively associated with upper and lower-body strength; however in men, PA was only associated with grip and knee strength (both P<0.01). Higher strength values were associated with higher levels of PA, especially in women. However, this tendency had a different pattern across the age range, showing a stronger association in the 'young' elderly compared with the 'old' elderly. Higher levels of PA are related to greater muscle strength, especially in women and those who were younger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strength Training to Enhance Early Recovery after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Collins, Eileen; Park, Chang; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    2016-12-29

    Intensive cancer treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) results in moderate to severe fatigue and physical inactivity, leading to diminished functional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an exercise intervention, strength training to enhance early recovery (STEER), on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life after HCT. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared strength training (n = 33) to usual care plus attention control with health education (UC + AC with HE) (n = 34). Subjects were stratified by type of transplantation and age. STEER consisted of a comprehensive program of progressive resistance introduced during hospitalization and continued for 6 weeks after hospital discharge. Fatigue, physical activity, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life were assessed before HCT hospital admission and after intervention completion. Data were analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance. Significant time × group interactions effects were noted for fatigue (P = .04). The STEER group reported improvement in fatigue from baseline to after intervention whereas the UC + AC with HE group reported worsened fatigue from baseline to after intervention. Time (P < .001) and group effects (P = .05) were observed for physical activity. Physical activity declined from baseline to 6 weeks after hospitalization. The STEER group was more physically active. Functional ability tests (timed stair climb and timed up and go) resulted in a significant interaction effect (P = .03 and P = .05, respectively). Subjects in the UC + AC with HE group were significantly slower on both tests baseline to after intervention, whereas the STEER group's time remained stable. The STEER group completed both tests faster than the UC + AC with HE group after intervention. Study findings support the use of STEER after intensive cancer treatment and HCT

  9. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000x, 5-55 degrees

  10. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000x, 5-55 degrees C

  11. Decline in lumbar extensor muscle strength the older adults: correlation with age, gender and spine morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Bailey, Martin; Lee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle morphology, age and gender may be determinants of muscle strength in older adults. However, very few research studies have directly examined such correlation in the ageing spine. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between lumbar extensor muscle strength, its muscle fibre angles, thoracolumbar curvature, age and gender in the older and younger adults. Methods Muscle fibre angles of lumbar extensor muscles, thoracolumbar curvature and lumbar extensor muscle st...

  12. The SAURON project - XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntschner, Harald; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P Tim; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M; Peletier, Reynier F; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L; Bosch, Remco C E van den; van de Ven, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of Hbeta, Fe5015, and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise, together with predictions from up-to-date stellar population models, we estimate the simple stellar population-equivalent (SSP-equivalent) age, metallicity and abundance ratio [alpha/Fe] over a two-dimensional field extending up to approximately one effective radius. We find a large range of SSP-equivalent ages in our sample, of which ~40% of the galaxies show signs of a contribution from a young stellar population. The most extreme cases of post-starburst galaxies, with SSP-equivalent ages of =10 Gyr) stellar populations.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUBADOLESCENT AND EARLY ADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radulović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today 's children are engaged by things which don't cause enough irritation for quality development of skelton-muscle system. There's a common opinion that strength training for subadolescent and early adolescent children is very harmful and useless. However; a lot of examinations show that a good invented progress of strength training is resulting increasing of muscle strength; ligament strength and insuring the bases of right growth and development of children: the quality strenght training enables a child to face better everyday' s efforts. It's also important fact of optimal psyzical preparation which is necessary for the further sport development.

  14. Achievement of Early Compressive Strength in Concrete Using Sporosarcina pasteurii Bacteria as an Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Chidara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Often it is observed, attainment of early compressive strength in concrete is a challenge. Researchers have tried various admixtures to achieve the objective. This work addresses the issue of achieving early compressive strength in concrete using a bacterium called Sporosarcina pasteurii. The bacterium is characterised with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate in the presence of any carbonate source and is known for its resistive capacity in extreme temperature and pressure zones. To establish the objective of gain in early strength around 192 concrete cubes were tested at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the results compared with controlled concrete. The bacterium was used in combination of chemicals and the dosage proportions were altered to achieve the desired M20 compressive strength at 28 days.

  15. Time-dependent Early-age Behaviors of Concrete under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; CAO Lixin; R D Hooton; H Lam; NIU Changren

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the early-age behaviors of concrete under a restrained condition, a set of apparatus was developed. In this way, the tensile creep and other early-age properties can be investigated in depth. By measuring the modulus of elasticity of concrete, synchronous shrinkage of concrete and steel rings and free shrinkage of concrete, the deformations of concrete ring can be quantified respectively. The experimental results show the tensile stress in concrete is time-dependent, and the stress at cracking is much lower than the tensile strength at that age; the tensile creep plays an important role in relaxing the tensile stress and postponing the cracking of concrete.

  16. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  17. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  18. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  19. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  20. Effects of GH Admixture on the Early Strength of Fly Ash Concrete and Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Jingfu; WANG Xiufen

    2008-01-01

    The enhancement effects of GH admixture on the early strengths of fly ash concrete and mortar were studied, and the mechanism was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electro microscope (SEM). Experimental results show that, by the incorporation of GH admixture, both of cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction of fly ash are accelerated, the strengths of fly ash concrete and mortar are enhanced noticeably, especially the early strength. With a mixture design of 200 kg/m3 OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), 200 kg/m3 fly ash and 50 kg/m3 GH admixture, the strength of concrete at 1 d, 3 d and 28 d reaches 25 Mpa, 50 Mpa and 70 Mpa respectively.

  1. Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masazumi; Mizutani, Takashi; Kimura, Ryouta; Ono, Yuichi; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar kyphosis and the decreased mobility of the lumbar spine increase the risk of falls and impair both the quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, in the elderly Japanese population, little is known about the age-related changes and sex-related differences in muscle strength, including of the upper and lower extremities and back extensors. An adequate kyphotic or lordotic angle has also not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis in 252 males and 320 females ≥50 years of age. Grip, back extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor strength; thoracic and lumbar kyphosis; and spinal inclination in the neutral standing position were assessed, together with the range of motion of the thoracic and lumbar spine and spinal inclination. Grip strength, back extensor strength, and the strength of the hip flexors and knee extensors decreased significantly with aging, both in males (Pstrength and the thoracic kyphosis angle were significant variables influencing the lumbar kyphosis angle in both sexes. Spinal inclination correlated significantly with both the lumbar kyphosis angle and hip flexor strength in males, as well as with the lumbar kyphosis angle in females.

  2. Enhanced stimulus strength improves visual cognition in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Gilmore, Grover C; Neargarder, Sandy; Morrison, Sarah R; Laudate, Thomas M

    2007-10-01

    Deficits in visual cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) arise from neuropathological changes in higher-order association areas of the cortex and from defective input from lower-level visual processing areas. We investigated whether enhanced signal strength may lead to improvement of visual cognition in AD. We tested 35 individuals with probable AD, 35 age-matched elderly control (EC) and 58 young control (YC) adults on letter identification, word reading, picture naming, discrimination of unfamiliar faces, and pattern completion. The contrast sensitivity step-difference across an independent sample of AD and EC groups was used in calculating an image filter, from which we produced stimulus-strength conditions of low-degraded, medium-normal, and high-enhanced. Using this filter we created a hypothetical proximal-strength equivalence between AD at medium strength and EC at low strength, and between AD at high strength and EC at medium strength. For letter identification, word reading, picture naming, and face discrimination, medium strength elicited AD accuracy levels and reaction times that were similar to those of EC at low strength. On picture naming, increased strength reduced perceptual-type errors for EC and AD and random errors for AD. For word reading, high strength elicited AD accuracy levels and reaction times that were equivalent to those of EC at medium strength. We saw no effect of signal-strength manipulation on performance of pattern completion, possibly owing to the complex cognitive demands of that task or to the inadequacy of the filter for its images. The results indicate that putative AD-EC differences in cognition directly reflect contrast sensitivity differences between the groups. Enhancement of stimulus strength can ameliorate vision-based deficits and lead to improvement in some aspects of cognitive performance. These results suggest new non-pharmacological avenues to explore in the attempt to improve cognition in elderly adults and

  3. On the Feasibility of Early-age English learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静

    2009-01-01

    Children's English learning in China attracts more and more people's attention and is on the teidency of starting at an early age. Under the trend of "learning English from childhood", the author has explored the Criical Period Hypothesis and discussed the younger learners' dsadvantages and older learners'advantages when learning Englsh. and concludes that early-age English learning is not feasible.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Age of Concrete on Strength – Porosity Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zadražil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strengths of unsealed samples of concrete at the age of 180 days and have been measured at temperatures 20 °C, 300 °C, 600 °C and 900 °C. All of tests were performed for cold material. We compared our results with those obtained in [10] for the same type of concrete (age 28, resp. 90 days and measured at temperature ranging from 20 °C to 280 °C. Dependencies of compressive strength and porosity were correlated together and compared for the samples of age 28, 90 and 180 days. Behaviour of concrete of the age 90, resp. 180 days confirms generally accepted hypothesis that with increasing porosity strength of the concrete decreases. It has to be stressed out, howerer, that concrete samples of the age 28 days exhibit totally opposite dependency. 

  5. Effect of thermal ageing on mechanical properties of a high-strength ODS alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Chang Heui [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials DivisionKorea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A new high-strength ODS alloy, ARROS, was recently developed for the application as the cladding material of a Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). To assess the long-term integrity under thermal ageing, ARROS was thermally aged in air at 650°C for 1000 h. The degree of thermal ageing was assessed by mechanical tests such as uniaxial tensile, hardness, and small punch tests at from room temperature to 650°C. Tensile strength was slightly decreased but elongation, hardness, and small punch energy were hardly changed at all test temperatures for the specimen aged at 650°C for 1000 h. However, the variation in mechanical properties such as hardness and small punch energy increased after thermal ageing. Using the test results, the correlation between tensile strength and maximum small punch load was established.

  6. Physics and chemistry of aging early developments

    CERN Document Server

    Vagvra, J

    2002-01-01

    The aging phenomena are very complex physical and chemical processes. The author attempts to qualitatively discuss various physical processes contributing to aging. The satisfactory quantitative explanation is not presently available. In this sense, there is little progress made since the 1986 LBL Aging Workshop. However, what was accomplished during the past decade is a heighten awareness from the research and management sides to pay more attention to this problem, and as a result a number of aging tests have increased in quantity and quality. These efforts will undoubtedly yield some new results in the future. Examples in this paper are mainly from a "pre- LHC and pre-HERA-B era of aging, " where the total charge doses is limited to much less than one C/cm. (37 refs).

  7. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Özcan, Mutlu; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000 ×, 5-55 °C), (2) storage in water at 37 °C for 6 months, or (3) immersion in citric acid at 37 °C, pH 3 for 1 week; a non-aged group acted as the control. Two surface conditionings were selected: intermediate adhesive resin application (IAR-application) and chairside silica coating followed by silanization and its specific IAR-application (SC-application). Composite resins, of the same kind as their substrate, were adhered onto the substrates, and repair shear bond strengths were determined, followed by failure type evaluation. Filler particle exposure was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface roughness analyzed using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Surface roughness increased in all composite resins after aging, but filler particle exposure at the surface only increased after thermocycling and citric acid immersion. Composite resin type, surface conditioning, and aging method significantly influenced the repair bond strengths (p water storage. Repair bond strengths in aged composite resins after IAR-application were always lower in non-aged ones, while SC-application led to higher bond strengths than IAR-application after thermocycling and water storage. In addition, SC-application led to more cohesive failures than after IAR-application, regardless the aging method.

  8. Effect of programmed strength training on explosive strength of lower extremities in children aged 11 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković Andrija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical jumps are an integral part of many sport activities. There are several factors that affect the athlete's jumping ability: strength, force and acceleration that occur when we jump. The jump is a complex and more articulated activity that requires not only strength, but great power as well. The main types of training to increase explosive strength are plyometric training and myogenic training with weight load on the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of myogenic training with weight load on explosive strength of the lower extremities. The first group is the control group (K, while the second group is an experimental group (E, each consisting of eighteen respondents. By Using the Myotest and performing the squat jump (SJ, the Height, Power, Force and Velocity were determined. The programme of power lasted for six weeks, twice a week for up to 60 minutes. We conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the final and initial measurements in the experimental group, the multivariate level sig = 0.000. Increase in jump height ΔHeight = 3.28 in cm, force ΔForce = 4.68 in N/kg, the strength ΔPower = 6.18 in W/kg, the acceleration ΔVelocity = 21.8 in cm/s. The results of this study show that myogenic training with weight load has a positive impact on the explosive power of the lower extremities. This research was carried out against children aged 11 to 14 years, so we cannot say with certainty that this type of programme can have identical effects on athletes.

  9. Early Literacy Promotion in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navsaria, Dipesh; Sanders, Lee M

    2015-10-01

    School readiness and educational success is strongly mediated by early literacy skills. In both exam-room and community-based settings, child-health providers can affect the trajectory of early literacy by implementing evidence-based, culturally appropriate interventions that support child development, parenting skills, and child-caregiver interaction. Despite limited research on the subject, these interventions should also attend to the evolving role of digital-media exposure (both positive and negative) on the developmental health of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masazumi; Mizutani, Takashi; Kimura, Ryouta; Ono, Yuichi; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar kyphosis and the decreased mobility of the lumbar spine increase the risk of falls and impair both the quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, in the elderly Japanese population, little is known about the age-related changes and sex-related differences in muscle strength, including of the upper and lower extremities and back extensors. An adequate kyphotic or lordotic angle has also not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis in 252 males and 320 females ≥50 years of age. Grip, back extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor strength; thoracic and lumbar kyphosis; and spinal inclination in the neutral standing position were assessed, together with the range of motion of the thoracic and lumbar spine and spinal inclination. Grip strength, back extensor strength, and the strength of the hip flexors and knee extensors decreased significantly with aging, both in males (P<0.0001) and in females (P=0.0015 to P<0.0001). The lumbar but not the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased significantly with aging, only in females (P<0.0001). Spinal inclination increased significantly with aging in both males (P=0.002) and females (P<0.0001). Back extensor strength and the thoracic kyphosis angle were significant variables influencing the lumbar kyphosis angle in both sexes. Spinal inclination correlated significantly with both the lumbar kyphosis angle and hip flexor strength in males, as well as with the lumbar kyphosis angle in females.

  11. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-11-22

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75(NTR) receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  12. Latium Vetus in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessandri, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present an in-depth analysis of the socio-economic dynamics that took place from the Bronze Age until the middle of the eighth century BC, in the Latium Vetus (Italy). To understand the archaeological record, knowledge of the transformations through time of the various lan

  13. Development and Performance Evaluation of Very High Early Strength Geopolymer for Rapid Road Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abideng Hawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High early strength is the most important property of pavement repair materials to allow quick reopening to traffic. With this in mind, we have experimentally investigated geopolymers using low cost raw materials available in Thailand. The geopolymer mortar was metakaolin (MK, mixed with parawood ash (PWA, rubberwood ash or oil palm ash (OPA as binder agent. Rubberwood is often used as raw material for biomass power plants in Thailand, especially at latex glove factories and seafood factories, and burning rubberwood generates PWA. Both PWA and OPA are therefore low cost residual waste, locally available in mass quantities. The geopolymer samples were characterized for compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and bond strength to Portland cement mortar with slant shear test. The experimental design varied the contents of PWA and OPA and the heat curing time (1, 2 and 4 h after hot mixture process. The hot mixture process resulted in very high early strength. In addition, we achieved high compressive strengths, low drying shrinkage, and very significant bond strength enhancement by use of the ashes.

  14. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aging process, cognitive decline and Alzheimer`s disease: can strength training modulate these responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Eduardo Matta Mello; Vasconcelos, Poliane Gomes Torres; Souza, Renata; Lattari, Eduardo; Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Machado, Sergio; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence shows that aerobic training can attenuate the aging effects on the brain structures and functions. However, the strength exercise effects are poorly discussed. Thus, in the present study, the effects of strength training on the brain in elderly people and Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients were revised. Furthermore, it a biological explanation relating to strength training effects on the brain is proposed. Brain atrophy can be related to neurotransmission dysfunction, like oxidative stress, that generates mitochondrial damage and reduced brain metabolism. Another mechanism is related to amyloid deposition and amyloid tangles, that can be related to reductions on insulin-like growth factor I concentrations. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor also presents reduction during aging process and AD. These neuronal dysfunctions are also related to cerebral blood flow decline that influence brain metabolism. All of these alterations contribute to cognitive impairment and AD. After a long period of strength training, the oxidative stress can be reduced, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor I serum concentrations enhance, and the cognitive performance improves. Considering these results, we can infer that strength training can be related to increased neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and, consequently, counteracts aging effects on the brain. The effect of strength training as an additional treatment of AD needs further investigation.

  16. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameira, Deborah Pacheco; Buarque e Silva, Wilkens Aurélio; Andrade e Silva, Frederico; De Souza, Grace M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness) and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer) configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n = 10): Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM); Glazed monolithic zirconia crowns (GM); Bi-layer crowns (BL). Crowns were cemented with resin cement, submitted to artificial aging in a chewing simulator (2.5 million cycles/80 N/artificial saliva/37 °C), and tested for fracture strength. Two remaining crowns referring to PM and GM groups were submitted to a chemical composition analysis to measure the level of yttrium after aging. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = .05) indicated that monolithic zirconia crowns presented similar fracture strength (PM = 3476.2 N ± 791.7; GM = 3561.5 N ± 991.6), which was higher than bilayer crowns (2060.4 N ± 810.6). There was no difference in the yttrium content among the three surfaces evaluated in the monolithic crowns. Thus, monolithic zirconia crowns present higher fracture strength than bilayer veneered zirconia after artificial aging and surface finishing does not affect their fracture strength.

  17. Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George

    2010-01-01

    Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA) on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100) with short (5-7 years), intermediate (8-10 years) and long (>11 years) PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L)/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023), knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042) and 180°/sec (p = 0.036), and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044). A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02) and 180°/sec (p = 0.03). Directional (R/L) asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04) and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03). These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain implications

  18. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Noirfontaine M.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs, especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP, have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  19. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, K.; Courtial, M.; Dunstetter, F.; Khelidj, A.; Mounanga, P.; de Noirfontaine, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  20. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    OpenAIRE

    De Noirfontaine M.N.; Mounanga P.; Khelidj A.; Dunstetter F.; Cherkaoui K.; Courtial M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  1. Laterality of handgrip strength: age- and physical training-related changes in Lithuanian schoolchildren and conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Schiefenhövel, Wulf

    2013-06-01

    Laterality in handgrip strength was assessed by analyzing dynamometric data of the right and left hand in three samples of Lithuanian boys and girls aged 7-20 years. In addition, the influence of general physical training on the laterality of handgrip strength was explored in a sample of conscripts. A negative secular trend in handgrip strength of schoolchildren has been detected since 1965, and with increasing age, right-handedness has become more pronounced. Children that were ambidextrous (by grip strength) showed negative deviations in physical status more often than their right- or left-handed peers. During one year of physical training, the conscripts had a larger increase in grip strength of the left than in the right hand, and a marked shift in handgrip laterality toward left-handed and ambidextrous individuals was observed. The different impact of schooling and physical training on handgrip strength laterality might partly explain variations in the prevalence of handedness in different societies with divergent cultures and lifestyles (e.g., more or less sedentary). © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  3. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Bone Strength From Childhood to Early Adulthood: A Mixed Longitudinal HR-pQCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M; Nettlefold, Lindsay; McKay, Heather A

    2017-03-22

    Bone strength is influenced by bone geometry, density, and bone microarchitecture, which adapt to increased mechanical loads during growth. Physical activity (PA) is essential for optimal bone strength accrual; however, less is known about how sedentary time influences bone strength and its determinants. Thus, our aim was to investigate the prospective associations between PA, sedentary time, and bone strength and its determinants during adolescence. We used HR-pQCT at distal tibia (8% site) and radius (7% site) in 173 girls and 136 boys (aged 9 to 20 years at baseline). We conducted a maximum of four annual measurements at the tibia (n = 785 observations) and radius (n = 582 observations). We assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time with accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M). We aligned participants on maturity (years from age at peak height velocity) and fit a mixed-effects model adjusting for maturity, sex, ethnicity, leg muscle power, lean mass, limb length, dietary calcium, and MVPA in sedentary time models. MVPA was a positive independent predictor of bone strength (failure load [F.Load]) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) at the tibia and radius, total area (Tt.Ar) and cortical porosity (Ct.Po) at the tibia, and negative predictor of load-to-strength ratio at the radius. Sedentary time was a negative independent predictor of Tt.Ar at both sites and Ct.Po at the tibia and a positive predictor of cortical thickness (Ct.Th), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD) at the tibia. Bone parameters demonstrated maturity-specific associations with MVPA and sedentary time, whereby associations were strongest during early and mid-puberty. Our findings support the importance of PA for bone strength accrual and its determinants across adolescent growth and provide new evidence of a detrimental association of sedentary time with bone geometry but positive associations with microarchitecture. This study highlights maturity

  4. Muscle strength as a predictor of onset of ADL dependence in people aged 75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantanen, Taina; Avlund, Kirsten; Suominen, Harri

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study over 5 years was to examine maximal isometric strength of multiple muscle groups as a predictor of losing independence in activities of daily living (ADL). The participants were from the Nordic Research on Aging (NORA75). These analyses are restricted to 567 people....... Of the 227 initially ADL independent men, 21 (9.3%) became dependent in ADL. In women, the figures were 30 (8.8%) of 340. Multiple logistic regression models were used to predict the risk of ADL dependence in groups based on strength tertiles. After confirming that the association of muscle strength...... dependent because of poor muscle strength, and who could reduce their risk by strengthening exercises....

  5. Boosting Early Development: The Mixed Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahui; Xin, Tao

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of kindergarten enrollment age on four-year-old Chinese children's early cognition and problem behavior using multilevel models. The sample comprised of 1,391 pre-school children (the mean age is 4.58 years old) from 74 kindergartens in six different provinces. The results demonstrated curvilinear…

  6. On Early Age Crack Formation in FRC Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The problem of early age crack formation in FRC slabs due to restrained temperature and shrinkage deformations, is given an analytical treatment. A model taking into account the ageing properties of the tensile softening curve and the continued development in the temperature and shrinkage...... deformations after crack initiation, is presented. Based on this model a design strategy for FRC slabs is outlined....

  7. Effects of Age on Strength and Morphology of Toe Flexor Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Angin, Salih; Crofts, Gillian; Nester, Christopher J

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Descriptive, cross-sectional. Background Age-related muscle atrophy is common in lower-limb muscles. We therefore speculated that foot muscles may also diminish with age. However, there is a paucity of literature characterizing foot muscle strength and morphology, and any relationship between these 2, in older people. Objective To compare the strength and size of the toe flexor muscles of older adults relative to their younger counterparts. Methods Seventeen young adults with a normal foot type were matched by sex and body mass index to 17 older adults with a normal foot type, from an available sample of 41 younger (18 to 50 years of age) and 44 older (60 or more years of age) adults. Among the matched groups (n = 34), muscle thickness and cross-sectional area for 5 intrinsic and 2 extrinsic toe flexor muscles were obtained using ultrasound. Toe strength was assessed using a pressure platform. Differences in toe flexor strength and muscle size between the young and older matched groups were determined using analysis of covariance (controlling for height). Correlations between strength and size of the toe flexor muscles of the pooled group (n = 34) were also calculated. Results Toe strength and the thickness and cross-sectional area of most foot muscles were significantly reduced in the older adults (Pstrength values were strongly correlated with the size of the intrinsic toe flexor muscles. Conclusion The smaller foot muscles appear to be affected by sarcopenia in older adults. This could contribute to reduced toe flexion force production and may affect the ability of older people to walk safely. Interventions aimed at reversing foot muscle atrophy in older people require further investigation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(12):1065-1070. Epub 29 Oct 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6597.

  8. Influence of Thermal Aging on Material Strength Behavior in Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Kim, Woo-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the influence of thermal aging on yield strength and ductility for Grade 91 steel has been investigated. Service exposed Gr.91 steel materials sampled from a piping system of an ultra-supercritical plant over 73716 hours were used for material testing. The test results were compared with those of the virgin Gr.91 steel and those data were compared with RCC-MRx data. In this study, thermal aging effect of Gr.91 steel on the strength and ductility has been investigated. It was shown that yield strength has dropped as much as 35.8% over the service exposed duration of 8.4 years while ductility has been improved up to 23%. Since the present design rules of ASME Code and RCC-MRx do not provide concrete strength reduction factors for the thermal aging, it was shown to be necessary based on the findings of the present study to take this thermal aging influence into account in those design codes so that the design outcomes are to be more reliable.

  9. Effect Aging Conditions on the Repair Bond Strength of a Microhybrid and a Nanohybrid Resin Composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Cura, Cenk; Brendeke, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of different aging methods on the repair bond strength and failure types of a microhybrid and a nanohybrid composite Materials and Methods Disk shaped microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine-QA) and nanohybrid (Tetric EvoCeram TE) resin composite specimens (N = 1

  10. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  11. Effect Aging Conditions on the Repair Bond Strength of a Microhybrid and a Nanohybrid Resin Composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Cura, Cenk; Brendeke, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of different aging methods on the repair bond strength and failure types of a microhybrid and a nanohybrid composite Materials and Methods Disk shaped microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine-QA) and nanohybrid (Tetric EvoCeram TE) resin composite specimens (N =

  12. Adhesion strategy and early bond strengths of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Faria-e-Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of coinitiator solutions and self-adhesive resin cement on the early retention of glass-fiber posts. Cylindrical glass-fiber posts were luted into 40 incisor roots with different adhesion strategies (n = 10: SB2, Single Bond 2 + conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC; AP, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP activator + primer + ARC; APC, SBMP activator + primer + catalyst + ARC; and UNI, self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem. Pull-out bond strength results at 10 min after cementation showed APC > UNI > SB2 = AP (P < 0.05. The adhesion strategy significantly affected early bonding to root canals.

  13. Early Progressive Strength Training to Enhance Recovery After Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Husted, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with or without progressive strength training (PST) commenced early after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on functional performance. METHODS: In total, 82 patients with a unilateral primary TKA were randomized to 2...... was not superior to 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation without PST in improving functional performance, measured as the maximal walking distance in 6 minutes, at the primary end point 8 weeks after fast-track TKA....

  14. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  15. A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.

  16. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. METHODS: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years...... central fat mass (r = 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to testosterone treatment, six months of strength training reduced sCD36 levels suggesting decreased cardiovascular risk, possibly due to a reduction in central fat mass....

  17. Effect of Superplasticizers on the Early Age Hydration of Sulfoaluminate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiaohui; CHEN Wei; YANG Mo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two types of superplasticizers on the properties of CSA cement pastes during early hydration were studied. The influences of two types of superplasticizers on the properties of cement pastes, including the normal consistency, setting time, fluidity, and compressive strength, were investigated by using various methods. The hydration products of the cement pastes cured for 1 day and 3 days were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the PCE type superplasticizer retards the early age hydration while the FDN type superplasticizer accelerates the early age hydration of the CSA cement. Both types of superplasticizers have no influence on the further hydration of CSA cement, confirmed by the calorimeter tests as well. The ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements were used to probe the influence of two types of superplasticizers on the hydration of CSA cement pastes at a high water-cement ratio (0.45). The results show that the PCE type superplasticizer retards the early age hydration of the CSA cement while the FDN type superplasticizer has little influence on the early age hydration of the CSA cement.

  18. Isokinetic and Isometric Muscle Strength in a Healthy Population – with Special Reference to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Bartels, E M; Bülow, P M

    2009-01-01

    was subgrouped according to age and gender. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength was measured in each subject across the main joints in the body. A statistical model was developed that encompassed the three main muscle groups: upper limbs, trunk and lower limbs. Results: Muscle strength in healthy men...... decreases in a linear fashion from the age of 25 years down to between 54% and 89% at the age of 75 years, and seems not highly dependent on any other parameter than age. For women, the muscle strength is dependent on weight and is only related to age from around 40 years of age. The decrease in muscle...

  19. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pacheco Lameira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n=10: Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM; Glazed monolithic zirconia crowns (GM; Bi-layer crowns (BL. Crowns were cemented with resin cement, submitted to artificial aging in a chewing simulator (2.5 million cycles/80 N/artificial saliva/37°C, and tested for fracture strength. Two remaining crowns referring to PM and GM groups were submitted to a chemical composition analysis to measure the level of yttrium after aging. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P=.05 indicated that monolithic zirconia crowns presented similar fracture strength (PM=3476.2 N ± 791.7; GM=3561.5 N ± 991.6, which was higher than bilayer crowns (2060.4 N ± 810.6. There was no difference in the yttrium content among the three surfaces evaluated in the monolithic crowns. Thus, monolithic zirconia crowns present higher fracture strength than bilayer veneered zirconia after artificial aging and surface finishing does not affect their fracture strength.

  20. POWER-TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Surakka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength declines with increasing age, and the power-type strength characteristics decline even more drastically than the maximal muscle strength. Therefore, it is important to design training programmes specifically for sedentary middle-aged people to effectively improve the power-type strength in leg and trunk muscles. To be suitable for the target group, the exercise programmes should be feasible, motivating and easy to practice. The aim of this study was to design and investigate the effects and feasibility of a power-type strength training programme in 226 middle-aged men and women, with 26 persons as non-training controls. The subjects trained three times a week during 22 weeks, in 12 groups with exercise classes of 10-20 subjects, and using no or very little external equipment. All training sessions were controlled and supervised by an professional instructor. Vertical squat jump, standing long jump, 20 metre running time, maximal anaerobic cycling power, maximal oxygen uptake, and angular trunk muscle flexion and extension velocities were measured before and after the training period to evaluate the training effects. Questionnaires concerning employment, physical activity, smoking, musculoskeletal symptoms and exercise motives were also filled in before and after the training period. The greatest improvements were achieved in vertical squat jump (18% and in angular trunk flexion (14% and extension (16% velocities. An external loading totalling 2.2 kg (attached in ankles increased the height in vertical squat jump by 23% and maximal anaerobic cycling power by 12%, these improvements were significant compared with subjects in no load training group (p = 0.03 in vertical squat jump and p = 0.05 in maximal anaerobic cycling power. Exercise induced injuries occurred in 19% of men and 6% of women. Low back symptoms decreased in exercisers by 12% and knee symptoms (increased by 4% during the intervention. Of all subjects, 24% dropped out

  1. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  2. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient’s home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  3. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  4. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    for a meniscal tear and used either a healthy control group or the contralateral leg to compare knee extensor muscle strength were included. Methodological quality was assessed using guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. RESULTS: Eleven studies, including predominately males were included (n......OBJECTIVE: People with meniscal tears are at high risk to develop or progress knee osteoarthritis. Knee extensor weakness is considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis and is often reported in these individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate knee...... extensor strength in people undergoing an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM). METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SportDISCUS, EMBASE, PEDro and AMED) were searched up to June 22(nd) , 2014. Studies that measured knee extensor muscle strength in people aged 30 years and older undergoing APM...

  5. Repair Bond Strength of Aged Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wendler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different mechanical surface treatments and chemical bonding protocols on the tensile bond strength (TBS of aged composite. Bar specimens were produced using a nanohybrid resin composite and aged in distilled water for 30 days. Different surface treatments (diamond bur, phosphoric acid, silane, and sandblasting with Al2O3 or CoJet Sand, as well as bonding protocols (Primer/Adhesive were used prior to application of the repair composite. TBS of the specimens was measured and the results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = 0.05. Mechanically treated surfaces were characterized under SEM and by profilometry. The effect of water aging on the degree of conversion was measured by means of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. An important increase in the degree of conversion was observed after aging. No significant differences in TBS were observed among the mechanical surface treatments, despite variations in surface roughness profiles. Phosphoric acid etching significantly improved repair bond strength values. The cohesive TBS of the material was only reached using resin bonding agents. Application of an intermediate bonding system plays a key role in achieving reliable repair bond strengths, whereas the kind of mechanical surface treatment appears to play a secondary role.

  6. Repair Bond Strength of Aged Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Panzer, Reinhard; Skibbe, Daniel; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different mechanical surface treatments and chemical bonding protocols on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of aged composite. Bar specimens were produced using a nanohybrid resin composite and aged in distilled water for 30 days. Different surface treatments (diamond bur, phosphoric acid, silane, and sandblasting with Al2O3 or CoJet Sand), as well as bonding protocols (Primer/Adhesive) were used prior to application of the repair composite. TBS of the specimens was measured and the results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = 0.05). Mechanically treated surfaces were characterized under SEM and by profilometry. The effect of water aging on the degree of conversion was measured by means of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. An important increase in the degree of conversion was observed after aging. No significant differences in TBS were observed among the mechanical surface treatments, despite variations in surface roughness profiles. Phosphoric acid etching significantly improved repair bond strength values. The cohesive TBS of the material was only reached using resin bonding agents. Application of an intermediate bonding system plays a key role in achieving reliable repair bond strengths, whereas the kind of mechanical surface treatment appears to play a secondary role. PMID:28773669

  7. Early-phase adaptations to intrahospital training in strength and functional mobility of children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Alejandro F; Fleck, Steven J; Chamorro-Viña, Carolina; Maté-Muñoz, José L; Moral, Susana; García-Castro, Javier; Ramírez, Manuel; Madero, Luis; Lucia, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    Improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have contributed to the high survival rate (approximately 70%) of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, during treatment, lack of physical activity and treatment cause various short- to long-term side effects, such as muscle atrophy and physical deconditioning. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an intrahospital, short-duration (8 weeks) exercise training program on muscle strength and endurance and functional mobility of children with ALL. Seven children (4 boys and 3 girls; 4-7 years of age) who were in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL were selected as subjects. Three training sessions of 90- to 120-minute duration were performed each week. Each session included 11 different strength exercises engaging the major muscle groups and aerobic training. Gains in strength and endurance were assessed with a 6 repetition maximum test for upper (seated bench press and seated lateral row) and lower extremities (leg press). Gains in functional mobility were assessed with the time up and go test (TUG) and the timed up and down stairs test (TUDS). Performance was significantly improved after the training program in all strength tests (p children receiving treatment against ALL (i.e., improved functional mobility and muscle strength). Although more research is needed in the area of exercise training and pediatric cancer, exercise sciences can play a beneficial role in assisting both oncologists in treating cancer and improving children's quality of life during and after treatment.

  8. Effects of age and regular exercise on muscle strength and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, S; St-Pierre, D M; Cyr, J; Gayton, D

    1990-01-01

    Twenty male and 20 female non-professional tennis players were classified into two different age groups (n = 10 per group): young active men (30.4 +/- 3.3 years), young active women (27.5 +/- 4.3 years), elderly active men (64.4 +/- 3.7 years), and elderly active women (65.3 +/- 4.5 years). These individuals were matched (n = 10 per group) according to sex, age, height and mass to sedentary individuals of the same socio-economical background: young sedentary men (29.2 +/- 3.4 years), young sedentary women (25.6 +/- 4.4 years), elderly sedentary men (65.2 +/- 3.2 years) and elderly sedentary women (65.6 +/- 4.4 years). An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the strength of the knee extensors and flexors (two separate occasions) and the endurance of the extensors. Vastus lateralis electromyogram (EMG) was measured concomitantly. Significant sex, age and exercise effects (P less than 0.001) were observed for peak torque of both muscle groups. The effect of age on extensor strength was more pronounced at high speeds where men were also able to generate larger relative torques than women. No age or sex effects were noted for muscle endurance. However, muscles of active individuals demonstrated a greater resistance to fatigue than those of sedentary individuals. In conclusion, men were found to be stronger than women, age was associated with a decrease in muscle strength, but not of muscle endurance, and tennis players were stronger and had muscles that were more resistant to fatigue than their sedentary pairs in both age groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Strength Properties of Aged Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electromechanical Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kewei [ORNL; Zeng, Fan W [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Electric field and aging time are two important factors that affect the mechanical strength and long-term reliability of lead zirconate titanate or PZT actuators. In the present work, a commercial PZT-5A aged four years was examined using ball-on-ring (BoR) mechanical testing under coupled electric fields. The electric field range of -3E{sub c} to +3E{sub c} (E{sub c}, coercive electric field) was studied (i.e., -3E{sub c}, -E{sub c}, 0, +E{sub c}, +2E{sub c}, and +3E{sub c}) with a controlled electric loading path. A Weibull distribution was used to interpret the mechanical strength data. With an electric field preloaded from 0 to -3E{sub c}, it was found that subsequent increases in the electric field resulted in an asymmetrical V-shaped curve of mechanical strength against the electric field. The bottom of the V curve was located near the zero electric field level. Microscopy analysis showed that pores were the strength limiter for the tested PZT under electromechanical loadings.

  10. Effect of simulated early weight bearing on micromotion and pullout strength of uncemented distal femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennifer S; White, Jedediah K; Punt, Stephanie E W; Conrad, Ernest U; Ching, Randal P

    2015-05-01

    The effect of simulated early weight bearing on both micromotion and pullout strength of uncemented distal femoral stems was evaluated in this study. The effect of stem endosteal contact and bone quality on implant pullout strength was also analyzed. A randomized matched-pair study was performed using 8 bilateral pairs of fresh human cadaveric femoral specimens. Each specimen pair was dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanned, uniformly implanted, fluoroscopically imaged, and randomly assigned to the cycled or uncycled group. The cycled group received 5000 cycles of axial compressive loading (to 700 N) and the contralateral side was not cycled. Micromotion was monitored during cycling and compared with a failure threshold (150 µm), and all implants underwent direct axial distraction (pullout) testing. During cycling, minimal micromotion was observed with an asymptotic decrease in differential motion between the first and last 50 cycles. Both cycled and uncycled groups demonstrated no statistical difference in average pullout force (4888±2124 N vs 4367±1154 N; P=.43). The percentage of cortical contact for each implant was determined from panoramic fluoroscopy images using digital image analysis software. Contact area for the distal third of the stem showed the highest correlation with pullout force and with predicting pullout force. Bone quality did not correlate with pullout force (r(2)=0.367) or stem contact area (r(2)=0.394). In sum, press-fit uncemented femoral stems did not loosen or demonstrate decreased pullout strength with early weight bearing simulated by cyclical axial compressive loading.

  11. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  12. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Halder

    2015-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.

  13. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  14. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  15. Mathematical Modelling and Experimental Analysis of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with mathematical models for concrete at early age. In the hardening process chemical reactions take place and the concrete skeleton is created. The processes changes the moisture content and produces heat. The associated temperature rise gives expansion of the material which may...

  16. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  17. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C. (Chao); Cahill, N.D. (Nathan D.); Arbabshirani, M.R. (Mohammad R.); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Baum, S.A. (Stefi A.); Michael, A.M. (Andrew M.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFunctional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood

  18. Crack Risk Evaluation of Early Age Concrete Based on the Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks often appear in concrete arch dams, due to the thermal stress and low tensile strength of early age concrete. There are three commonly used temperature controlling measures: controlling the casting temperature, burying cooling pipe, and protecting the surface. However, because of the difficulty to obtain accurate temperature and thermal stress field of the concrete, the rationality and economy of these measures are not assessed validly before and after construction. In this paper, a crack risk evaluation system for early age concrete is established, including distributed optical fiber temperature sensing (DTS, prediction of temperature and stress fields, and crack risk evaluation. Based on the DTS temperature data, the back-analysis method is applied to retrieve the thermal parameters of concrete. Then, the temperature and thermal stress of early age concrete are predicted using the reversed thermal parameters, as well as the laboratory test parameters. Finally, under the proposed cracking risk evaluation principle, the cracking risk level of each concrete block is given; the preliminary and later temperature controlling measures were recommended, respectively. The application of the proposed system in Xiluodu super high arch dam shows that this system works effectively for preventing cracks of early age concrete.

  19. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  20. The effect of a complex training and detraining programme on selected strength and power variables in early pubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Lee; Sleap, Mike; Tolfrey, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Complex training, a combination of resistance training and plyometrics is growing in popularity, despite limited support for its efficacy. In pre- and early pubertal children, the study of complex training has been limited, and to our knowledge an examination of its effect on anaerobic performance characteristics of the upper and lower body has not been undertaken. Furthermore, the effect of detraining after complex training requires clarification. The physical characteristics (mean+/-s) of the 54 male participants in the present study were as follows: age 12.3 +/- 0.3 years, height 1.57 +/- 0.07 m, body mass 50.3 +/- 11.0 kg. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 33) or control group (n = 21). The training, which was performed three times a week for 12 weeks, included a combination of dynamic constant external resistance and plyometrics. After training, participants completed 12 weeks of detraining. At baseline, after training and after detraining, peak and mean anaerobic power, dynamic strength and athletic performance were assessed. Twenty-six participants completed the training and none reported any training-related injury. Complex training was associated with small increases ( 0.05). In the experimental group, dynamic strength was increased by 24.3 - 71.4% (dependent on muscle group; P 0.05). For 40-m sprint running, basketball chest pass and vertical jump test performance, the experimental group saw a small improvement ( 0.05). In conclusion, in pre- and early pubertal boys, upper and lower body complex training is a time-effective and safe training modality that confers small improvements in anaerobic power and jumping, throwing and sprinting performance, and marked improvements in dynamic strength. However, after detraining, the benefits of complex training are lost at similar rates to other training modalities.

  1. Personal strengths and traumatic experiences among institutionalized children given up at birth (Les Enfants de Duplessis--Duplessis' children): I: Early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2005-12-01

    We examined childhood and early adult strengths and adverse experiences of a group of orphans given up at or near birth and raised in Quebec institutions into early adulthood. A follow-up interview of 81 adults (41 women, 40 men) at a mean age of 59.2 years included retrospective assessments of childhood experiences. Most participants reported multiple early adverse experiences, including, in descending order, unfair rules and excessive punishment, physical abuse, emotional neglect, witnessing violence, verbal abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and serious illness. Adverse experiences were mainly due to lay caretakers, not peers or nuns. Twelve childhood strengths, such as self-protectiveness and athletic talent, were scored at each of four age periods, yielding a median score equivalent to one strength at each period. Over half had significant childhood attachments, but of limited intimacy. Childhood variables correlated with their respective variables in later adulthood. Overall, these older adults reported a high prevalence of adverse or traumatic childhood experiences, counterbalanced by modest levels of individual strengths and attachment relationships. Institutionalization of children--if unavoidable--must build in effective safeguards against adverse experiences.

  2. Supporting Early Childhood Preservice Teachers in Their Work with Children and Families with Complex Needs: A Strengths Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Angela; McFarland-Piazza, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the potential of tailoring the inherent principles of the Strengths Approach (McCashen, 2005) for preparing early childhood educators to work with children and families with complex needs. The term "Strengths Approach" (capitalized) is presented in the article as the name of a specific approach developed by St.…

  3. LOWER LIMB STRENGTH IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS: PROFILE, ASYMMETRY, AND TRAINING AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Fousekis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100 with short (5-7 years, intermediate (8-10 years and long (>11 years PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023, knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042 and 180°/sec (p = 0.036, and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044. A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02 and 180°/sec (p = 0.03. Directional (R/L asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04 and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03. These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain

  4. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  5. Evolution of undissolved phases in high-zinc content super-high strength aluminum alloy during ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 刘志义; 叶呈武; 许晓嫦; 郑青春

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of undissolved phases in the high-zinc content super-high strength aluminum alloy during ageing was investigated by means of SEM and EIS. The results show that undissolved phases of Cu-rich M(AlZnMgCu) exist in the silver-free alloy at solid-solution state. With increasing the ageing time, the precipitation of agehardening precipitates MgZn2 stimulates Zn atoms within the undissolved phases to diffuse into the matrix, and thus the Cu content in the M(AlZnMgCu) phase increases relatively. For the silver-bearing alloy, small addition of Ag promotes the formation of Ag-rich M(A1ZnMgCuAg) undissolved phases and deteriorates mechanical properties of the alloy. At the early stage of ageing, Ag content within the M(AlZnMgCuAg) phases greatly decreases due to rapid diffusing of Ag atoms into the matrix and the co-clustering of Ag and Mg atoms. As the ageing time prolonging, the precipitation of MgZn2 results in the decrease of Zn content in the undissolved phases, and the relative increase of Ag and Mg contents.

  6. Where Is ELSA? The Early to Late Shift in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Dobbins, Ian G.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cognitive and neural aging have recently provided evidence of a shift from an early- to late-onset cognitive control strategy, linked with temporally extended activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It has been uncertain, however, whether this age-related shift is unique to PFC and executive control tasks or whether the functional location might vary depending on the particular cognitive processes that are altered. The present study tested whether an early-to-late shift in aging (ELSA) might emerge in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during a protracted context memory task comprising both anticipatory cue (retrieval preparation) and retrieval probe (retrieval completion) phases. First, we found reduced MTL activity in older adults during the early retrieval preparation phase coupled with increased MTL activity during the late retrieval completion phase. Second, we found that functional connectivity between MTL and PFC regions was higher during retrieval preparation in young adults but higher during retrieval completion in older adults, suggesting an important interactive relationship between the ELSA pattern in MTL and PFC. Taken together, these results critically suggest that aging results in temporally lagged activity even in regions not typically associated with cognitive control, such as the MTL. PMID:22114083

  7. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Cahill, Nathan D; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; White, Tonya; Baum, Stefi A; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood. Here we apply regression and graph theoretical analyses to explore the effects of sex and age on FC between the 116 AAL atlas parcellations (a total of 6670 FC measures). rs-fMRI data of 494 healthy subjects (203 males and 291 females; age range: 22-36 years) from the Human Connectome Project were analyzed. We report the following findings. (1) Males exhibited greater FC than females in 1352 FC measures (1025 survived Bonferroni correction; [Formula: see text]). In 641 FC measures, females exhibited greater FC than males but none survived Bonferroni correction. Significant FC differences were mainly present in frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Although the average FC values for males and females were significantly different, FC values of males and females exhibited large overlap. (2) Age effects were present only in 29 FC measures and all significant age effects showed higher FC in younger subjects. Age and sex differences of FC remained significant after controlling for cognitive measures. (3) Although sex [Formula: see text] age interaction did not survive multiple comparison correction, FC in females exhibited a faster cross-sectional decline with age. (4) Male brains were more locally clustered in all lobes but the cerebellum; female brains had a higher clustering coefficient at the whole-brain level. Our results indicate that although both male and female brains show small-world network characteristics, male brains were more segregated and female brains were more integrated. Findings of this study further our understanding of FC in early adulthood and provide evidence to support that age and sex should be controlled for in FC studies of young adults.

  8. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs.

  9. Early Evidence of the Italian Parent-Report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    The parent-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P) is a widely used scale that assesses children's and adolescents' strengths and difficulties. The present study applied this scale to Italian adolescents and compared the current results with previous Chinese findings and the United Kingdom norm. Participants were 422 Italian parents and their adolescent children. Parents and adolescents answered the parent-report and the self-report SDQ, respectively. Results showed that the five-factor first-order model was better than other competing models. Cronbach's alpha of emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, prosocial behavior, and total difficulties was .63, .52, .69, .51, .59, and .77 respectively for mother-report measure, and .67, .48, .67, .46, .55, and .79 respectively for father-report measure. Parent-adolescent agreements ranged from low to medium, whereas mother-father agreements were large. Parents did not rate boys and girls as well as early-adolescence and mid-adolescence differently. Italian parents rated their adolescent children to have lower levels of hyperactivity, peer problems, total difficulties, and higher levels of prosocial behavior than Chinese parents; and Italian mothers rated their adolescent children to have lower levels of hyperactivity than United Kingdom parents. In conclusion, the current findings suggest both strengths and inadequacies of the SDQ-P for Italian adolescents.

  10. Control of Early Age Cracking in Concrete. Phase 4 and 5: Material Modelling, Continuum Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with numerical modelling of early age concrete. The hydration process giving the strength and stiffness development after casting is discussed. Several factors influence the progress of hydration such as the temperature level and the moisture activity. The factors are coupled...... and a material model is proposed which includes some of the couplings. It is shown how more factors may be incorporated. The model is illustrated through analysis of measured creep response both at a varying load history and at a varying temperature history....

  11. Novel magnesium phosphate cements with high early strength and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Gemma; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2011-04-01

    Magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) have been extensively used as fast setting repair cements in civil engineering. They have properties that are also relevant to biomedical applications, such as fast setting, early strength acquisition and adhesive properties. However, there are some aspects that should be improved before they can be used in the human body, namely their highly exothermic setting reaction and the release of potentially harmful ammonia or ammonium ions. In this paper a new family of MPCs was explored as candidate biomaterials for hard tissue applications. The cements were prepared by mixing magnesium oxide (MgO) with either sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH(2)PO(4)) or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH(4)H(2)PO(4)), or an equimolar mixture of both. The exothermia and setting kinetics of the new cement formulations were tailored to comply with clinical requirements by adjusting the granularity of the phosphate salt and by using sodium borate as a retardant. The ammonium-containing MPC resulted in struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) as the major reaction product, whereas the MPC prepared with sodium dihydrogen phosphate resulted in an amorphous product. Unreacted magnesium oxide was found in all the formulations. The MPCs studied showed early compressive strengths substantially higher than that of apatitic calcium phosphate cements. The Na-containing MPCs were shown to have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus sanguinis, which was attributed to the alkaline pH developed during the setting reaction.

  12. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. METHODS: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years...... established by Dual X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Data are presented as median (quartiles). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed on delta values at 0, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: ST + placebo decreased sCD36 levels by 21% [from 0.80 (0.68-1.22) to 0.63 (0.51-0.73) rel...... central fat mass (r = 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to testosterone treatment, six months of strength training reduced sCD36 levels suggesting decreased cardiovascular risk, possibly due to a reduction in central fat mass....

  13. Adaptations to long-term strength training of ankle joint muscles in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Emilie; Martin, Alain; Van Hoecke, Jacques

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to enquire whether older adults, who continue plantar-flexion (PF) strength training for an additional 6-month period, would achieve further improvements in neuromuscular performance, in the ankle PFs, and in the antagonist dorsi-flexors (DFs). Twenty-three healthy older volunteers (mean age 77.4 +/- 3.7 years) took part in this investigation and 12 of them followed a 1-year strength-training program. Both neural and muscular factors were examined during isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torques in ankle PF and DF pre-training, post 6 and post 12 months. The main finding was that 6 months of additional strength training of the PFs, beyond 6 months, allowed further improvements in neuromuscular performance at the ankle joint in older adults. Indeed, during the first 6 months of progressive resistance training, there was an increase in the PF MVC torque of 11.1 +/- 19.9 N m, and then of 11.1 +/- 17.9 N m in the last 6-month period. However, it was only after 1 year that there was an improvement in the evoked contraction at rest in PF (+ 8%). The strength training of the agonist PF muscles appeared to have an impact on the maximal resultant torque in DF. However, it appeared that this gain was first due to modifications occurring in the trained PFs muscles, then, it seemed that the motor drive of the DFs per se was altered. In conclusion, long-term strength training of the PFs resulted in continued improvements in neuromuscular performance at the ankle joint in older adults, beyond the initial 6 months.

  14. Repair bond strength in aged methacrylate- and silorane-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Consani, Rafael Leonardo; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria; Pfeifer, Carmem Silva; Schneider, Luis Felipe

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the tensile bond strength at repaired interfaces of aged dental composites, either dimethacrylate- or silorane-based, when subjected to different surface treatments. The composites used were Filtek P60 (methacrylate-based, 3M ESPE) and Filtek P90 (silorane-based, 3M ESPE), of which 50 slabs were stored for 6 months at 37°C. The surface of adhesion was abraded with a 600-grit silicone paper and the slabs repaired with the respective composite, according to the following surface treatment protocols: G1: no treatment; G2: adhesive application; G3: silane + adhesive; G4: sandblasting (Al2O3) + adhesive; G5: sandblasting (Al2O3) + silane + adhesive. After 24-h storage in distilled water at 37°C, tensile bond strength (TBS) was determined in a universal testing machine (Instron 4411) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The original data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). The methacrylate-based composite presented a statistically significantly higher repair potential than did the silorane-based resin (p = 0.0002). Of the surface treatments for the silorane-based composite, aluminum-oxide air abrasion and adhesive (18.5 ± 3.3MPa) provided higher bond strength than only adhesive application or the control group without surface treatment. For Filtek P60, the control without treatment presented lower repair strength than all other groups with surface treatments, which were statistically similar to each other. The interaction between the factors resin composite and surface treatment was significant (p = 0.002). For aged silorane-based materials, repairs were considered successful after sandblasting (Al2O3) and adhesive application. For methacrylate resin, repair was successful with all surface treatments tested.

  15. Moulding Faces at an Early Age-A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Sunil; Mathew, Neethu; Parambath, Anvar Kizhakke; Madhusudanan, Amla

    2016-01-01

    Certain malocclusions have to be treated at an early age to avoid surgeries for the correction in the future. Introduction of functional appliances has reduced the elimination and correction of skeletal as well as dental discrepancies. Proper case selection taking into consideration skeletal and dental age with the use of various diagnostic aids helps us to identify and treat the malocclusions before it is too late. In this case series, we report three patients with skeletal jaw malrelationship treated with functional and orthopaedic appliances. PMID:27656599

  16. Honour and Fighting Social Advancement in the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassmann Jürg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the importance of military service in social advancement, here understood as filling the role of “prince” in feudal law and thus participating in the government of an estate, in the transition from the Late Middle Ages to the Renaissance or Early Modern Age. In the context of a city burgher or a petty noble or knight advancing into a government role, did honour require that the individual have experience in fighting – in war, military organisation and leadership? How did mercenaries figure? What role, if any, did Fechtmeister, Fechtbücher, Fechtschulen or Kriegsbücher play?

  17. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  18. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  19. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  20. Nordic and Celtic: religion in southern Scandinavia during the late bronze age and early iron age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Görman

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of modern archeological research it is today possible to gain much information even from non-written material, This paper covers the late bronze age and early iron age, ca. 1000 B.C. —O. It is based on material from Denmark, the Southwest of Sweden, and the Southeast of Norway. This region formed a cultural unity since the sea bound the area together. Our main sources of knowledge of Nordic religion during this time span are votive offerings and rock-carvings. During the bronze age and early iron age the Nordic peasant population had intensive contacts with the Southeastern and Centralparts of Europe. A great quantity of imported objects bear evidence of widespread connections. The inhabitants of the Nordic area not only brought home objects, but also ideas and religious conceptions. This is clearly reflected in the iconography. The cultures with which connections were upheld and from which ideas were introduced were those of Hallstatt and La Tène. They were both Celtic iron age cultures prospering in Central Europe at the same time as the late bronze age and early iron age in the Nordic area. This means that the new symbols in the Nordic area come from a Celtic environment. Consequently, Celtic religion such as it may be found in the pre-Roman period, can clarify the meaning of the conceptions, linked with these symbols.

  1. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr.) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by ...

  2. 再生粗骨料混凝土早期强度试验研究%Experimental research on early strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴才; 李洪明; 朱磊

    2015-01-01

    The influences of water-cement ratio,replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate,and water amount on early compres-sive strength and flexural strength of recycled concrete were investigated by experiments. Research results show that the strength ratio of recycled coarse aggregate concrete didn′t vary with water-cement ratio,replacement ratio and water amount,the compressive strength and flexural strength at different ages decrease with the water-cement ratio and replacement ratio. The models for early compressive strength and flexural strength of recycled concrete with 100% replacement of recycled coarse aggregate are established according to ex-periment results,and the calculated values of the strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete are in good agreement with the test val-ues obtained by other researchers.%通过试验研究水灰比、再生粗骨料取代率和用水量对再生混凝土早期抗压强度和抗折强度的影响。研究结果表明,再生混凝土各龄期的强度系数随水灰比、骨料取代率、单位用水量等因素变化不大。再生混凝土的各个龄期的抗压和抗折强度均随水灰比和再生骨料取代率的增大而降低。根据试验结果建立了再生粗骨料取代率为100%的再生混凝土早期抗压强度和抗折强度计算模型,该模型计算结果与他人试验结果吻合较好。

  3. Aging Behavior of High-Strength Al Alloy 2618 Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Riccardo; Lemke, Jannis Nicolas; Alarcon, Adrianni Zanatta; Vedani, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    High Si-bearing Al alloys are commonly used in additive manufacturing, but they have moderate mechanical properties. New high-strength compositions are necessary to spread the use of additively manufactured Al parts for heavy-duty structural applications. This work focuses on the microstructure, mechanical behavior, and aging response of an Al alloy 2618 processed by selective laser melting. Calorimetric analysis, electron microscopy, and compression tests were performed in order to correlate the mechanical properties with the peculiar microstructure induced by laser melting and thermal treatments

  4. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Pacheco Lameira; Silva, Wilkens Aurélio Buarque e; Silva, Frederico Andrade e; De Souza, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness) and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer) configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n = 10): Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM); Glazed mo...

  5. Effect of Sea Water and Natural Ageing on Residual Strength of Epoxy Laminates, Reinforced with Glass and Carbon Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Komorek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the effect of sea water, natural ageing, and cross-impact loading on flexural strength and residual flexural strength of epoxy laminates with glass woven fabrics and hybrid reinforcement with glass and carbon woven fabrics. The tests were conducted on samples with different fibre reinforcement both before and after low energy cross-impact loading. Carbon fabrics decreased residual strength of the composites.

  6. The effects of strength training and raloxifene on bone health in aging ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Singulani, Monique Patrício; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Nakamune, Ana Cláudia Stevanato; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Rossi, Ana Cláudia; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training (ST) and raloxifene (Ral), alone or in combination, on the prevention of bone loss in an aging estrogen-deficient rat model. Aging Wistar female rats were ovariectomized at 14months and allocated to four groups: (1) non-trained and treated with vehicle, NT-Veh; (2) strength training and treated with vehicle, ST-Veh; (3) non-trained and treated with raloxifene, NT-Ral; and (4) strength training and treated with raloxifene, ST-Ral. ST was performed on a ladder three times per week and Ral was administered daily by gavage (1mg/kg/day), both for 120days. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), strength, microarchitecture, and biomarkers (osteocalcin, OCN; osteoprotegerin, OPG; and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP) were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), OCN, OPG, TRAP, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The rats that performed ST (ST-Veh) or were treated with Ral (NT-Ral) showed significant improvements in aBMD (p=0.001 and 0.004), bone strength (p=0.001), and bone microarchitecture, such as BV/TV (%) (p=0.001), BS/TV (mm(2)/mm(3)) (p=0.023 and 0.002), Conn.Dn (1/mm(3)) (p=0.001), Tb.N (1/mm) (p=0.012 and 0.011), Tb.Th (1/mm) (p=0.001), SMI (p=0.001 and 0.002), Tb.Sp (p=0.001), and DA (p=0.002 and 0.007); there was also a significant decrease in plasma levels of OCN (p=0.001 and 0.002) and OPG (p=0.003 and 0.014), compared with animals in the NT-Veh group. Ral, with or without ST, promoted an increased immunolabeling pattern for RUNX2 (p=0.0105 and p=0.0006) and OSX (p=0.0105), but a reduced immunolabeling pattern for TRAP (p=0.0056) and RANKL (p=0.033 and 0.004). ST increased the immunolabeling pattern for RUNX2 (p=0.0105), and association with Ral resulted in an increased immunolabeling pattern for OPG (p=0.0034) and OCN (p=0.0024). In summary, ST and Ral administration in aged, estrogen

  7. Elevated temperature strength, aging response and creep of aluminum matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, R.B.; Amateau, M.F.; House, M.B.; Meinert, K.C.; Nisson, P. (Pennsylvania State University, State College (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The effect of reinforcement on the high-temperature performance of aluminum matrix composites was investigated using samples of 6061 aluminum alloy reinforced with planar-random graphite fibers, SiC whiskers, or alumina particles, which were aged at 150 and 200 C for up to 500 hrs. As indicated by the results of microhardness tests, all specimens exhibited accelerated aging response, with the response depending on the characteristics of the reinforcement. Both the graphite-fiber- and SiC-whisker-reinforced composites showed a substantially increased strengths over that of the wrought 6061 Al at all temperatures. The graphite-fiber- and the SiC-whisker-reinforced composites were found to retain their tensile strength and stiffness in the overaged condition of the matrix. The whisker-reinforced composite showed significant resistance to creep at temperatures between 232 and 350 C under stresses of up to 100 MPa, while the particulate composite had a moderate increase in creep resistance. 51 refs.

  8. Bond strength between stell-concrete and between concretes with different ages in structural rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. DORIA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn inspections of buildings, it is common to find structures that, well before reaching its useful life longer require repairs and reinforcements. This study examined the bond strength between concrete of different ages and between steel and concrete, focusing on the recovery of reinforced concrete structures. To analyze the bond between concrete of different ages, trials with specimens receiving three different types of treatments at the interface between the concrete were performed: brushing; brushing and mortar equal to concrete of substrate and brushing and epoxy layer. Indirect tensile tests and oblique and vertical shear tests at the interface were made . The bond stress between steel and concrete was evaluated by pull out test under the conditions of the bar inserted in the still fresh concrete and when inserted in the hardened concrete with epoxy. Results showed increased bond strength by indirect tensile stress of 15% and 37%; 4% and 12% for the adherence test by oblique shear, and 108% and 178%, for the testing of vertical shear, respectively, for the specimens whose interfaces have received, in addition to brushing, layer of mortar and epoxy bridge, compared to those who received only brushing. Insignificant loss (about 0.52% of bond stress was noticed for pull out test of steel bar when compared with test results of the specimens that had steel bar inserted in the concrete in the hardened state with epoxy adhesion bridge, with those who had inserted steel bar in fresh concrete.

  9. RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR EXPLOSIVE AND MAXIMAL STRENGTH: EFFECTS ON EARLY AND LATE RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe B.D. Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD. Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10, and 2 min separated each set (3. Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC, RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s-1 in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p < 0.001 after training. In addition, RFD (Nm·s-1 increased by 22-28% at time epochs up to 20 ms from the contraction onset (0-10 ms = 1679. 1 ± 597.1 vs. 2159.2 ± 475.2, p < 0.001; 0-20 ms = 1958.79 ± 640.3 vs. 2398.4 ± 479.6, p < 0. 01, with no changes verified in later time epochs. However, no training effects on RFD were found for the training group when RFD was normalized to MVC. No changes were found in the control group. In conclusion, very early and late RFD responded differently to a short period of resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport

  10. Effects of age and sex on neuromuscular-mechanical determinants of muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to concurrently assess the effect of age on neuromuscular and mechanical properties in 24 young (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and 20 older (66.5 ± 3.8 years) healthy males and females. Maximal strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF), contractile rate of torque development (RTD) and neural activation of agonist-antagonist muscles (surface EMG) were examined during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Tissue stiffness (i.e. musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) and muscle stiffness (MS)) was examined via the free-oscillation technique, whereas muscle architecture (MA) of the vastus lateralis and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Males exhibited a greater age-related decline for KE (47.4 %) and KF (53.1 %) MVIC, and RTD (60.4 %) when compared to females (32.9, 42.6 and 34.0 %, respectively). Neural activation of agonist muscles during KE MVIC falls markedly with ageing; however, no age and sex effects were observed in the antagonist co-activation. MAS and MS were lower in elderly compared with young participants and in females compared with males. Regarding MA, main effects for age (young 23.0 ± 3.3 vs older 19.5 ± 2.0 mm) and sex (males 22.4 ± 3.5 vs females 20.4 ± 2.7 mm) were detected in muscle thickness. For fascicle length, there was an effect of age (young 104.6 ± 8.8 vs older 89.8 ± 10.5 mm), while for pennation angle, there was an effect of sex (males 13.3 ± 2.4 vs females 11.5 ± 1.7°). These findings suggest that both neuromuscular and mechanical declines are important contributors to the age-related loss of muscle strength/function but with some peculiar sex-related differences.

  11. Effect of a novel three-step aging on strength, stress corrosion cracking and microstructure of AA7085

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈送义; 陈康华; 董朋轩; 叶升平; 黄兰萍; 阳代军

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a novel three-step aging on strength, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and microstructure of AA7085 was investigated by tensile testing and slow strain rate testing combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that with the increase of second-step aging time of two-step aging, the mechanical properties increase first and then decrease, while the SCC resistance increases. Compared with two-step aging, three-step aging treatment improves SCC resistance and the strength increases by about 5%. The effects of novel three-step aging on strength and SCC resistance are explained by the role of matrix precipitates and grain boundary precipitates, respectively.

  12. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Kurutz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Márta Kurutz1, Judit Donáth3, Miklós Gálos2, Péter Varga1, Béla Fornet41Department of Structural Mechanics; 2Department of Construction Materials, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary; 3Department of Reumatology, National Institute for Reumatology, Budapest, Hungary; 4Department of Radiology, County Hospital András Jósa, Nyiregyháza, HungaryObjective: To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT, densitometry, age, and sex.Methods: Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77 was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined.Results: Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were

  13. Iron supplementation of breastfed infants from an early age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

    2009-02-01

    In breastfed infants, iron deficiency at deficiency. The study assessed the effect of early iron supplementation of breastfed infants and tested the hypothesis that iron supplementation enhances iron status. Potential adverse effects (tolerance and growth) were monitored. The prospective, placebo-controlled study involved exclusively breastfed infants who were randomly assigned at 1 mo of age to iron (n = 37) or placebo (n = 38). Iron (7 mg/d as multivitamin preparation with ferrous sulfate) or placebo (multivitamin preparation without iron) was given from 1 to 5.5 mo of age. Complementary foods were allowed at >4 mo. Infants were followed to 18 mo. Blood concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, and red cell indexes were determined at bimonthly intervals. Stool consistency and color and feeding behavior were recorded. Iron supplementation caused modest augmentation of iron status during the intervention at 4 and 5.5 mo but not thereafter. Iron supplements were well tolerated and had no measurable effect on growth. One infant developed iron deficiency anemia by 5.5 mo of age. Plasma ferritin and hemoglobin tracked over time. Early iron supplementation of breastfed infants is feasible and transiently increases iron status but not hematologic status. Iron is tolerated by most infants. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is low (3%) among unsupplemented breastfed infants in the first 6 mo of life.

  14. Long-Term Isothermal Aging Effects on Carbon Fabric-Reinforced PMR-15 Composites: Compression Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term isothermal thermo-oxidative aging on the compressive properties of T-650-35 fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The temperatures that were studied were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different geometries were evaluated. Cut edge-to-surface ratios of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. Aging times extended to a period in excess of 15,000 hours for the lower temperature runs. The unaged and aged specimens were tested in compression in accordance with ASTM D-695. Both thin and thick (plasma) specimens were tested. Three specimens were tested at each time/temperature/geometry condition. The failure modes appeared to be initiated by fiber kinking with longitudinal, interlaminar splitting. In general, it appears that the thermo-oxidative degradation of the compression strength of the composite material may occur by both thermal (time-dependent) and oxidative (weight-loss) mechanisms. Both mechanisms appear to be specimen-thickness dependent.

  15. Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Michael; Breen, Leigh; Hamilton, D Lee; Philp, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Due to improved health care, diet and infrastructure in developed countries, since 1840 life expectancy has increased by approximately 2 years per decade. Accordingly, by 2050, a quarter of Europe's population will be over 65 years, representing a 10 % rise in half a century. With this rapid rise comes an increased prevalence of diseases of ageing and associated healthcare expenditure. To address the health consequences of global ageing, research in model systems (worms, flies and mice) has indicated that reducing the rate of organ growth, via reductions in protein synthetic rates, has multi-organ health benefits that collectively lead to improvements in lifespan. In contrast, human pre-clinical, clinical and large cohort prospective studies demonstrate that ageing leads to anabolic (i.e. growth) impairments in skeletal muscle, which in turn leads to reductions in muscle mass and strength, factors directly associated with mortality rates in the elderly. As such, increasing muscle protein synthesis via exercise or protein-based nutrition maintains a strong, healthy muscle mass, which in turn leads to improved health, independence and functionality. The aim of this review is to critique current literature relating to the maintenance of muscle mass across lifespan and discuss whether maintaining or reducing protein synthesis is the most logical approach to support musculoskeletal function and by extension healthy human ageing.

  16. How pregnancy at early age protects against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy at an early age has a strong protective effect against breast cancer in humans and rodents. Postulated mechanisms underlying this phenomenon include alterations in the relative dynamics of hormone and growth factor-initiated cell fate-determining signaling pathways within the hierarchically organized mammary gland epithelium. Recent studies in epithelial cell subpopulations isolated from mouse and human mammary glands have shown that early pregnancy decreases the proportion of hormone receptor-positive cells and causes pronounced changes in gene expression as well as decreased proliferation in stem/progenitor cells. The changes include downregulation of Wnt and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. These new findings highlight the importance of cell-cell interactions within the mammary gland epithelium in modulating cancer risk and provide potential targets for breast cancer prevention strategies.

  17. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  18. Effect of surface treatment and aging on bond strength of composite resin onlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, Maria; González-González, Inmaculada; Fuentes, Victoria; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Additional polymerization of indirect composite resins enhances their physical properties but lessens the potential for chemical bonding. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments and 6-month water storage on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of composite resin onlays. Composite resin onlays (Filtek Z250) randomly received 6 different surface treatments: (1) airborne-particle abrasion with 27-μm alumina particles+Adper Scotchbond 1XT adhesive application, (2) airborne-particle abrasion with alumina particles+silane application (ESPE SIL)+Adper Scotchbond 1XT, (3) airborne-particle abrasion with alumina particles+Scotchbond Universal adhesive, (4) tribochemical silica coating with 30-μm particles (CoJet Sand)+Adper Scotchbond 1XT adhesive, (5) tribochemical silica coating+silane application+Adper Scotchbond 1XT, and (6) tribochemical silica coating+Scotchbond Universal adhesive. Onlays were luted to fresh composite resin specimens with RelyX Ultimate resin cement. Bonded assemblies were stored in water for 24 hours or 6 months at 37°C and subjected to the μTBS test. Additional surface-treated composite resin onlays were analyzed with a contact profilometer to determine average roughness, and micromorphologic changes were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Airborne-particle abrasion with alumina followed by Adper Scotchbond 1XT or Scotchbond Universal adhesive application provided the highest bond strength values at 24 hours. Lower values were obtained after tribochemical silica coating. After 6 months of artificial aging, airborne-particle abrasion with alumina or silica-coated alumina particles followed by Scotchbond Universal application yielded the greatest bond strength results. Airborne-particle abrasion with alumina produced the highest roughness values and a more irregular surface. Adhesive selection seems to be relevant to the μTBS of luted composite resin onlays after 6 months of

  19. Early age performance of latex-modified concrete bridge deck overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujjavanich, Suvimol

    Environmental factors and physical properties of latex modified concrete (LMC) are hypothesized to contribute to early age cracking in bridge deck overlays. Cracking permits the ingress of moisture and aggressive solutions into the substrate and may contribute to other subsequent distresses. Understanding the material properties and mechanisms involved is necessary to minimize these distresses. This research consisted of a two part study: first, the development of LMC strength and fracture properties at ages ranging from 5 hours to 28 days was studied, and secondly, the effects of the environment on LMC distresses were modelled. Environmental conditions: temperature, solar energy, and wind speed were determined from weather records. A fracture mechanics based model, the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), incorporating finite element analyses and superposition techniques was employed with material properties from the first part of study on LMC performance. Different bilinear strain softening diagrams were used to predict fracture performance at different ages. The predictions agreed well with the test data. The impacts of temperature differentials on crack development were studied. The shrinkage effect was also indirectly incorporated through the temperature analysis. The material properties study indicated significant changes in strength, deformability and fracture properties, particularly during the early age. The developments differ slightly from conventional concrete. Test results indicated a significant improvement in reducing and bridging microcracks, especially in the prepeak-load region. Fracture toughness and deformability increased significantly with time. Fracture energy varied from 2.3 to 133.1 N/m, depending on age, and to some degree, on notch depth ratio. In the second stage, the FCM provided a reasonable prediction for crack initiation and propagation when only temperature effects are of concern. Age, surface conditions and structural restraint strongly

  20. Cross-education of strength and skill: an old idea with applications in the aging nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Trevor S; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Zehr, E Paul

    2016-03-01

    Edward Wheeler Scripture's 1894 work out of the Yale Psychological Laboratory has been influential in identifying the nervous system's contribution to the bilateral improvements that are seen with unilateral strength and skill training. Scripture coined the term "cross-education" to describe this improvement in the untrained contralateral limb. While physiological changes accompany aging that may negatively affect the performance of physical tasks, far too much credit has been given to the natural aging process rather than the effects of inactivity. Emerging evidence indicates strength or skill training interventions induce significant neuroplasticity in an aging population. The model of unilateral training provides a unique approach in which to elicit such plasticity. This brief review highlights the innate ability of the nervous system to adapt to unilateral strength and skill training interventions, regardless of age, and provides a novel perspective on the robust plastic ability of the aging nervous system.

  1. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  2. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p fibromyalgia group (p fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia.

  3. Increasing Age Is a Risk Factor for Decreased Postpartum Pelvic Floor Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Pickett, Stephanie D; Peck, Jennifer D; Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Stone, Daniel E; Shobeiri, S Abbas

    This study aimed to determine factors associated with decreased pelvic floor strength (PFS) after the first vaginal delivery (VD) in a cohort of low-risk women. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective study examining the risk of pelvic floor injury in a cohort of primiparous women. All recruited participants underwent an examination, three-dimensional ultrasound and measurement of PFS in the third trimester and repeated at 4 weeks to 6 months postpartum using a perineometer. There were 84 women recruited for the study, and 70 completed the postpartum assessment. Average age was 28.4 years (standard deviation, 4.8). There were 46 (66%) subjects with a VD and 24 (34%) with a cesarean delivery who labored. Decreased PFS was observed more frequently in the VD group compared with the cesarean delivery group (68% vs 42%, P = 0.03).In modified Poisson regression models controlling for mode of delivery and time of postpartum assessment, women who were aged 25 to 29 years (risk ratio = 2.80, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-7.57) and 30 years and older (risk ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval, 0.93-6.86) were over 2.5 times more likely to have decreased postpartum PFS compared with women younger than 25 years. In this population, women aged 25 years and older were more than twice as likely to have a decrease in postpartum PFS.

  4. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  5. Early detection of choroidal neovascularization in age related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Galbinur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify factors associated with early detection of choroidal neovascularization CNV in clinical practice.Methods: Seventy six AMD patients who had history of CNV in one eye and presented with CNV in the second eye and evaluated for association with visual acuity (VA at time of presentation. Demographics, clinical data and lesion characteristics were retrospectively collected.Results: Better VA was associated with history of CNV in the fellow eye (p<0.0001, adherence to follow-up every four-months (p=0.015, younger age (p=0.03, smaller lesion (p<0.0001, and non-subfoveal localization (p=0.048. VA of the fellow eye did not correlate with VA at presentation with CNV.Conclusion: these data suggest that experience of CNV, regardless of VA, facilitates early diagnosis in the fellow eye. Adherence to follow-up in the routine clinic setting also facilitates early detection of CNV.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili;

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin...... was moderate for FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST (55-60%) but insignificant for FVC. Only FVC showed moderate control, with shared environmental factors accounting for about 50% of the total variance. In contrast, all measures of pulmonary function and muscle strength showed modest influences from the unique...... direction. We conclude that genetic factors contribute significantly to the individual differences in common indicators of daily functioning (FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST). FEV1 and FVC were genetically and environmentally correlated. Pulmonary function and FTSST may share similar sets of genes...

  7. Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle strength before and after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and early outcomes on urinary continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Lauren; Gibson, Luke; Papa, Nathan; Beharry, Bhawanie Koonj; Johnson, Liana; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) assessment and training before and after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) in improving PFM strength and urinary continence. We performed an analysis of a database of patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed by two urologists from 2011 to 2013. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activation and strength were graded by a trained pelvic floor physiotherapist. Patients were given an exercise program, grouped according to the strength of their pelvic floor as graded by assessment, to complete before and after surgery. PFM strength was recorded preoperatively, 4 days post-catheter removal and 4 weeks post-catheter removal. Continence was recorded at 4 weeks postop and was defined as the requirement of no continence aids. A total of 98 patients had RARP and a preoperative physiotherapy assessment plus postoperative appointments at around 1 and 4 weeks post-RARP. The majority of men improved their PFM strength regardless of preoperative strength with no significant predictors of postoperative strength found. Age was the only significant predictor of postoperative incontinence. In this pilot study, a majority of patients increased their pelvic floor strength with time. Pelvic floor physiotherapy is an important modifiable patient factor, which does have an impact in improving patients' urinary continence by strengthening the pelvic floor muscles. Patient age influences response to pelvic floor physiotherapy.

  8. A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on four health variables, handgrip strength, near visual acuity, tooth loss and hearing level, this study examined the different patterns of age-related changes in these variables in Chinese aged from 50 to 74 years, as well as explored the relationship among the variables in a cross-...

  9. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...

  10. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isome...

  11. Influence of Curing Age and Mix Composition on Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash Blended Cement Laterized Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babafemi A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of curing age and mix proportions on the compressive strength of volcanic ash (VA blended cement laterized concrete. A total of 288 cubes of 100mm dimensions were cast and cured in water for 3, 7, 28, 56, 90 and 120 days of hydration with cement replacement by VA and sand replacement by laterite both ranging from 0 to 30% respectively while a control mix of 28-day target strength of 25N/mm2 (using British Method was adopted. The results show that the compressive strength of the VA-blended cement laterized concrete increased with the increase in curing age but decreased as the VA and laterite (LAT contents increased. The optimum replacement level was 20%LAT/20%VA. At this level the compressive strength increased with curing age at a decreasing rate beyond 28 days. The target compressive strength of 25N/mm2 was achieved for this mixture at 90 days of curing. VA content and curing age was noted to have significant effect (α ≤ 0.5 on the compressive strength of the VA-blended cement laterized concrete.

  12. Ultrasonic Techniques for Air Void Size Distribution and Property Evaluation in Both Early-Age and Hardened Concrete Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaicheng Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrained air voids can improve the freeze-thaw durability of concrete, and also affect its mechanical and transport properties. Therefore, it is important to measure the air void structure and understand its influence on concrete performance for quality control. This paper aims to measure air void structure evolution at both early-age and hardened stages with the ultrasonic technique, and evaluates its influence on concrete properties. Three samples with different air entrainment agent content were specially prepared. The air void structure was determined with optimized inverse analysis by achieving the minimum error between experimental and theoretical attenuation. The early-age sample measurement showed that the air void content with the whole size range slightly decreases with curing time. The air void size distribution of hardened samples (at Day 28 was compared with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM C457 test results. The air void size distribution with different amount of air entrainment agent was also favorably compared. In addition, the transport property, compressive strength, and dynamic modulus of concrete samples were also evaluated. The concrete transport decreased with the curing age, which is in accordance with the air void shrinkage. The correlation between the early-age strength development and hardened dynamic modulus with the ultrasonic parameters was also evaluated. The existence of clustered air voids in the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ area was found to cause severe compressive strength loss. The results indicated that this developed ultrasonic technique has potential in air void size distribution measurement, and demonstrated the influence of air void structure evolution on concrete properties during both early-age and hardened stages.

  13. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law.

  14. Comparison of Canadian firefighters and normal controls based on the submaximal fitness testing and strength considering age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Goris; MacDermid, Joy C; Kin, Kathryn E Sinden R; Overend, Tom J

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have addressed whether the firefighters are more fit than the general population and possess sufficient levels of aerobic capacity and muscle strength to perform on duty tasks in a safe and efficient manner, considering age and gender. We aimed to evaluate the fitness levels of Hamilton firefighters, and to determine the effects of age and gender. 89 participants were recruited. The Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test was used to determine participants' estimated maximal oxygen consumptions (VO2-max) levels. For upper and lower body strength levels, a calibrated J-Tech hand held dynamometer and a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting devices were used respectively. Firefighters' mean (standard deviations) VO2-max levels were 40.30 ± 6.25 ml·kg -1·min -1. Age proved to have a statistically significant impact on VO2-max - p < 0.001. Gender displayed statistically significant effects on strength levels. Firefighters' age was the only statistically significant independent variable, and accounted for 61.00% of the variance in firefighter aerobic capacity levels. Firefighters possessed somewhat similar aerobic capacities, but much higher levels of body strength when compared with the general population. With age, firefighters' aerobic capacities decreased, however their upper and lower body strength levels remained the same.

  15. The 'Big bang' in the Early Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medović Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Iron Age granaries of Tell Gradina upon Bosut exploded in a fire inferno in the 8th century B.C. The result of this catastrophe is 2-5 cm thick layer with mixed carbonized seeds and fruits. Recently, eight samples were taken from Gradina's profile for archaeobotanical analysis. The goal was to obtain basic information on land use and on major crops and weeds of that period. The most abundant were cereals, followed by millets, pulses and oil/fibre plants. The dominant cereals were einkorn (Triticum monococcum and hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum was also very important. Pulses were represented with six and oil/fibre plants with three species. Among weeds and ruderals, most common are rye brome (Bromus secalinus, fat hen (Chenopodium album, darnel ryegrass (Lolium temulentum, hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and corncockle (Agrostemma githago.

  16. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  17. Non-elite gymnastics participation is associated with greater bone strength, muscle size, and function in pre- and early pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, L A; Naughton, G A; Greene, D A; Courteix, D; Ducher, G

    2012-04-01

    Recent reports indicate an increase in forearm fractures in children. Bone geometric properties are an important determinant of bone strength and therefore fracture risk. Participation in non-elite gymnastics appears to contribute to improving young girls' musculoskeletal health, more specifically in the upper body. The primary aim of this study was to determine the association between non-elite gymnastics participation and upper limb bone mass, geometry, and strength in addition to muscle size and function in young girls. Eighty-eight pre- and early pubertal girls (30 high-training gymnasts [HGYM, 6-16 hr/ wk], 29 low-training gymnasts [LGYM, 1-5 h r/wk] and 29 non-gymnasts [NONGYM]), aged 6-11 years were recruited. Upper limb lean mass, BMD and BMC were derived from a whole body DXA scan. Forearm volumetric BMD, bone geometry, estimated strength, and muscle CSA were determined using peripheral QCT. Upper body muscle function was investigated with muscle strength, explosive power, and muscle endurance tasks. HGYM showed greater forearm bone strength compared with NGYM, as well as greater arm lean mass, BMC, and muscle function (+5% to +103%, p gymnasts. Compared with NONGYM, HGYM tended to show larger skeletal differences than LGYM; yet, the two groups of gymnasts only differed for arm lean mass and muscle CSA. Non-elite gymnastics participation was associated with musculoskeletal benefits in upper limb bone geometry, strength and muscle function. Differences between the two gymnastic groups emerged for arm lean mass and muscle CSA, but not for bone strength.

  18. Diurnal cortisol after early institutional care—Age matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Flannery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family. In a cross-sectional sample of 197 youths (PI and Comparison; 4–15 years old we observed age-related group differences in diurnal slope. First replicating previous findings, PI children exhibited flattened diurnal slope. This group difference, however, was not observed in adolescents. Moderation analyses showed that pubertal development, increased time with family, and early adoption contributed to the steeper diurnal cortisol slope in PI adolescents. These findings add support to existing theories positing that the transition between middle childhood and adolescence may mark an additional sensitive period for diurnal cortisol patterning, allowing PI youth to benefit from the enriched environment provided by adoptive parents during this period of development.

  19. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  20. Factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kristy J; Burns, Joshua; North, Kathryn N

    2010-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects foot and ankle strength from the earliest stages of the disease; however, little is known about factors influencing normal strength development or the pathogenesis of foot weakness and deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The authors investigated factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and compared to age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. In healthy children, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion was one of the strongest independent correlates of foot and ankle strength. Compared with healthy children, those with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A had significantly less dorsiflexion strength and range as well as imbalance in inversion-to-eversion and plantarflexion-to-dorsiflexion strength ratios. Given the association between ankle dorsiflexion strength and range in the healthy children, and the abnormality of these parameters in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, investigation of the cause-effect relationship is warranted to identify more targeted therapy and further understand the pathogenesis of foot deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  1. Effect of pulsed current and post weld aging treatment on tensile properties of argon arc welded high strength aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu 608002 (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com; Ravisankar, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu 608002 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Section, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbag (P.O.), Hyderabad 560058 (India)

    2007-06-25

    This paper reveals the effect of pulsed current and post weld aging treatment on tensile properties of argon arc welded AA7075 aluminium alloy. This alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. As welded joint strength is much lower than the base metal strength and hence, a simple aging treatment has been given to improve the tensile strength of the joints. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in GTA and GMA welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Post weld aging treatment is accompanied by an increase in tensile strength and tensile ductility.

  2. Early manifestations of replicative aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim I. Sorokin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is successfully used as a model organism to find genes responsible for lifespan control of higher organisms. As functional decline of higher eukaryotes can start as early as one quarter of the average lifespan, we asked whether S. cerevisiae can be used to model this manifestation of aging. While the average replicative lifespan of S. cerevisiae mother cells ranges between 15 and 30 division cycles, we found that resistances to certain stresses start to decrease much earlier. Looking into the mechanism, we found that knockouts of genes responsible for mitochondriato-nucleus (retrograde signaling, RTG1 or RTG3, significantly decrease the resistance of cells that generated more than four daughters, but not of the younger ones. We also found that even young mother cells frequently contain mitochondria with heterogeneous transmembrane potential and that the percentage of such cells correlates with replicative age. Together, these facts suggest that retrograde signaling starts to malfunction in relatively young cells, leading to accumulation of heterogeneous mitochondria within one cell. The latter may further contribute to a decline in stress resistances.

  3. A longitudinal study of bone area, content, density, and strength development at the radius and tibia in children 4-12 years of age exposed to recreational gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, S A; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Gruodyte-Raciene, R; Kontulainen, S A; Erlandson, M C

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the long-term relationship between the exposure to childhood recreational gymnastics and bone measures and bone strength parameters at the radius and tibia. It was observed that individuals exposed to recreational gymnastics had significantly greater total bone content and area at the distal radius. No differences were observed at the tibia. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to early childhood recreational gymnastics with bone measures and bone strength development at the radius and tibia. One hundred twenty seven children (59 male, 68 female) involved in either recreational gymnastics (gymnasts) or other recreational sports (non-gymnasts) between 4 and 6 years of age were recruited. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans of their distal and shaft sites of the forearm and leg were obtained over 3 years, covering the ages of 4-12 years at study completion. Multilevel random effects models were constructed to assess differences in the development of bone measures and bone strength measures between those exposed and not exposed to gymnastics while controlling for age, limb length, weight, physical activity, muscle area, sex, and hours of training. Once age, limb length, weight, muscle area, physical activity, sex, and hours of training effects were controlled, it was observed that individuals exposed to recreational gymnastics had significantly greater total bone area (18.0 ± 7.5 mm(2)) and total bone content (6.0 ± 3.0 mg/mm) at the distal radius (p gymnastics had no significant effect on bone measures at the radius shaft or at the tibia (p > 0.05). Exposure to early life recreational gymnastics provides skeletal benefits to distal radius bone content and area. Thus, childhood recreational gymnastics exposure may be advantageous to bone development at the wrist.

  4. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  5. Knee function and knee muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional limitations exist postmeniscectomy, but preoperative data are scarce. PURPOSE: To examine knee function, knee muscle strength and performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears, eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. METHODS: Eighty-two participants with MRI verified degenerative meniscal tear (35% women, mean age 49 years) answered the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and were tested for isokinetic knee muscle strength and lower extremity performance (one-leg hop for distance, 6 m timed...

  6. Association between muscular strength and inflammatory markers among elderly persons with cardiac disease: results from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volaklis, K A; Halle, M; Koenig, W; Oberhoffer, R; Grill, E; Peters, A; Strasser, B; Heier, M; Emeny, R; Schulz, H; Ladwig, K H; Meisinger, C; Thorand, B

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the association between muscle strength and inflammation in diseased individuals and particularly in cardiac patients. Thus, our purpose was to examine the association of muscular strength with the inflammatory status in older adults with and without cardiac disease. The cross-sectional analysis was based on 1079 adults aged 65-94 years, who participated in the KORA-Age study. Participants underwent an interview and extensive physical examinations including anthropometric measurements, registration of diseases and drug intake, determination of health-related behaviors, collection of blood samples for measurements of interleukin-6 and hs-CRP and muscle strength measurement using hand-grip dynamometry. Cardiac patients (n = 323) had higher levels of IL-6 and poorer muscle strength compared with older adults without cardiac disease. Among persons with cardiac diseases, muscle strength in the lower tertile compared to the upper tertile was significantly associated with increased odds of having elevated IL-6 levels (OR 3.53, 95 % CI 1.18-10.50, p = 0.024) after controlling for age, gender, body fat, alcohol intake, smoking status, diseases, medications and physical activity, whereas the association between muscle strength and hs-CRP remained borderline significant (OR 2.80, 95 % CI 0.85-9.24, p = 0.092). The same trends, with slightly lower odds ratios, were also observed in older adults without cardiac disease. Lower levels of muscular strength are associated with higher concentrations of IL-6 and hs-CRP in elderly individuals with and without cardiac disease suggesting a significant contribution of the muscular system in reducing low-grade inflammation that accompanies cardiac disease and aging.

  7. Properties of Calcium Acetate Manufactured with Etching Waste Solution and Limestone Sludge as a Cementitious High-Early-Strength Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deuck-Mo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials. There are several methods available to improve its performance, with one of them being the use of high-early-strength admixtures (HESAs. Typical HESAs include calcium nitrate, calcium chloride, and calcium formate (CF. Industrial by-products, such as acetic acid and lime stone sludge (LSS, can be used together to produce calcium acetate (CA, which can subsequently be used as a cementitious HESA. In this study, calcium carbonate and LSS were mixed with cement in weight ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, and 1 : 2, and the properties of the as-produced CA were evaluated. CA and CF were mixed with cement in different weight ratios (0, 1, 2, and 3 wt% to obtain CA- and CF-mortars, respectively. The flow behavior, setting time, pH, and compressive strength of these mortars were evaluated, and their X-ray diffraction patterns were also analyzed. It was found that as the CF content in the CF-mortar increased, the initial strength of the mortar also increased. However, it impaired its long-term strength. On the other hand, when 1% CA was mixed with cement, satisfactory early and long-term strengths were achieved. Thus, CA, which is obtained from industrial by-products, can be an effective HESA.

  8. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  9. ATLIS. Early Childhood Development and the Electronic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nancy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the America Tomorrow Leadership Information Service (ATLIS) and how this information can benefit early childhood professionals. Discusses the future of telecommunications in the early childhood profession and includes a glossary of telecommunications terms. (HTH)

  10. Star formation histories of early-type galaxies. I Higher order Balmer lines as age indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, N; Concannon, K D; Caldwell, Nelson; Rose, James A.; Concannon, Kristi Dendy

    2003-01-01

    (shortened) We have obtained blue integrated spectra of 175 nearby early-type galaxies, covering a wide range in galaxy velocity dispersion, and emphasizing those with sigma < 100 km/s. Galaxies have been observed both in the Virgo cluster and in lower-density environments. The main goals are the evaluation of higher order Balmer lines as age indicators, and differences in stellar populations as a function of mass, environment and morphology. In this first paper our emphasis is on presenting the evolutionary population synthesis models. Lower-sigma galaxies exhibit a substantially greater intrinsic scatter, in a variety of line strength indicators, than do higher-sigma galaxies, with the large intrinsic scatter setting in below a sigma of 100 km/s. Modeling of the observed spectral indices indicates that the strong Balmer lines found primarily among the low-sigma galaxies are caused by young age, rather than by low metallicity. Thus we find a trend between the population age and the velocity dispersion, su...

  11. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Suetta, C; Caserotti, P

    2010-01-01

    and size (sarcopenia), resulting in impaired mechanical muscle performance that in turn leads to a reduced functional capacity during everyday tasks. Concurrently, maximum muscle strength, power, and rate of force development are decreased with aging, even in highly trained master athletes. The impairment...

  12. Effect of surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin composite to composite after aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Barbosa, Silvia Helena; Melo, Renata Marques; Galhano, Graziela Avila Prado; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of two different surface conditioning methods on the repair bond strength of a bis-GMA-adduct/bis-EMA/TEGDMA based resin composite after three aging conditions. Methods. Thirty-six composite resin blocks (Esthet X, Dentsply) were prepared (5 mm x 6 mm x 6

  13. Effect of surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin composite to composite after aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Barbosa, Silvia Helena; Melo, Renata Marques; Galhano, Graziela Avila Prado; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of two different surface conditioning methods on the repair bond strength of a bis-GMA-adduct/bis-EMA/TEGDMA based resin composite after three aging conditions. Methods. Thirty-six composite resin blocks (Esthet X, Dentsply) were prepared (5 mm x 6 mm x 6

  14. Strength training as a countermeasure to aging muscle and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Ben F; Hanson, Erik D; Sheaff, Andrew K

    2011-04-01

    Strength training (ST) has long been considered a promising intervention for reversing the loss of muscle function and the deterioration of muscle structure associated with advanced age but, until recently, the evidence was insufficient to support its role in the prevention or treatment of disease. In recent decades, there has been a long list of quality reviews examining the effects of ST on functional abilities and a few on risk factors for specific diseases, but none have provided a comprehensive assessment of ST as an intervention for a broad range of diseases. This review provides an overview of research addressing the effectiveness of ST as an intervention for the prevention or treatment of the adverse consequences of (i) aging muscle; (ii) the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, i.e. insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension; (iii) fibromyalgia; (iv) rheumatoid arthritis; and (v) Alzheimer's disease. Collectively, these studies indicate that ST may serve as an effective countermeasure to some of the adverse consequences of the MetS, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence in support of the hypothesis that ST reduces insulin resistance or improves insulin action comes both from indirect biomarkers, such as glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), and insulin responses to oral glucose tolerance tests, as well as from more direct procedures such as hyperglycaemic and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp techniques. The evidence for the use of ST as a countermeasure of abdominal obesity is less convincing. Although some reports show statistically significant reductions in visceral fat, it is unclear if the magnitude of these changes are physiologically meaningful and if they are independent of dietary influences. The efficacy of ST as an intervention for reducing dyslipidaemia is at best inconsistent, particularly when compared with other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, such as aerobic exercise

  15. Investigation of Phosphate Cement-based Binder with Super High Early Strength for Repair of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Magnesium phosphate cement-based binder (MPB) for repair of concrete was prepared by proportionally mixing over burned MgO powder (M) with NHH2PO4 powder (P) and set modifying admixtures. It is characteristic by excellent properties such as rapid setting,high strength and high bond strength to old concrete.. The study is focused on the key factors influencing the setting time and strength of MPB, the bond property of MPB to old concrete and the kinetic feature of the hydration of MPB.

  16. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...... = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking......The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...

  17. Features of high-speed and strength qualities development in young biathlonists aged 14–15 in the preparatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Burla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate a methodology of high-speed and strength qualities development of young biathlonists aged 14–15 during the preparatory period. Material and Methods: young biathlonists aged 14–15 from control and experimental groups took part in the research. There were 12 athletes in each group. Pedagogical methods and methods of mathematical statistics were used in the work. Pedagogical methods of researches were used for level definition of high-speed and strength qualities development of young biathlonists. Results: reliable increase of motive qualities and polydynamometry results testing of young biathlonists from the experimental group due to implementation of the experimental methodology in the preparatory period is established. Conclusions: application of the developed complexes in the preparatory period in the experimental group of young biathlonists aged 14–15 allows to raise indices of motive qualities and polydynamometry testing statistically significantly.

  18. Strength, power output and symmetry of leg muscles: effect of age and history of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark C; Carville, Serena F; Smith, I Christopher H; Rutherford, Olga M; Newham, Di J

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for medically unexplained falls may include reduced muscle power, strength and asymmetry in the lower limbs. Conflicting reports exist about strength and there is little information about power and symmetry. Forty-four healthy young people (29.3 +/- 0.6 years), 44 older non-fallers (75.9 +/- 0.6 years), and 34 older fallers (76.4 +/- 0.8 years) were studied. Isometric, concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and leg extension power were measured bilaterally. The younger group was stronger in all muscles and types of contraction than both older groups (P muscles and types of contraction but overall the fallers had 85% of the strength and 79% of the power of the non-fallers (P muscles and some contraction types. This was similar overall in the two older groups. Both older groups had greater asymmetry in power than the young (P muscle groups.

  19. Early plant embryogenesis-dark ages or dark matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Martin; Slane, Daniel; Jürgens, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    In nearly all flowering plants, the basic body plan is laid down during embryogenesis. In Arabidopsis, the crucial cell types are established extremely early as reflected in the stereotypic sequence of oriented cell divisions in the developing young embryo. Research into early embryogenesis was especially focused on the role of the infamous tryptophan derivative auxin in establishing embryo polarity and generating the main body axis. However, it is becoming obvious that the mere link to auxin does not provide any mechanistic understanding of early embryo patterning. Taking recent research into account, we discuss mechanisms underlying early embryonic patterning from an evolutionary perspective.

  20. Early-phase adaptations of traditional-speed vs. superslow resistance training on strength and aerobic capacity in sedentary individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, L K; Finkelstein, L H; Miller, W; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    We performed a randomized exercise training study to assess the effects of traditional Nautilus-style (TR) or superslow (SS) strength training on muscular strength, body composition, aerobic capacity, and cardiovascular endurance. Subjects were 14 healthy, sedentary women, 19-45 years of age (mean +/- SD age, 32.7 +/- 8.9 years), randomized to either the SS or TR training protocols and trained 3 times per week for 10 weeks. Measurements were taken both before and after training, which included a maximal incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer, body composition, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests on 8 Nautilus machines. Both groups increased their strength significantly on all 8 exercises, whereas the TR group increased significantly more than the SS group on bench press (34% vs. 11%), torso arm (anterior lateral pull-down) (27% vs. 12%), leg press (33% vs. 7%), leg extension (56% vs. 24%), and leg curl (40% vs. 15%). Thus, the TR group's improvement in total exercise weight lifted was significantly greater than that of the SS group after testing (39% vs. 15%). Exercise duration on the cycle ergometer and work rate significantly improved for both groups, but there was no group-by-training interaction. No significant differences were found for body composition or additional aerobic variables measured. Both strength training protocols produced a significant improvement in strength during a 10-week training period, but the TR protocol produced better gains in the absence of changes in percentage of body fat, body mass index, lean body mass, and body weight. In addition, strength training alone did not improve Vo2max, yet short-term endurance increased.

  1. Early age fracture properties of microstructurally-designed mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bella, Carmelo; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik;

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the fracture properties as well as crack initiation and propagation of real and equivalent mortars. The development of the elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture energy at different hydration stages were determined by inverse analysis of load-displacement curves obtai...

  2. Cervical range of motion, cervical and shoulder strength in senior versus age-grade Rugby Union International front-row forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark; Moore, Isabel S; Moran, Patrick; Mathema, Prabhat; Ranson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    To provide normative values for cervical range of motion (CROM), isometric cervical and shoulder strength for; International Senior professional, and International Age-grade Rugby Union front-row forwards. Cross-sectional population study. All international level front-row players within a Rugby Union Tier 1 Nation. Nineteen Senior and 21 Age-grade front-row forwards underwent CROM, cervical and shoulder strength testing. CROM was measured using the CROM device and the Gatherer System was used to measure multi-directional isometric cervical and shoulder strength. The Age-grade players had significantly lower; cervical strength (26-57% deficits), cervical flexion to extension strength ratios (0.5 vs. 0.6), and shoulder strength (2-36% deficits) than the Senior players. However, there were no differences between front-row positions within each age group. Additionally, there were no differences between age groups or front-row positions in the CROM measurements. Senior Rugby Union front-row forwards have greater cervical and shoulder strength than Age-grade players, with the biggest differences being in cervical strength, highlighting the need for age specific normative values. Importantly, Age-grade players should be evaluated to ensure they have developed sufficient cervical strength prior to entering professional level Rugby Union. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of two resin cements to aged simulated composite core materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Behnaz; Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Shakerian, Mohadese

    2015-01-01

    Roughening of the aged composite resin core (CRC) surface seems essential for durable adhesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various surface treatments and different resin cements on microtensile bond strength (µ TBS) between two aged core build-up composites (CBCs) and feldspathic ceramic. A total of 16 composite blocks made of two CBCs, Core.it and Build-it were randomly assigned to four surface treatment groups after water storage and thermocycling (2 weeks and 500 cycles). Experimental groups included surface roughening with air abrasion (AA), hydrofluoric acid, pumice, and laser and then were bonded to computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic blocks using two resin cements, Panavia F2 (PF), and Duo-link (DL). The µ TBS was tested, and the fracture mode was assessed. The data were analyzed with multiple analysis of variance to estimate the contribution of different surface treatments, resin cements, and two aged CRCs on µ TBS. Statistical significance level was set at α strength (P strength was in AA group cemented with PF (31.83 MPa). The most common failure mode was cohesive fracture in the cement. Different surface treatments had different effects on µ TBS of aged CRCs to feldspathic ceramics. PF was significantly better than DL.

  4. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid Chlori

  5. Early Intervention Evaluation Reports: Guidelines for Writing User-Friendly and Strength-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Patricia; Farrell, Anne F.; Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Assessment and evaluation activities are an integral part of early intervention services. These activities culminate in written evaluation reports that include information such as observations of skills and deficits, diagnosis, and recommendations for intervention. However, few guidelines exist to help guide early intervention providers in writing…

  6. The SAURON project - XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the 4

  7. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the 4

  8. Resistance training for explosive and maximal strength: effects on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felipe B D; Oliveira, Anderson S C; Rizatto, Guilherme F; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s(-1)) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.In active non-strength trained individuals, a short-term resistance training program designed to increase both explosive and maximal strength seems to reduce the adaptive response (i.e. increased RFDMAX) evoked by training with an intended ballistic effort (i.e. high-RFD contraction).

  9. Early Adolescent Perceptions of Neighborhood: Strengths, Structural Disadvantage, and Relations to Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Dawn P.; Hughes, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows the detriments of neighborhood social disorganization for urban youth. Researchers have focused less on potential neighborhood strengths or on the interplay of neighborhood perceptions and objective neighborhood characteristics. The authors examined the presence and perception of positive and negative neighborhood…

  10. Treasure bequest: death and gift in the early middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Dominic

    1998-01-01

    Book synopsis: This collection of twenty-two original essays investigates the organising forces of social identity and power in early Medieval Europe, spanning literary and historical texts, artefacts and archeological evidence.

  11. Recovery of lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganderup, Tina; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance before and after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients would experience deficiencies in the affected leg at 3 months post......-surgery, and that this deficiency would be normalized at 12 months following surgery. METHODS: Twenty-three patients (46 ± 6.5 years) meniscectomized in 2012 and 2013 were examined for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction maximal isometric muscle strength (iMVC), rate of force development (RFD200), and knee function......200, p = 0.033) or borderline significant improvement was observed in the affected leg compared to the contralateral leg from before to 12 months after surgery in most variables (leg × time interaction, n.s.). CONCLUSION: Middle-aged patients undergoing surgery for degenerative medial meniscal tears...

  12. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...... characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA...

  13. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M; Burks, Tyesha N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D; Leng, Sean X

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p=.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p=.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans.

  14. Comparison of Lower and Upper Extremity Strength of Individuals with Down Syndrome in Terms of Age Groups and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Ince

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare lower and upper extremity strength of individuals with Down syndrome in terms of age and gender. Nineteen females (52.8% and 17 males (47.2% individuals with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21 type who continue special education and rehabilitation centers participated in the study. The average age of participants was 21.25±6.25 years, average height: 152.18±8.01cm, body weight average: 65.60±18.28kg. There was no statistically significant difference between lower and upper extremity results of Down's syndrome patients (p <0.05. In terms of gender, (Female: 15.8±5.6, male: 11.9 ± 4.8, p=0.03 it were found to be statistically better than boys in terms of horizontal jump (female: 71.7±20.5, male: 55.12±19.7, p=0.02 and vertical jump. As a result, lower and upper extremity strength in different age groups of individuals was found to be similar. However, it can be said that girls with Down syndrome have better explosive strength than men.

  15. Rotator cuff injury in patients over the age of 65 years: evaluation of function, integrity and strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Castro Veado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff injuries, among those aged over 65 years, observing integrity, function and strength.METHODS: Thirty-five shoulders were operated between July 2005 and July 2010, and 28 shoulders were re-evaluated regarding elevation strength and external rotation, using a digital dynamometer. Integrity was evaluated by means of ultrasound examinations. The patients, whose mean age was 70.54 years (ranging from 65 to 82 years, were followed up for a minimum of 26 months and mean of 51.18 months (ranging from 26 to 82 months. To evaluate function, the UCLA score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain were used.RESULTS: In analyzing the ultrasound scans, it was observed that the integrity of the rotator cuff was maintained in 75% of the cases at the end of the follow-up, along with the improvement in the UCLA score, which evolved from 17.46 to 32.39, i.e. excellent and good results in 89.28%. The mean SST and VAS indices were 9.86 and 1.5 respectively.CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injuries in patients over the age of 65 years leads to improved function and pain relief, with maintenance of the integrity of the repair. The data on muscle strength were inconclusive.

  16. State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Danielle; Blank, Helen; Hart, Katherine; Schulman, Karen

    This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care, early education, and school-age care issues during 2001. It is intended to serve as a supplement to "State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care 2000" and various reports published on this issue between 1997 and 1999. Information in the…

  17. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Suetta, C; Caserotti, P

    2010-01-01

    to elicit effective countermeasures in elderly individuals even at a very old age (>80 years) by evoking muscle hypertrophy along with substantial changes in neuromuscular function, respectively. Notably, the training-induced changes in muscle mass and nervous system function leads to an improved functional......Aging is characterized by loss of spinal motor neurons (MNs) due to apoptosis, reduced insulin-like growth factor I signaling, elevated amounts of circulating cytokines, and increased cell oxidative stress. The age-related loss of spinal MNs is paralleled by a reduction in muscle fiber number...... and size (sarcopenia), resulting in impaired mechanical muscle performance that in turn leads to a reduced functional capacity during everyday tasks. Concurrently, maximum muscle strength, power, and rate of force development are decreased with aging, even in highly trained master athletes. The impairment...

  18. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  19. Screen-based sedentary behavior, physical activity, and muscle strength in the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is associated with loss of independence and ill-health in the elderly although the causes remain poorly understood. We examined the association between two screen-based leisure time sedentary activities (daily TV viewing time and internet use and muscle strength. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 6228 men and women (aged 64.9 ± 9.1 yrs from wave 4 (2008-09 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Muscle strength was assessed by a hand grip test and the time required to complete five chair rises. TV viewing and internet usage were inversely associated with one another. Participants viewing TV ≥ 6 hrs/d had lower grip strength (Men, B = -1.20 kg, 95% CI, -2.26, -0.14; Women, -0.75 kg, 95% CI, -1.48, -0.03 in comparison to <2 hrs/d TV, after adjustment for age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, chronic disease, disability, depressive symptoms, social status, and body mass index. In contrast, internet use was associated with higher grip strength (Men, B = 2.43 kg, 95% CI, 1.74, 3.12; Women, 0.76 kg, 95% CI, 0.32, 1.20. These associations persisted after mutual adjustment for both types of sedentary behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, the association between sedentary activities and physical function is context specific (TV viewing vs. computer use. Adverse effects of TV viewing might reflect the prolonged sedentary nature of this behavior.

  20. Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

  1. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.......By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits....

  2. Overweight and obesity in young and middle age and early retirement: the ARIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Denise K; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between weight status in young and middle age and early retirement in African-American and white men and women. Data were from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Analyses were restricted to participants aged 45-55 years at baseline (n = 6,483). Associations between weight status at age 25 and ages 45-55 and age at early retirement (prior to age 65) over 9 years of follow-up were examined using proportional hazard regression analyses in models stratified by race and gender. Models were adjusted for education, household income, health insurance status, occupation, occupational physical activity, marital status, smoking, and field center. Between 18.7 and 21.6% of African-American and white men and women reported retiring prior to age 65. Although not always statistically significant, overweight and obesity were associated with early retirement in all but white women. Overweight (BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)) at age 25 was significantly associated with early retirement in African-American women (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.62 (1.17-2.23)) and white men (1.32 (1.12-1.57)). There was also a trend between overweight at age 25 and early retirement in African-American men (1.43 (0.99-2.07)). Obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m(2)) in middle age was significantly associated with early retirement in white men only (1.32 (1.03-1.69)). Furthermore, overweight at age 25 and obesity at ages 45-55 were associated with early retirement for health reasons among African-American and white men and women. In conclusion, analyses of the economic impact of obesity may need to consider its effects on early retirement.

  3. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D.J.; Michaud, W.F.; Galvin, T.M.; Burke, W.F.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or J{sub IC} is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  4. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method. PMID:28176863

  5. Nanoleakage, ultramorphological characteristics, and microtensile bond strengths of a new low-shrinkage composite to dentin after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sillas; Phark, Jin-Ho; Varjão, Fabiana Mansur; Sadan, Avishai

    2009-05-01

    To study the microtensile bond strengths and nanoleakage of low-shrinkage composite to dentin. The null hypotheses tested were (1) aging does not affect the bonding of low-shrinkage composite; (2) there is no difference in microtensile bond strengths and nanoleakage using different bonding strategies. 32 extracted molars were assigned to one of four groups: LS System Adhesive (LS, 3M ESPE); dentin etched for 15s with phosphoric acid+LS System Adhesive (LSpa); Adper Single Bond Plus (SB, 3M ESPE); SB+LS Bond (SBLS). Occlusal dentin was exposed and restored with Filtek LS (3M ESPE). The samples were tested after 24h or after 20,000 thermocycles and 6 months of aging. Teeth were sectioned with a cross-section of 0.8+/-0.2mm(2) and fractured at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. The data were submitted to ANOVA/Duncan's post hoc test, at pslabs from each group were selected and immersed in 50wt% ammoniacal silver nitrate. Then, specimens were processed for SEM, the silver penetration was measured and data analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis at pcomposite showed compatibility only with its dedicated adhesive. Pre-etching did not improve the bond strengths to low-shrinkage resin composite. Some degree of nanoleakage was evident in all groups.

  6. Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Cement to Novel CAD/CAM Materials as a Function of Surface Treatment and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, D P; Van Ende, A; De Munck, J; Vieira, Lcc; Baratieri, L N; Van Meerbeek, B

    To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength to a composite and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic CAD/CAM block after six-month artificial aging. Two types of CAD/CAM blocks (Cerasmart, GC; Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were cut in slabs of 4-mm thickness, divided into six groups, and subjected to the following surface treatments: group 1: no treatment; group 2: sandblasting (SB); group 3: SB + silane (Si); group 4: SB + Si + flowable composite (see below); group 5: 5% hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) + Si; and group 6: 37% phosphoric acid etching (H3PO4) + Si. Sections of the same group were luted together (n=3: 3 sandwich specimens/group) using a dual-cure self-adhesive cement for all groups, except for the sections of group 4 that were luted using a light-curing flowable composite. After three weeks of storage in 0.5% chloramine at 37°C, the sandwich specimens were sectioned in rectangular microspecimens and trimmed at the interface to a dumbbell shape (1.1-mm diameter). One half of the specimens was subjected to a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test, and the other half was tested after six months of water storage (aging). Data were statistically analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model for the factors surface treatment, material type, and aging, together with their first-degree interactions (α=0.05). The lowest bond strengths were obtained in the absence of any surface treatment (group 1), while the highest μTBSs were obtained when the surface was roughened by either SB or HF, this in combination with chemical adhesion through Si. Loss in bond strength was observed after six-month aging when either surface roughening or silanization, or both, were omitted. Both the composite and polymer-infiltrated ceramic CAD/CAM blocks appeared equally bonding-receptive regardless of the surface treatment used. Creating a microretentive surface by either SB or HF, followed by chemical adhesion using Si, is mandatory to maintain the bond strength

  7. Lasofoxifene (CP-336,156) protects against the age-related changes in bone mass, bone strength, and total serum cholesterol in intact aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, H Z; Qi, H; Chidsey-Frink, K L; Crawford, D T; Thompson, D D

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if long-term (6 months) treatment with lasofoxifene (LAS), a new selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can protect against age-related changes in bone mass and bone strength in intact aged male rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats at 15 months of age were treated (daily oral gavage) with either vehicle (n = 12) or LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day (n = 12) or 0.1 mg/kg per day (n = 11) for 6 months. A group of 15 rats was necropsied at 15 months of age and served as basal controls. No significant change was found in body weight between basal and vehicle controls. However, an age-related increase in fat body mass (+42%) and decrease in lean body mass (-8.5%) was observed in controls. Compared with vehicle controls, LAS at both doses significantly decreased body weight and fat body mass but did not affect lean body mass. No significant difference was found in prostate wet weight among all groups. Total serum cholesterol was significantly decreased in all LAS-treated rats compared with both the basal and the vehicle controls. Both doses of LAS treatment completely prevented the age-related increase in serum osteocalcin. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) analysis at the distal femoral metaphysis indicated that the age-related decrease in total density, trabecular density, and cortical thickness was completely prevented by treatment with LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day. Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibial cancellous bone showed an age-related decrease in trabecular bone volume (TBV; -46%), trabecular number (Tb.N), wall thickness (W.Th), mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate-tissue area referent. Moreover, an age-related increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and eroded surface was observed. LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day completely prevented these age-related changes in bone mass, bone structure, and bone turnover. Similarly, the age-related decrease in TBV

  8. Effects of different surface treatments and accelerated artificial aging on the bond strength of composite resin repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Veiga de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to assess the bond strength of composite resin repairs subjected to different surface treatments and accelerated artificial aging. 192 cylindrical samples (CSs were prepared and divided into 24 groups (n = 8. Half of the CSs were stored in water for 24 h, and the other half were subjected to C-UV accelerated aging for non-metallic specimens. The treatments were phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (PSA; phosphoric acid + adhesive (PA; diamond bur + phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (DPSA; diamond bur + phosphoric acid + adhesive (DPA; air abrasion + phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (APSA; and air abrasion + phosphoric acid + adhesive (APA. The repair was performed and the specimens were again aged as described above. A control group (n = 8 was established and did not receive any type of aging or surface treatment. The specimens were loaded to failure in shear mode with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (p < 0.05. No statistically significant differences were found among DPSA, DPA, APSA, APA, and the control group. The aged PSA and PA achieved low bonding values and were statistically different from the control group, whereas the non-aged PSA and PA presented no statistically significant difference from the control group. Repairs with the proposed surface treatments were viable on both recent and aged restorations; however, phosphoric acid + adhesive alone were effective only on recent restorations.

  9. "En Confianza": Co-Constructing Professional Strength and Voice with Latina Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario; Flores, Susana Y.; Jasis, Pablo M.

    2010-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that early pre-K reading experiences prepare children for the benefits of formal literacy instruction in the later grades. This is particularly true for young children from nonmainstream backgrounds. The objective of this article is to share the findings of a 4-year qualitative study investigating the…

  10. Shear-bond-strength of orthodontic brackets to aged nano-hybrid composite-resin surfaces using different surface preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Hatice Kubra; Akin, Mehmet; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface preparation methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets to aged nano-hybrid resin composite surfaces in vitro. A total of 100 restorative composite resin discs, 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were obtained and treated with an ageing procedure. After ageing, the samples were randomly divided as follows according to surface preparation methods: (1)Control, (2)37% phosphoric acid gel, (3)Sandblasting, (4)Diamond bur, (5)Air-flow and 20 central incisor teeth were used for the control etched group. SBS test were applied on bonded metal brackets to all samples. SBS values and residual adhesives were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (phybrid composite resin surfaces.

  11. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  12. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  13. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M.; Sussman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Methods: Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. Results: A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of

  14. Early exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, breastfeeding and asthma at age six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Garcia-Esteban, R; Ribas-Fitó, N; Carrizo, D; Romieu, I; Antó, J M; Grimalt, J O

    2006-10-01

    Our aims were to assess association of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) with childhood asthma measured up to age 6 and the effect of DDE on the protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma. In addition, we attempted to assess the relevant time-window of DDE exposure (i.e. at birth or at 4 years). All women presenting for antenatal care in Menorca, Spain over a 12-month period beginning in mid-1997 were invited to take part in a longitudinal study that included a yearly visit. Four hundred eighty-two children were enrolled and 462 provided complete outcome data after 6.5 years of follow-up. Organochlorine compounds were measured in cord serum of 402 (83%) infants and in blood samples of 285 children aged 4. We defined asthma as the presence of wheezing at age 6 and during any preceding year or doctor-diagnosed asthma, and used skin prick test at age 6 to determine atopic status. Results At birth and 4 years of age, all children had detectable levels of DDE (median 1 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL, respectively). From birth to age 4, the mean DDE level among children with artificial feeding decreased by 72%, while among breastfed children it increased by 53%. Diagnosed asthma and persistent wheezing were associated with DDE at birth [odds ratio (OR) for an increase in 1 ng/mL, OR=1.18, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.01-1.39 and OR=1.13, 95% CI=0.98-1.30, respectively], but not with DDE at 4 years. Neither breastfeeding nor atopy modified these associations (P>0.3). Breastfeeding protected against diagnosed asthma (OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.08-0.87) and wheezing (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34-0.82) in children with low and high DDE levels at birth. Conclusion In a community without known dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane environmental releases, this study strengthens the evidence for an effect of DDE on asthma by measuring the disease at age 6 and does not support the hypothesis that DDE modifies the protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma.

  15. Determination of Relationship between Dielectric Properties, Compressive Strength, and Age of Concrete with Rice Husk Ash Using Planar Coaxial Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piladaeng Nawarat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an investigation of the dielectric properties of concretes that includes rice husk ash using a planar coaxial probe. The planar coaxial probe has a planar structure with a microstrip and coaxial features. The measurement was performed over the frequency range of 0.5-3.5 GHz, and concrete specimens with different percentages of rice husk ash were tested. The results indicated that the dielectric constant of the concretes was inversely proportional to the frequency, while the conductivity was proportional to the frequency. The dielectric constant decreased with the increasing age of the concrete at the frequency of 1 GHz. The conductivity of the concrete decreased with the increasing age of the concrete at the frequency of 3.2 GHz. In addition, the dielectric constant and the conductivity decreased when the compressive strength increased. It was also shown that the obtained dielectric properties of the concrete could be used to investigate the relationship between the compressive strength and age of the concrete. Moreover, there is an opportunity to apply the proposed probe to determine the dielectric properties of other materials.

  16. Facets of Subjective Health From Early Adulthood to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Carol E; Finkel, Deborah; Panizzon, Matthew S;

    2017-01-01

    ,900 twins (Mage = 63.38, range = 25-102) from nine studies in the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies Consortium: self-rated health (SRH), health compared with others (COMP), and health interfering with activities (ACT). RESULTS: Analyses indicated age and sex differences in mean...... scores depending on the measure. SRH and ACT showed significant linear and non-linear moderation by age for individual differences in both genetic and environmental variance. Significant sex differences in components of variance were found for SRH and ACT, but not COMP. DISCUSSION: Subjective health......OBJECTIVE: Subjective health is a complex indicator predicting longevity independent of objective health. Few studies examine genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying different facets of subjective health across the life course. METHOD: Three subjective health measures were examined in 12...

  17. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    ) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...... inactivity from age 50 to 60 to 70 on disability at age 75 when adjusting for functional ability at age 70. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for disability among old people. Thus, old people should be encouraged to take up and maintain physical training throughout the aging process....

  18. The early life origins of vascular ageing and cardiovascular risk: the EVA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Lurbe, Empar; Laurent, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    Early vascular ageing is common in patients with hypertension and increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors, often influenced by chronic inflammation. One aspect of this vascular ageing is arterial stiffening, as measured by increased pulse wave velocity or augmentation index and central pressure. Several studies have indicated that this process starts early in life and that arterial function and ageing properties could be programmed during foetal life or influenced by adverse growth patterns in early postnatal life. This could explain the repeated findings in observational epidemiology that an inverse association exists between birth weight, adjusted for gestational age, and systolic blood pressure elevation in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, as well as for increased cardiovascular risk. One new marker of increased pulse pressure and arterial ageing is telomere length, as regulated by telomerase enzymatic activity. Future studies will hopefully shed light on the possibilities to halt or even reverse vascular ageing, and thereby also influence telomere biology and its different expressions.

  19. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  20. Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, E; Enmarker, I; Hygge, S

    2005-01-01

    The objectives in this paper were to analyse noise effects on episodic and semantic memory performance in different age groups, and to see whether age interacted with noise in their effects on memory. Data were taken from three separate previous experiments, that were performed with the same design, procedure and dependent measures with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45 and 55-65 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) road traffic noise, and (c) quiet. The results showed effects of both noise sources on a majority of the dependent measures, both when taken alone and aggregated according to the nature of the material to be memorised. However, the noise effects for episodic memory tasks were stronger than for semantic memory tasks. Further, in the reading comprehension task, cued recall and recognition were more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speech than by road traffic noise. Contrary to predictions, there was no interaction between noise and age group, indicating that the obtained noise effects were not related to the capacity to perform the task. The results from the three experiments taken together throw more light on the relative effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on memory performance in different age groups.

  1. Rejuvenation of the muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Benjamin D; Gilbert, Penney M; Porpiglia, Ermelinda; Mourkioti, Foteini; Lee, Steven P; Corbel, Stephane Y; Llewellyn, Michael E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M

    2014-03-01

    The elderly often suffer from progressive muscle weakness and regenerative failure. We demonstrate that muscle regeneration is impaired with aging owing in part to a cell-autonomous functional decline in skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Two-thirds of MuSCs from aged mice are intrinsically defective relative to MuSCs from young mice, with reduced capacity to repair myofibers and repopulate the stem cell reservoir in vivo following transplantation. This deficiency is correlated with a higher incidence of cells that express senescence markers and is due to elevated activity of the p38α and p38β mitogen-activated kinase pathway. We show that these limitations cannot be overcome by transplantation into the microenvironment of young recipient muscles. In contrast, subjecting the MuSC population from aged mice to transient inhibition of p38α and p38β in conjunction with culture on soft hydrogel substrates rapidly expands the residual functional MuSC population from aged mice, rejuvenating its potential for regeneration and serial transplantation as well as strengthening of damaged muscles of aged mice. These findings reveal a synergy between biophysical and biochemical cues that provides a paradigm for a localized autologous muscle stem cell therapy for the elderly.

  2. Heterogeneity in resistance training-induced muscle strength and mass responses in men and women of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Holviala, Jarkko; Sillanpää, Elina; Karavirta, Laura; Sallinen, Janne; Mikkola, Jussi; Valkeinen, Heli; Mero, Antti; Hulmi, Juha J.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity recommendations for public health include typically muscle-strengthening activities for a minimum of 2 days a week. The range of inter-individual variation in responses to resistance training (RT) aiming to improve health and well-being requires to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify high and low responders for RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength and to examine possible effects of age and sex on these responses. Previously collected data of ...

  3. Perceptions of Competence, Strength, and Age Influence Voters to Select Leaders with Lower-Pitched Voices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey A Klofstad

    Full Text Available Voters prefer leaders with lower-pitched voices because they are perceived as stronger, having greater physical prowess, more competent, and having greater integrity. An alternative hypothesis that has yet to be tested is that lower-pitched voices are perceived as older and thus wiser and more experienced. Here the relationships between candidate voice pitch, candidate age, and electoral success are examined with two experiments. Study 1 tests whether voters discriminate on candidate age. The results show that male and female candidates in their 40s and 50s, the time in the lifecycle when voice pitch is at its lowest, are preferred over candidates in their 30s, 60s, and 70s. Study 2 shows that the preference for leaders with lower-pitched voices correlates with the perception that speakers with lower voices are stronger, more competent, and older, but the influence of perception of age on vote choice is the weakest of the three.

  4. Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with type 2 diabete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Hvid, L G; Hermann, A P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether testosterone replacement therapy improves muscle mechanical and physical function in addition to increasing lean leg mass and total lean body mass in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered bio-available testosterone (BioT) levels. Thirty-nine men...... aged 50-70 years with type 2 diabetes and BioT levels center. Patients were randomized to testosterone gel (testosterone replacement therapy, n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) for 24 weeks, applying a double-blinded design. Muscle mechanical...... replacement therapy for 24 weeks compared with placebo, whereas physical function (gait speed) was unchanged in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered BioT levels....

  5. THE FIRST TURKISH GOVERNOR OF EGYPT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik ISMAYILOV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to Egypt in the early medieval period, the governor was given information about Abu Salih al-Haresi. Abbasid rule during the administration of the state’s role in the Turks spoke of Turkey’s first governor of Egypt from the previous situation was briefly explained. Abu-l-Abbas es-Seffah of the first Abbasid caliph in time, the Turks took place in the army while during the second Caliph Abu Jafar Al-Mensur was brought up to the task state. The third caliph al-Mahdi gave the Egyptian governor to Abu Salih al-Haresi, having Turkish origin. Abu Salih’s personality, his beeing governor to Egypt and the information about his activities were analysed basing on international resources.

  6. Fatigue and residual strength of concrete and other aging viscoelastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1996-01-01

    The DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material) previously developed by the author to predict lifetime of non-aging viscoelastic materials (like wood) is generalized in this paper such that aging viscoelastic materials such as concrete subjected to variable load can also be considered. Lifetime...... criterion. A simple time criterion is much better. The theory is successfully compared with methods previously presented in the field of concrete fatigue. Algorithms and design graphs are developed which can be used in fatigue design of concrete products....

  7. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy Ravikiran; Eranki Vivek; Pillai Anand; Hadidi Mahar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64), group B ...

  8. Progeria and the early aging in children: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania O; Celli, Adriane; Bancke Laverde, Bruno Leonardo; Cunico, Caroline; Santos Piedade, Guilherme; Lucas de Mello, Manuela; Beirao Junior, Paulo Sergio

    2016-02-17

    The Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome or progeria is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by premature aging and involvement of internal systems, such as the circulatory and locomotor. The diagnosis is essentially clinical and the manifestations become more evident from the first year of life. Long term outcome data from Progeria Research Foundation clinical trials have demonstrated an increase in survival in recent years. Even though new trials are ongoing, the recognition of this syndrome is essential to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. A patient, initially asymptomatic, who developed characteristic signs of the syndrome at the age of 6 months is reported. She was referred for evaluation only when she was two years and eleven months old. The diagnosis of Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome was suspected owing to clinical characteristics. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing. A mutation c.1824C> T in exon 11 of the LMNA gene was detected. She was registered in the Progeria Research Foundation and was invited to participate in the weighing and supplementation program. She was included in the lonafarnib protocol study. This medication is a farnesyl transferase inhibitor that prevents the production of progerina and slows cardiovascular and neurological complications of the syndrome. This case highlights the importance of diagnosing progeria patients because they may be referred to the Progeria Research Foundation, which offers genetic screening and inclusion in clinical and therapeutic follow-up protocols without any costs. Progeria trials and research may also contribute to new drug developments related to prevention of aging and atherosclerosis in the near future.

  9. [Bladder cancer at an early age in father and son].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, D; Stöhr, R; Hartmann, A; Böttrich, R; Hengstler, J G; Golka, K

    2011-12-01

    Bladder cancer may be caused by external factors like tobacco smoking, but may also be familial. We report on a father and son who developed this tumour at the ages of 45 and 35. Testing various genetic markers including the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6, whose loss is associated with a higher risk for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome), did not point to a familial disease. Thus the heavy smoking habits of the two patients must be considered as causal.

  10. The influence of age, muscle strength and speed of information processing on recovery responses to external perturbations in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Adam, J; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance caused by external perturbations to gait can successfully be counteracted by adequate recovery responses. The current study investigated how the recovery response is moderated by age, walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing. The gait pattern of 50 young and 45 elderly subjects was repeatedly perturbed at 20% and 80% of the first half of the swing phase using the Timed Rapid impact Perturbation (TRiP) set-up. Recovery responses were identified using 2D cameras. Muscular factors (dynamometer) and speed of information processing parameters (computer-based reaction time task) were determined. The stronger, faster reacting and faster walking young subjects recovered more often by an elevating strategy than elderly subjects. Twenty three per cent of the differences in recovery responses were explained by a combination of walking speed (B=-13.85), reaction time (B=-0.82), maximum extension strength (B=0.01) and rate of extension moment development (B=0.19). The recovery response that subjects employed when gait was perturbed by the TRiP set-up was modified by several factors; the individual contribution of walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing was small. Insight into remaining modifying factors is needed to assist and optimise fall prevention programmes.

  11. Early and late talkers: school-age language, literacy and neurolinguistic differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Jonathan L; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, William Einar; Fulbright, Robert K; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena; Jacobsen, Leslie; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, 174 elementary school-age children whose parents reported that they started forming sentences 'early', 'on-time' or 'late' were evaluated with standardized measures of language, reading and spelling...

  12. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  13. Paleomagnetism of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.

    1983-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results are reported from 13 sites of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses were carried out. Two types of partial progressive demagnetization were applied, one using alternating magnetic fields, the other heating.

  14. Strengths for mastering ageing by realizing tools in Europe: Senior learning model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef, M.; de Donder, L.; Kardol, T.; Segers, M.S.R.; Verté, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the European year of "Active Ageing" the European Commission aims to stimulate increase of social inclusion of older people. According to Nilsson (2010) education can be an effective intervention to increase social inclusion. In order to assess the impact of adult education on social inclusio

  15. Plate tectonics on the early Earth: Limitations imposed by strength and buoyancy of subducted lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hunen, Jeroen; van den Berg, Arie P.

    2008-06-01

    The tectonic style and viability of modern plate tectonics in the early Earth is still debated. Field observations and theoretical arguments both in favor and against the uniformitarian view of plate tectonics back until the Archean continue to accumulate. Here, we present the first numerical modeling results that address for a hotter Earth the viability of subduction, one of the main requirements for plate tectonics. A hotter mantle has mainly two effects: 1) viscosity is lower, and 2) more melt is produced, which in a plate tectonic setting will lead to a thicker oceanic crust and harzburgite layer. Although compositional buoyancy resulting from these thick crust and harzburgite might be a serious limitation for subduction initiation, our modeling results show that eclogitization significantly relaxes this limitation for a developed, ongoing subduction process. Furthermore, the lower viscosity leads to more frequent slab breakoff, and sometimes to crustal separation from the mantle lithosphere. Unlike earlier propositions, not compositional buoyancy considerations, but this lithospheric weakness could be the principle limitation to the viability of plate tectonics in a hotter Earth. These results suggest a new explanation for the absence of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) and blueschists in most of the Precambrian: early slabs were not too buoyant, but too weak to provide a mechanism for UHPM and exhumation.

  16. Effect of resin cement, aging process and root level on the bond strength of the resin-fiber posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuhim, Khalid Salman

    Background. Little is known about the long-term clinical bonding effectiveness of the Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts cemented with self-etch adhesive systems. Bond stability and longevity of the cemented post are adversely affected by physical and chemical factors over time, such as expansion and contraction stresses caused by thermal changes and occlusal load. This clinical condition can be simulated in vitro by thermocyclic loading; and bonding effectiveness can be evaluated by applying the micropush out test. Therefore, more in vitro studies are needed to evaluate the bond strength of the fiber posts cemented with different resin cement systems after simulating the artificial aging induced by thermocycling. The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two different resin cement systems (total etch, and self-etch resin cement system) used for cementation of fiber reinforced composite posts in three different aging periods using thermocycling. Methods. Following IRB approval, sixty freshly extracted bicuspid single rooted natural teeth were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were prepared to receive a fiber-post cemented with either a total etch resin cement (Rely-X Ultimate) or with a self-etch resin cement (Rely-X Unicem). No thermocycling, 20,000 and 40,000 cycles was used to age the specimens. Teeth were randomly allocated into six different groups: G1 - Control: Rely-X Ultimate cement with no thermocycling. G2: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 20,000 thermocycling. G3: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 40,000 thermocycling. G4: Rely-X Unicem cement. G5: Rely-X Unicem cement. G6: Rely-X Unicem cement. Microtensile bond strength determined using a micropush out test on a universal testing machine (MTS). Additionally, the failure mode of each specimen was observed under a stereomicroscope (Olympus) at 40x magnification. Finally, one representative sample was randomly selected from each of the five failure modes for scanning

  17. Effects of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of different periods of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bond strength of glass fiber bundles embedded into maxillofacial silicone elastomer and on bending strength of the glass fiber bundles. Forty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer. Specimens were randomly allocated into four groups, and each group was subjected to different periods of accelerated daylight aging as follows (in hours); 0, 200, 400, and 600. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2)) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Also a three-point bending test was performed to evaluate bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were carried out to detect statistical significance (p bending strengths of fiber bundles were in the range of 917.72 MPa to 1124.06 MPa. Bending strength significantly increased after 200 and 400 hours of aging only. After 200 hours of exposure to artificial daylight and moisture conditions, bond strength between glass fibers and heat-cured silicones is optimal, and the bending strength of the glass fiber bundles is enhanced.

  18. Limited validity of parental recall on pregnancy, birth, and early childhood at child age 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Meer, Gea; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective: Evidence on the validity of parental recall of early childhood behavior is lacking. Our aim was to examine the validity of parental recall at child age 10-12 years for maternal lifestyle during pregnancy, the birth characteristics, and early childhood behavior. Study Design and Setting:

  19. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  20. Low-load high-repetition resistance training improves strength and gait speed in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Vaughan P; McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effect of 26 weeks of low-load high-repetition resistance training (BodyPump™) on maximal strength, gait speed, balance and self-reported health status in healthy, active middle-aged and older adults. Two-group randomised control trial. Sixty-eight apparently healthy, active adults aged over 55 years completed either 26 weeks of BodyPump™ training (PUMP) or served as control participants (CON). The BodyPump™ group (n = 32, age = 66 ± 4 years) trained twice per week for 26 weeks while the control group (n = 36, age = 66 ± 5 years) continued with their normal activities. Leg-press and Smith-machine bench-press one repetition maximum (1RM), gait speed, balance, and self-reported health status were all assessed at baseline and follow-up. Significant group-by-time interactions in favour of the BodyPump™ group were found for leg-press 1RM (PUMP + 13%, CON + 3%, p = 0.007, partial eta(2) = 0.11), Smith-machine bench-press 1RM (PUMP + 14%, CON +5%, p = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.18), normal gait speed (PUMP + 23%, CON +9 %, p = 0.028, partial eta(2) = 0.08) and single leg balance right (PUMP + 24%, CON - 7%, p = 0.006, partial eta(2) = 0.12). There were no group-by-time interactions for health status measures. Three participants in the BodyPump™ group withdrew from training due to injury or fear of injury related to training. Low-load high-repetition resistance training in the form of BodyPump™ is effective at improving maximal strength, gait speed and some aspects of standing balance in adults over 55 years. The training was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Water to Cement Ratio and Age on Portland Composite Cement Mortar Porosity, Strength and Evaporation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enamur R. Latifee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Durability and the compressive strength of concrete are directly related to the porosity. Water to cement ratio is the main parameter behind the nature and amount of pores within the matrix. Porosity is also influenced by the degree of cement hydration and the length of moist-curing. Even after the standard moist curing period, i.e. 28 days the concrete can gain strength and porosity can be reduced under ambient relative humidity and temperature. However, this fact, that is the age effect on porosity reduction of the cement mortar or concrete, kept in air with ambient relative humidity and temperature for long duration could not be found in the literature. Therefore, in this research, different w/c were used with constant amount Portland Composite Cement to find out whether the mortar porosity decreases significantly over time, after 28 days of water curing, while kept in air and if there is any interaction effect between the age of the mortar and different w/c; regarding porosity. It was also intended to find out if water-loss rate variation with different w/c has similar trend as porosity variation with different w/c. It was found that, there is significant decrease in porosity with time for the first six weeks in air and after that it dwindles down gradually, and there is no interaction between age and w/c. Also, after 100 days in air, samples were submerged under water for 24 hours and then kept in air for the evaporation in subsequent days. It has been found that the water evaporation vs. w/c curve, using 11-day evaporation of water from different w/c specimens in ambient condition is almost parallel to porosity vs. w/c curve. Therefore, 11-day evaporation of aged saturated mortar or concrete sample, such as core can also be used as a durability index, which can be used for old structure evaluation.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin...... modeling on FEV1, FVC, handgrip, and FTSST in 379 twin pairs (240 MZ and 139 DZ) with median age of 50 years (40-80 years). Data were analyzed by fitting univariate and bivariate twin models to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on these measures of physical function. Heritability...... environment (40-50%). Bivariate analysis showed highly positive genetic correlations between FEV1 and FVC (r G = 1.00), and moderately negative genetic correlations between FTSST and FEV1 (r G = -0.33) and FVC (r G = -0.42). FEV1 and FVC, as well as FEV1 and handgrip, displayed high common environmental...

  3. Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with type 2 diabete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Hvid, L G; Hermann, A P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether testosterone replacement therapy improves muscle mechanical and physical function in addition to increasing lean leg mass and total lean body mass in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered bio-available testosterone (BioT) levels. Thirty-nine men...... aged 50-70 years with type 2 diabetes and BioT levels testosterone gel (testosterone replacement therapy, n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) for 24 weeks, applying a double-blinded design. Muscle mechanical...... effect of intervention. Maximal isometric contraction (b = 18.4 Nm, p = 0.039), RFD100 (b = 195.0 Nm/s, p = 0.017) and Dyn180 (b = 10.2 Nm, p = 0.019) increased during testosterone replacement therapy compared with placebo. No changes were observed in leg power or gait speed. Total lean body mass (b = 1...

  4. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  5. Strength, toughness and aging stability of highly-translucent Y-TZP ceramics for dental restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fei; Inokoshi, Masanao; Batuk, Maria; Hadermann, Joke; Naert, Ignace; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Vleugels, Jef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Objective. The aim was to evaluate the optical properties, mechanical properties and aging stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia with different compositions, highlighting the influence of the alumina addition, Y2O3 content and La2O3 doping on the translucency. Methods. Five different Y-TZP zirconia powders (3 commercially available and 2 experimentally modified) were sintered under the same conditions and characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis and scanning elect...

  6. Social Tie Strength and Online Victimization: An Analysis of Young People Aged 15–30 Years in Four Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Keipi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online interaction through the use of social networking sites (SNS continues to be a significant component of the socialization of young people today, yet little research exists toward linking various relational forms to prevalent and much-studied online risks cross-nationally. This article provides a link between relational dynamics and online risks identified in previous research toward a new perspective on how social tie strength is related to experiences of hate victimization and harassment online. The analysis is based on survey data of Finnish (n = 555, American (n = 1033, German (n = 978, and British (n = 999 young people aged 15–30 years. Variables, including age, gender, main activity, SNS use, quantity, and extent of online and offline social networks including social tie strength and online community identification, were analyzed toward finding their associations with online hate victimization and harassment. Results showed that experiences of hate victimization and harassment were similar cross-nationally and that those who were personally harassed online also reported high SNS activity. Furthermore, no association was found between social network size and negative experiences. Notable cross-national differences were also detected in the results. Findings emphasize the importance of understanding variables fostering online risks for young people while providing a new perspective on what aspects of social life may help negate negative effects online.

  7. Factors affecting early compressive strength of alkali activated fly ash (OPC-free concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of experimental research into the chief characteristics of a new type of concrete made solely with alkali activated fly ash (AAFA: i.e., free of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. The results of testing to determine specific properties of the fresh concrete and the development of its mechanical strength showed that most of the factors that affect the manufacture and final properties of Portland cement concrete (water/cement ratio, curing conditions, etc. also impact the preparation and final quality of this new material. A number of parameters specific to AAFA concrete (nature and concentration of alkali present in the system were also explored to determine their role in the setting and hardening process.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación experimental llevada a cabo para evaluar las principales características de un nuevo tipo de hormigón fabricado solamente con ceniza volante activada alcalinamente (AAFA; es decir, sin cemento Portland comercial (OPC. Los resultados de los ensayos realizados para determinar las propiedades específicas del hormigón fresco y el desarrollo de resistencias mecánicas mostraron que la mayoría de los factores que afectan al proceso de fabricación y a las propiedades finales de los hormigones de cemento Portland (relación agua/cemento, condiciones de curado, etc. también afectan a la preparación y calidad final de estos nuevos materiales. También fueron estudiados otros parámetros específicos de los hormigones de AAFA (la naturaleza y concentración del álcali presente en el sistema para determinar su papel en el proceso de fraguado y endurecimiento.

  8. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity.

  9. Dexmedetomidine improves early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ming-Zheng; Zhou, Yu-Bing; Zhang, Jing-Min; Han, Li; Peng, You-Mei; Jiang, Jin-hua; Wang, Qing-Duan

    2015-01-05

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a frequent complication following major surgery in the elderly. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms are still unknown. Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2 adrenal receptor agonist, was revealed anesthesia and brain protective role. The present study aimed to examine whether dexmedetomdine protects against POCD induced by major surgical trauma under general anesthesia in aged mice. In the present study, cognitive function was assessed by Y-maze. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), apoptosis-related factor caspase-3 and Bax were detected by real-time PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. The results showed that anesthesia alone caused weak cognitive dysfunction on the first day after general anesthesia. Cognitive function in mice with splenectomy under general anesthesia was significantly exacerbated at the first and third days after surgery, and was significantly improved by dexmedetomidine administration. Splenectomy increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, Bax and caspase-3 in hippocampus. These changes were significantly inversed by dexmedetomidine. These results suggest that hippocampal inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis may contribute to POCD, and selective alpha 2 adrenal receptor excitation play a protective role.

  10. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  11. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  12. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  13. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  14. My Entirely Plausible Fantasy: Early Mathematics Education in the Age of the Touchscreen Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an account of what early mathematics education could look like in an age of young digital natives. Each "Tubby," as the tablets are called, presents Nicole (our generic little child) with stimulating mathematics microworlds, from which, beginning at age 3, she can learn basic math concepts, as well as methods of…

  15. Early-age characteristics of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Henghu; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jixiu

    2009-08-15

    This experimental research was to investigate the possibility of incorporating red mud and coal gangue as raw materials for the production of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material, abbreviated as RGC, including analyses of its chemical composition, physical properties, mechanical properties and hydration products. The red mud and coal gangue (at a ratio of 3:2) were mixed together and shaped in small spheres with a water to solid ratio of 0.30 and then calcined at 600 degrees C for 2h. Subsequently, the RGC was prepared by blending 50% the resultant red mud-coal gangue mixtures, 24% blast-furnace slag, 20% clinker and 6% gypsum. The hydration products of RGC were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA and SEM-EDS. The results showed that it is feasible to use red mud and coal gangue to replace up to 50% of the raw materials to produce cementitious material, which can be called as silica-alumina based cementitious material. The hydration products of RGC are mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel. As the dominant products, C-S-H gel and ettringite are principally responsible for the strength development of RGC in early hydration process. The content of Ca(OH)(2) initially increased but later was depleted after reaching the peak value at 21 days. Moreover, it is found that the composition of the C-S-H gel shifted towards higher Si, Al and Na contents with the increase of hydration age, whereas that of Ca shifted towards lower content.

  16. Erythropoietin (EPO): EPO-receptor signaling improves early endochondral ossification and mechanical strength in fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Joerg H; Menger, Michael D; Scheuer, Claudia; Meier, Christoph; Culemann, Ulf; Wirbel, Rainer J; Garcia, Patric; Pohlemann, Tim

    2007-02-13

    Beyond its role in the regulation of red blood cell proliferation, the glycoprotein erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to promote cell regeneration and angiogenesis in a variety of different tissues. In addition, EPO has been indicated to share significant functional and structural homologies with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cytokine essential in the process of fracture healing. However, there is complete lack of information on the action of EPO in bone repair and fracture healing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of EPO treatment on bone healing in a murine closed femur fracture model using radiological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, biomechanical and protein biochemical analysis. Thirty-six SKH1-hr mice were treated with daily i.p. injections of 5000 U/kg EPO from day 1 before fracture until day 4 after fracture. Controls received equivalent amounts of the vehicle. After 2 weeks of fracture healing, we could demonstrate expression of the EPO-receptor (EPOR) in terminally differentiating chondrocytes within the callus. At this time point EPO-treated animals showed a higher torsional stiffness (biomechanical analysis: 39.6+/-19.4% of the contralateral unfractured femur) and an increased callus density (X-ray analysis (callus density/spongiosa density): 110.5+/-7.1%) when compared to vehicle-treated controls (14.3+/-8.2% and 105.9+/-6.6%; pEPO treatment had vanished at 5 weeks after fracture. We conclude that EPO-EPOR signaling is involved in the process of early endochondral ossification, enhancing the transition of soft callus to hard callus.

  17. From the cradle to the grave: age differences in attachment from early adulthood to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J; Edelstein, Robin S; Fraley, R Chris

    2013-04-01

    Although attachment dynamics are thought to be important across the life span, relatively few studies have examined attachment processes beyond young adulthood. Extant research on age differences in attachment orientation has yielded conflicting results and interpretations. The purpose of this study was to provide a more complete picture of age-related differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance. We examined attachment anxiety and avoidance in 86,555 Internet respondents (71.8% female) ranging in age from 18 to 70. We found that attachment anxiety was highest among younger adults and lowest among middle-aged and older adults. Attachment avoidance showed less dramatic age differences overall but was highest among middle-aged adults and lowest among younger and older adults. In addition, partnered individuals reported lower levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance compared to single individuals, particularly in younger and older adulthood. Women also reported slightly higher anxiety and avoidance compared to men, especially in young adulthood. Findings are discussed in the context of life span changes in social roles, normative personality development, and emotion regulation throughout adulthood. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  19. Higher doses of bisphosphonates further improve bone mass, architecture, and strength but not the tissue material properties in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Yao, Wei; Dai, WeiWei; Wang, Bob; Ionova-Martin, Sophi S; Ritchie, Robert O; Heeren, Daniel; Burghardt, Andrew J; Nicolella, Daniel P; Kimiecik, Michael G; Lane, Nancy E

    2010-05-01

    We report the results of a series of experiments designed to determine the effects of ibandronate (Ibn) and risedronate (Ris) on a number of bone quality parameters in aged osteopenic rats to explain how bone material and bone mass may be affected by the dose of bisphosphonates (BP) and contribute to their anti-fracture efficacy. Eighteen-month old female rats underwent either ovariectomy or sham surgery. The ovariectomized (OVX) groups were left untreated for 2 months to develop osteopenia. Treatments started at 20 months of age as follows: sham and OVX control (treated with saline), OVX + risedronate 30 and 90 (30 or 90 microg/kg/dose), and OVX + ibandronate 30 and 90 (30 or 90 microg/kg/dose). The treatments were given monthly for 4 months by subcutaneous injection. At sacrifice at 24 months of age the 4th lumbar vertebra was used for microCT scans (bone mass, architecture, and degree of mineralization of bone, DMB) and histomorphometry, and the 6th lumbar vertebra, tibia, and femur were collected for biomechanical testing to determine bone structural and material strength, cortical fracture toughness, and tissue elastic modulus. The compression testing of the vertebral bodies (LVB6) was simulated using finite-element analysis (FEA) to also estimate the bone structural stiffness. Both Ibn and Ris dose-dependently increased bone mass and improved vertebral bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties compared to OVX control. Estimates of vertebral maximum stress from FEA were correlated with vertebral maximum load (r=0.5, pbone bending modulus and cortical strength increased compared to OVX with both BP but no dose-dependent effect was observed. DMB and elastic modulus of trabecular bone were improved with Ibn 30 compared to OVX but were not affected in other BP-treated groups. DMB of tibial cortical bone showed no change with BP treatments. The fracture toughness examined in midshaft femurs did not change with BP even with the higher doses. In summary, the

  20. Application of lichenometry and residual strength test for age estimation of Holocene moraines in the Suntar-Khayata Mountains

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    A. A. Galanin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual strength and diameters of lichen Rhizocarpon sp. were measured on different elements of the Late Holocene glacial-cryogenic morphosculpture of frontal parts of glaciers № 29 and 31 in the Suntar-Khayat Range. All in all, 180 lichenometric sites (about 1000 individual measurements of Rhizocarpon sp. and 150 sites for testing the residual strength of rebound value were organized, on which 380 estimations of this parameter (5674 individual measurements were performed. For lichenometric index of age (minimal time of exposure we used statistics RH5 that was a mean value from five maximal individuals on a local site; for index of rebound value Q that was a mean value from 80-100 unit measurements on the same site was taken. Using of data obtained at different times by aerospace surveys made it possible to derive the relationship between the RH5 statistics and time t of the morphosculptures exposure: RH5 = 0.0535t + 0.29. On the basis of regression coefficients of RH5 and Q indexes the equation RH5 = 69209e-0,136Q had been deduced as well as the equation connecting residual strength (rebound value Q and time t of surface exposure: t = (69209e-0,136Qvalue– 0,29/0,0535. Basing on the equations above, age of the moraine belts of the above glaciers was estimated. The most developed moraine belt, now placed apart from the present-day glacier edges at a distance of 600–700 m, was found to be formed for the whole Little Ice Age. Glaciers reached their maximum volumes during its first phase, i.e. during cold period of 13-15th centuries. Area of glacierization exceeded its current size by 35–40%. Glaciers remained at their almost steady state until middle of 19th century and then began to retreat slowly. By middle of 20th century, glaciers shortened by 5–7%. The most intensive shrinking of these glaciers started in the second half of 20th century.

  1. Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge

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    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD and granite sludge (GS, respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD, fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing. Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM and mortar containing fly ash (FA. The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured, the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more incorporating local environmental conditions.

  2. Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Nasir; Khan, Kaffayatullah; Saleem, Muhammad Umair; Khurram, Nauman; Niazi, Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-06-11

    In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD) and granite sludge (GS), respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days) containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD), fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures) and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing). Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM) and mortar containing fly ash (FA). The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured), the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations) remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more) incorporating local environmental conditions.

  3. Influence of core thickness and artificial aging on the biaxial flexural strength of different all-ceramic materials: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikicier, Sibel; Ayyildiz, Simel; Ozen, Julide; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2017-05-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the flexural strength of all-ceramics with varying core thicknesses submitted to aging. In-Ceram Alumina (IC), IPS e.max Press (EM) and Katana (K) (n=40), were selected. Each group contained two core groups based on the core thickness as follows: IC/0.5, IC/0.8, EM/0.5, EM/0.8, K/0.5 and K/0.8 mm in thickness (n=20 each). Ten specimens from each group were subjected to aging and all specimens were tested for strength in a testing machine either with or without being subjected aging. The mean strength of the K were higher (873.05 MPa) than that of the IC (548.28 MPa) and EM (374.32 MPa) regardless of core thickness. Strength values increased with increasing core thickness for all IC, EM and K regardless of aging. Results of this study concluded that strength was not significantly affected by aging. Different core thicknesses affected strength of the all-ceramic materials tested (p<0.05).

  4. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-02-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. This study used data on 4750 mother-offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition.

  5. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

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    Stockhammer, Philipp W; Massy, Ken; Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  6. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

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    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  7. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Computational Model of Fly Ash Concrete Compressive Strength Based on the Equivalent Age%基于等效龄期的粉煤灰混凝土抗压强度计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王甲春; 阎培渝

    2014-01-01

    设计温度跟踪养护系统来模拟实际结构中混凝土所经历的温度历程,通过测试在标准养护条件20℃、恒温50℃和变温养护条件下不同强度等级的粉煤灰混凝土早龄期抗压强度的值,分析温度历程对粉煤灰混凝土早龄期抗压强度的影响。根据混凝土早龄期抗压强度的两个主要影响因素:温度和龄期,引入等效龄期理论建立了粉煤灰混凝土早龄期抗压强度的计算模型,并分析了模型参数。实际结构中的粉煤灰混凝土抗压强度可以通过测定温度场,利用计算模型进行相应龄期的抗压强度计算。研究结果表明,粉煤灰混凝土抗压强度计算模型能够较准确计算结构中粉煤灰混凝土的抗压强度,从而有效指导粉煤灰混凝土的工程应用。%Temperature tracking system is designed to simulate the actual curing concrete structure tem-perature history experienced .By the test standard curing conditions at 20℃, 50℃constant temperature and variable temperature curing conditions , early age compressive strength of different strength levels fly ash concrete is measured .According to the compressive strength of concrete at early age of the two main factors:temperature and age , the calculation model of compressive strength of fly ash concrete is estab-lished and analyze the model parameters with introduction of equivalent age theory .The compressive strength of fly ash concrete structures is predicted by measuring temperature field with computational mod -els.The results show that the compressive strength of fly ash concrete calculation model can accurately calculate the compressive strength of fly ash concrete structures , which can effectively guide the engineer-ing application of fly ash concrete .

  9. Acute effects of a thermogenic nutritional supplement on cycling time to exhaustion and muscular strength in college-aged men

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    Beck Travis W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of a thermogenic nutritional supplement containing caffeine, capsaicin, bioperine, and niacin on muscular strength and endurance performance. Methods Twenty recreationally-active men (mean ± SD age = 21.5 ± 1.4 years; stature = 178.2 ± 6.3 cm; mass = 76.5 ± 9.9 kg; VO2 PEAK = 3.05 ± 0.59 L/min-1 volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. All testing took place over a three-week period, with each of the 3 laboratory visits separated by 7 days (± 2 hours. During the initial visit, a graded exercise test was performed on a Lode Corival cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands until exhaustion (increase of 25 W every 2 min to determine the maximum power output (W at the VO2 PEAK (Parvo Medics TrueOne® 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, Utah. In addition, one-repetition maximum (1-RM strength was assessed using the bench press (BP and leg press (LP exercises. During visits 2 and 3, the subjects were asked to consume a capsule containing either the active supplement (200 mg caffeine, 33.34 mg capsaicin, 5 mg bioperine, and 20 mg niacin or the placebo (175 mg of calcium carbonate, 160 mg of microcrystalline cellulose, 5 mg of stearic acid, and 5 mg of magnesium stearate in an identical capsule 30 min prior to the testing. Testing included a time-to-exhaustion (TTE ride on a cycle ergometer at 80% of the previously-determined power output at VO2 PEAK followed by 1-RM LP and BP tests. Results There were no differences (p > 0.05 between the active and placebo trials for BP, LP, or TTE. However, for the BP and LP scores, the baseline values (visit 1 were less than the values recorded during visits 2 and 3 (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the active supplement containing caffeine, capsaicin, bioperine, and niacin did not alter muscular strength or cycling endurance when compared

  10. ADAPTIVE CHANGES OF MYOSIN ISOFORMS IN RESPONSE TO LONG-TERM STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN

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    Raivo Puhke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the adaptive changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC and light chain (MLC isoforms in human vastus lateralis muscle caused by long-term strength and power training (54 weeks, approximately 3 times a week in untrained middle- aged men (16 in the training and 6 in the control group. Muscular MHC and MLC isoforms were determined by means of SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. During the training period, maximal anaerobic cycling power increased by 64 W (p < 0.001 and the maximal jumping height by 1.5 cm (p < 0. 05 in the training group, but no significant changes were found in the control group. However, the group by time effect was not significant. In the training group, the increase of the maximal jumping height correlated with the number of strength and power training sessions (r = 0.56; p < 0.05. The change of the proportion of MHC IIa isoform from 52.6 ± 12.2% to 59.4 ± 11.6% did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.070 for group by time; within training group p = 0.061 and neither did the change of the proportion of MHC IIx isoform from 18.1 ± 11.4% to 11.1 ± 9.1% (p = 0.104 for group by time; within training group p=0.032. The degree of change of MHC IIx isoform correlated with the amount of earlier recreational sports activity (r = 0.61; p < 0.05. In the training group, the changes of MLC1s isoform correlated negatively with the changes of MLC1f isoform (r = -0. 79; p < 0.05 as well as with the changes in maximal anaerobic cycling power (r = -0.81; p < 0.05, and positively with those of MHC I isoform (r = 0.81; p < 0.05. In conclusion, the long- term strength and power training ~3 times a week seemed to have only slight effects on fast MHC isoforms in the vastus lateralis muscle of untrained middle-aged men; the proportion of MHC IIa tended to increase and that of MHC IIx tended to decrease. No changes in MLC isoform profile could be shown

  11. Materials and building techniques in Mugello from the Late Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age

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    Andrea Arrighetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mugello is a medium-high seismic risk area situated on the Italian Apennine mountain range, between Tuscany and Emilia Romagna. The territory is characterized by a large presence of long duration settlements characterized by well-preserved historic buildings, most of which are religious’ architectonical complexes. An area of Mugello, between 2010 and 2014, was characterized by the project “Archaeology of Buildings and seismic risk in Mugello”, a research focused on testing the potential information of the process of archaeological analysis of buildings as a form of knowledge, prevention and protection of medieval seismic risk settlements. Among the results that have emerged from the archaeoseismological investigation have played a central role the considerations pertaining to the supplying and use of building materials for the construction and modification of architectural structures, in a period between the late Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

  12. Tracking development from early speech-language acquisition to reading skills at age 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Marschik, Peter B; Sachse, Steffi; Green, Vanessa A; Zhang, Dajie; Van Der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated a link between speech-language and literacy development. To add to this body of knowledge, we investigated whether lexical and grammatical skills from toddler to early school age are related to reading competence in adolescence. Twenty-three typically developing children were followed from age 1;6 to 13;6 (years;months). Parental checklists and standardized tests were used to assess the development of mental lexicon, grammatical and reading capacities of the children. Direct assessment of early speech-language functions positively correlated with later reading competence, whereas lexical skills reported by parents were not associated with this capacity. At (pre-) school age, larger vocabulary and better grammatical abilities predicted advanced reading abilities in adolescence. Our study contributes to the understanding of typical speech-language development and its relation to later reading outcome, extending the body of knowledge on these developmental domains for future early identification of children at risk for reading difficulties.

  13. DEVELOPING OF HIGH QUALITY COURSE MATERIALS TO IMPROVE EARLY AGE PRACTITIONERS’ EDUCATION

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    MONA VINTILA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The pre-primary age is an especially sensitive period in children’s development but high quality education and care from a very early age creates a good foundation for lifelong learning. This is why performant teacher education is needed.This paper addresses the issue of early age practitioners’ education presenting an European project that aims to develop course materials that focus on the major areas in early learning and contribute to the development of research based, pedagogical approaches within three areas that are crucial in respect to get all toddlers on a successful life learning road: learning of language(s and focus on the teacher-child communication, improved knowledge of how to foster toddlers'wellbeing, identifying crucial aspects for improved parental involvement.

  14. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  15. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  16. Early Impacts on the Moon: Crystallization Ages of Apollo 16 Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Taylor, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of the early impact history of the terrestrial planets has been identified one of the highest priority science goals for solar system exploration. Crystallization ages of impact melt breccias from the Apollo 16 site in the central nearside lunar highlands show a pronounced clustering of ages from 3.75-3.95 Ga, with several impact events being recognized by the association of textural groups and distinct ages. Here we present new geochemical and petrologic data for Apollo 16 crystalline breccia 67955 that document a much older impact event with an age of 4.2 Ga.

  17. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M.; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disa...

  18. Perinatal Factors Associated with Poor Neurocognitive Outcome in Early School Age Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jennifer R.; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Smith, P. Brian; Ellingsen, Kirsten M.; Tompkins, K. Brooke; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael; Goldstein, Ricki F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. Study design Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age (4 to 7 years) was defined as a score < 80 in any of the following areas: Verbal Scale IQ, Performance Scale IQ, Expressive Language, or Receptive Language. Logistic regression, Fisher’s exact, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the relationship between NCD at early school age and 6 demographic and 18 medical variables. Results Of 43 infants with CDH, twenty seven (63%) survived to hospital discharge, and 16 (59%) returned for school age testing at a median age of 4.9 years. Seven (44%) of the children evaluated had NCD. Patch repair (p=0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; p=0.02), days on ECMO (p=0.01), days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.049), and post-operative use of inhaled nitric oxide (p=0.02) were found to be associated with NCD at early school age. Conclusions CDH survivors are at risk for neurocognitive delay persisting into school age. Perinatal factors such as patch repair and ECMO treatment may aid in identifying CDH survivors at high risk for continued learning difficulties throughout childhood. PMID:23583126

  19. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  20. Acoustic Emission Behavior of Early Age Concrete Monitored by Embedded Sensors

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    Lei Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE is capable of monitoring the cracking activities inside materials. In this study, embedded sensors were employed to monitor the AE behavior of early age concrete. Type 1–3 cement-based piezoelectric composites, which had lower mechanical quality factor and acoustic impedance, were fabricated and used to make sensors. Sensors made of the composites illustrated broadband frequency response. In a laboratory, the cracking of early age concrete was monitored to recognize different hydration stages. The sensors were also embedded in a mass concrete foundation to localize the temperature gradient cracks.

  1. Nomadic pastoralism in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans evaluation of background knowledge

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    Porčić Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine background knowledge about the orga­nizational properties of mobile pastoral groups in order to assess the likelihood of the existence of pastoral nomads in the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans. The patterning found by A. L. Johnson (2002 is taken as a point of departure for the cross-cultural analysis conducted in this study. Johnson’s findings are in the main corroborated. Acquired knowledge about the workings of pastoral societies suggests that highly mobile pastoral groups should not be expected in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans.

  2. Palaeoethnobotanical Data from the High Mountainous Early Bronze Age Settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hovsepyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoethnobotanical investigations suggest that at least part of the Early Bronze Age population of Tsaghkasar was settled and practiced agriculture in the high mountainous zone. People there appear to have cultivated hexa‐ and tetraploid wheats (probably bread wheat and emmer and barley (possibly hulled. Bronze Age agriculture in the Southern Caucasus differs from earlier and later period when cultivation of pulses, oil‐producing plants, and other plants was common. This emphasis on the cultivation and use of certain cereal grains at Early Bronze sites such as Tsaghkasar can tentatively be added to a constellation of practices associated with the Kura‐Araxes culture in the South Caucasus.

  3. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How genetics and epigenetics influence early developmental patterning and age-related change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Huffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging

  4. Elderly oarsmen have larger trunk and thigh muscles and greater strength than age-matched untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Meiko; Usui, Chiyoko; Ohta, Megumi; Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate whether regularly performed rowing exercise affects the trunk muscles size and function, and to examine the effect of rowing exercise on thigh muscle size and function in elderly rowers, we compared the cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength of these muscles in elderly male rowers and in age-matched untrained men. Participants were 16 elderly rowing-trained men (ROW age, 67.8 +/- 2.3 years) and 18 elderly untrained men (CON 66.2 +/- 3.0 years). CSA was measured by MRI in the trunk and thigh muscles. Isometric trunk flexion force and leg extension power were measured. ROW had a 20% larger total trunk muscle CSA than CON (P muscles did not differ significantly between CON and ROW. In ROW, the CSA was 13% larger in the total thigh muscles (P leg extension power was 43% higher than in CON (P muscles, especially psoas major and that it improves thigh muscle size and function in elderly men.

  5. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Ravikiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64, group B (patients between 65 and 84 years of age, and group C (patients over the age of 85. Results Of the 1177 patients included in the study, there were 90 patients in group A, 702 patients in group B and 385 patients in group C. There was a female preponderance across all age groups, and this increased as age advanced (p Conclusions Hip fractures are more common among females irrespective of age group. Older patients have a higher mortality and a greater deterioration of walking ability after such injuries. Internal fixation of intracapsular fractures have demonstrated satisfactory early outcome in the immediate period. This could be attributed to retention of native bone, better propioception and shorter operation time.

  6. Higher Daily Physical Activities Continue to Preserve Muscle Strength After Mid-Life, But Not Muscle Mass After Age of 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, An-Chun; Zhan, Yu-Rui; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Yu; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Liu, Li-Kuo; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the impact of aging and daily physical activities (PA) on muscle mass and muscle strength among community-dwelling people in Taiwan.The design is a cross-sectional study. Setting is a population-based community study.One thousand eight hundred thirty-nine community-dwelling people aged 50 years and older in Taiwan participated in the study.Measurements include demographic characteristics, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) for multimorbidity, mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) for nutritional evaluation, functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF) for functional capacity, Chinese version mini mental state examination (MMSE), 5-item Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS-5), Chinese version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), height-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength, timed 6-m walking test for usual gait speed. Laboratory measurements include testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), 25-OH vitamin D, and insulin resistance.After adjusted for age, the lowest PA tertile was associated with multimorbidity, poorer functional capacity and nutritional status, more depressive symptoms, lower SMI and lower handgrip strength, and lower free androgen index (FAI) in men. The negative association between PA and low SMI was more significant among subjects aged younger than 65 and the association decreased with older age. For subjects aged younger than 65, moderate daily PA (Q2) group had lower risk of low SMI compared with Q1 participants (OR: 0.62, 95% CI = 0.39-0.98, P = 0.040). For muscle strength, higher daily PA was associated with lower risk of low handgrip strength after age of 65 and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect was attenuated by potential confounders during age 65 to 74, while after age 75, the

  7. Familial Mediterranean Fever: Diagnosing as Early as 3 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Keskindemirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive disease. Major symptoms of disease are recurrent fever accompanied by serositis attacks. The disease is usually diagnosed before 20 years of age. Symptoms related to FMF are noted when children become more verbal, usually after 2 years of age. In this case report, the youngest patient with the diagnosis of FMF is presented. She was consulted to pediatric rheumatology for the high acute phase response and fever. It was learned that her mother had recurrent swelling of her ankle joints. Mutation analysis was performed and two homozygous mutations (M694V and R202Q were identified. She was diagnosed as FMF at 3 months of age and colchicine was started. She responded to colchicine. Her uncontrolled acute phase response declined gradually. This case was reported to point out the importance of early remembrance of autoinflammatory diseases even at very early ages especially at endemic countries.

  8. Linolenic acid prevents early and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) modification of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Govindarajan; Saraswathi, N T

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we report the protective effects of linolenic acid towards the formation of early (HbA1c) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) based on fluorescence, circular dichroism, confocal microscopy and molecular interaction studies. Linolenic acid was found to be a potent inhibitor of AGEs formed by both glucose and fructose. The HbA1c (early glycation product) level was found to be reduced to 7.4% when compared to glycated control (8.4%). Similarly, linolenic acid also inhibited the methylglyoxal mediated AGEs formation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy studies suggested that the protective effect of linolenic acid for the helical structure of albumin. The molecular interaction studies showed that linolenic acid interacts with arginine residues of albumin with high affinity. Results suggested linolenic acid to be a potent antiglycation compound and also it could be a better lead compound for AGE inhibition.

  9. Recent research on horse-harness of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Kruszynski

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more scholars have focused their attention on the problem of the provenance and distribution of horse-harness elements of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (Ha C-D in Central and Western Europe in an attempt to compare them with similar objects from the vast areas of the Eurasian steppes. This research has provoked many different opinions and controversies. The main aim of this article is to summarise this research with special attention focused on bits and cheek-pieces, to show their distribution relative to other horse-harness elements and their role in the interpretation of the class of horse-warriors and horse-users in the societies of the Polish Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

  10. Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Strengths: Promoting Productive Contexts for Students At-Risk for EBD during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan; Murray, Robert A.; Meece, Judith L.; Brooks, Debbie Sprott

    2010-01-01

    This study involved a pilot examination of the impact of the Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Strengths (SEALS) model on the 6th grade academic and social context following the transition to middle school. Two middle schools from a high poverty Appalachian school district were randomly assigned to the intervention and control…

  11. Trepanation in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudaverdyan, A Yu

    2016-12-01

    In this study, trepanations in ancient Armenia are discussed. In total, 10 cases were studied. Seven were male, 1 female and 2 were children. Age of the individuals ranged from 6 to 65 years. Among nine cases of surgical trepanations four had possible healing signs. In these cases the individuals showed evidence of previous trauma to the skull or infection (mastoiditis, tuberculosis), suggesting that the operation had been carried out for therapeutic purposes. This provides further support for the suggestion that trepanation (or trephination) was performed primarily for therapeutic purposes, and because of cranial infection or injury. In one case, a symbolic trepanation could imitate real penetration into the skull cavity. This study shows that archaeological sites of Armenia and anthropological materials have a potential to supply essential information on ancient history of the Armenian people and the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of Ascariasis with Nutritional and Anemic Status in Early School-Age Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Annrie Eidwina; Lia Faridah; Yudith Setiati Ermaya; Dida Akhmad Gurnida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ascariasis is one of the most frequent helminthias is that occurred in school-age children. Commonly, severe intensity of infection will seriously affect the nutritional and anemic status of the students. The aim of this study was to determine the association of ascariasis with nutritional and anemic status in early school-age students. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted based on the secondary data from Jatinangor Cohort. The secondary data of 74 studen...

  13. Cenomanian-? early Turonian minimum age of the Chubut Group, Argentina: SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.

  14. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  15. The ATLAS3D project - XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Lisa M.; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the cold gas contents of the ATLAS3D early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-ultraviolet colours and Hβ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas poor as previously thought, and at least 40 per cent of

  16. Early changes in muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty. A 6-month follow-up of 30 knees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J S; Petersen, M M; Brot, C

    1999-01-01

    to surgery, and after 3 and 6 months, isokinetic and isometric muscle strength in both legs were measured, using a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Isokinetic tests showed a bilateral, significant, and progressive increase (30-53%) in flexor muscle strength most pronounced in the operated legs. Isokinetic extensor...... to the preoperative level. No significant change in isometric strength was observed in the contralateral legs. The knee pain during the muscle strength measurements decreased significantly from the preoperative level, which may indicate that the substantial pain relief within 3 months after a TKA is an important...... factor for evaluation of muscle strength....

  17. Effects of three restorative techniques in the bond strength and nanoleakage at gingival wall of Class II restorations subjected to simulated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos Pimenta Vidal, Cristina; Pavan, Sabrina; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of simulated aging in bond strength and nanoleakage of class II restorations using three different restorative techniques. Class II preparations (n = 12) were restored using: FS - composite resin Filtek Supreme Plus (3M/ESPE); RMGIC + FS - resin-modified glass ionomer cement Vitrebond Plus (3M/ESPE) + FS; and FFS + FS - flowable composite resin Filtek Supreme Plus Flowable (3M ESPE) + FS. The teeth were assigned into two groups: Control and Simulated Aging - Thermal/Mechanical cycling (3,000 cycles, 20-80 °C/500,000 cycles, 50 N). From each tooth, two slabs were assessed to microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) (MPa), and two slabs were prepared for nanoleakage assessment, calculated as penetration along the restoration margin considering the penetration length (%) and as the area of silver nitrate particle deposition (μm(2)). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p < 0.05). FS presented the highest μTBS to dentin (22.39 ± 7.55 MPa) after simulated aging, while the presence of flowable resin significantly decreased μTBS (14.53 ± 11.65 MPa) when compared to no aging condition. Both control and aging groups of RMGIC + FS presented the highest values of silver nitrate penetration (89.90 ± 16.31 % and 97.14 ± 5.76 %) and deposition area (33.05 ± 12.49 and 28.08 ± 9.76 μm(2)). Nanoleakage was not affected by simulated aging. FS presented higher bond strength and lower nanoleakage and was not affected by simulated aging. Use of flowable resin compromised the bond strength after simulated aging. The use of an intermediate layer did not improve the dentin bond strength neither reduced nanoleakage at the gingival margins of class II restorations under simulated aging conditions.

  18. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf)—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only. PMID:28133549

  19. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf )-the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity-from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm ) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  20. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.’s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Usa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  1. A Danish Early Germanic Iron Age Grave with Tablet Woven Cuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Knudsen, Lise Ræder

    2007-01-01

    This article presents exciting new textile information from a Danish Early Germanic Iron Age grave at Broedbaek, North West Jutland, where tiny little fragments of textiles were found on metal clasps and brooches. Some of the textiles appeared to be made in a so far unknown tablet weaving technique....

  2. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David A S; Keith, Cierra M; Perlstein, William M

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging.

  3. Defining smallness for gestational age in the early years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased blood pressure in childhood, but the association with clinical disease in early adulthood is less certain. The Danish Medical Birth Registry has registered all births in Denmark since 1973, b...

  4. Age estimation in fossil hominins: comparing dental development in early Homo with modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Liversidge, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have used molar tooth eruption as a comparative marker of maturation in early fossil hominins. However, tooth eruption and tooth formation are independent maturational processes. To determine whether estimates of age for entering a stage of dental development in three early hominin fossils fell within the distribution of a modern human sample. This study used a comparative model of dental development to identify the stages of dental development most likely to provide information about length of the growth period in early fossil hominins. Age estimates for stages of dental development in fossils were superimposed onto a normal distribution of the same radiographically defined stages derived from a sample of 6540 children of diverse geographical origin. Both within the dentition of S7-37, from Sangiran, Java, but also for stages of two other specimens (KNM-WT 15000 from Kenya and StW 151 from South Africa), all age estimates for later stages of tooth formation fell within the modern sample range. A pattern appears to exist in early Homo where, both within and between developing dentitions, age estimates for stages of P4, M2 and M3 tooth formation fell consistently among the more advanced individuals of the modern human sample.

  5. Assessing Age of Onset Effects in (Early) Child L2 Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the development of three different types of bilingual/second language children in their acquisition of gender-marking on adjectives in Dutch to investigate whether there is evidence for age-of-onset effects in early childhood as proposed by Meisel (2009). The three groups of children are: simultaneous bilingual children,…

  6. Early age stress-crack opening relationships for high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Lange, David A.; Stang, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Stress–crack opening relationships for concrete in early age have been determined for two high performance concrete mixes with water to cementitious materials ratios of 0.307 and 0.48. The wedge splitting test setup was used experimentally and the cracked nonlinear hinge model based on the fictit...

  7. Early onset of age-related changes on neural processing in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro-Mora, G.; Fabene, P.F.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Altered perceptual and emotional processing might bind impaired cognitive mechanisms during aging; however the nature of these sensory perception modifications is still unknown. In the present experiment we analyzed in rats, from early to mature life (2 to 11 months old), the response to unattended

  8. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Garssen; I. Deerenberg; J.P. Mackenbach; A. Kerkhof; A.E. Kunst

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 2055 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes

  9. Shrinkage-reducing admixtures and early-age desiccation in cement pastes and mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, D. P.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental studies of the early-age desiccation of cement-based materials with and without a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) have been performed. Studies have been conducted under both sealed and drying conditions. Physical measurements include mass loss, surface tension, X-ray absorption...

  10. Defining smallness for gestational age in the early years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased blood pressure in childhood, but the association with clinical disease in early adulthood is less certain. The Danish Medical Birth Registry has registered all births in Denmark since 1973...

  11. ESEM drying tests: microcracking initiation in thin cement paste due to early age drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Scattered and discontinues microcracking as a subsequent side-effect of deformations due to early age drying, occurs in thin (approximately 1 mm thick) cement paste samples, when stepwise dried in ESEM. Microcracking of cement paste and restrains appear to be practically unavoidable. They are relate

  12. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  13. Parenthood, Stress, and Mental Health in Late Midlife and Early Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2009-01-01

    Using 2 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I examine psychological consequences of potentially stressful, non-normative, or "off-time" aspects of the parental role in late midlife and early old age, including coresidence with adult children, stepparenthood, and parental bereavement. Additionally, I analyze gender differences in…

  14. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  15. The Agro Pontino region, refuge after the Early Bronze Age Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakels, C.; Sevink, J.; Kuijper, W.; Kamermans, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was discovered that the Middle to Late Holocene infi ll of the Agro Pontino graben (Central Italy) held a tephra layer originating from the Avellino eruption of the Vesuvius volcano. The eruption is dated to 1995 ± 10 calBC and took therefore place during the Early Bronze Age. Thi

  16. Early age damage quantification of actively restrained concrete using inverse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Ali

    Early-age cracking can be a significant problem in concrete pavements, floors, and bridge decks. Cracking occurs when the volumetric changes associated with drying, hydration, and temperature reduction are prevented. Good knowledge about the characteristics of early age concrete is necessary to achieve reliable crack control. Volumetric changes due to shrinkage depend on the type of concrete and its components. It has been found that light weight aggregates can work as internal reservoir to supply the concrete matrix with water that is needed during the early age; this process is called internal curing. Also fibers can give more ductility to the concrete and produce less shrinkage. There is a need to better understand the effects of early age uniaxial restraint on long term concrete mechanical performance. In this study, two types of concrete were studied (high performance fiber reinforced concrete and ordinary concrete) under actively restrained loading conditions to assess the effect on the long term fracture toughness and energy. Single edge notched specimens having dimensions of 250 mm x 150 mm x 75 mm and a notch to depth ratio of 0.33 were caste and used in both direct tension and three point bending. The direct tension tests were carried out on a direct tension loading frame constructed in house that was supplied with two mechanical jacks and load cell.

  17. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  18. A Study on the Combined Treatment of Cryorolling, Short-Annealing, and Aging for the Development of Ultrafine-Grained Al 6063 Alloy with Enhanced Strength and Ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Sushanta Kumar; Jayaganthan, R.

    2010-10-01

    High-strength ultrafine-grained (UFG) metals and alloys often show a reduced tensile ductility when compared with their coarse-grained counterparts. The earlier attempts in trying to improve their ductility usually have led to sacrificing its strength. Optimized process conditions are proposed to achieve both high strength and high ductility in the Al 6063 alloy in the current work. It involves solution treatment of the Al 6063 alloy to dissolve the second-phase particles, cryorolling (CR) to produce a high density of dislocations, short annealing (SA) treatment to recrystallize partially the microstructure without affecting the age-hardening effect, and finally aging treatment to generate highly dispersed nano precipitates. The solution treatment prior to CR combined with post-CR SA at 428 K (155 °C) for 5 minutes followed by aging treatment at 398 K (125 °C) for 12 hours are the optimum processing conditions to obtain the UFG microstructure with improved tensile strength (286 MPa) and good tensile ductility (14 pct) in the Al 6063 alloy. It is observed that the accumulation of dislocations and the formation of nanosized precipitates are responsible for improving the strength, whereas both a low dislocation density and a high density of nanosized precipitates contribute to the improvement in ductility of the CR Al 6063 alloy subjected to an optimized treatment of short annealing and aging.

  19. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  20. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life.

  1. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:13-7.].

  2. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. 

  3. The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Cassandra M; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (≤ 2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ≤ 16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar associations with health as childbearing for adults. This 'tipping point' may vary by the underlying physical and nutritional health of girls

  4. Early determinants for the development of undernutrition in an older general population: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilp, Janneke; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein

    2011-09-01

    Undernutrition may be an important modifiable risk factor for poor clinical outcomes in older individuals. To achieve earlier detection or prevention of undernutrition, more information is needed about risk factors for the development of undernutrition in community-dwelling older individuals. The objective was to identify early determinants of incident undernutrition in a prospective population-based study. Baseline data (1992-3) on socio-economic, psychological, medical, functional, lifestyle and social factors of 1120 participants aged 65-85 years of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Undernutrition, defined as a BMI weight loss ≥ 5 % in the last 6 months, was assessed every 3 years during a 9-year follow-up period. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to investigate the association between early determinants at baseline and incident undernutrition. In 9 years, 156 participants (13·9 %) developed undernutrition. In univariate analyses, female sex, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, multiple chronic diseases, high medication use (women), poor appetite, no alcohol use v. light alcohol use, loneliness, not having a partner, limitations in performing normal activities due to a health problem, low physical performance (participants aged stairs (participants aged stairs (participants aged < 75 years) remained early determinants. The results of the present study can be used to identify subgroups of older individuals with increased risk of undernutrition and to identify modifiable determinants for the purpose of prevention of undernutrition.

  5. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Woods

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG and walking speed (WS over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001, lower lean mass (P < 0.001, and higher fat mass (P < 0.01 than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2% had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass. Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01.Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.Keywords: aged care, body composition, muscle strength, sarcopenia 

  6. Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBar, Kevin S; Torpey, Dana C; Cook, Craig A; Johnson, Stephanie R; Warren, Lauren H; Burke, James R; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2005-01-01

    Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence categorization was made. The difference in exposure duration required to categorize novel versus studied items was the dependent measure of priming. Aversive content increased the magnitude of priming, an effect that was preserved in healthy aging and AD. Results from an immediate recognition memory test showed that the priming effects could not be attributable to enhanced explicit memory for the aversive scenes. These findings implicate a dissociation between the modulatory effect of emotion across implicit and explicit forms of memory in aging and early-stage AD.

  7. Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA, outer diameter (OD, cortical thickness (CT, section modulus (SM, buckling ratio (BR at the narrow neck (NN, intertrochanter (IT, and femoral shaft (FS. Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05, which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05. Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  8. Effect of surface treatments on the tensile bond strength of repaired water-aged anterior restorative micro-fine hybrid resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Amr S; El-Askary, Farid S; Amer, Mohamed A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in surface topography associated with different surface treatments and their effect on tensile bond strength (TBS) of repaired water-aged anterior restorative micro-fine hybrid resin composite. The TBS of repaired resin-based composite slabs either non-treated or exposed to different mechanical and/or chemical surface treatment procedures were measured. The cohesive tensile strength of non-repaired intact slabs was used as a control group. The topographical effects of acid etching, grinding, and grinding followed by acid etching were characterized by AFM and SEM. All repaired groups showed significantly lower TBS than the control group. The TBS of repaired groups was ranged from 15% to 59% of the cohesive tensile strength of the control group (18.8+/-4.5MPa). The surface roughness of the non-treated aged specimens was significantly higher than other treated specimens. Specimens treated by acid etching showed significant increase in surface area compared to the non-treated and treated specimens. Aging process resulted in the formation of degradable surface layer which adversely affects the repair bond strength. The use of silane primer prior to the application of the adhesive after mechanical grinding, with or without the use of 37% phosphoric acid etching; improves the repair bond strength.

  9. Muscle strength reduction is related to muscle loss in women over the age of 40 DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lera Orsatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the influence of age on muscle mass (MM and muscle strength (MS of the upper and lower limbs in women older than 40 years. Fifty-two volunteers were divided into three age groups: 40-49 years (G40, n = 16, 50-59 years (G50, n = 18, and 60-70 years (G60, n = 18. MM was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance and MS by the 1RM test. One-way analysis of variance, Duncan’s test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. There was a significant difference in MM (p < 0.05 of 10.1% between G40 and G50 and of 7.5% between G50 and G60, corresponding to 16.8% in the two decades (G40/G60. Lower limb MS was 16.4% lower between G40 and G50 and 12.5% between G50 and G60, corresponding to 25.3% in the two decades (p < 0.05. In the upper limbs, there was no significant difference in MS between G40 and G50 (3.3% and 2.5% bench curl or between G50 and G60 (17.5% and 9.6%, corresponding to 20.2% and 12.2% in the two decades, respectively. The sum of MS was corrected by MM (MS/MM and no significant differences were observed between groups. Comparison of MM and MS showed a closer correlation in the lower limbs (r = 0.57 when compared to the upper limbs (r = 0.42 and r = 0.41, respectively. In conclusion, women presented lower MM and MS in the lower limbs as early as in the fifth decade of life. MS/MM does not change in women between 40 and 60 years when compared according to age group. Reduced MM seems to be an important for the lower MS observed in women between 40 and 60 years of age.

  10. An examination of the relationship between a child’s developmental age and early literacy learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Moran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available American students typically attend kindergarten at the chronological age (CA of five and currently with the implementation of Common Core State Standards, there are expectations that children learn how to read in order to meet these academic standards, despite whether or not they are developmentally ready. This mixed methods study examined age and environmental factors that relate to reading with 83 children from the ages of 4–6½ years. The relationship between developmental age (DA via the Gesell Developmental Observation-Revised and early literacy learning via Marie’s Clay observational tool, Concepts About Print (CAP, were explored. The purpose of the study was to highlight the need for better alignment of educational policies and practices as they relate to child development and to promote more effective synthesis between discoveries in the field of neuroscience about how children learn and what is known about child DAs and stages. The findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between a child’s DA and early literacy learning as measured by the CAP. The descriptive statistics revealed that the DA of the children in this study was younger than their CA. Furthermore, a child’s DA was found to be the strongest predictor of early literacy learning.

  11. Variation of Aging Precipitates and Mechanical Strength of Al-Cu-Li Alloys Caused by Small Addition of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-long; Li, Jin-feng

    2017-09-01

    The effect of small rare earth (RE) addition of 0.11%Ce, 0.2%Er and 0.082%Sc on aging precipitates and mechanical strength of an Al-(3.3-4.2)Cu-1.2Li-X alloy were investigated. It is found that Cu-rich residual particles containing RE element exist in the solutionized alloy, which leads to a decrease of dissolved Cu concentration in the solutionized matrix. Like RE-free alloy, the main aging precipitate types in RE-containing alloy are T1 (Al2CuLi) and θ' (Al2Cu), but their fraction is decreased. The strength of the corresponding alloys is therefore lowered by the small RE addition. Combined with the analysis of some reported references, it is proposed that the effect of small RE addition on Al-Cu-Li alloy strength is also associated with the Cu and Li concentrations and their ratio.

  12. Effect of Exercise Therapy Compared with Arthroscopic Surgery on Knee Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Patients with Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a 12-wk exercise therapy program and arthroscopic partial meniscectomy on knee strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears. DESIGN: A total of 82 patients (mean age, 49 yrs; 35% women......) with a symptomatic, unilateral, magnetic resonance imaging-verified degenerative meniscus tear and no or mild radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to a supervised neuromuscular and strength exercise program or arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Outcomes assessed 3 mos after intervention initiation were...... isokinetic knee muscle strength, lower extremity performance, and self-reported global rating of change. RESULTS: Mean difference in isokinetic knee extension peak torque between the two groups was 16% (95% confidence interval, 7.1-24.0) (P

  13. Investigation on standard deviation of high strength concrete in field and trial of its prediction at relatively large age. Kokyodo concrete no kyodo zoshin ni tomonau baratsuki no henka oyobi sono yosoku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomatsuri, K. (Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-30

    Concrete strength varies in accordance with material proportioning and age, and is usually mixed and designed at the determined age in order to manifest the specified strength. Concerning high strength concrete with design strength over 360kg/cm{sup 2}, however, there is no clear provision to estimate increse and deviation of the strength in the case where either age or cumulative temperature varies. In this study, the strength and the distribution of standard curing concrete and concrete after long piriod of time were measured and analyzed statistically in regard to 14 kinds of high strength concrete with the nominal strength between 360 to 465kg/cm{sup 2} of three construction projects. Considering that strength ratio of concrete at two different kinds of cumulative temperature showed the nominal distribution, a method to predict the strength distribution of concrete after a long period of time was presented. In this method, for instance, use of such parameters as standard deviation of strength on the 28th day of age and strength index could make it possible to predict the average strength and the standard deviation at different ages. 9 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...

  15. The influence of alewife year-class strength on prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, D.M.; Kiley, C.S.; Claramunt, R.M.; Clapp, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    We used growth and diet data from a fishery-independent survey of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, acoustic estimates of prey density and biomass, and statistical catch-at-age modeling to study the influence of the year-class strength of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus on the prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan during the years 1992-1996 and 2001-2005. Alewives age 2 or younger were a large part of age-1 Chinook salmon diets but were not selectively fed upon by age-1 Chinook salmon in most years. Feeding by age-1 Chinook salmon on alewives age 2 or younger became selective as the biomass of alewives in that young age bracket increased, and age-1 Chinook salmon also fed selectively on young bloaters Coregonus hoyi when bloater density was high. Selection of older alewives decreased at high densities of alewives age 2 or younger and, in some cases, high densities of bloater. The weight and condition of age-1 Chinook salmon were not related to age-1 Chinook salmon abundance or prey abundance, but the abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in year t was positively related to the density of age-0 alewives in year t - 1. Our results suggest that alewife year-class strength exerts a positive bottom-up influence on age-1 Chinook salmon abundance, prey switching behavior by young Chinook salmon contributing to the stability of the predator-prey relationship between Chinook salmon and alewives. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. The composition of a graph on the decline of total body strength with age based on pushing, pulling, twisting and gripping force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.I.M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study, part of a large project on design-relevant characteristics of ageing users, aims to provide more insight in the possibilities and limitations of the procedure of extrapolation and calculation of human strength for transgenerational designThis study is part of a large project on design-re

  17. The Effect of a Human Potential Lab Experience on Perceived Importance of Goals and Awareness of Strengths in Non-Traditional Aged Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Bryon C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a positively oriented group experience (human potential lab) on the awareness of personal strengths and perceived importance of goal setting in non-traditional aged undergraduates. The research questions that were posed were: 1) Does participation in the human potential lab experience increase…

  18. Sex, race and age differences in muscle strength and limitations in community dwelling older adults: Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Cassandra M; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Batsis, John A; McQuoid, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related muscle weakness is associated with increased risk of functional limitations and disability. This study examined the association between varying degrees of hand grip strength on functional ability in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of 4289 men and 5860 women ≥60 from 2006 and 2008 waves of the population-based Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were stratified by sex-specific grip strength tertiles (low, mid, high). Prevalence and adjusted odds of physical limitations (PL), and ADL/IADL limitation were calculated by sex, race/ethnicity and age group (60-69, 70-79, 80+). Models were weighted, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, BMI, comorbidities and participation in physical activity. Prevalence of PL, ADL and IADL limitations were significantly lower among adults in the highest grip category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Adjusted odds for PL OR 0.41[0.33,0.52]; ADL OR.51 [0.39,0.67], and IADL OR 0.47 [0.38-0.59] limitations were significantly lower among adults in the highest grip compared to the lowest grip category. However, notable differences were observed in the strength of these associations by gender, race and age group. Demographic characteristics are important factors to consider for risk stratification and the development of effective grip strength training interventions for older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing strength, ductility and impact toughness of ultrafine-grained 6063 aluminium alloy by combining ECAP and a high-temperature short-time aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L. W.; Schönherr, R.; Hockauf, M.

    2010-07-01

    Since fully-dense ultrafine or nanocrystalline bulk materials can be processed, there has been an increasing scientific interest in several plastic deformation (SPD) procedures, particularly in the last decade. Especially the equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has widely been investigated due to its ability of producing billets sufficiently large for industrial applications in functional or structural components. The significant strength increase based on grain refinement is typically accompanied by a significant decrease in ductility and toughness. Within this work, a new methodology was applied for combining ECAP with a subsequent high-temperature short-time aging for the 6063 aluminium alloy. An increase in strength, ductility as well as impact toughness regarding its coarse grained counterparts was reached. More precisely, ultimate tensile strength, elongation to failure and impact toughness were increased by 46%, 21% and 40% respectively. This was observed after only one run of ECAP at room temperature in a solid-solution treated condition and an aging at 170° C for 18 minutes. The regular aging time for maximum strength at 170° C is around 6 hours. Longer exposure times lead to recrystallisation and, as for regular aging, it leads to overaging, both causing a decrease of properties. The work demonstrates a strategy for an efficient processing of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloys with outstanding mechanical properties.

  20. Increasing strength, ductility and impact toughness of ultrafine-grained 6063 aluminium alloy by combining ECAP and a high-temperature short-time aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L W; Schoenherr, R; Hockauf, M, E-mail: robert.schoenherr@mb.tu-chemnitz.d [Chemnitz University of Technology, Materials and Impact Engineering, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Since fully-dense ultrafine or nanocrystalline bulk materials can be processed, there has been an increasing scientific interest in several plastic deformation (SPD) procedures, particularly in the last decade. Especially the equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has widely been investigated due to its ability of producing billets sufficiently large for industrial applications in functional or structural components. The significant strength increase based on grain refinement is typically accompanied by a significant decrease in ductility and toughness. Within this work, a new methodology was applied for combining ECAP with a subsequent high-temperature short-time aging for the 6063 aluminium alloy. An increase in strength, ductility as well as impact toughness regarding its coarse grained counterparts was reached. More precisely, ultimate tensile strength, elongation to failure and impact toughness were increased by 46%, 21% and 40% respectively. This was observed after only one run of ECAP at room temperature in a solid-solution treated condition and an aging at 170{sup 0} C for 18 minutes. The regular aging time for maximum strength at 170{sup 0} C is around 6 hours. Longer exposure times lead to recrystallisation and, as for regular aging, it leads to overaging, both causing a decrease of properties. The work demonstrates a strategy for an efficient processing of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloys with outstanding mechanical properties.

  1. Age of acquisition affects early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Dent, Kevin; You, Wenping; Wu, Guolai

    2009-03-01

    Three experiments investigated age of acquisition (AoA) effects on early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition. In Experiment 1, we measured the accuracy of identification of brief masked characters, accuracy was higher for early compared to late acquired characters. In Experiment 2, the visual duration threshold (VDT) was measured for both early and late acquired Chinese characters. The results showed that early acquired characters were successfully identified at shorter display durations than late acquired characters. Significant AoA effects were also found in Experiment 3, using a lexical decision task requiring mainly orthographic processing (discriminating real Chinese characters from orthographically illegal and unpronounceable characters). In summary, three experiments provide converging empirical evidence, for AoA effects on the early orthographic processing stages of Chinese character recognition. These results suggest that AoA effects during word identification go beyond the phonological or semantic processing stages. These results aslo provide cross-linguistic evidence for an AoA effect on early perceptual processing during identification.

  2. Modeling the Ages and Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies in Fundamental Plane Space

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, L A; Primack, J R; Croton, D J; Covington, M D; Graves, G J; Faber, S M

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have probed the formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies by tracking correlations between the stellar population parameters, age and metallicity, and the structural parameters that enter the Fundamental Plane, radius and velocity dispersion sigma. These studies have found intriguing correlations between these four parameters. In this work, we make use of a semi-analytic model, based on halo merger trees extracted from the Bolshoi cosmological simulation, that predicts the structural properties of spheroid-dominated galaxies based on an analytic model that has been tested and calibrated against an extensive suite of hydrodynamic+N-body binary merger simulations. We predict the radius, sigma, luminosity, age, and metallicity of spheroid-dominated galaxies, enabling us to compare directly to observations. Our model predicts a strong correlation between age and sigma for early-type galaxies, and no significant correlation between age and radius, in agreement with observations. In addi...

  3. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  4. Proprioceptive accuracy in women with early and established knee osteoarthritis and its relation to functional ability, postural control, and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Jonkers, Ilse; Staes, Filip; Luyten, Frank P; Truijen, Steven; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in knee proprioceptive accuracy between subjects with early knee osteoarthritis (OA), established knee OA, and healthy controls. Furthermore, the relation between proprioceptive accuracy on the one hand and functional ability, postural balance, and muscle strength on the other hand was also explored. New MRI-based classification criteria showing evidence of beginning joint degeneration have been used to identify subjects with early knee OA. A total of 45 women with knee OA (early OA, n = 21; established OA, n = 24) and 20 healthy female control subjects participated in the study. Proprioceptive accuracy was evaluated using the repositioning error of a knee joint position sense test using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Subjective and objective functional ability was assessed by the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score, the timed "Up & Go" test, and the stair climbing test. The sensory organization test measured postural control. Muscle strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometry. Early OA subjects showed no significant differences in proprioceptive accuracy compared to healthy controls. In contrast, established OA subjects showed a higher repositioning error compared to early OA subjects (+29 %, P = 0.033) and healthy controls (+25 %, P = 0.068). Proprioceptive accuracy was not significantly associated with functional ability, postural balance, and muscle strength. Knee joint proprioceptive deficits were observed in established OA but not in early OA, suggesting that impaired proprioception is most likely a consequence of structural degeneration, rather than a risk factor in the pathogenesis of knee OA. Impaired proprioceptive accuracy was not associated with disease-related functionality in knee OA patients. Treatment strategies designed to address proprioceptive deficits may be not effective in prevention of knee OA progression and may have no impact on patients

  5. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  6. The Influence of Normal and Early Vascular Aging on Hemodynamic Characteristics in Cardio- and Cerebrovascular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongtao; Huang, George P; Yang, Zifeng; Liang, Fuyou; Ludwig, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    Age-associated alterations in cardiovascular structure and function induce cardiovascular disease in elderly subjects. To investigate the effects of normal vascular aging (NVA) and early vascular aging (EVA) on hemodynamic characteristics in the circle of Willis (CoW), a closed-loop one-dimensional computational model was developed based on fluid mechanics in the vascular system. The numerical simulations revealed that higher central pulse pressure and augmentation index (AIx) appear in the EVA subjects due to early arrival of reflected waves, resulted in the increase of cardiac afterload compared with the NVA subjects. Moreover, the hemodynamic characteristics in the CoW show that the EVA subjects in an older age display a higher blood pressure than that of the NVA with a complete CoW. Herein, the increased blood pressure and flow rate coexist in the subjects with an incomplete CoW. In conclusion, the hemodynamic characteristics in the aortic tree and CoW related to aging appear to play an important role in causing cardiovascular and intravascular disease.

  7. Space, Geometry and the Imagination from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age

    CERN Document Server

    Mathematizing Space : The Objects of Geometry from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age

    2015-01-01

    This book brings together papers of the conference on 'Space, Geometry and the Imagination from Antiquity to the Modern Age' held in Berlin, Germany, 27-29 August 2012. Focusing on the interconnections between the history of geometry and the philosophy of space in the pre-Modern and Early Modern Age, the essays in this volume are particularly directed toward elucidating the complex epistemological revolution that transformed the classical geometry of figures into the modern geometry of space. Contributors: Graciela De Pierris Franco Farinelli Michael Friedman Daniel Garber Jeremy Gray Gary Hatfield Andrew Janiak Douglas Jesseph Alexander Jones Henry Mendell David Rabouin

  8. Microstructural evolution of 7012 alloy during the early stages of artificial ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, R.; Somoza, A.; Tolley, A.

    1999-11-26

    A study of the microstructural evolution of a commercial 7012 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) age-hardenable alloy following artificial ageing by high resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is presented. At the early stages of decomposition, the microstructure included precipitation of either pre-precipitate solute clusters or Guinier-Preston zones and semi-coherent {eta}{prime} precipitates, with typical sizes between 1 and 10 nm. Quantitative information on the size, number density and morphology of the particles present in the microstructure was obtained. The results were correlated with those obtained using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  9. Self-cementing Mechanism of CFBC Coal Ashes at Early Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yuanming; QIAN Jueshi; WANG Zhi; WANG Zhijuan

    2008-01-01

    The self-cementing mechanism at early ages of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) coal ashes was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and chemical method. The results indicate that the amorphous phase is predominant in CFBC coal ashes. The polymerization degree of [SiO4] and [AlO6] of CFBC desulphurization coal ashes is lower than that of those without desulphurization. The contents of the components with fast hydration rate of CFBC desulphurization coal ashes are significantly greater than those of the ashes without desulphurization. This work confirms that the amorphous minerals with high chemical activity are the main causes of the self-cementing property of CFBC desulphurization coal ashes at early ages.

  10. Towards the identification of dyestuffs in Early Iron Age Scandinavian peat bog textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Gleba, Margarita; Vanden Berghe, Ina

    2009-01-01

    A large systematic dye investigation of prehistoric Danish and Norwegian bog textiles was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection. After the selection of the most suitable protocol for dye extraction and HPLC analysis for this specific group...... of archaeological samples, the second part included the characterisation of the dyes detected in the whole series of the Early Iron Age textiles and the interpretation of the dyeing technology. Natural organic dyes were found from the three main categories of natural dyes, hence throwing new light on the use...... of biological dye sources in Early Iron Age Scandinavia. The results clearly indicate that most Scandinavian peat bog textiles originally were dyed and that already during the 1st millennium BC, the populations in Scandinavia were familiar with the dyeing technology....

  11. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Early Childhood and Growth at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Goren, Sophy; Cohen, Dani

    2015-12-01

    There are conflicting results regarding the role of H. pylori in children's growth. We examined differences in growth indices at school age according to H. pylori infection acquisition in preschool age. A prospective study was undertaken between 2004 and 2009, in which of healthy children (N = 139, ages 3-5 years at baseline) were tested for the presence of H. pylori antigen in their stool using enzyme-linked immunoassay and followed-up till age 6-9 years (median follow-up time 45 months). Height, weight, and hemoglobin levels were measured, and socioeconomic data were obtained. Z scores of height for age, weight for age, and body mass index for age at baseline and follow-up were calculated using the 2000 Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference curves. Growth velocity (cm/month) between preschool and school age was compared between H. pylori-infected and uninfected children using mixed models. Fifty-three percent of the children were H. pylori positive at baseline, and all except one child tested positive at follow-up. The adjusted mean Z score of height for age at follow-up was significantly lower among H. pylori-infected children than uninfected ones: 0.15 (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.02, 0.29) and 0.45 (95% CI 0.29, 0.60), respectively (p = .002). Growth velocity was slower in the former group -0.0264 cm/month (95% CI -0.047, -0.005) (p = .014), after adjusting for baseline height and age. H. pylori infection was not associated with body weight. Helicobacter pylori infection acquired in early childhood may have long-term adverse influence on linear growth at school age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  14. Normal aging delays and compromises early multifocal visual attention during object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-02-01

    Declines in selective attention are one of the sources contributing to age-related impairments in a broad range of cognitive functions. Most previous research on mechanisms underlying older adults' selection deficits has studied the deployment of visual attention to static objects and features. Here we investigate neural correlates of age-related differences in spatial attention to multiple objects as they move. We used a multiple object tracking task, in which younger and older adults were asked to keep track of moving target objects that moved randomly in the visual field among irrelevant distractor objects. By recording the brain's electrophysiological responses during the tracking period, we were able to delineate neural processing for targets and distractors at early stages of visual processing (~100-300 msec). Older adults showed less selective attentional modulation in the early phase of the visual P1 component (100-125 msec) than younger adults, indicating that early selection is compromised in old age. However, with a 25-msec delay relative to younger adults, older adults showed distinct processing of targets (125-150 msec), that is, a delayed yet intact attentional modulation. The magnitude of this delayed attentional modulation was related to tracking performance in older adults. The amplitude of the N1 component (175-210 msec) was smaller in older adults than in younger adults, and the target amplification effect of this component was also smaller in older relative to younger adults. Overall, these results indicate that normal aging affects the efficiency and timing of early visual processing during multiple object tracking.

  15. Characterization of Moisture Diffusion in Cured Concrete Slabs at Early Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Zhang; Hongduo Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the characterization of moisture diffusion inside early-age concrete slabs subjected to curing. Time-dependent relative humidity (RH) distributions of three mixture proportions subjected to three different curing methods (i.e., air curing, water curing, and membrane-forming compounds curing) and sealed condition were measured for 28 days. A one-dimensional nonlinear moisture diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) based on Fick’s second law,...

  16. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  17. A Numerical Model for the Thermomechanical Conditions During Hydration of Early-age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Thorborg, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, a macroscopic numerical model for the thermomechanical conditions during hydration of early-age concrete is presented. The formulation is based on a semi-coupled, incremental thermomechanical model where the heat production from the hydration process is expressed in terms of...... analytical solutions are carried out as well as examples of analysis of real concrete structures. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  18. Study on the hydration product of cement in early age using TEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Song; YAN PeiYu; LIU RengGuang

    2012-01-01

    The morphology,crystallization and elemental composition of cement hydration products in early age including Ca(OH)2,CSH gel,AFt and AFm were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Compared with the results from SEM and XRD,the TEM method and its advantage in the investigation of early hydration products were discussed.The results showed that TEM method is more accurate and reliable than SEM in the investigation of early hydration products.The CSH gel was confirmed to be amorphous foil-like shape product with a lot of crumples in early hydration age.Its Ca/Si ratio is 1.3±0.2.The morphology difference of AFt and AFm was clarified.AFt and AFm are both poly-crystal with layered structure,composed of disordered nano crystal.The size of nano crystal is less than 20 nm.The difference of Ca/Si ratio results between SEM and TEM was investigated,and its reason was explained.

  19. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures.

  20. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  1. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  2. Birth weight, early life weight gain and age at menarche: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, F; Chang, V W; Brar, P; Parekh, N

    2017-11-01

    Adiposity in pre- and postnatal life may influence menarcheal age. Existing evidence is primarily cross-sectional, failing to address temporality, for which the role of adiposity in early life remains unclear. The current study sought to systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating the associations between birth weight and infant/childhood weight status/weight gain in relation to menarcheal age. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health (Ovid) and CINAHL were systematically searched. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles presenting multi-variable analyses. Seventeen studies reporting risk estimates for birth weight (n = 3), infant/childhood weight gain/weight status (n = 4) or both (n = 10), in relation to menarcheal age were included. Lower vs. higher birth weight was associated with earlier menarche in nine studies and later menarche in one study, while three studies reported a null association. Greater BMI or weight gain over time and greater childhood weight were significantly associated with earlier menarche in nine of nine and six of seven studies, respectively. Studies suggested that lower birth weight and higher body weight and weight gain in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of early menarche. The pre- and postnatal period may thus be an opportune time for weight control interventions to prevent early menarche, and its subsequent consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Characterization of Moisture Diffusion in Cured Concrete Slabs at Early Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the characterization of moisture diffusion inside early-age concrete slabs subjected to curing. Time-dependent relative humidity (RH distributions of three mixture proportions subjected to three different curing methods (i.e., air curing, water curing, and membrane-forming compounds curing and sealed condition were measured for 28 days. A one-dimensional nonlinear moisture diffusion partial differential equation (PDE based on Fick’s second law, which incorporates the effect of curing in the Dirichlet boundary condition using a concept of curing factor, is developed to simulate the diffusion process. Model parameters are calibrated by a genetic algorithm (GA. Experimental results show that the RH reducing rate inside concrete under air curing is greater than the rates under membrane-forming compound curing and water curing. It is shown that the effect of water-to-cement (w/c ratio on self-desiccation is significant. Lower w/c ratio tends to result in larger RH reduction. RH reduction considering both effect of diffusion and self-desiccation in early-age concrete is not sensitive to w/c ratio, but to curing method. Comparison between model simulation and experimental results indicates that the improved model is able to reflect the effect of curing on moisture diffusion in early-age concrete slabs.

  4. Early-age Electrical Resistivity and Reactive Capacity of Mineral Admixtures in Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wenquan; HE Zhen; ZHANG Yongchuan; CHEN Meizhu; YANG Huaquan

    2006-01-01

    A non-contacting electrical resistivity measurement device was used to investigate the effect of different types and contents of mineral admixtures on the hydration performance of mortars during early age. The experimental results show that the changes of measured resistivity with time of hydration can be used to describe the hydration characteristics of cement- based materials, as well as the physical and chemical behavior of fly ash; blast furnace slag and silica fume at the very early ages. With an increasing replacement ratio of mineral admixtures, for the specimens blended with fly ash or slag, the resistivity increases firstly, then the following flatting period extends and after setting the resistivity increasing becomes slow and consequently a lower resistivity value at 24 hours occurs. This is due to the dilution effect and lower pozzolanic/ hydraulic activity of fly ash and slag. However, for the samples incorporated with silica fume, the resistivity value through 24 hours is lower with shorter flatting period and larger slope in the resistivity curves, which is because of its particle size effect and higher pozzolanic activity of silica fume. Moreover, non-contacting resistivity measurement might provide a helpful information to predict the long term performance including the durability of cement-based materials at early ages.

  5. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumeiko N.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qualified specialists at the beginning and at the end of experiment. For determination of early signs of muscular asymmetry in torso right and left sides of the tested children we used methodic, based on registration of tonic vibration reflex. Results: the pupils’ examination permitted to form a group of 108 persons, who did not have external signs of posture disorders. It was proved that it would be purposeful to take prophylaxis measures at very early stages of imbalance in muscular system’s work. Traditional approach in the form of prophylaxis examination can not give confident information about initial stage of imbalance in muscular system’s work in child’s organism. Conclusions: it was found that imbalance of motor nervous centers reflex excitability on both sides of backbone (if no purposeful prophylaxis measures are taken can result in muscular tonus asymmetry on right and left sides of torso in lumbar spine area.

  6. Age and tectonic setting of the early Paleozoic magmatism of the Mamyn Terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Kudryashov, N. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents new geochemical, U-Pb geochronological, and Sm-Nd isotopic data for early Paleozoic granitoids and acidic volcanic rocks within the Mamyn Terrane that constrain the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB). The Mamyn Terrane is usually considered part of the Argun Massif, although our new geochronological data indicate the presence of two magmatic events within the terrane that occurred at the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary (∼541 Ma) and the late Cambrian-Early Ordovician boundary (507-488 Ma). Field observations indicate that all of the late Ediacaran-Early Cambrian (∼541 Ma) volcanic rocks are deformed whereas the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician (507-488 Ma) intrusive and volcanic rocks are either deformed or undeformed. The ∼541 Ma magmatic event in the study area produced rhyodacite, trachyrhyodacite, and trachyrhyolite units that are either high-K calc-alkaline or shoshonitic. These units have εNd(t) values from -7.4 to -8.7, tNd(DM) ages of 1.9-1.8 Ga, and formed from primary magmas generated by the partial melting of Mesoproterozoic continental crustal material in a suprasubduction zone setting. The Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician (507-488 Ma) magmatic event in this area formed gabbrodiorite, diorite, granodiorite, granite, trachyrhyodacite, and rhyodacite units that are medium-K and calc-alkaline, and have arc-like trace element compositions that are enriched in the large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in the high field strength elements (HFSEs). These units have initial 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratios and εNd(t) values that range from 0.7048 to 0.7067 and from -3.3 to -0.2, respectively, yielding tNd(DM) ages of 1.6-1.1 Ga. These features indicate that the magmas that formed these units were generated in a subduction zone setting, most likely by the partial melting of Mesoproterozoic crustal material with the addition of some younger juvenile material. In addition, the Late Cambrian-Early

  7. Effects of resistance training on muscle strength, exercise capacity, and mobility in middle-aged and elderly patients with coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Hotta, Kazuki; Ota, Erika; Mori, Rintaro; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Resistance training (RT) is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation. We investigated the effects of RT on exercise capacity, muscle strength, and mobility in middle-aged and elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We searched for randomized controlled trials of RT versus usual care, or combined RT and aerobic training (AT) versus AT alone, and identified 440 trials in total from inception to January 2014. Participants who had myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, angina pectoris or CAD were included in the analysis. Those who had heart failure, heart transplants with either cardiac resynchronization therapy or implantable defibrillators were excluded. Twenty-two trials totaling 1095 participants were analyzed. We performed random-effects meta-analysis. In middle-aged participants, RT increased lower extremity muscle strength [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35 to 0.95], upper extremity muscle strength (SMD: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.99) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2) [weight mean difference (WMD): 0.92mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.72], but did not improve mobility compared with the control. In elderly participants, RT increased lower extremity muscle strength (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.21), upper extremity muscle strength (SMD: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.80), and peak VO2 (WMD: 0.70mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.03 to 1.37), and improved mobility (SMD: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.21 to 1.01) compared with the control. Resistance training could increase exercise capacity and muscle strength in middle-aged and elderly patients, and mobility in elderly patients, with CAD. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Auditory event-related brain potentials for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Dushanova; Mario Christov

    2013-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually decreasing resources maximizes its chances by reorganizing neural networks to ensure efficient performance. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in 28 healthy volunteers comprising 14 young and 14 elderly subjects in auditory discrimination motor task (low frequency tone – right hand movement and high frequency tone – left hand movement). The amplitudes of the sensory event-related potential components (N1, P2) were more pronounced with increasing age for either tone and this effect for P2 amplitude was more pronounced in the frontal region. The latency relationship of N1 between the groups was tone-dependent, while that of P2 was tone-independent with a prominent delay in the elderly group over all brain regions. The amplitudes of the cognitive components (N2, P3) diminished with increasing age and the hemispheric asymmetry of N2 (but not for P3) reduced with increasing age. Prolonged N2 latency with increasing age was widespread for either tone while between-group difference in P3 latency was tone-dependent. High frequency tone stimulation and movement requirements lead to P3 delay in the elderly group. The amplitude difference of the sensory components between the age groups could be due to a general greater alertness, less expressed habituation, or decline in the ability to retreat attentional resources from the stimuli in the elderly group. With aging, a neural circuit reorganization of the brain activity affects the cognitive processes. The approach used in this study is useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.

  9. Gestational age, mode of birth and breastmilk feeding all influence acute early childhood gastroenteritis: a record-linkage cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Jason P; Simpson, Judy M; Bowen, Jenny R.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Roberts, Christine L; Nassar, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of infectious morbidity in childhood. Clinical studies have implicated caesarean section, early birth and formula feeding in modifying normal gut microbiota development and immune system homeostasis in early life. Rates of early birth and cesarean delivery are also increasing worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of the mode and timing of birth and breastmilk feeding with AGE hospitalisati...

  10. The mortality experience of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled - and semiskilled labour groups in Fredericia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Jeune, B

    1980-01-01

    Survival of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled and semiskilled labourers was compared with the employed workers from the same local trade union. All members receiving early old-age or disability pensions during the period October 1, 1969 to September 30, 1973 were assigned to ...... to January 1, 1979. It is emphasized that proper comparison is needed if excess mortality associated with early retirement is to be estimated....

  11. Effect of Vitamin D Supplement Consumption on Muscle Strength, Muscle Function and Body Composition in Vitamin D-deficient Middle-aged Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Abiri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sarcopenia is explained as the loss of muscle strength and muscle mass with aging‚ and is one of the major risk factors for metabolic diseases. Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that vitamin D is associated with sarcopenia in both men and women. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplement consumption on muscle strength, muscle function and body composition in middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 71 women aged 40-55 years old, with the serum 25(OH-D <25 ng/ml, were divided in two groups randomly, and received a 1000 IU vitamin D tablet (n=37 or a placebo (n=34, daily for 12 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, dietary intake, anthropometric indices, muscle strength and function, serum 25(OH-D, physical activity level and sun exposure were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 20. Results: A significant difference in serum 25(OH-D was found between the intervention and placebo groups at the end of the study (P<0.001. In the vitamin D group, handgrip strength was improved, while hand grip strength (P=0.233 and knee extension strength (P=0.337 between the two groups did not differ significantly after 12 weeks. The mean of timed get up and go test, decreased significantly in the vitamin D group compared to the controls (P<0.001. Within the intervention group, body fat content decreased significantly after 12 weeks (P<0.001, but did not result a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.051. Conclusions: It seems in this vitamin D-deficient middle-aged women group, 1000 IU vitamin D consumption daily for 12 weeks resulted in improvement of muscle function and body composition, but had no significant effect on muscle strength. Keywords: Vitamin D, Muscle strength, Muscle function, Middle-aged women

  12. Estimation of vessel age and early diagnose of atherosclerosis in progeria syndrome by using echo-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, E; Feher, E; Levai, A; Battyany, I

    2010-01-01

    The stiffness of the arteries normally increases with age. Radiofrequency echo-tracking is a non-invasive ultrasound method which is able to detect the stiffness of the arteries, represented by the beta stiffness index. The estimation of biological age of vessels is possible on the basis of the normal age-group specific beta stiffness values. The beta stiffness index becomes higher in early stages of atherosclerosis as well, before any visible morphological changes. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is rare genetic disorder resulting in accelerated aging including appearance of progressive atherosclerosis at an early age which determines the quality and term of life of these patients. Determination of vascular age and early diagnosis of atherosclerosis seems crucial. According to our knowledge, the estimation of vascular age detected with radiofrequency echo-tracking in HGPS patients, in contrast to the normal age-specific beta stiffness values, has not been published yet.

  13. Experiment Study on Early Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Mortar%粉煤灰砂浆早期抗压强度试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, according to different mixing proportion, it develops M5 fly ash mortar of the six groups, the three groups of 13.6% fly ash content and the another groups of 11.5% fly ash content. Natural curing after 3 days, it Studies the influence factors of early compressive strength of fly ash mortar through the compressive strength test. Research shows that:air-entraining agent (micro foam agent) incorporation will lower early strength of fly ash mortar. The mixed water reducing agent can improve the early strength of fly ash mortar. When the dosage of water reducing agent arrives a certain level, the smaller the water/cement ratio is, the higher the early compressive strength of fly ash cement is. Specimens are selected from 6 group 28 days compressive strength of fly ash mortar which can reach more than M5,the mixing ratio is:cement:fly ash:light sand:water:micro foam agent:water reducing agent=1:0.7:4.4:2.0:0.00326:0.096.%根据不同配合比研制的粉煤灰掺量13.6%的3组,粉煤灰掺量11.5%的3组,共6组M5粉煤灰砂浆.经过3天自然养护,对其进行了抗压强度试验,研究粉煤灰砂浆早期抗压强度的影响因素.试验研究表明:引气剂(微沫剂)掺入会降低粉煤灰砂浆的早期强度.减水剂的掺入可以提高粉煤灰砂浆的早期强度.减水剂掺量一定时,水胶比越小,粉煤灰水泥的早期抗压强度越高.从6组试件中选出28天抗压强度可达M5以上的粉煤灰砂浆,其配合比为:水泥:粉煤灰:轻砂:水:微沫剂:减水剂=1:0.7:4.4:2.0:0.00326:0.096.

  14. Assessment of early-age cracking of high-performance concrete in restrained ring specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang-phu NGUYEN NGUYEN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High-performance concrete (HPC is stronger and more durable than conventional concrete. However, shrinkage and shrinkage cracking are common phenomena in HPC, especially early-age cracking. This study assessed early-age cracking of HPC for two mixtures using restrained ring tests. The two mixtures were produced with water/binder mass ratio (mW/mB of 0.22 and 0.40, respectively. The results show that, with greater steel thickness, the higher degree of restraint resulted in a higher interface pressure and earlier cracking. With steel thickness of 6 mm, 19 mm, and 30 mm, the age of cracking were, respectively, 12 days, 8 days, and 5.4 days with the mW/mB = 0.22 mixture; and 22.5 days, 12.6 days, and 7.1 days with the mW/mB = 0.40 mixture. Cases of the same steel thickness show that the ring specimens with a thicker concrete wall crack later. With the mW/mB = 0.22 mixture, concrete walls with thicknesses of 37.5 mm, 75 mm, and 112.5 mm cracked at 3.4 days, 8.0 days, and 9.8 days, respectively; with the mW/mB = 0.40 mixture, the ages of cracking were 7.1 days, 12.6 days, and 16.0 days, respectively.

  15. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  16. Effect of Mitochondrial Transplantation from Cumulus Granular Cells to the Early Embryos of Aged Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of mitochondria in the early embryonic development of ageing mice.Methods Mitochondria isolated from cumulus granular cells of aged mice were microinjected into oocytes or zygotes of aged mice. In the setting of oocyte injection, mitochondria were transferred via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI+MIT), and ICSI without mitochondrial transfer. In the setting of zygote injection, mitochondria were directly microinjected into fertilized oocytes (MIT), and those injected with buffer alone (mock injection) or not injected (uninjected) served as controls.Results Although the rates of oocyte cleavage between ICSI and ICSI+MIT groups were not statistically different (P>0.05), the rate of blastocyst in the ICSI+MIT group was significantly higher than that in ICSI group (P<0.05). Although both the cleavage and blastocyst rates of mock injection group were significantly lower than those of uninjected group (P<0.05), likely due to mechanical damages of the cells by microinjection, the decrease of these rates was prevented by mitochondrial transfer. After mitochondrial transfer, the rates of both cleavage and blastocyst were significantly improved over the mock-injection group (P<0.05).Conclusion Mitochondrial transplantation can improve the developmental potential of early embryos of aged mice.

  17. Phase Angle and Handgrip Strength Are Sensitive Early Markers of Energy Intake in Hypophagic, Non-Surgical Patients at Nutritional Risk, with Contraindications to Enteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Caccialanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20, while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10. The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5–2.3 (p = 0.005 for PhA and +0.23 (0.20–0.43 (p = 0.033 for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23–0.77; p = 0.0023. PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of Ph

  18. Phase angle and handgrip strength are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Bonardi, Chiara; Cappello, Silvia; Quarleri, Lara; Turri, Annalisa; Montagna, Elisabetta; Iacona, Isabella; Valentino, Francesco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo

    2015-03-11

    The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5-2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20-0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23-0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early

  19. Prediction of residual stress due to early age behaviour of massive concrete structures: on site experiments and macroscopic modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Zreiki, Jihad; Chaouche, Mohend; Moranville, Micheline

    2008-01-01

    Early age behaviour of concrete is based on complex multi-physical and multiscale phenomena. The predication of both cracking risk and residual stresses in hardened concrete structures is still a challenging task. We propose in this paper a practical method to characterize in the construction site the material parameters and to identify a macroscopic model from simple tests. We propose for instance to use a restrained shrinkage ring test to identify a basic early age creep model based on a simple ageing visco-elastic Kelvin model. The strain data obtained from this test can be treated through an early age finite element incremental procedure such that the fitting parameters of the creep law can be quickly identified. The others properties of concrete have been measured at different ages (elastic properties, hydration kinetics, and coefficient of thermal expansion). From the identified early age model, we computed the temperature rise and the stress development in a non reinforced concrete stress for nuclear w...

  20. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  1. CONCEPT OF LIFE QUALITY OF FAMILIES WITH EARLY AGE CHILD WITH ENDANGERED DEVELOPMENT DUE TO DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šándorová Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, there is a trend nowadays in supporting families caring for a child vulnerable due to disability. A network of services offering support to these families is growing. Causes of this fact can be found at three different levels, on the child and family side, but also at the support system. Concept of a life quality, and it´s various dimensions for this target group, have been neglected until recently. Present time, however, introduces significant changes in an approach to this issue and the concept of life quality in general is getting to the fore within the interagency scope and the social policy. In this particular case it presents a complex construct comprising many subunits. We can look at them from a variety of perspectives and operate with them in many different ways. This paper solves a view at this concept unusually at the background of the specific activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice. For the paper processing qualitative research strategies have been used – description of organization´s material and quantitative survey (evaluation questionnaire for the year 2012. Particular aim of this paper is to describe activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice which affect the concept of life quality of families with child (early age vulnerable due to disability. Results analysis of the evaluation survey which is aimed to identify some of quality indicators of service provided in 2012 also at the Centre for Early Intervention in Pardubice and comparison with the material of the National Centre of social services transformation support - A system of services for children and young people with disabilities and their families (Bačáková, 2013. Results evaluate the life quality concept for families with children in early age with the endangered development due to disability from the position of the family, support and assistance provider and support and assistance evaluator. The conclusion summarizes the problem

  2. Donor age and early graft failure after lung transplantation: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Matthew R; Peterson, Eric R; Easthausen, Imaani; Quintanilla, Isaac; Colago, Eric; Sonett, Joshua R.; D’Ovidio, Frank; Costa, Joseph; Diamond, Joshua M; Christie, Jason D; Arcasoy, Selim M; Lederer, David J

    2014-01-01

    Lungs from older adult organ donors are often unused because of concerns for increased mortality. We examined associations between donor age and transplant outcomes among 8,860 adult lung transplant recipients using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Lung Transplant Outcomes Group data. We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between donor age and both 1-year graft failure and primary graft dysfunction. The rate of 1-year graft failure was similar among recipients of lungs from donors age 18–64 years, but severely ill recipients (LAS > 47.7 or use of mechanical ventilation) of lungs from donors age 56–64 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (p-values for interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Recipients of lungs from donors <18 and ≥65 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.01–1.50 and adjusted hazard ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.47–3.15, respectively). Donor age was not associated with the risk of primary graft dysfunction. In summary, the use of lungs from donors age 56–64 years may be safe for adult candidates without a high LAS, and the use of lungs from pediatric donors is associated with a small increase in early graft failure. PMID:24034167

  3. Frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianju Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. METHODS: This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls with an average age of 6 years (range, 3-10 years with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. RESULTS: The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%; the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%; blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. CONCLUSION: Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results.

  4. Effect of in vitro aging on the flexural strength and probability to fracture of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics for all-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarampi, Eleni; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Voyiatzis, George A; Zorba, Triantafillia; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Dental zirconia restorations should present long-term clinical survival and be in service within the oral environment for many years. However, low temperature degradation could affect their mechanical properties and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in vitro aging on the flexural strength of yttrium-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics for ceramic restorations. One hundred twenty bar-shaped specimens were prepared from two ceramics (ZENO Zr (WI) and IPS e.max(®) ZirCAD (IV)), and loaded until fracture according to ISO 6872. The specimens from each ceramic (nx=60) were divided in three groups (control, aged for 5h, aged for 10h). One-way ANOVA was used to assess statistically significant differences among flexural strength values (Pceramics, however statistically significant was for the WI group (Pceramics presented a t→m phase transformation, with the m-phase increasing from 4 to 5% at 5h to around 15% after 10h. The significant reduction of the flexural strength after 10h of in vitro aging, suggests high fracture probability for one of the zirconia ceramics tested. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-associated declines in muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance: impact on fear of falling and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, A; Reid, K F; Hars, M; Herrmann, F R; Pasha, E; Phillips, E M; Fielding, R A

    2016-02-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study among older adults showed that declining muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are independent contributing factors to increased fear of falling, while declines of muscle mass and physical performance contribute to deterioration of quality of life. Our findings reinforce the importance of preserving muscle health with advancing age. The age-associated loss of skeletal muscle quantity and function are critical determinants of independent physical functioning in later life. Longitudinal studies investigating how decrements in muscle components of sarcopenia impact fear of falling (FoF) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults are lacking. Twenty-six healthy older subjects (age, 74.1 ± 3.7; Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score ≥10) and 22 mobility-limited older subjects (age, 77.2 ± 4.4; SPPB score ≤9) underwent evaluations of lower extremity muscle size and composition by computed tomography, strength and power, and physical performance at baseline and after 3-year follow-up. The Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) were also administered at both timepoints to assess FoF and QoL, respectively. At 3-year follow-up, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (p power decreased (p muscle CSA, strength and power, and SPPB score were associated with increased FES score (p muscle CSA (p muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance contribute independently to increase FoF, while declines of muscle mass and physical performance contribute to deterioration of QoL. These findings provide further rationale for developing interventions to improve aging muscle health.

  6. Influence of spinal sagittal alignment, body balance, muscle strength, and physical ability on falling of middle-aged and elderly males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Wakao, Norimitsu; Seki, Taisuke; Hirano, Kenichi; Muramoto, Akio; Sakai, Yoshihito; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors for falling in elderly people remain uncertain, and the effects of spinal factors and physical ability on body balance and falling have not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate how factors such as spinal sagittal alignment, spinal range of motion, body balance, muscle strength, and gait speed influence falling in the prospective cohort study. The subjects were 100 males who underwent a basic health checkup. Balance, SpinalMouse(®) data, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, lumbar lateral standing radiographs, body mass index, and fall history over the previous year were examined. Platform measurements of balance included the distance of movement of the center of pressure (COP) per second (LNG/TIME), the envelopment area traced by movement of the COP (E AREA), and the LNG/E AREA ratio. The thoracic/lumbar angle ratio (T/L ratio) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were used as an index of sagittal balance. LNG/TIME and E AREA showed significant positive correlations with age, T/L ratio, SVA, and 10-m gait time; and significant negative correlations with lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength and back muscle strength. Multiple regression analysis showed significant differences for LNG/TIME and E AREA with T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle and sacral inclination angle (R (2) = 0.399). Twelve subjects (12 %) had experienced a fall over the past year. Age, T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, height of the intervertebral disc, osteophyte formation in radiographs and LNG/E AREA differed significantly between fallers and non-fallers. The group with SVA > 40 mm (n = 18) had a significant higher number of subjects with a single fall (6 single fallers/18: p = 0.0075) and with multiple falls (4 multiple fallers/18: p = 0.0095). Good spinal sagittal alignment, muscle strength and 10-m gait speed improve body balance

  7. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  8. Effect of composite surface treatment and aging on the bond strength between a core build-up composite and a luting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes, Caroline; Cardoso, Mayra; Melo, Renata Marques de; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between composite core and resin cement. Eighty blocks (8×8×4 mm) were prepared with core build-up composite. The cementation surface was roughened with 120-grit carbide paper and the blocks were thermocycled (5,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a 30 s dwell time in each bath). A layer of temporary luting agent was applied. After 24 h, the layer was removed, and the blocks were divided into five groups, according to surface treatment: (NT) No treatment (control); (SP) Grinding with 120-grit carbide paper; (AC) Etching with 37% phosphoric acid; (SC) Sandblasting with 30 mm SiO2 particles, silane application; (AO) Sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 particles, silane application. Two composite blocks were cemented to each other (n=8) and sectioned into sticks. Half of the specimens from each block were immediately tested for microtensile bond strength (µTBS), while the other half was subjected to storage for 6 months, thermocycling (12,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 s in each bath) and µTBS test in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). The µTBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (p=0.007) and thermocycling (p=0.000). Before aging, the SP group presented higher bond strength when compared to NT and AC groups, whereas all the other groups were statistically similar. After aging, all the groups were statistically similar. SP submitted to thermocycling showed lower bond strength than SP without thermocycling. Core composites should be roughened with a diamond bur before the luting process. Thermocycling tends to reduce the bond strength between composite and resin cement.

  9. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  10. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  11. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early signs of pathological cognitive aging in mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eKonsolaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. Α deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-, which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioural signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviours, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm and extend the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments, manifested in both spatial learning and recognition memory tasks. In addition, we reveal deficits in spontaneous behaviour and habituation processes earlier in life. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioural examination of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioural changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  13. Analysis of human dentition from Early Bronze Age: 4000-year-old puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystańska, Agnieszka; Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota; Abreu-Głowacka, Monica; Glapiński, Mariusz; Sroka, Alicja; Rewekant, Artur; Hyrchała, Anna; Bartecki, Bartłomiej; Żaba, Czesław; Kulczyk, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the first ever paleodontological investigation of human remains from an archeological site in Central Europe dating from the Early Bronze Age and attributed to the Strzyzow Culture. It corroborates the knowledge gained from archeological, anthropological and genetical investigations. Our study aimed to assess dental status, dental morphology and dental pathologies as well as tooth wear and enamel hypoplasia based on visual inspection and stereomicroscopic investigation. The research was supported by CBCT imaging to obtain digital images and 3D reconstructions as well as 2D radiographs essential for dental age estimation. All of the 191 teeth discovered showed morphological similarity, with adult teeth showing similar color, shape and size. A maxillary molar presenting with a unique root morphology and a mandibular molar with a rare occlusal surface were found. Both permanent and deciduous dentition presented significant tooth wear. A few specimens displayed signs of dental caries, periapical pathology and antemortem tooth loss. Three individuals exhibited linear enamel hypoplasia. CBCT provided high-quality 2D images useful for dental age estimation by non-destructive methods. Estimated dental age correlated with the age estimated by other anthropological methods. In one case, this was crucial because of insufficient material for anthropological analysis. The presented studies have proved that besides the skeleton, teeth can be used as a fundamental tool in assessing the overall health and living conditions of paleopopulations. It would seem that there is potential for considerable development to be made in the research and investigation of paleodontological material using CBCT.

  14. Muscle strength, power and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with bone mineral density in men aged 31-60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas; Nielsen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    -respiratory fitness with BMD at the spine and hip in men. RESULTS: The association between independent variables maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)), leg power and hand grip strength, and dependent variables BMD at the spine and total hip was explored in a series of linear regression models successively adjusted.......011) with BMD at total hip. CONCLUSIONS: We found that cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with BMD in men. Furthermore, hand grip strength and leg power were associated with increasing BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip in men, respectively. Further prospective studies are needed to further investigate...

  15. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... foundation in research in VIA-strengths by Seligman & Peterson (2004) and in research on strengths by Linley (2008). Based on this research the VIA-test was created for adults and later for children and youths from the age of 10. For children younger than 10 years of age Peterson & Park (2011) have made...... interviews with the parents. For younger children there has been no possibility to test for strengths. In a Danish PhD project a tool to map children’s strengths was needed for children aged 6-16 and with permission from the VIA-institute ‘The Strength Compass’ was made in cooperation with The Danish...

  16. Effect of diclofenac on cyclooxygenase-2 levels and early breaking strength of experimental colonic anastomoses and skin incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M; Krarup, P-M; Ågren, M S

    2011-01-01

    of diclofenac 4 mg/kg/day on the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme in the anastomotic tissue and on the breaking strength of anastomotic and incisional wounds. The operation was performed with colonic resection and hand-sewn anastomosis. After 3 days, the rats were sacrificed and the breaking strength and the COX......-2 content of the anastomosis were measured. Results: There was a significantly reduced level of COX-2 in the rats treated with diclofenac (p = 0.001); no significant differences in any of the breaking strength measurements and no significant correlation between COX-2 levels and breaking strength...... of the anastomotic or incisional wounds could be found (p = 0.073 and p = 0.727). Conclusion: This study for the first time showed that a diclofenac dose of 4 mg/kg/24 h was sufficient to reduce the level of COX-2 enzymes in the anastomotic tissue in rats. This inhibition of the inflammatory response did not lead...

  17. Insight on the anatomy, systematic relationships, and age of the Early Cretaceous ankylopollexian dinosaur Dakotadon lakotaensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Clint A; Pagnac, Darrin C

    2015-01-01

    Lakota Formation. Those data, combined with recently revised ages for the members of the Lakota Formation based on charophyte and ostracod biostratigraphy, constrain the age of this taxon to the late Valanginian to early Barremian.

  18. Insight on the anatomy, systematic relationships, and age of the Early Cretaceous ankylopollexian dinosaur Dakotadon lakotaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint A. Boyd

    2015-09-01

    equivalent of the Lakota Formation. Those data, combined with recently revised ages for the members of the Lakota Formation based on charophyte and ostracod biostratigraphy, constrain the age of this taxon to the late Valanginian to early Barremian.

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  20. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-29

    Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Boys' adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95% CI: -2.22 - 0.28) than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95% CI: 0.14 - 2.51) and 3.10 points (95% CI: 1.82-4.38) higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys' adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95% CI: 0.95 - 3.94) and 3.68 points (95% CI: 2.36 - 5.01), respectively. There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  1. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  2. Allergen-specific IL-5 responses in early childhood predict asthma at age eight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Weber-Chrysochoou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pattern of development of allergen-specific T cell cytokine responses in early childhood and their relation to later disease is poorly understood. Here we describe longitudinal changes in allergen-stimulated T cell cytokine responses and their relation to asthma and allergic disease during the first 8 years of life. METHODS: Subjects with a family history of asthma, who were enrolled antenatally in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (public trials registration number ACTRN12605000042640, had skin prick tests, clinical evaluation for asthma and eczema, and in vitro assessment of T cell cytokine responses to HDM extract performed at ages 18 months (n = 281, 3 years (n = 349, 5 years (n = 370 and 8 years (n = 275. We measured interleukin (IL- 13 at 3, 5 and 8 years, and IL-5, IL-10, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, at 18 months, 3, 5 and 8 years by ELISA. A cohort analysis was undertaken. Independent effects of cytokine responses at each age on the risk of asthma and allergic outcomes at age 8 years were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: HDM-specific IL-5 responses increased with age. HDM-specific IL-13 and IL-10 responses peaked at age 5 years. HDM-specific IL-5 responses at 3 years, 5 years and 8 years were significantly associated with the presence of asthma and atopy at 8 years. IL-13 responses at 3 years, 5 years and 8 years were significantly associated with atopy at 8 years, but this association was not independent of the effect of IL-5. Other HDM-specific cytokine responses were not independently related to asthma or eczema at 8 years. CONCLUSION: HDM-specific IL-5 responses at age 3 years or later are the best measure of T cell function for predicting asthma at age 8 years.

  3. Measurement of volume change in cementitious materials at early ages - Review of testing protocols and interpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lura, Pietro; Weiss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks, pavements, and superstructure elements has served as the impetus for substantial research on early-age shrinkage in cementitious materials. Much of this research has indicated how mixture proportions, constituent materials, and construction operations...... measurement in a rigid mold, and the ASTM C 157 standard. The results of the autogenous and chemical shrinkage tests are compared with one another to describe fully early-age length change. It is shown that through careful experimentation and interpretation, the results of these tests can be completely...

  4. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  5. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M

    1991-01-01

    the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were interviewed...... by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced frequency...

  6. Notes about the Early Bronze Age site of “Grotta dei Banditi”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pacciarelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Grotta dei Banditi is a cave located in the Vena del Gesso Romagnola (a Miocenic Gypsum Geological Formation near Brisighella. Excavations made in 1973 have revealed a thick stratum (from 1,30 to about 3 meters, in which have been found stratified hearths and abundant finds of the Early Bronze Age. The pottery may be assigned to an advanced – but probably not final – stage of this period, according with a 14C date (1890-1750 BC 1 ?.

  7. The Agro Pontino region, refuge after the Early Bronze Age Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy?

    OpenAIRE

    Bakels, C.; Sevink, J.; Kuijper, W.; Kamermans, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was discovered that the Middle to Late Holocene infi ll of the Agro Pontino graben (Central Italy) held a tephra layer originating from the Avellino eruption of the Vesuvius volcano. The eruption is dated to 1995 ± 10 calBC and took therefore place during the Early Bronze Age. This was a violent eruption, covering large parts of Campania, the region in which the volcano is situated, with its ashes. The local population had time to fl ee, but did not return for a period of h...

  8. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  9. The efficiency of attentional networks in early and late bilinguals: the role of age of acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lily; Marzecová, Anna; Taft, Marcus; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Wodniecka, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a bilingual advantage in the efficiency of executive attention. A question remains, however, about the impact of the age of L2 acquisition and relative balance of the two languages on the enhancement of executive functions in bilinguals, and whether this is modulated by the similarity of the bilingual's two languages. The present study explores these issues by comparing the efficiency of attentional networks amongst three groups of young adults living in Australia: English monolinguals and early and late Chinese-English bilinguals. We also address the impact of bilingualism on hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions, which is of interest since a recent study on early bilinguals revealed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in attentional functioning. In the present study, participants performed a modified version of the lateralized attention network test. Both early and late bilinguals were found to have more efficient executive network than monolinguals. The late bilinguals, who were also reported to be more balanced in the proficiency and usage of their two languages, showed the greatest advantage in conflict resolution, whereas early bilinguals seemed to show enhanced monitoring processes. These group differences were observed when controlling for non-verbal intelligence and socioeconomic status. Such results suggest that specific factors of language experience may differentially influence the mechanisms of cognitive control. Since the bilinguals had distinct language sets, it seems that the influence of bilingualism on executive functions is present regardless of the similarity between the two languages. As for hemispheric lateralization, although the results were not clear-cut, they suggest the reduced lateralization in early bilinguals.

  10. The efficiency of attentional networks in early and late bilinguals: the role of age of acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily eTao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a bilingual advantage in the efficiency of executive attention. A question remains, however, about the impact of the age of L2 acquisition and relative balance of the two languages on the enhancement of executive functions in bilinguals, and whether this is modulated by the similarity of the bilingual’s two languages. The present study explores these issues by comparing the efficiency of attentional networks amongst three groups of young adults living in Australia: English monolinguals and early and late Chinese-English bilinguals. We also address the impact of bilingualism on hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions, which is of interest since a recent study on early bilinguals revealed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in attentional functioning. In the present study, participants performed a modified version of the lateralized attention network test (LANT. Both early and late bilinguals were found to have more efficient executive network than monolinguals. The late bilinguals, who were also reported to be more balanced in the proficiency and usage of their two languages, showed the greatest advantage in conflict resolution, whereas early bilinguals seemed to show enhanced monitoring processes. These group differences were observed when controlling for nonverbal intelligence and socioeconomic status. Such results suggest that specific factors of language experience may differentially influence the mechanisms of cognitive control. Since the bilinguals had distinct language sets, it seems that the influence of bilingualism on executive functions is present regardless of the similarity between the two languages. As for hemispheric lateralization, although the results were not clear-cut, they suggest the reduced lateralization in early bilinguals.

  11. Relationship between Retinal Layer Thickness and the Visual Field in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Jennifer H.; Smith, R. Theodore; Hood, Donald C.; Greenstein, Vivienne C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify and compare the structural and functional changes in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and microperimetry. Methods. Twenty-one eyes of 21 subjects with early AMD were examined. MP-1 10-2 visual fields (VFs) and SD-OCT line and detail volume scans were acquired. The thicknesses of the outer segment (OS; distance between inner segment ellipsoid band and upper retinal pigment epithelium [RPE] border) and RPE layers and elevation of the RPE from Bruch's membrane were measured using a computer-aided manual segmentation technique. Thickness values were compared with those for 15 controls, and values at locations with VF total deviation defects were compared with values at nondefect locations at equivalent eccentricities. Results. Sixteen of 21 eyes with AMD had VF defects. Compared with controls, line scans showed significant thinning of the OS layer (P = 0.006) and thickening and elevation of the RPE (P = 0.037, P = 0.002). The OS layer was significantly thinner in locations with VF defects compared with locations without defects (P = 0.003). There was a negligible difference between the retinal layer thickness values of the 5 eyes without VF defects and the values of normal controls. Conclusions. In early AMD, when VF defects were present, there was significant thinning of the OS layer and thickening and elevation of the RPE. OS layer thinning was significantly associated with decreased visual sensitivity, consistent with known photoreceptor loss in early AMD. For AMD subjects without VF defects, thickness values were normal. The results highlight the clinical utility of both SD-OCT retinal layer quantification and VF testing in early AMD. PMID:23074210

  12. Mid-Paleozoic age of granitoids in enclaves within early Cretaceous granulites, Fiordland, southwest New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J.Y.; Kimbrough, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Orthogneisses of granite, quartz monzonite, monzonite, and tonalite, occur locally as isolated enclaves within the Early Cretaceous granulite terrain (Western Fiordland Orthogneiss - WFO). Discordant U-Pb zircon isotopic data (seven fractions) from four granitoid samples from enclaves at George Sound, define an upper intecept age of 341??34 Ma that is interpreted as approximating the time of formation of the granitoid suite. The lower intercept age of 93??37 Ma is interpreted as approximating the time of zircon isotopic disturbance by major episodic Pb loss. The low 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratio indicates that these mid-Paleozoic granitoids were derived from an isotopically primitive source. The granitoid enclaves within WFO show influences of several different sources. The granitoids provide evidence linking WFO to a mid-Palaeozoic country rock similar to the central Fiordland metasediments. -from Authors

  13. Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-08-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.

  14. Apparent Activation Energy of Concrete in Early Age Determined by Adiabatic Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The apparent activation energy of concrete in early age was determined by adiabatic temperature rise test with different initial temperatures. The influence of mineral admixtures such as fly ash, slag and silica fume on the apparent activation energy of concrete was investigated. The equivalent age that expresses the maturity of concrete was calculated to evaluate the cracking risk of concrete in structures. The results reveal that a substitution of 20% fly ash for Portland cement obviously decreases the apparent activation energy of concrete, however, a substitution of 10% silica fume for Portland cement increases the apparent activation. Finite element method analysis of a simulating concrete wall shows that the concrete containing 20% fly ash has the lowest cracking risk.

  15. 女性肌肉力量与增龄性骨量变化的相关性研究%Study on Correlation between Muscle Strength and Ageing Changes of Bone Mineral Content of Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍骥

    2015-01-01

    of one repetition maximum ,weight‐bearing elbow flexion of fifteen repetition maximum ,bench press of fifteen repetition maximum ,weight‐bearing squat of one repetition maximum ,unarmed squat ,squat of fifteen repetition maximum ,lifting leg ,plank ,body compo‐sition ,BMD of the whole body ,bilateral forearms ,lumbar and both femoral neck’s .Results :Compared with older women ,the muscle content of young and middle‐aged women is higher and fat content is lower .Different parts of the body BMD and one rep max were highest in 30~ 39 age group ,then declined year by year .The maximum muscle strength and muscle strength endurance of weight‐bearing elbow flexion and bench press in 20~39 age group put up with the whole body ,lumbar BMD was very significant (P<0 .01) ,and the correlation co‐efficient of whole body BMD and maximum muscle strength was greater than muscle strength endurance .The number of lifting leg on 40 ~ 49 age group had significant correlation with BMD of the whole body and lumbar ,correlation coefficient was 0 .496 ,0 .483 .In more than 50 age group ,the BMD was significantly with body fat percentage and no significant with mus‐cle strength .Conclusions :1) Muscle content had a greater influence to the BMD of young and middle‐aged women .Fat content had a greater influence to the BMD of older women .2) There was significantly associated between arm ,shoulder straps ,chest ,back muscle strength and sys‐temic ,local BMD in young and middle‐aged women .It will improve BMD and slow BMD loss for this part of muscle strengthening .3) In the development of muscle strength and bone loss when early intervention ,young and middle‐aged women should do maximum muscle strength exercise in the dynamic strength .The older women should do muscular endurance exercise in the dynamic strength .

  16. Resting-state fMRI evidence for early episodic memory consolidation: effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolja, Juraj; Göreci, D Yasemin; Onur, Özgür A; Riedl, Valentin; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-09-01

    Aging-related episodic memory decline is often attributed to insufficient encoding of new information, although the underlying neural processes remain elusive. We here tested the hypothesis that impaired memory consolidation contributes to aging-related memory decline. To this end, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and older adults and investigated neural network connectivity underlying episodic memory consolidation and the effects of aging thereon. During postencoding rest, connectivity increased in subregions of temporobasal and temporo-occipital networks but decreased in a precuneal network. These connectivity changes predicted subsequent memory performance thereby constituting functional correlates of early memory consolidation. Furthermore, these consolidation-related regional connectivity changes partially overlapped with encoding-related neural activity changes, suggesting a close relationship between encoding- and consolidation-related activity. Older when compared to young participants failed to increase connectivity in the right lingual gyrus as part of an extended default mode network during consolidation, thereby providing a functional correlate for spatial contextual memory deficits. In conclusion, results are consistent with previous reports of persistent activity in regions mediating memory encoding as a core mechanism underlying episodic memory consolidation. Our data extend previous findings suggesting that aging-related memory decline results from a reduction of consolidation processes.

  17. Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Early complement activation increases in the brain in some aged normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, David A; Camp, Dianne M; Schonberger, Michael B; Singer, Daniel J; LeWitt, Peter A

    2004-09-01

    Complement activation is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to the development and progression of this disorder. To compare early complement activation between normal and AD brain specimens, C4d and iC3b concentrations were measured in hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum from aged normal and AD subjects n=10-14 for both), and in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex from younger normal subjects (n=5-6). C4d and iC3b levels increased 2.3- to 4.6-fold in AD versus aged normal specimens (all P hippocampus or entorhinal cortex. However, the concentrations of these proteins were markedly increased in several aged normal specimens. Normal subject age was moderately associated with both C4d (r=0.49) and iC3b (r=0.53) concentrations in the hippocampus. Increased brain complement activation in some elderly individuals may promote the subsequent development of AD.

  19. Precipitation and clustering in the early stages of ageing in Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Talukder, E-mail: talukder.alam@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chaturvedi, Mahesh [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6 (Canada); Ringer, Simon P.; Cairney, Julie M. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} IN718 could be age hardened rapidly by secondary phase formation. {yields} Co-located phases were observed in the earliest stage of detection. {yields} Clustering of Ti/Al and Nb atoms was observed prior to precipitation. - Abstract: In this report we investigate the onset and evolution of precipitation in the early stages of ageing in the alloy WE 91, a variant of the Ni-Fe-Cr superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718). Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to study the size and volume fraction of {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates and the extent of pre-precipitate clustering of Al/Ti and Nb. Co-located {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates were observed from the shortest ageing times that precipitates could be visualised using atom probe. At shorter times, prior to the observation of precipitates, clustering of Al/Ti and Nb was shown to occur. The respective volume fraction of the {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates and the clustering of Al/Ti and Nb suggest that {gamma}'' nucleates prior to {gamma}' during ageing at 706 deg. C for this alloy.

  20. Evolution of pancreas in aging: degenerative variation or early changes of disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarojanasiri, Tanyaporn; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic changes in aging have been described for many decades. They involve not only pancreatic parenchyma but also pancreatic ductal, microscopic, and exocrine functional changes. There have been many studies of these changes based on pathology and various imaging modalities, as well as functional studies. The pancreatic volume was found to decrease with advancing age, with a higher incidence of pancreatic steatosis, as demonstrated in autopsy and imaging studies. The pancreatic ductal structure has been described with wide ranges of normal variation, but many studies have shown a tendency toward enlargement with advancing age. By endoscopic ultrasound imaging, the aging pancreas may exhibit abnormal findings similar to chronic pancreatitis. Microscopically, there has been evidence of patchy lobular fibrosis and papillary hyperplasia and demonstrable k-ras mutation in both normal and dysplastic ductal mucosa. The evidence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency has yielded conflicting results, but most studies have shown a tendency toward decreased pancreatic exocrine function in the elderly. Differentiating pancreatic change in the elderly from early chronic pancreatitis may be difficult as there are limited studies to compare these two conditions in terms of structural and functional changes.

  1. Biomarker Validation for Aging: Lessons from mtDNA Heteroplasmy Analyses in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Barker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated biological and clinical utility of biomarkers has attracted significant interest recently. Aging and early cancer detection represent areas active in the search for predictive and prognostic biomarkers. While applications differ, overlapping biological features, analytical technologies and specific biomarker analytes bear comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as a biomarker in both biological models has been evaluated. However, it remains unclear whether mtDNA changes in aging and cancer represent biological relationships that are causal, incidental, or a combination of both. This article focuses on evaluation of mtDNA-based biomarkers, emerging strategies for quantitating mtDNA admixtures, and how current understanding of mtDNA in aging and cancer evolves with introduction of new technologies. Whether for cancer or aging, lessons from mtDNA based biomarker evaluations are several. Biological systems are inherently dynamic and heterogeneous. Detection limits for mtDNA sequencing technologies differ among methods for low-level DNA sequence admixtures in healthy and diseased states. Performance metrics of analytical mtDNA technology should be validated prior to application in heterogeneous biologically-based systems. Critical in evaluating biomarker performance is the ability to distinguish measurement system variance from inherent biological variance, because it is within the latter that background healthy variability as well as high-value, disease-specific information reside.

  2. Gender and age interact to affect early outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odera Umeano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a common and devastating form of cerebrovascular disease. In ICH, gender differences in outcomes remain relatively understudied but have been examined in other neurological emergencies. Further, a potential effect of age and gender on outcomes after ICH has not been explored. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that age and gender interact to modify neurological outcomes after ICH. METHODS: Adult patients admitted with spontaneous primary supratentorial ICH from July 2007 through April 2010 were assessed via retrospective analysis of an existing stroke database at Duke University. Univariate analysis of collected variables was used to compare gender and outcome. Unfavorable outcome was defined as discharge to hospice or death. Using multivariate regression, the combined effect of age and gender on outcome after ICH was analyzed. RESULTS: In this study population, women were younger (61.1+14.5 versus 65.8+17.3 years, p=0.03 and more likely to have a history of substance abuse (35% versus 8.9%, p<0.0001 compared to men. Multivariable models demonstrated that advancing age had a greater effect on predicting discharge outcome in women compared to men (p=0.02. For younger patients, female sex was protective; however, at ages greater than 60 years, female sex was a risk factor for discharge to hospice or death. CONCLUSION: While independently associated with discharge to hospice or death after ICH, the interaction effect between gender and age demonstrated significantly stronger correlation with early outcome after ICH in a single center cohort. Prospective study is required to verify these findings.

  3. Effect of various Portland cement paste compositions on early-age strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Alana G.

    Early-age strain in paste, mortar, and concrete mixtures was investigated using a new method where the specimen shape was a cone frustum. Strain of the specimen from both the horizontal and vertical directions was captured by height change measurement. The volumetric strain was then calculated as a function of the height change and was plotted versus time. A correlation was found between the slopes of the volumetric strain curve resulting from this test method and the initial setting time of the tested material. An initial evaluation of the repeatability of this innovative test method was conducted. The early-age strain effects of aggregate volume, shrinkage reducing admixture, water-cementitious ratio (w/cm), and partial cement replacement with supplementary cementitious materials were tested and individually compared. From these comparisons, it was observed that ambient temperature, bleed water development, and rheological properties had a significant impact on the volumetric strain results. Data showed increased strain as aggregate volume was reduced and as the w/cm was changed from 0.25 up to 0.50. The addition of shrinkage reducing admixture generally caused an increase in the 36-hour volumetric strain value. In most of the mixtures, cement replacement with 20% fly ash or 10% metakaolin reduced the measured volumetric strain when the w/cm was 0.30. Replacement of cement with 10% silica fume caused an insignificant change in volumetric strain results.

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of verbal fluency in early Alzheimer's disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Aranda, Claudia; Waterloo, Knut; Johnsen, Stein Harald; Eldevik, Petter; Sparr, Sigurd; Wikran, Gry C; Herder, Marit; Vangberg, Torgil Riise

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency (VF) impairments occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to a lesser extent also in normal aging. However, the neural underpinnings of these impairments are not fully understood. The present study evaluated whether VF impairments in early AD and normal aging rely upon common or different neuroanatomical correlates. We examined the association between VF performance and brain structure in 18 mild AD patients and 24 healthy elderly. Linear regressions were performed between accuracy and time intervals in VF scores and structural measurements of cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using MRI. Results showed that semantic VF correlated exclusively with GM in cerebellum, left temporal fusiform cortex, and WM in uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and corpus callosum. Phonemic VF showed unique associations between intervals and WM in left-hemisphere tracts. The association between GM in hippocampus, subcortical structures and semantic accuracy differentiated patients from controls. Results showed that VF impairments are primarily associated with same structural brain changes in AD as in healthy elderly but at exaggerated levels. However, specific VF deficiencies and their underlying neural correlates exist and these clearly differentiate the initial stages of AD.

  5. Early onset polymyalgia rheumatica: two rare cases under age of 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinyoung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Rehabilitation Institute of Neuromuscular Disease, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Duk Hyun [Samsung Medical Center, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is almost an exclusive disease of adults over the age of 50, and only a few cases have been reported. Two 46-year-old females visited our locomotor pain clinic with multiple joint pain with increased acute phase reactants. Rheumatologic markers, and HLA-B27 were checked. Serum protein electrophoresis and serum immunofixation electrophoresis, imaging studies including plane image, sonography, and magnetic resonance image was done. {sup 18}F-Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) showed characteristic findings of PMR, without evidences of sacroiliitis. Since PMR can develop in mid 40s, a high index of suspicion is necessary in younger patients presenting the bilateral pain in shoulders, hips, and back, with elevated acute phase reactants. Furthermore, in addition to the previous case reports, FDG-PET/CT is helpful in making early differential diagnosis of PMR in patients under the age of 50. Here we present two cases of PMR onset in the mid-40s emphasizing the importance of diagnostic imaging for early differential diagnosis in PMR. (orig.)

  6. Trichotomous processes in early memory development, aging, and neurocognitive impairment: a unified theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Howe, M L

    2009-10-01

    One of the most extensively investigated topics in the adult memory literature, dual memory processes, has had virtually no impact on the study of early memory development. The authors remove the key obstacles to such research by formulating a trichotomous theory of recall that combines the traditional dual processes of recollection and familiarity with a reconstruction process. The theory is then embedded in a hidden Markov model that measures all 3 processes with low-burden tasks that are appropriate for even young children. These techniques are applied to a large corpus of developmental studies of recall, yielding stable findings about the emergence of dual memory processes between childhood and young adulthood and generating tests of many theoretical predictions. The techniques are extended to the study of healthy aging and to the memory sequelae of common forms of neurocognitive impairment, resulting in a theoretical framework that is unified over 4 major domains of memory research: early development, mainstream adult research, aging, and neurocognitive impairment. The techniques are also extended to recognition, creating a unified dual process framework for recall and recognition.

  7. Genetic risk factors for myocardial infarction more clearly manifest for early age of first onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Boris V; Osmak, German J; Matveeva, Natalia A; Kukava, Nino G; Shakhnovich, Roman M; Favorov, Alexander V; Ruda, Mikhail Ya; Favorova, Olga O

    2017-07-06

    Epidemiological genetics established that heritability in determining the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is substantially greater when MI occurs early in life. However, the genetic architecture of early-onset and late-onset MI was not compared. We analyzed genotype frequencies of SNPs in/near 20 genes whose protein products are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in two groups of Russian patients with MI: the first group included patients with age of first MI onset <60 years (N = 230) and the second group with onset ≥60 years (N = 174). The control group of corresponding ethnicity consisted of 193 unrelated volunteers without cardiovascular diseases (93 individuals were over 60 years). We found that in the group of patients with age of onset <60 years, SNPs FGB rs1800788*T, TGFB1 rs1982073*T/T, ENOS rs2070744*C and CRP rs1130864*T/T were associated with risk of MI, whereas in patients with age of onset ≥60 years, only TGFB1 rs1982073*T/T was associated with risk of MI. Using APSampler software, we found composite markers associated with MI only in patients with early onset: FGB rs1800788*T + TGFB1 rs1982073*T; FGB rs1800788*T + LPL rs328*C + IL4 rs2243250*C; FGB rs1800788*T + ENOS rs2070744*C (Fisher p values of 1.4 × 10(-6) to 2.2 × 10(-5); the permutation p values of 1.1 × 10(-5) to 3.0 × 10(-4); ORs = 2.67-2.54). Alleles included in the combinations were associated with MI less significantly and with lower ORs than the combinations themselves. The result showed a substantially greater contribution of the genetic component in the development of MI if it occurs early in life, and demonstrated the usefulness of genetic testing for young people.

  8. Metabolic profiling uncovers a phenotypic signature of small for gestational age in early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Richard P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications and diabetes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that the etiology of SGA is usually associated with poor placental vascular development in early pregnancy. We examined metabolomic profiles using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in three independent studies: (a) venous cord plasma from normal and SGA babies, (b) plasma from a rat model of placental insufficiency and controls, and (c) early pregnancy peripheral plasma samples from women who subsequently delivered a SGA baby and controls. Multivariate analysis by cross-validated Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of all 3 studies showed a comprehensive and similar disruption of plasma metabolism. A multivariate predictive model combining 19 metabolites produced by a Genetic Algorithm-based search program gave an Odds Ratio for developing SGA of 44, with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve of 0.9. Sphingolipids, phospholipids, carnitines, and fatty acids were among this panel of metabolites. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of SGA offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  9. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila eLoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats showed a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age-and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

  10. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship....

  11. Effect of conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of phosphate monomer-based cement on zirconia ceramic in dry and aged conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Balducci, Ivan; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the durability of bond strength between a resin cement and aluminous ceramic submitted to various surface conditioning methods. Twenty-four blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm(3)) of a glass-infiltrated zirconia-alumina ceramic (In-Ceram Zirconia Classic) were randomly divided into three surface treatment groups: ST1-Air-abrasion with 110-mum Al2O3 particles + silanization; ST2-Laboratory tribochemical silica coating method (110-microm Al2O3, 110-microm silica) (Rocatec) + silanization; ST3-Chairside tribochemical silica coating method (30-microm SiO(x)) (CoJet) + silanization. Each treated ceramic block was placed in its silicone mold with the treated surface exposed. The resin cement (Panavia F) was prepared and injected into the mold over the treated surface. Specimens were sectioned to achieve nontrimmed bar specimens (14 sp/block) that were randomly divided into two conditions: (a) Dry-microtensile test after sectioning; (b) Thermocycling (TC)-(6,000x, 5-55 degrees C) and water storage (150 days). Thus, six experimental groups were obtained (n = 50): Gr1-ST1 + dry; Gr2-ST1 + TC(;) Gr3-ST2 + dry; Gr4-ST2 + TC; Gr5-ST3 + dry; Gr6-ST3 + TC. After microtensile testing, the failure types were noted. ST2 (25.1 +/- 11) and ST3 (24.1 +/- 7.4) presented statistically higher bond strength (MPa) than that of ST1 (17.5 +/- 8) regardless of aging conditions (p silanization showed durable bond strength. After aging, air-abrasion with 110-microm Al(2)O(3) + silanization showed the largest decrease indicating that aging is fundamental for bond strength testing for acid-resistant zirconia ceramics in order to estimate their long-term performance in the mouth.

  12. Ageing effect on swell, shrinkage and flexural strength of sand and waste marble powder stabilized expansive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oncu Serife

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soils in semi-arid climates must be mitigated to minimize potential structural damage to the overlying structures due to swell-shrink behavior caused by climatic changes. The expansive soil in this study was amended by sand which reduced the swell-shrink potential significantly. As a secondary additive, a waste by product of construction industry was selected, marble powder. Recycling this material would minimize its accumulation and covering a large space in landfill areas. In this study, waste material was assessed as a possible partial replacement for sand and due to its high calcite content, curing effect on its cementitious characteristic was also evaluated. It was observed that for mitigating the swell-shrink potential, 10% marble powder by dry mass was the optimum amount which was observed to gain improved characteristics with curing. The flexural strength, however, slightly reduced with marble powder addition, the soil mixture displayed a brittle behavior. Therefore the utilization of this material is recommended to be restricted to soils exposed to lower flexural loads, such as light traffic. The correlation between shrinkage strains and flexural strength parameters suggested herein, could be a potential empirical approach to predict the flexural strength based on shrinkage behavior.

  13. Early clinical signs in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy predict an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at age 6 hours

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Alan R; Swingler, George H; Myer, Landon; Linley, Lucy L; Raban, Moegammad S; Joolay, Yaseen; Harrison, Michael C; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Rhoda, Natasha R; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2013-01-01

    Background An early clinical score predicting an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) or moderate-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) may allow rapid triage of infants for therapeutic hypothermia. We aimed to determine if early clinical examination could predict either an abnormal aEEG at age 6 hours or moderate-severe HIE presenting within 72 hours of birth. Methods Sixty infants ≥ 36 weeks gestational age were prospectively enrolled following suspected intrapar...

  14. Effect of inflammation in the periodontium in early old age on mortality at 21-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Krustrup, Ulla;

    2009-01-01

    To analyze whether inflammatory processes in the periodontium in early old age are related to subsequent mortality during 21 years of follow-up in a nondisabled 70-year-old population.......To analyze whether inflammatory processes in the periodontium in early old age are related to subsequent mortality during 21 years of follow-up in a nondisabled 70-year-old population....

  15. Combined Effect of TLR2 Gene Polymorphism and Early Life Stress on the Age at Onset of Bipolar Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    José Oliveira; Bruno Etain; Mohamed Lajnef; Nora Hamdani; Meriem Bennabi; Djaouida Bengoufa; Aparna Sundaresh; Arij Ben Chaabane; Frank Bellivier; Chantal Henry; Jean-Pierre Kahn; Dominique Charron; Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy; Marion Leboyer; Ryad Tamouza

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions may play an important role in modulating the impact of early-life stressful events on the clinical course of bipolar disorder (BD), particularly associated to early age at onset. Immune dysfunction is thought to be an important mechanism linking childhood trauma with early-onset BD, thus the genetic diversity of immune-related loci may account for an important part of the interindividual susceptibility to this severe subform. Here we investigated the potential in...

  16. Automatic segmentation of the hippocampus for preterm neonates from early-in-life to term-equivalent age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: MAGeT-Brain is capable of segmenting hippocampi accurately in preterm neonates, even at early-in-life. Hippocampal asymmetry with a larger right side is demonstrated on early-in-life images, suggesting that this phenomenon has its onset in the 3rd trimester of gestation. Hippocampal volume assessed at the time of early-in-life and term-equivalent age is linearly associated with GA at birth, whereby smaller volumes are associated with earlier birth.

  17. The Metallurgy of the Sicilian Final Bronze Age/Early Iron Age necropolis of Madonna del Piano (Catania, Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis results of the copper- based finds, from the important Sicilian necropolis of Madonna del Piano, near Grammichele (Catania, dated between the local Final Bronze Age 2 and the Early Iron Age IA. 122 copper-based finds from the 273 graves (1970-71 of the large cemetery have been analysed. The sampled objects belong to different classes, there are for instance weapons of offence and defence, such as swords and greaves, small decorative objects for personal use, such as rings, fibulae, belt hooks, belt decorations, and small tools, such as the knives used by women, reels, needles and razors, but also small functional parts, such as rivets and nails, repairs and even a kind of musical instrument, such as the tintinnabula. The methods employed were AAS and SEM, where possible, and XRF in all cases. The aim of the research was that of evaluating the skill of the local artisans, of determining the most common copper-based alloys in use in Sicily in this period and comparing the data with the analysis results of contemporary groups of finds from other areas of the Italian peninsula and from other European regions.

    El artículo presenta el resultado de los análisis realizados a los metales de base cobre de la importante necrópolis siciliana de Madonna del Piano, próxima a Grammichele (Catania, fechada entre el Bronce Final 2 y la Primera Edad del Hierro IA. Se han estudiado un total de 122 objetos de base cobre procedentes de 273 tumbas excavadas entre 1970 y 1971. Los objetos muestreados pertenecen a diferentes tipos, armas ofensivas y defensivas tales como espadas y grebas, pequeños objetos de uso personal como anillos, fíbulas, broches de cinturón y pequeñas herramientas como cuchillos usados por las mujeres, carretes, agujas, navajas, pero también elementos funcionales como remaches, clavos y un tipo de instrumento como el tintinábulo. Los métodos de análisis utilizados fueron AAS y SEM, cuando fue

  18. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Early Thymus Involution--Manifestation of an Aging Program or a Program of Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyavkin, A V; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-12-01

    "I see no physical reason why it should not have been possible for life to construct ageless individuals", said Carl von Weizsacker in 1979 at the Conference on DNA. An obvious biological reason for senescence may be the action of a built-in aging program. Many gerontologists believe that early thymic involution is an argument in favor of the existence of such a program. On the other hand, this involution may be a result of the program of development rather than aging. According to the concepts of noninfectious immunology, the immune system of vertebrates is also designed for immune surveillance over initial tumor development and for tissue-specific regulation of cell proliferation both in ontogenesis and during physiological and reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. Natural anti-tissue autoantibodies are the main effectors of such regulation. Therefore, the number of inherited genes of the variable part of immunoglobulin (V-genes) is not less than the number of all proliferative-competent cell types (~100). For the same reason, the maximal rate of growth, which is usually observed in the prepubertal period, coincides with the maximal thymus index and the maximal number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells as well as the minimal force of mortality during ontogeny. Thus, the circa-pubertal beginning of thymic involution is probably caused by the programmed deceleration of the growth rate in ontogeny, and not by the early manifestation of an aging program. This approach allows us to understand the mechanism of the well-known antitumor effect of the regeneration process of the organ homologous to the tumor, and hence we can try to use it in practical oncology.

  20. Losing touch: age-related changes in plantar skin sensitivity, lower limb cutaneous reflex strength, and postural stability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ryan M; McKeown, Monica D; Carpenter, Mark G; Inglis, J Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Age-related changes in the density, morphology, and physiology of plantar cutaneous receptors negatively impact the quality and quantity of balance-relevant information arising from the foot soles. Plantar perceptual sensitivity declines with age and may predict postural instability; however, alteration in lower limb cutaneous reflex strength may also explain greater instability in older adults and has yet to be investigated. We replicated the age-related decline in sensitivity by assessing monofilament and vibrotactile (30 and 250 Hz) detection thresholds near the first metatarsal head bilaterally in healthy young and older adults. We additionally applied continuous 30- and 250-Hz vibration to drive mechanically evoked reflex responses in the tibialis anterior muscle, measured via surface electromyography. To investigate potential relationships between plantar sensitivity, cutaneous reflex strength, and postural stability, we performed posturography in subjects during quiet standing without vision. Anteroposterior and mediolateral postural stability decreased with age, and increases in postural sway amplitude and frequency were significantly correlated with increases in plantar detection thresholds. With 30-Hz vibration, cutaneous reflexes were observed in 95% of young adults but in only 53% of older adults, and reflex gain, coherence, and cumulant density at 30 Hz were lower in older adults. Reflexes were not observed with 250-Hz vibration, suggesting this high-frequency cutaneous input is filtered out by motoneurons innervating tibialis anterior. Our findings have important implications for assessing the risk of balance impairment in older adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Precipitation behavior during thin slab thermomechanical processing and isothermal aging of copper-bearing niobium-microalloyed high strength structural steels: The effect on mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Jia, Z. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); O' Malley, R. [Nucor Steel Decatur, LLC Sheet Mill, 4301, Iverson Blvd., Trinity, AL 35673 (United States); Jansto, S.J. [CBMM-Reference Metals Company, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Copper does not significantly influence toughness. {yields} Copper precipitation during aging occurs at dislocations. {yields} Precipitation of copper and carbides is mutually exclusive. - Abstract: We describe here the precipitation behavior of copper and fine-scale carbides during thermo-mechanical processing and isothermal aging of copper-bearing niobium-microalloyed high strength steels. During thermo-mechanical processing, precipitation of {epsilon}-copper occurs in polygonal ferrite and at the austenite-ferrite interface. In contrast, during isothermal aging, nucleation of {epsilon}-copper precipitation occurs at dislocations. In the three different chemistries investigated, the increase in strength associated with copper during aging results only in a small decrease in impact toughness, implying that copper precipitates do not seriously impair toughness, and can be considered as a viable strengthening element in microalloyed steels. Precipitation of fine-scale niobium carbides occurs extensively at dislocations and within ferrite matrix together with vanadium carbides. In the presence of titanium, titanium carbides act as a nucleus for niobium carbide formation. Irrespective of the nature of carbides, copper precipitates and carbides are mutually exclusive.

  2. Mid-thigh cortical bone structural parameters, muscle mass and strength, and association with lower limb fractures in older men and women (AGES-Reykjavik Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesdottir, Fjola; Aspelund, Thor; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Jonsson, Brynjolfur Y; Mogensen, Brynjolfur; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur G; Lang, Thomas F; Sigurdsson, Gunnar

    2012-05-01

    In a cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between muscle and bone parameters in the mid-thigh in older people using data from a single axial computed tomographic section through the mid-thigh. Additionally, we studied the association of these variables with incident low-trauma lower limb fractures. A total of 3,762 older individuals (1,838 men and 1,924 women), aged 66-96 years, participants in the AGES-Reykjavik study, were studied. The total cross-sectional muscular area and knee extensor strength declined with age similarly in both sexes. Muscle parameters correlated most strongly with cortical area and total shaft area (adjusted for age, height, and weight) but explained lower limb fractures. Small muscular area, low knee extensor strength, large MA, low cortical thickness, and high BR were significantly associated with fractures in both sexes. Our results show that bone and muscle loss proceed at different rates and with different gender patterns.

  3. Early Age-Related Functional Connectivity Decline in High-Order Cognitive Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Tali; Bosak, Noam; Sprecher, Elliot; Paz, Rotem; Eran, Ayelet; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Kahn, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    As the world ages, it becomes urgent to unravel the mechanisms underlying brain aging and find ways of intervening with them. While for decades cognitive aging has been related to localized brain changes, growing attention is now being paid to alterations in distributed brain networks. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) has become a particularly useful tool to explore large-scale brain networks; yet, the temporal course of connectivity lifetime changes has not been established. Here, an extensive cross-sectional sample (21–85 years old, N = 887) from a public fcMRI database was used to characterize adult lifespan connectivity dynamics within and between seven brain networks: the default mode, salience, dorsal attention, fronto-parietal control, auditory, visual and motor networks. The entire cohort was divided into young (21–40 years, mean ± SD: 25.5 ± 4.8, n = 543); middle-aged (41–60 years, 50.6 ± 5.4, n = 238); and old (61 years and above, 69.0 ± 6.3, n = 106) subgroups. Correlation matrices as well as a mixed model analysis of covariance indicated that within high-order cognitive networks a considerable connectivity decline is already evident by middle adulthood. In contrast, a motor network shows increased connectivity in middle adulthood and a subsequent decline. Additionally, alterations in inter-network interactions are noticeable primarily in the transition between young and middle adulthood. These results provide evidence that aging-related neural changes start early in adult life. PMID:28119599

  4. Isotopic constraints on the age and early differentiation of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, M T

    1996-03-01

    The Earth's age and early differentiation history are re-evaluated using updated isotopic constraints. From the most primitive terrestrial Pb isotopic compositions found at Isua Greenland, and the Pilbara of Western Australia, combined with precise geochronology of these localities, an age 4.49 +/- 0.02 Ga is obtained. This is interpreted as the mean age of core formation as U/Pb is fractionated due to sequestering of Pb into the Earth's core. The long-lived Rb-Sr isotopic system provides constraints on the time interval for the accretion of the Earth as Rb underwent significant depletion by volatile loss during accretion of the Earth or its precursor planetesimals. A primitive measured 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio of 0.700502 +/- 10 has been obtained for an early Archean (3.46 Ga) barite from the Pilbara Block of Western Australia. Using conservative models for the evolution of Rb/Sr in the early Archean mantle allows an estimate to be placed on the Earth's initial Sr ratio at approximately 4.50 Ga, of 0.69940 +/- 10. This is significantly higher than that measured for the Moon (0.69900 +/- 2) or in the achondrite, Angra dos Reis (0.69894 +/- 2) and for a Rb/Sr ratio of approximately 1/2 of chondrites corresponds to a mean age for accretion of the Earth of 4.48 + /- 0.04 Ga. The now extinct 146Sm-142Nd (T1/2(146)=103 l0(6)yrs) combined with the long-lived 147Sm-143Nd isotopic systematics can also be used to provide limits on the time of early differentiation of the Earth. High precision analyses of the oldest (3.8-3.9 Ga) Archean gneisses from Greenland (Amitsoq and Akilia gneisses), and Canada (Acasta gneiss) do not show measurable (> +/- l0ppm) variations of 142Nd, in contrast to the 33 ppm 142Nd excess reported for an Archean sample. The general lack of 142Nd variations, combined with the presence of highly positive epsilon 143 values (+4.0) at 3.9 Ga, indicates that the record of large-scale Sm/Nd fractionation events was not preserved in the early-Earth from 4

  5. Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on active and healthy ageing. A debate at the European Union Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Tanasescu, C C; Camuzat, T; Anto, J M; Blasi, F; Neou, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Antunes, J P; Samolinski, B; Yiallouros, P; Zuberbier, T

    2013-01-01

    A debate at the European Union Parliament was held on 13 November 2012 on the Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The debate was held under the auspices of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union (2012) and represents a follow-up of the priorities of the Polish Presidency of the European Union (2011). It highlighted the importance of early life events on the occurrence of chronic respiratory diseases later in life and their impact on active and healthy ageing. Epidemiologic evidence was followed by actions that should be taken to prevent and manage chronic respiratory diseases in children. The debate ended by practical, feasible and achievable projects, demonstrating the strength of the political action in the field. Three projects will be initiated from this debate: The first will be a meeting sponsored by the Région Languedoc-Roussillon on the developmental origins of chronic diseases and ageing: from research to policies and value creation. The second project is being led by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Asthma and Rhinitis: Prevention of Asthma, Prevention of Allergy (PAPA). The third project is the GA(2)LEN sentinel network.

  6. High resolution isotopic ages for the early Miocene "Patagoniense" transgression in Southwest Patagonia: Stratigraphic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuitiño, José I.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Scasso, Roberto A.

    2012-10-01

    The classical marine Patagoniense succession at Lago Argentino, southwestern Patagonia (Argentina), known as Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation, was dated by radiometric U-Pb on zircon grains from pyroclastic rocks and 87Sr/86Sr ratio on calcitic oyster shells. U-Pb data yielded an age of 19.14 Ma for the lower portion of the Patagoniense succession and 18.85 Ma for the lowermost part of the overlying Santa Cruz Formation. 87Sr/86Sr data yielded ages ranging from 20.05 Ma at the lower part and 19.1 Ma for the upper portion of the Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation, in good agreement with respect to the U-Pb results. Our results constrain the age of these beds entirely into the early Miocene Burdigalian stage, and locally into the Superpatagoniense stage. Correlation with other Patagoniense units in Santa Cruz, especially in the westernmost parts of the Austral Basin, reveals the existence of a shallow and extended sea, and lack of correlation with global sea-level highstands suggests a local Andean tectonic overprint as the cause of the sea level rise.

  7. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men: Possible relation to changes in body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. Methods. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years...... established by Dual X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Data are presented as median (quartiles). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed on delta values at 0, 3 and 6 months. Results . ST + placebo decreased sCD36 levels by 21% [from 0.80 (0.68-1.22) to 0.63 (0.51-0.73) rel...... central fat mass (r = 0.84). Conclusions. Compared to testosterone treatment, six months of strength training reduced sCD36 levels suggesting decreased cardiovascular risk, possibly due to a reduction in central fat mass....

  8. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  9. Age affects joint space narrowing in patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthijssen, X M E; Akdemir, G; Markusse, I M; Stijnen, T; Riyazi, N; Han, K H; Bijkerk, C; Kerstens, P J S M; Lems, W F; Huizinga, T W J; Allaart, C F

    2016-01-01

    Joint space narrowing (JSN) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be a manifestation of (primary) osteoarthritis becoming more prominent with age. We investigated the severity and predictors of JSN progression among different age groups. 10-year follow-up data of the BeSt study, a randomised controlled treat-to-target trial in early RA were used. Annual X-rays of hands and feet were scored using the Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS). Subgroups were defined by age at baseline: ≥55, ≥40<55 and <40 years. JSN progression predictors were assessed by Poisson regression. Baseline JSN scores (median (IQR)) were higher in patients ≥55 (2.0 (0.0-6.0)) compared with the other age groups: 1.0 (0.0-3.0) ≥40<55 and 0.3 (0.0-3.0) <40, p<0.001. After 10 years, total JSN and SHS were similar in all age groups. In patients ≥55 the mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) over time (relative risk 1.02 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.03)) and the combined presence of rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (RF+/ACPA+) (3.27 (1.25-8.53)) were significantly correlated with JSN progression. In patients <40 the baseline swollen joint count (SJC; 1.09 (1.01-1.18)) and ESR over time (1.04 (1.02-1.06)) were significantly associated. At baseline, patients with RA ≥55 years had more JSN than younger patients but after 10 years JSN scores were similar between age groups. Independent risk factors for JSN progression were baseline SJC and ESR over time in patients <40, RF+/ACPA+ and ESR over time in patients ≥55 years. This suggests that mechanisms leading to JSN progression are related to (residual) rheumatoid inflammation and vary between age groups. These mechanisms remain to be elucidated. NTR262, NTR265.

  10. Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, T R; Jakobsson, H E; Andersson, A F; Björkstén, B; Engstrand, L; Jenmalm, M C

    2014-06-01

    Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age. To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema. The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month and 12 months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Children developing asthma (n = 8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1 week (P = 0.04) and 1 month (P = 0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n = 13), eczema (n = 12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n = 14) at 7 years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12 months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease. Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7 years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Age-associated declines in muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance: impact on fear of falling and quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, A.; Reid, K. F.; Hars, M.; Herrmann, F. R.; Pasha, E.; Phillips, E. M.; Fielding, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary This 3-year longitudinal study among older adults showed that declining muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are independent contributing factors to increased fear of falling, while declines of muscle mass and physical performance contribute to deterioration of quality of life. Our findings reinforce the importance of preserving muscle health with advancing age. Introduction The age-associated loss of skeletal muscle quantity and function are critical determinants of independent physical functioning in later life. Longitudinal studies investigating how decrements in muscle components of sarcopenia impact fear of falling (FoF) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults are lacking. Methods Twenty-six healthy older subjects (age, 74.1±3.7; Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score ≥10) and 22 mobility-limited older subjects (age, 77.2±4.4; SPPB score ≥9) underwent evaluations of lower extremity muscle size and composition by computed tomography, strength and power, and physical performance at baseline and after 3-year follow-up. The Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) were also administered at both timepoints to assess FoF and QoL, respectively. Results At 3-year follow-up, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (p<0.013) and power decreased (p<0.001), while intermuscular fat infiltration increased (p<0.001). These decrements were accompanied with a longer time to complete 400 m by 22±46 s (p<0.002). Using linear mixed-effects regression models, declines of muscle CSA, strength and power, and SPPB score were associated with increased FES score (p<0.05 for each model). Reduced physical component summary score of SF-36 over follow-up was independently associated with decreased SPPB score (p<0.020), muscle CSA (p<0.046), and increased 400 m walk time (p<0.003). Conclusions In older adults with and without mobility limitations, declining muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance contribute

  12. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  13. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and

  14. A new age model for the early-middle Miocene in the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbacher, Bettina; Krijgsman, Wout; Pippèrr, Martina; Sant, Karin; Kirscher, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of high-resolution age models for sedimentary successions is crucial for numerous research questions in the geosciences and related disciplines. Such models provide an absolute chronology that permits precise dating of depositional episodes and related processes such as mountain uplift or climate change. Recently, our work in the Miocene sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) has revealed a significantly younger age (16.6 Myr) for sediments that were thought to have been deposited 18 Myr ago. This implies that a fundamentally revised new age model is needed for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB (20 to 15-Myr). Our new data also indicate that previously published reconstructions of early-middle Miocene palaeogeography, sedimentation dynamics, mountain uplift and climate change in the NAFB all require a critical review and revision. Further, the time-span addressed is of special interest, since it encompasses the onset of a global warming phase. However, it appears that a fundamentally revised new age model for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB can only be achieved based on a 500 m deep drilling in the NAFB for which we currently seek collaboration partners to develop a grant application to the International Continental Deep Drilling Program (ICDP). Reference: Reichenbacher, B., W. Krijgsman, Y. Lataster, M. Pippèrr, C. G. C. Van Baak, L. Chang, D. Kälin, J. Jost, G. Doppler, D. Jung, J. Prieto, H. Abdul Aziz, M. Böhme, J. Garnish, U. Kirscher, and V. Bachtadse. 2013. A new magnetostratigraphic framework for the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian/Ottnangian, Karpatian) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 106:309-334.

  15. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Jung Cheol; Pae, Yong Tak; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the thermal integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. The impact energy variations are measures for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C respectively through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The tests results are to be a guide line to predict the life of CF8M, a RCS component material caused by thermal aging. The critical flaw size can be estimated by KIC obtained from the impact energy.

  16. Early bond strength of two resin cements to Y-TZP ceramic using MPS or MPS/4-META silanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Cura, Cenk; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    For cementation of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic frameworks, protocols of surface-conditioning methods and available cements vary, resulting in confusion among clinicians regarding selection and effects of different conditioning methods on cement adhesion. This study evaluated the effect of two silanes (3-trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate (MPS) and 3-trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate/4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride methyl methacrylate (MPS/4-META) on the adhesion of two resin-based cements (SuperBond and Panavia F 2.0) to Y-TZP ceramic and compared several protocols with those indicated by the manufacturer of each of these cements. Disks of Y-TZP ceramic (LAVA, 3M ESPE) (n = 60) were divided into six experimental groups (n = 10 per group) and treated as follows: (1) silica coating (SC) + MPS silane + SuperBond; (2) SC + MPS/4-META + silane + SuperBond); (3) SC + MPS silane + Panavia F 2.0); (4) SC + MPS/4-META silane + Panavia F 2.0); (5) no conditioning + MPS/4-META silane + Super-Bond (SuperBond instructions); and (6) 50-μm Al(2)O(3) conditioning + Panavia F 2.0 (Panavia F 2.0 instructions). The specimens were subjected to shear-bond testing after water storage at 37 °C for 3 months in the dark. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD (α = 0.05). After silica coating, the mean bond strength of SuperBond cement was not significantly different between MPS and MPS/4-META silanes (20.2 ± 3.7 and 20.9 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively), but the mean bond strength of Panavia F 2.0 was significantly higher with MPS silane (24.4 ± 5.3 MPa) than with MPS/4-META (12.3 ± 1.4 MPa) (P MPS or MPS/4-META silane resulted in no significant difference when the ceramic surface was silica coated, but with Panavia F 2.0, use of MPS silane resulted in a significantly higher bond strength than use of MPS/4-META. Use of chairside silica coating and silanization to condition the zirconia surface improved adhesion

  17. Joint functional disability in children of early age with olygoarticular juvenile arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Shelepina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study functional status, character of functional disturbances and possibilities of their correction in children of early age with juvenile arthritis (JA. Material and methods. 42 pts with oligoarticular (at presentation variant of JA with onset before 4 years of age admitted to pediatric department of the Institute of rheumatology of RAMS were included. Mean age of children at the disease onset was 22,4+10 months (from 9 to 46 months, mean disease duration at the first hospitalization — 9,5±5,5 months. Functional status and daily activities limitations (decrease of moving capacity and hand performance were assessed at the beginning of the disease, at admission to the institute and at discharge after drug and rehabilitation treatment. Results. At the disease onset 40 pts (95,2% had knee joint damage (one sided in 28 — 66,6%. 30 from these 40 pts (75% had flexion deformity and daily activities limitations and two pts had anlde joint damage. 12 pts (28,6% received courses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSA1D and 5 pts (11,9% — disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD before admission. All pts had active joint syndrome at admission. Daily activities limitations were present in 41 pts (97,6%. DMARD were prescribed to 41 pts (with glucocorticoids (GC in 12 cases. Intra-articular injections of GC were performed in 15 pts. Individual exercise therapy (passive joint movement was applied in all pts, postural treatment — in 41 (97,6%. One pt received exercise therapy in a group. Splints were done for 6 pts. Stepped correction in plaster was performed in 4 from them. In all pts after treatment arthritis subsided and functional status improved. In 18 (42,8% from them function of damaged joint was fully restored and in 19 (45,2% — improved. After several stages of hospital treatment deformation was corrected and function restored in 4 (9,5% pts Conclusion. Клее joints are frequently involved in children of early age

  18. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  19. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M

    1991-01-01

    From animal studies we know that oral administration of T-dependent antigens before sensitization effectively induces systemic immune unresponsiveness. Such 'oral tolerance' is persistent, dose-dependent, antigen-specific and presumably T suppressor cell-mediated. Oral tolerance induction could...... the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were interviewed...... by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced frequency...

  20. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  1. Non-linearities in tensile creep of concrete at early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars

    1997-01-01

    A meterial model for creep is proposed which takes into consideration some of the couplings in early age concrete. The model is in incremental form and reflect the hydration process where new layers of cement gel are formed in a stress free state. In the present context attention is on non......-linear creep at high stress levels. The parameteres in the model develop in time as a result of hydration. The creep model has been used to analyse the tensile experiments at different stress levels carried out in the HETEK project. The tests were made on dogbone shaped specimen and the test procedure...... is described. Furthermore, compressive creep at high stress levels are fitted....

  2. Effect of Reinforcement on Early-Age Concrete Temperature Stress: Preliminary Experimental Investigation and Analytical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianda Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For concrete under short-term loading, effect of reinforcement on concrete crack resistance capability is usually negligible; however, recent research results show that extension of this viewpoint to concrete under long-term loading (temperature variation may be unsuitable. In order to investigate this phenomenon, this paper presents the experimental and analytical results of early-age reinforced concrete temperature stress development under uniaxial restraint. The experiments were carried out on a temperature stress testing machine (TSTM. Experimental results show that the coupling of reinforcement and concrete creep behavior influenced the concrete temperature stress development, and nearly 16% of concrete stress was reduced in the current research. Moreover, the cracking time of reinforced concrete was also delayed. Finally, based on the principle of superposition, analytical simulations of effect of reinforcement on concrete temperature stress have been performed.

  3. Paleogeography of the Berriasian-Barremian ages of the Early Cretaceous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharkov, M.A.; Murdmaa, I.O.; Filatova, N.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology

    1998-01-01

    Global lithologic-paleogeographic maps were compiled for the Berriasian, Valanginian, Hauterivian, and Barremain ages of the Early Cretaceous. Main features of paleogeography, sedimentation environments in oceans, regularities in distribution of paleogeographic environments in continental margins, spatial position of arid and humid sedimentation settings in continents, and position of latitudinal climate belts of the Neocomian time are considered. Five latitudinal climatic belts of the Neocomian time corresponded to the northern circumpolar humid zone with coal deposits, the northern mid-latitudinal humid zone with coal-bauxite-kaolinite deposits, the inter-subtropical arid zone with evaporites, the southern mid-latitudinal humid zone with coal-kaolinite deposits, and the southern humid zone with coal-bearing sequences.

  4. Fatigue in older adults: An early indicator of the aging process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of research on fatigue in older adults, with a focus on fatigue as an early indicator of the aging process. Fatigue is a strong predictor of functional limitations, disability, mortality, and other adverse outcomes in young-old and old-old populations......, between men and women, and in different geographic localities. Several biological, physiological and social explanations are proposed: fatigue may be seen not only as a self-reported indicator of frailty, defined as a physiologic state of increased vulnerability to stressors, which results from decreased...... physiologic reserves and even dysregulation of multiple physiologic systems, but also this state may be accelerated because of the cumulative impact of social, mental and biological factors throughout life....

  5. Fatigue in older adults: an early indicator of the aging process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of research on fatigue in older adults, with a focus on fatigue as an early indicator of the aging process. Fatigue is a strong predictor of functional limitations, disability, mortality, and other adverse outcomes in young-old and old-old populations......, between men and women, and in different geographic localities. Several biological, physiological and social explanations are proposed: fatigue may be seen not only as a self-reported indicator of frailty, defined as a physiologic state of increased vulnerability to stressors, which results from decreased...... physiologic reserves and even dysregulation of multiple physiologic systems, but also this state may be accelerated because of the cumulative impact of social, mental and biological factors throughout life....

  6. Influence of sodium borate on the early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Dhoury, Mélanie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Cau Dit Coumes, Céline, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Mercier, Cyrille [LMCPA, Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambrésis, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Revel, Bertrand [Centre Commun de Mesure RMN, Université Lille1 Sciences Technologies, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Le Bescop, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Damidot, Denis [Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-GCE, 59508 Douai (France)

    2015-04-15

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are potential candidates for the conditioning of radioactive wastes with high sodium borate concentrations. This work thus investigates early age hydration of two CSA cements with different gypsum contents (0 to 20%) as a function of the mixing solution composition (borate and NaOH concentrations). Gypsum plays a key role in controlling the reactivity of cement. When the mixing solution is pure water, increasing the gypsum concentration accelerates cement hydration. However, the reverse is observed when the mixing solution contains sodium borate. Until gypsum exhaustion, the pore solution pH remains constant at ~ 10.8, and a poorly crystallized borate compound (ulexite) precipitates. A correlation is established between this transient precipitation and the hydration delay. Decreasing the gypsum content in the binder, or increasing the sodium content in the mixing solution, are two ways of reducing the stability of ulexite, thus decreasing the hydration delay.

  7. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  8. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Park, Jung Cheol; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan; Pae, Yong Tak; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Yun Won [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the structural integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. In addition to the thermally aged specimens the specimens associated with {delta}-phase degradation are prepared. After the specimens are maintained for 20 min, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs. at 700 .deg. C, respectively. which is in the range of {delta}-phase degradation, all specimens are cooled in water. The impact energy variations are measured for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C, respectively, through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The characteristics of the fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue tests are investigated using both aged and virgin specimens. Also fractured surfaces of the specimen are observed using the scanning electronic microscopy. J-R curve and J{sub IC} of the aged and virgin specimens are found J{sub IC} in order to predict the critical flaw size and fatigue life.

  9. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Park, Jung Cheol; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan; Pae, Yong Tak; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Yun Won [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the structural integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. In addition to the thermally aged specimens the specimens associated with {delta}-phase degradation are prepared. After the specimens are maintained for 20 min, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs. at 700 .deg. C, respectively. which is in the range of {delta}-phase degradation, all specimens are cooled in water. The impact energy variations are measured for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C, respectively, through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The characteristics of the fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue tests are investigated using both aged and virgin specimens. Also fractured surfaces of the specimen are observed using the scanning electronic microscopy. J-R curve and J{sub IC} of the aged and virgin specimens are found J{sub IC} in order to predict the critical flaw size and fatigue life.

  10. Aging of medium strength aluminum alloy friction stir welds produced by different process parameter after tensile strain hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerri, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.cerri@unipr.it; Leo, Paola

    2014-10-15

    Effect of tool rotation rate and travel speed on aging of 6082T6 friction stir welds after tensile strain hardening were investigated using Vickers microhardness (HV) measurements and precipitation hardening concepts. Tensile tests were performed at constant strain rate up to natural fracture followed by aging at low and medium temperatures. The results showed that HV measured on strain hardened FSW joints was not very sensitive to travel speeds experienced during FSW process, at constant rotation rate; anyway, strain hardening was very effective on hardness and induce an average increase by 20–25% in the stirred zone (SZ). Strain hardening was also very effective on aging at 200 °C, while it was not at 300 °C. At this temperature, HV assumed uniform values along joint cross section. - Highlights: • FSW joints have been investigated after tensile deformation and aging. • Tensile strain hardening induces a 20–25% HV increment in the stirred zone. • Subsequent aging at 200 °C did not substantially modify hardness profiles. • After aging at 300 °C, HV values were uniform and lower than HV minimum.

  11. Dark matter density profiles of the halos embedding early-type galaxies: characterizing halo contraction and dark matter annihilation strength

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Frieman, Joshua A; Bernardi, Mariangela

    2012-01-01

    Identifying dark matter and characterizing its distribution in the inner region of halos embedding galaxies are inter-related problems of broad importance. We devise a new procedure of determining dark matter distribution in halos. We first make a self-consistent bivariate statistical match of stellar mass and velocity dispersion with halo mass as demonstrated here for the first time. Then, selecting early-type galaxy-halo systems we perform Jeans dynamical modeling with the aid of observed statistical properties of stellar mass profiles and velocity dispersion profiles. Dark matter density profiles derived specifically using Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies and halos from up-to-date cosmological dissipationless simulations deviate significantly from the dissipationless profle of Navarro-Frenk-White or Einasto in terms of inner density slope and/or concentration. From these dark matter profiles we find that dark matter density is enhanced in the inner region of most early-type galactic halos providing an ind...

  12. Dietary habits of Mongolian people, and their influence on lifestyle-related diseases and early aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2008-07-01

    Mongolians are known to have relatively short life expectancy. In order to examine the role of dietary habits in the early aging of Mongolians, the food intake inquiry, anthropometric measurements and blood clinical tests were performed for 365 healthy inhabitants in Murun, a northern Mongolia city, and compared to those of Japanese. Murun inhibitants were found to have a characteristic dietary habit of taking large amounts of meat, milk, dairy products and wheat flour products, in contrast little vegetables, fruits and fishes. The daily calorie intake of the adults was estimated to be 2,525 kcal, and the fat/total calorie ratio was calculated 33.7%, about 1.3-fold higher than that of Japanese. The intake ratio of fatty acid from the Mongolian foods, saturated : mono-unsaturated : poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio, was 10.3 : 7.8 : 3.0. Results of blood clinical tests showed significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and homocysteine, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), n-3 PUFA, folic acid and adiponectin, in comparison with those of Japanese. In addition, the Mongolians were also found to have significantly high levels of oxidative stress markers, such as serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). The serum ROM level in the Mongolians seemed to associate with their body fat ratio (pObesity was observed at a high incidence in the subjects over 30-year old, and over 40-year old their handgrip ability was markedly decreased. These findings suggest that in the Mongolians the dietary habits associate with their lifestyle-related diseases and early aging, and the improvement of dietary habits is an effective strategy for health promotion of the inhabitants.

  13. Craniofacial morphology in Austrian Early Bronze Age populations reflects sex-specific migration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Alessandro; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Bookstein, Fred; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    The Early Bronze Age (2.300-1.500 BC) in lower Austria consists of three synchronous regional manifestations (Únetice, Unterwölbling, and Wieselburg cultures). The bearers of these cultures inhabited a relatively small geographic area and shared similar ecological conditions, but previous studies revealed population differences in skeletal morphology. We analyzed the cranial morphology of 171 individuals of these populations with a geometric morphometric approach in order to compare different migration scenarios. We find significant mean form differences between populations and between sexes. In a principal component analysis, the Wieselburg population, located southwest of the Danube, largely separates from the Únetice population north of the Danube, whereas the southwestern Unterwölbling group, which played a central role in trading bronze objects, overlaps with both. The Böheimkirchen group, inhabiting the southwestern Danubian area in the later phase of the Early Bronze Age, differs from the chronologically older Unterwölbling group. Geographic distance between six sites and position relative to the river Danube accounted for 64% of form distance variation; the effect of the river Danube was considerably larger than hat of geographic distance per se. As predicted for a patrilocal system in which females have a larger marriage domain than males, we found that female mean forms are more similar to each other than male mean forms. Geographic conditions explained more than twice as much variation in females as in males, suggesting that female migration was more affected by geographical constraints than male migration was.

  14. Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Tun-Jen Hsiao; Pau-Chung Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle- aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT).METHODS: A retrospective, observational followup study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetScomponents,liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed.RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to daynight rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middleaged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT.

  15. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and early age-related macular degeneration in a rural Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liang, Yuan-Bo; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wang, Jie-Jin; Zhan, Si-Yan; Wang, Ning-Li

    2014-08-01

    There have been a limited number of population-based studies investigating the associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 7,557 eligible people aged 30 or older were recruited from 2006 to 2007. Cardiovascular risk factors and serum lipids including total cholesterol, total triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, and urines were assessed. Digital photographs of the optic disk and macula fields (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study) were taken and graded after the modified Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Cases of late AMD were excluded. Of 6,577 subjects included in the analysis, there were 200 (3.04%) cases with early AMD. Multivariate analysis showed that higher age, untreated hypertension, coronary heart disease, and smoking were associated with an increased risk of early AMD. After adjusting for other variables in the final model, no variable was significantly associated with hyperpigmentation while smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypopigmentation; higher age and any cardiovascular disease were associated with an increased risk of large drusen, and higher age, smoking, untreated hypertension, and coronary heart disease were associated with an increased risk of soft drusen. Our findings support the associations between smoking, coronary heart disease, and early AMD.

  16. Influence of multi-step heat treatments in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy: Optimization for springback, strength and exfoliation corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi Jeshvaghani, R.; Zohdi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, H.R., E-mail: shahverdi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bozorg, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3197, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Multi-step heat treatments comprise of high temperature forming (150 Degree-Sign C/24 h plus 190 Degree-Sign C for several minutes) and subsequent low temperature forming (120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h) is developed in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy to decrease springback and exfoliation corrosion susceptibility without reduction in tensile properties. The results show that the multi-step heat treatment gives the low springback and the best combination of exfoliation corrosion resistance and tensile strength. The lower springback is attributed to the dislocation recovery and more stress relaxation at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that corrosion resistance is improved due to the enlargement in the size and the inter-particle distance of the grain boundaries precipitates. Furthermore, the achievement of the high strength is related to the uniform distribution of ultrafine {eta} Prime precipitates within grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep age forming developed for manufacturing of aircraft wing panels by aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good combination of properties with minimal springback is required in this component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This requirement can be improved through the appropriate heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-step cycles developed in creep age forming of AA7075 for improving of springback and properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results indicate simultaneous enhancing the properties and shape accuracy (lower springback).

  17. Dental enamel defects in German medieval and early-modern-age populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Birkenbeil, S; Bock, S; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K

    2016-11-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in a medieval and an early-modern-age population from Thuringia, Germany. Sixty-six skeletons subdivided into 31 single burials (12(th)/13(th) c.) and 35 individuals buried in groups (15(th)/16(th) c.) were examined. DDE were classified on 1,246 teeth according to the DDE index. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH), a special type of DDE, was recorded according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria. DDE was found in 89.4% of the individuals (single burials 90.3% and group burials 88.6%). Hypoplastic pits were the most frequent defect in primary teeth and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in permanent teeth. 13 individuals (24.1%) showed at least one hypomineralised permanent tooth, 12.2% had MIH on at least one first permanent molar and 10.0% in permanent incisors. Second primary molars were affected in 8.0% of the children and juveniles. No individual suffered from affected molars and incisors in combination. Endogenous factors like nutritional deficiencies and health problems in early childhood could have been aetiological reasons of DDE and MIH. The frequency of DDE and MIH might have been masked by extended carious lesions, dental wear and ante-mortem tooth loss.

  18. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women.

  19. Anatomy and age estimation of an early blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, Rachel A; Lickorish, David; Buchholtz, Emily A

    2013-04-01

    The external anatomy of a 130-mm blue whale fetus (Balaenoptera musculus) is described, and its internal anatomy is reconstructed noninvasively from microCT scans. The specimen lies developmentally at the junction of the embryonic and fetal periods. Similarly to the embryos of many odontocetes, it lacks a caudal fluke and dorsal fin, but it also exhibits an elongated rostrum, resorbed umbilical hernia, partially exposed cornea, and spatial separation of the anus and genitalia seen in early odontocete fetuses. Dermal ossification of the cranial bones has begun, but the endochondral skeleton is completely cartilaginous. The shape and position of the maxilla suggest that the earliest stages of anterior skull telescoping have begun, but there is no indication of occipital overlap posteriorly. The nasopharynx, larynx, and heart already display the distinctive morphology characteristic of Balaenoptera. This study develops a model of body length changes during blue whale development by integrating the large International Whaling Statistics (IWS) database, historical observations of blue whale migration and reproduction, and descriptions of fetal growth trends in other mammals. The model predicts an age of 65 days postconception for the specimen. The early developmental milestones of Balaenoptera mirror those of the odontocete Stenella to a remarkable extent, but the first appearance of the caudal fluke and dorsal fin are delayed relative to other morphological transitions. The accelerated prenatal growth characteristic of Balaenoptera occurs during fetal, not embryonic, development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality...... group). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. RESULTS:  Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination...... was not associated with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval...