WorldWideScience

Sample records for early adult life

  1. Early Life Events Predict Adult Testicular Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger J; Doherty, Dorota A; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    ). Consistent height above the 50th percentile for age through childhood was associated with larger adult mean testicular volume (P ... = .003) in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to maternal smoking and higher cord blood estrogens at delivery were associated with a reduced sperm output in adulthood. Optimal adult testicular function depends on being born at or above average weight, and maintaining optimal growth and adiposity...

  2. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal social status, early health capital, and young adults' economic attainment: Early life course investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyoung; Wickrama, K A S

    2017-01-01

    Using survey data collected from 12,278 adolescents and their mothers over 13 years in a nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined how maternal social status influenced young adults' economic attainment over the early life course. We found that weight at birth and height at adolescence as early health capital mediated the influence of maternal social status on young adults' economic attainment. Also, adolescents' educational attainment and psychological vulnerabilities mediated the relation between early health capital and young adults' economic attainment. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention to prevent the persistent influence of adverse maternal social status on youths' developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early-life origin of adult insomnia : Does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance

  5. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after

  6. Early-life farm exposures and adult asthma and atopy in the Agricultural Lung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, John S; Wyss, Annah B; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Long, Stuart; Umbach, David M; Henneberger, Paul K; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P; Long O'Connell, Elizabeth; Barker-Cummings, Christie; London, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies, mostly from Europe, suggest that early-life farming exposures protect against childhood asthma and allergy; few data exist on asthma and allergy in adults. We sought to examine associations between early-life farming exposures and current asthma and atopy in an older adult US farming population. We analyzed data from 1746 farmers and 1555 spouses (mean age, 63) from a case-control study nested within the Agricultural Health Study. Current asthma and early-life farming exposures were assessed via questionnaires. We defined atopy based on specific IgE > 0.70 IU/mL to at least 1 of 10 allergens measured in blood. We used logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, race, state (Iowa or North Carolina), and smoking (pack years), to estimate associations between early-life exposures and asthma (1198 cases and 2031 noncases) or atopy (578 cases and 2526 noncases). Exposure to the farming environment in utero and in early childhood had little or no association with asthma but was associated with reduced odds of atopy. The strongest association was seen for having a mother who performed farm activities while pregnant (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.74) and remained significant in models with correlated early-life exposures including early childhood farm animal contact and raw milk consumption. In a large US farming population, early-life farm exposures, particularly maternal farming activities while pregnant, were strongly associated with reduced risk of atopy in adults. These results extend previous work done primarily on childhood outcomes and suggest that protective associations of early-life farming exposures on atopy endure across the life course. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Combined Impact of Smoking and Early-Life Exposures on Adult Lung Function Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, James P; Hardy, Rebecca; Donaldson, Gavin C; Shaheen, Seif O; Kuh, Diana; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2017-10-15

    Both adverse early-life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory, but few studies consider how the impact of early-life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development is a nationally representative cohort, initially of 5,362 individuals, followed since enrollment at birth in March 1946. Using data collected prospectively across life and multilevel modeling, we investigated how the relationships between early-life exposures (infant lower respiratory infection, manual social class, home overcrowding, and pollution exposure) and FEV1 and FVC trajectories between ages 43 and 60-64 years were influenced by smoking behavior. Among 2,172 individuals, there were synergistic interactions of smoking with infant respiratory infection (P = 0.04) and early-life home overcrowding (P = 0.009), for FEV1 at 43 years. Within smoker-stratified models, there were FEV1 deficits among ever-smokers associated with infant lower respiratory infection (-108.2 ml; P = 0.001) and home overcrowding (-89.2 ml; P = 0.002), which were not evident among never-smokers (-15.9 ml; P = 0.69 and -13.7 ml; P = 0.70, respectively). FVC modeling, including 1,960 individuals, yielded similar results. FEV1 decline was greater in smokers (P < 0.001), but there was no effect of any early-life exposure on FEV1 decline. Neither smoking nor early-life exposures were associated with FVC decline. Besides accelerating adult FEV1 decline, cigarette smoking also modifies how early-life exposures impact on both midlife FEV1 and FVC. These findings are consistent with smoking impairing pulmonary development during adolescence or early adulthood, thereby preventing catch-up from earlier acquired deficits.

  8. Specific synbiotics in early life protect against diet-induced obesity in adult mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Mona; Arora, Tulika; Tims, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life...... synbiotics protected mice against WSD-induced excessive fat accumulation throughout life, replicable in two independent European animal facilities. Adult insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia were improved and most pronounced gene expression changes were observed in the ileum. We observed subtle changes...... in fecal microbiota composition, both in early life and in adulthood, including increased Bifidobacterium abundance. Microbiota transplantation using samples collected from synbiotics-supplemented adolescent mice at PN42 to age-matched germ-free recipients did not transfer the beneficial phenotype...

  9. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  10. Conceptual model for quality of life among adults with congenital or early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; McKee, Michael; Smith, Scott R; Hopper, Melinda; Kavin, Denise; Atcherson, Samuel R

    2014-07-01

    A conceptual model of health-related quality of life (QoL) is needed to describe key themes that impact perceived QoL in adults with congenital or early deafness. To revise University of Washington Center for Disability Policy and Research's conceptual model of health promotion and QoL, with suggestions for applying the model to improving programs or services that target deaf adults with early deafness. Purposive and theoretical sampling of 35 adults who were born or became deaf early was planned in a 1-year study. In-depth semi-structured interviews probed deaf adult participants' perceptions about quality of life as a deaf individual. Data saturation was reached at the 17th interview with 2 additional interviews for validation, resulting in a total sample of 19 deaf adults. Coding and thematic analysis were conducted to develop the conceptual model. Our conceptual model delineates the relationships between health status (self-acceptance, coping with limitations), intrinsic (functional communication skills, navigating barriers/self-advocacy, resilience) and extrinsic (acceptance by others, access to information, educating others) factors in their influence on deaf adult quality of life outcomes at home, college, work, and in the community. Findings demonstrate the need for the programs and services to consider not only factors intrinsic to the deaf individual but also extrinsic factors in enhancing perceived quality of life outcomes among people with a range of functional hearing and language preferences, including American Sign Language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conceptual Model for Quality of Life among Adults With Congenital or Early Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, P; McKee, M; Smith, SR; Hopper, M; Kavin, D; Atcherson, SR

    2015-01-01

    Background A conceptual model of health-related quality of life (QoL) is needed to describe key themes that impact perceived QoL in adults with congenital or early deafness. Objective: To revise University of Washington Center for Disability Policy and Research's conceptual model of health promotion and QoL, with suggestions for applying the model to improving programs or services that target deaf adults with early deafness. Methods Purposive and theoretical sampling of 35 adults who were born or became deaf early was planned in a 1-year study. In-depth semi-structured interviews probed deaf adult participants' perceptions about quality of life as a deaf individual. Data saturation was reached at the 17th interview with 2 additional interviews for validation, resulting in a total sample of 19 deaf adults. Coding and thematic analysis were conducted to develop the conceptual model. Results Our conceptual model delineates the relationships between health status (self-acceptance, coping with limitations), intrinsic (functional communication skills, navigating barriers/self-advocacy, resilience) and extrinsic (acceptance by others, access to information, educating others) factors in their influence on deaf adult quality of life outcomes at home, college, work, and in the community. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the need for the programs and services to consider not only factors intrinsic to the deaf individual but also extrinsic factors in enhancing perceived quality of life outcomes among people with a range of functional hearing and language preferences, including American Sign Language. PMID:24947577

  12. Cardiovascular risk during early adult life. Risk markers among participants in "Live for Life" health promotion programme in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, L. G.; Lindstrom, K; Lingfors, H; Bengtsson, C; Lissner, L

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study differences in cardiovascular lifestyle risk factors and biological risk markers in early adult life, with special attention to age and sex differences. Lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors included dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol habits, psychosocial strain, and mental stress. Biological risk markers included anthropometric variables, arterial blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN: A combined individual and communit...

  13. Genesis and evolution of behavioral disorders: from infancy to early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A; Chess, S

    1984-01-01

    The New York Longitudinal Study has followed the behavioral development of 133 subjects from early infancy to early adult life. Special attention has been given to the systematic clinical evaluation and follow-up of all subjects presenting any evidence of behavior disorder. The authors present incidence and outcome data, define the concept of temperament, and briefly discuss conceptual issues and empirical findings. They found the "goodness of fit" (consonance between the individual and the environment) concept useful in tracing developmental sequences. The authors summarize quantitative analyses identifying significant group correlations between antecedent variables and early adult outcome and suggest a tentative classification of the idiosyncratic factors also evident in the clinical course of individual subjects, with case illustrations.

  14. Ancestry trumps experience: Transgenerational but not early life stress affects the adult physiological stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Gail L; Robbins, Travis R; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood. Offspring from these high- and low-stress populations were exposed weekly to either sub-lethal attack by fire ants (an ecologically relevant stressor), topical treatment with a physiologically-appropriate dose of the stress-relevant hormone, corticosterone (CORT), or a control treatment from 2 to 43weeks of age. Several months after treatments ended, we quantified plasma CORT concentrations at baseline and following restraint, exposure to fire ants, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. Exposure to fire ants or CORT during early life did not affect lizard stress physiology in adulthood. However, offspring of lizards from populations that had experienced multiple generations of fire ant-invasion exhibited more robust adult CORT responses to restraint and ACTH-injection compared to offspring from uninvaded populations. Together, these results indicate that transgenerational stress history may be at least as important, if not more important, than early life stress in affecting adult physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jonathan Y.; Gavin, Amelia R.; Richardson, Thomas S.; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S.; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007–2009), we investigated associations betw...

  16. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  17. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  18. Altered neural connectivity in adult female rats exposed to early life social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nephew, Benjamin C; Huang, Wei; Poirier, Guillaume L; Payne, Laurellee; King, Jean A

    2017-01-01

    The use of a variety of neuroanatomical techniques has led to a greater understanding of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. One recent advance that has been particularly valuable is the development of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in clinical studies. The current study investigates changes in RSFC in F1 adult female rats exposed to the early life chronic social stress (ECSS) of the daily introduction of a novel male intruder to the cage of their F0 mothers while the F1 pups are in the cage. This ECSS for the F1 animals consists of depressed maternal care from their F0 mothers and exposure to conflict between their F0 mothers and intruder males. Analyses of the functional connectivity data in ECSS exposed adult females versus control females reveal broad changes in the limbic and reward systems, the salience and introspective socioaffective networks, and several additional stress and social behavior associated nuclei. Substantial changes in connectivity were found in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex. The current rodent RSFC data support the hypothesis that the exposure to early life social stress has long term effects on neural connectivity in numerous social behavior, stress, and depression relevant brain nuclei. Future conscious rodent RSFC studies can build on the wealth of data generated from previous neuroanatomical studies of early life stress and enhance translational connectivity between animal and human fMRI studies in the development of novel preventative measures and treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. Methods: A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. Results: The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. Conclusions: The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood—and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks—should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children. PMID:19477880

  20. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-07-01

    Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood-and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks-should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children.

  1. Effects of acute adult and early-in-life bladder inflammation on bladder neuropeptides in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ness Timothy J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16 exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP. Estrous cycle influences were also studied in the adult-treatment conditions. Methods In Experiment 1, intravesical zymosan or isoflurane anesthesia alone was administered to adult female rats. Bladders and serum were collected 24 hours later during each phase of the estrous cycle. In Experiment 2, zymosan or anesthesia alone was administered EIL and as adults, with bladder tissue collection 24 h later. Results In general, Experiment 1 showed that bladder content of both CGRP and SP was increased by inflammation. This effect was significant when data were collapsed across all phases of the estrous cycle, but was only significant during proestrus when individual comparisons were made during each phase of estrous. Also, adult bladder inflammation significantly reduced estradiol levels. In Experiment 2, bladder content of CGRP and SP was significantly increased in rats receiving EIL and/or adult inflammation. Bladder weights were also significantly increased by inflammation. Conclusions These data indicate that bladder CGRP and SP are maximally increased during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle in inflamed adult female rats. EIL exposure to bladder inflammation alone can also produce an increase in CGRP and SP lasting into adulthood. Therefore, EIL experience with bladder inflammation may predispose an organism to experience a painful bladder disorder as an adult by increasing primary afferent content of CGRP and/or SP.

  2. Early Life Factors, Obesity Risk, and the Metabolome of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschert, Sebastian; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Jacoby, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Koletzko, Berthold; Oddy, Wendy H; Hellmuth, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases such as obesity have become a serious global public health epidemic. This study aimed to examine whether there was an association between early life factors (with a special focus on breastfeeding) BMI, waist circumference, and the metabolome in offspring at 20 years. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed using 1,024 plasma samples from the 20-year follow-up. A liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used to measure metabolites. Multiple linear regression models were performed and adjusted for relevant confounders. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust the 20-year data for differences in socioeconomic variables between participants and nonparticipants since the commencement of the study. An inverse association between breastfeeding and BMI or waist circumference at 20 years was lost after adjusting for parental prepregnancy BMI and maternal smoking during pregnancy. There was no significant effect of breastfeeding on metabolite concentrations at 20 years. Although other studies have shown associations between breastfeeding, obesity, and metabolite concentrations at younger ages, this was not evident in our study in young adults. We found no association of metabolites previously associated with waist circumference at 20 years and breastfeeding in early life. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. Loss to follow up did not bias associations between early life factors and adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    a single mother at birth, low educational attainment at age 18, and low cognitive function at ages 12 and 18. Hospitalizations for depression and having claimed a prescription for an antidepressive drug were also most frequent among men who did not respond in the follow up. However, the effect......OBJECTIVE: This study examines the consequences of nonresponse in a follow-up survey for the associations of early life factors with adult depression. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A cohort of 11,532 Danish men born in 1953 had nearly complete follow up for outcomes retrieved from the Danish...... characteristics and four measures of depression were described by odd ratios (OR), estimated by logistic regression. For the register-based measures the effect of nonresponse was described by a relative OR(OR(responders)/OR(entire cohort)=ROR). RESULTS: Nonresponse at 50 years of age was related to having...

  4. What doesn't kill you makes you poorer: Adult wages and early-life mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature indicates that effects of early-life health on adult economic outcomes could be substantial in developing countries, but the magnitude of this effect is debated. We document a robust gradient between the early-life mortality environment to which men in India were locally exposed in their district and year of birth and the wages that they earn as adults. A 1 percentage point reduction in infant mortality (or 10 point reduction in IMR) in an infant's district and year of birth is associated with an approximately 2 percent increase in his subsequent adult wages. Consistent with theories and evidence in the literature, we find that the level of schooling chosen for a child does not mediate this association. Because of its consequences for subsequent wages, early-life health could also have considerable fiscal externalities; if so, public health investments could come at very low net present cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of early life stress on adult male aggression and hypothalamic vasopressin and serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, Alexa H.; Blume, Annegret; Niederle, Daniela; Buwalda, Bauke; Neumann, Inga D.

    Early life stress in humans enhances the risk for psychopathologies, including excessive aggression and violence. In rodents, maternal separation is a potent early life stressor inducing long-lasting changes in emotional and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, associated with depression- and

  6. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 links early-life stress with impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Christine; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Grosse, Jocelyn; Fournier, Céline; Harbich, Daniela; Westerholz, Sören; Li, Ji-Tao; Bacq, Alexandre; Sippel, Claudia; Hausch, Felix; Sandi, Carmen; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2015-05-01

    Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in modulating social behaviors associated with these diseases. Neuroligin-2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule, located at the postsynaptic membrane of inhibitory GABAergic synapses, and is involved in synaptic stabilization and maturation. Alterations in neuroligin-2 expression have previously been associated with changes in social behavior linked to psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. In this study, we show that early-life stress, induced by limited nesting and bedding material, leads to impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice, accompanied by increased expression levels of hippocampal neuroligin-2. Viral overexpression of hippocampal neuroligin-2 in adulthood mimics early-life stress-induced alterations in social behavior and social cognition. Moreover, viral knockdown of neuroligin-2 in the adult hippocampus attenuates the early-life stress-induced behavioral changes. Our results highlight the importance of neuroligin-2 in mediating early-life stress effects on social behavior and social cognition and its promising role as a novel therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  8. Extending the Life-Course Interdependence Model: Life Transitions and the Enduring Consequences of Early Self-Derogation for Young Adult Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Taylor, John; Pih, Kay Kei-ho

    2010-01-01

    Few studies exploring the association between adolescent self-esteem and crime have considered whether the early adolescent self-esteem has any enduring consequences for young adult crime. Inspired by the life course and developmental criminology approaches, Arnett's notion of emerging adulthood, and Kaplan's self-derogation theory, this article…

  9. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1). We used multivariable linear regression and marginal structural models to estimate associations under 2 causal structures for life-course exposures and timing of methylation measurement. We also examined whether methylation was associated with adult cardiometabolic phenotype. Higher maternal education was consistently associated with higher HSD11B2 methylation (e.g., 0.5%-point higher in 9-12 years vs. ≤8 years, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8). Higher HSD11B2 methylation was also associated with lower adult weight and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found that associations with early life socioeconomic position measures were insensitive to different causal assumption; however, exploratory analysis did not find evidence for a mediating role of methylation in socioeconomic position-cardiometabolic risk associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Early exercise promotes positive hippocampal plasticity and improves spatial memory in the adult life of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Unsain, Nicolas; Mascó, Daniel Hugo; Toscano-Silva, Michelle; de Amorim, Henrique Alves; Silva Araújo, Bruno Henrique; Simões, Priscila Santos Rodrigues; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2012-02-01

    There is a great deal of evidence showing the capacity of physical exercise to enhance cognitive function, reduce anxiety and depression, and protect the brain against neurodegenerative disorders. Although the effects of exercise are well documented in the mature brain, the influence of exercise in the developing brain has been poorly explored. Therefore, we investigated the morphological and functional hippocampal changes in adult rats submitted to daily treadmill exercise during the adolescent period. Male Wistar rats aged 21 postnatal days old (P21) were divided into two groups: exercise and control. Animals in the exercise group were submitted to daily exercise on the treadmill between P21 and P60. Running time and speed gradually increased over this period, reaching a maximum of 18 m/min for 60 min. After the aerobic exercise program (P60), histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. The results show that early-life exercise increased mossy fibers density and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B, improved spatial learning and memory, and enhanced capacity to evoke spatial memories in later stages (when measured at P96). It is important to point out that while physical exercise induces hippocampal plasticity, degenerative effects could appear in undue conditions of physical or psychological stress. In this regard, we also showed that the exercise protocol used here did not induce inflammatory response and degenerating neurons in the hippocampal formation of developing rats. Our findings demonstrate that physical exercise during postnatal development results in positive changes for the hippocampal formation, both in structure and function. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Early Childhood Socioeconomic Status Is Associated With Circulating Interleukin-6 Among Mid-Life Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E.; Cohen, Sheldon; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    It is proposed that socioeconomic conditions in early childhood effect immune programming, with poorer conditions resulting in adult phenotypes that are prone to inflammation. Recent evidence supports this possibility, showing an inverse association of childhood SES with adult markers of systemic inflammation. In this study, we further investigate this association, extending prior studies to include an examination of multiple indices of SES across distinct periods of childhood. Subjects were 112 men and women, 40–60 years of age (88.6% Caucasian). Childhood SES was indexed by a composite of three indicators of parental wealth (parental home and vehicle ownership, and number of bedrooms per child in the family home) averaged across 2-year periods of childhood between 1 and 18 years old. Higher adult serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 were associated with lower SES in early childhood (years 1–2) (β = −.05, p < .05), associations that were independent of adult age, personal income, educational attainment, gender, race, body mass index, and physical activity. These associations support recent suggestions that the early environment may program immune phenotypes that contribute to disease risk. PMID:21672624

  12. Chronic early life stress alters developmental and adult neurogenesis and impairs cognitive function in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.; Hoeijmakers, L.; Kakava-Georgiadou, N.; Meesters, A.; Lazic, S.E.; Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ES) increases vulnerability to psychopathology and impairs cognition in adulthood. These ES-induced deficits are associated with lasting changes in hippocampal plasticity. Detailed information on the neurobiological basis, the onset, and progression of such changes and their

  13. Prediction of adolescent and adult adiposity outcomes from early life anthropometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Gerds, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and preschool BMI may help identify children at high risk of overweight as they are (1) similarly linked to adolescent overweight at different stages of the obesity epidemic, (2) linked to adult obesity and metabolic alterations, and (3......) easily obtainable in health examinations in young children. The aim was to develop early childhood prediction models of adolescent overweight, adult overweight, and adult obesity. METHODS: Prediction models at various ages in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort born in 1966 (NFBC1966) were developed....... Internal validation was tested using a bootstrap design, and external validation was tested for the model predicting adolescent overweight using the Northern Finland Birth Cohort born in 1986 (NFBC1986). RESULTS: A prediction model developed in the NFBC1966 to predict adolescent overweight, applied...

  14. Early life stress and inflammatory mechanisms of fatigue in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Bower, Julienne E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Seeman, Teresa E; Irwin, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Fatigue is highly prevalent and causes serious disruption in quality of life. Although cross-sectional studies suggest childhood adversity is associated with adulthood fatigue, longitudinal evidence of this relationship and its specific biological mechanisms have not been established. This longitudinal study examined the association between early life stress and adulthood fatigue and tested whether this association was mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation as indexed by circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based longitudinal study conducted in 4 US cities, early life stress was retrospectively assessed in 2716 African-American and white adults using the Risky Families Questionnaire at Year 15 examination (2000-2001, ages 33-45 years). Fatigue as indexed by a loss of subjective vitality using the Vitality Subscale of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey was assessed at both Years 15 and 20. While CRP was measured at both Years 15 and 20, IL-6 was measured only at Year 20. Early life stress assessed at Year 15 was associated with adulthood fatigue at Year 20 after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, body-mass index, medication use, medical comorbidity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, current stress, pain, sleep disturbance as well as Year 15 fatigue (adjusted beta 0.047, P=0.007). However, neither CRP nor IL-6 was a significant mediator of this association. In summary, early life stress assessed in adulthood was associated with fatigue 5 years later, but this association was not mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Foundations of posttraumatic stress disorder: does early life trauma lead to adult posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Laura C; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-05-01

    The effects of childhood abuse are diverse, and although pathology is not the only outcome, psychiatric illness, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), can develop. However, adult PTSD is less common among those who experienced single-event traumas as children than it is among those who experienced childhood abuse. In addition, PTSD is more common among adults than children who experienced childhood abuse. Such evidence raises doubt about the direct, causal link between childhood trauma and adult PTSD. The experience of childhood trauma, and in particular abuse, has been identified as a risk factor for subsequent development of PTSD following exposure to adult trauma, and a substantial literature identifies revictimization as a factor that plays a pivotal role in this trajectory. The literature on the developmental effects of childhood abuse and pathways to revictimization, when considered in tandem with the biological effects of early stress in animal models, may provide some explanations for this. Specifically, it seems possible that permanent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral outcomes are a consequence of childhood abuse, and these combine with the impact of retraumatization to sustain, perpetuate, and amplify symptomatology of those exposed to maltreatment in childhood.

  16. Early-life temperature modifies adult encapsulation response in an invasive ectoparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunisto, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Rantala, Markus J; Kortet, Raine

    2015-09-01

    Immunity of parasites has been studied amazingly little, in spite of the fact that parasitic organisms, especially the arthropod parasites, need immunity to survive their own infections to successfully complete life cycles. Long-term effects of challenging environmental temperatures on immunity have remained unstudied in insects and parasites. Our study species, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi; Linnaeus 1758), is an invasive, blood-feeding parasitic fly of cervids. Here, it was studied whether thermal stress during the pupal diapause stage could modify adult immunity (encapsulation capacity) in L. cervi. The effect of either a low temperature or high temperature peak, experienced during winter dormancy, on encapsulation response of active adult was tested. It was found that low temperature exposure during diapause, as long as the temperature is not too harsh, had a favourable effect on adult immunity. An abnormal, high temperature peak during pupal winter diapause significantly deteriorated the encapsulation capacity of emerged adults. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as high temperature fluctuations are likely to increase with climate change. Thus, the climate change might have previously unknown influence on host-ectoparasite interactions, by affecting ectoparasite's immune defence and survival.

  17. A Life Course Approach to Inequality: Examining Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Early Life Socioeconomic Conditions and Adult Health Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Taylor W; Brown, Tyson H

    2015-08-07

    Previous research has documented a relationship between childhood socioeconomic conditions and adult health, but less is known about racial/ethnic differences in this relationship, particularly among men. This study utilizes a life course approach to investigate racial/ethnic differences in the relationships among early and later life socioeconomic circumstances and health in adulthood among men. Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are used to examine group differences in the relationships among childhood and adult socioeconomic factors and age-trajectories of self-rated health among White, Black and Mexican American men aged 51-77 years (N=4147). Multiple measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predict health in adulthood for White men, while significantly fewer measures of childhood SES predict health for Black and Mexican American men. Moreover, the health consequences of childhood SES diminish with age for Black and Mexican American men. The childhood SES-adult health relationship is largely explained by measures of adult SES for White men. The life course pathways linking childhood SES and adult health differ by race/ethnicity among men. Similar to arguments that the universality of the adult SES-health relationship should not be assumed, results from our study suggest that scholars should not assume that the significance and nature of the association between childhood SES and health in adulthood is similar across race/ethnicity among men.

  18. Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of Type 2 diabetes in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, J G; Forsén, T; Tuomilehto, J; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P

    2003-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with a small body size at birth and a high BMI in adult life. The aim of our study was to assess the associations between Type 2 diabetes and birth size, infant growth and age at adiposity rebound. We carried out a longitudinal study of 8760 subjects born in Helsinki during 1934 to 1944. On average, they had 18 measurements of height and weight between birth and 12 years of age. In western countries BMI usually decreases after the age of 2 years and rises again at around 6 years--the so-called adiposity rebound. We defined age at adiposity rebound by the age of lowest BMI between one and 12 years. We identified people with Type 2 diabetes using a national register. A total of 290 individuals developed Type 2 diabetes in adult life. The cumulative incidence of Type 2 diabetes decreased progressively from 8.6% in persons whose adiposity rebound occurred before the age of 5 years to 1.8% in those in whom it occurred after 7 years ( padiposity rebound was preceded by low weight gain between birth and 1 year ( padiposity rebound.

  19. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  20. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D; Leblanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection and treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys in 11 high-income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents aged 18 to 64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16% to 33% of median within-country household income, and population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0% to 1.4% of gross household income. Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy makers should take these associations into consideration in making health care research and treatment resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-17

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points.

  2. An exploration of addiction in adults experiencing early-life stress: a metasynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Araujo Bastos Teixeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to review and synthesize qualitative research on the links between early-life stress and addiction behaviours in adulthood. Method: metasynthesis to review qualitative research findings based on procedures that outline how to identify themes or constructs across studies in a specific area. Comprehensive searches of multiple electronic databases were performed. The initial search yielded 1050 articles and the titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion based on predetermined criteria. Thirty-eight full text, peer-reviewed articles were retrieved and assessed by three independent reviewers. Twelve articles were eligible for full review and appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tools. Results: the findings revealed that clear associations exist between early-life stress and addictive behaviours in adulthood, such as between trauma in childhood, violence, and addictive behaviours. A common theme in the findings indicates that participants turn to addictive substances as a way of strategically coping with stressful childhood experiences, regardless of the harmful side effects or detrimental social outcomes. Conclusion: it can be inferred that addiction may be viewed as a way to deal with adversity in childhood and that there is an interrelationship between addiction, domestic violence and crime.

  3. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied.In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation.These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  4. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  6. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  7. Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Williams, Martin L; Jones, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD. They raised the possibility that early air pollution, which is known to be strongly linked with chest infection during infancy, may predispose to RHD. We related estimates of air pollution and social conditions developed by Daly in 1951-52 for 78 urban areas in England and Wales to their subsequent RHD mortality rates at ages 35-74 in men and women during 1993-2012. There were strong relationships between domestic air pollution and RHD [relative risk per standard deviation (SD) increase in pollution 1.168, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.128 to 1.210, P pollution association was independent of these; only overcrowding was separately linked with RHD. We present the first evidence of an association between air pollution in early life and RHD. Although there are several limitations to this study, the strength and consistency of the results, together with their biological plausibility, suggest a causal link. This deserves attention because it may have important consequences for the control of RHD in resource-poor countries where widespread use of biomass fuels and domestic pollution remain a problem.

  8. Early weaning and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to determine whether lack of breast-feeding or a short duration of breast-feeding during infancy is associated with an elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life. METHOD: The study was a prospective longitudinal birth cohort design...... conducted in a sample of 6,562 men and women, all of whom were born in Copenhagen, Denmark, between October 1959 and December 1961. The sample was divided into two categories based on duration of breast-feeding, as assessed by a physician interview with mothers at a 1-year examination. Psychiatric...... hospitalizations with alcohol-related diagnoses according to ICD-8 or ICD-10 were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register in 1999. Nine potential confounders were included as covariates: gender of the cohort member, maternal age, parental social status, maternal prenatal smoking, unwanted pregnancy...

  9. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  10. Mothers' marital history and the physical and mental health of young adults: an investigation over the early life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2013-12-01

    Using survey data from 12,424 adolescents and their mothers over 13 years in the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the purpose of this study was to examine a life course model exploring the pathways linking mothers' marital history (identified as latent classes) and young adult health outcomes. During young adulthood (Wave 4), respondents ranged in age from 19 to 32. The results demonstrated unique long-term influences of stressful marital history typologies of mothers (prior to 1995) on the physical and mental health of young adults (2008) with reference to consistently married mothers after controlling for health status in 2001. These influences operated through family processes (economic pressure and parental rejection) and adolescent psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem, academic performance, and delinquent behavior). Our findings show that vulnerable groups of youth, in terms of mothers' marital history, can be identified early for appropriate intervention efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: the first 1000 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2016-07-12

    Development during fetal life and infancy is characterized by rapid growth as well as the maturation of organs and systems. Changes, both in quality and quality, in nutrients during these periods may permanently infl uence the way these organs mature and function. These effects are termed as “programming” and play an important role in the presence of non-transmissible diseases through the lifespan. Specially cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders and carbohydrate intolerance. Nutritional deficits during pregnancy, leading to intrauterine growth restriction, are associated to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease among the offspring. This infl uence does not stop with the delivery but early nutrition in infancy, type of lactation, and the way and time solid foods are introduced, does play a role in this programming. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors alter the expression of some genes, resulting in effective remodeling of tissue structure and functionality. These epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to further generations, adding evidence that hereditable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. But, at the same time, it opens a window of opportunity to decrease the burden of non-transmissible disease by a clever advise on nutrition during pregnancy and across the first 2 years of life (the so-called 1000 days strategy).

  12. Developmental origins of adult health and disease: The metabolic role of BDNF from early life to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briana, Despina D; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-12-04

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process. Although mainly expressed in the nervous system, BDNF and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), are immunolocalized in several regions of the human placenta and have important functions during pregnancy. BDNF serves widespread roles in regulating energy homeostasis in both fetuses and adults, by controlling patterns of fetal growth, adult feeding and physical activity, and by regulating glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. Impaired BDNF signaling may be implicated in the etiopathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Novel BDNF-focused interventions are being developed for obesity, diabetes and neurological disorders. The aim of this article is to provide a brief comprehensive literary review regarding the potential implications of BDNF in "developmental programming", through regulation of metabolism and energy balance from early life to adulthood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endo...

  14. Raw milk consumption and other early-life farm exposures and adult pulmonary function in the Agricultural Lung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Annah B; House, John S; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Hankinson, John L; Long, Stuart; Henneberger, Paul K; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P; O'Connell, Elizabeth Long; Cummings, Christie Barker; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J

    2017-07-08

    Literature suggests that early exposure to the farming environment protects against atopy and asthma; few studies have examined pulmonary function. We evaluated associations between early-life farming exposures and pulmonary function in 3061 adults (mean age=63) from a US farming population using linear regression. Childhood raw milk consumption was associated with higher FEV1 (β=49.5 mL, 95% CI 2.8 to 96.1 mL, p=0.04) and FVC (β=66.2 mL, 95% CI 13.2 to 119.1 mL, p=0.01). We did not find appreciable associations with other early-life farming exposures. We report a novel association between raw milk consumption and higher pulmonary function that lasts into older adulthood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Genetic and epigenetic catalysts in early-life programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estampador, Angela C; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has emerged across the past few decades that the lifetime risk of developing morbidities like type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease may be influenced by exposures that occur in utero and in childhood. Developmental abnormalities are known to occur at various stages in fetal growth. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies have sought to delineate developmental processes and plausible risk factors influencing pregnancy outcomes and later health. Whether these observations reflect causal processes or are confounded by genetic and social factors remains unclear, although animal (and some human) studies suggest that epigenetic programming events may be involved. Regardless of the causal basis to observations of early-life risk factors and later disease risk, the fact that such associations exist and that they are of a fairly large magnitude justifies further research around this topic. Furthermore, additional information is needed to substantiate public health guidelines on lifestyle behaviors during pregnancy to improve infant health outcomes. Indeed, lifestyle intervention clinical trials in pregnancy are now coming online, where materials and data are being collected that should facilitate understanding of the causal nature of intrauterine exposures related with gestational weight gain, such as elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations. In this review, we provide an overview of these concepts.

  16. Environmental PAH exposure and male idiopathic infertility: a review on early life exposures and adult diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeen, Erin P; Williams, David E

    2017-03-01

    The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility. Human environmental exposures are poorly understood due to limited available data. The latency between maternal and in utero exposure and a diagnosis in adulthood complicates the correlation between environmental exposures and infertility. The results from this review include recommendations for more and region specific monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, longitudinal and clinical cohort considerations of exposure normalization, gene-environment interactions, in utero exposure studies, and controlled mechanistic animal experiments. Additionally, it is recommended that detailed semen analysis and male fertility data be included as endpoints in environmental exposure cohort studies due to the sensitivity of the male reproductive system to environmental pollutants, including PAHs.

  17. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ≥ 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of emotional stress early in life on adult voluntary ethanol intake-results of maternal separation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2005-09-01

    The combination of genetic and environmental factors determines the individual vulnerability for excessive ethanol intake, possibly leading to dependence. The environmental influences early in life represent examples of determinant factors for adult behaviour and can be protective as well as risk factors. Maternal separation is one model to examine the long-term consequences of early environmental experiences on neurochemistry and behaviour, including drug-taking behaviour in experimental animals. In the present review, findings from studies using repeated short and prolonged periods of maternal separation, with emphasis on effects on voluntary ethanol intake in rats with or without a genetic predisposition for high voluntary ethanol intake, are summarized. Despite some contradictory results, the general picture emerging shows that short periods of maternal separation during the postnatal period result in a lower adult voluntary ethanol intake in male rats. Prolonged periods of maternal separation were found to induce a high voluntary ethanol intake in male rats, including rats with a genetic predisposition for high ethanol intake. Results from the literature also show that changes were not just related to time of separation but were also related to the degree of handling. Interestingly, in terms of voluntary ethanol intake, female rats were generally not affected by postnatal maternal separation. The reasons for these sex differences need further investigation. In terms of neurobiological consequences of maternal separation, conclusive data are sparse and one of the future challenges will, therefore, be to identify and characterize underlying neurobiological mechanisms, especially in the individual animal.

  19. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  20. Early life stress elicits visceral hyperalgesia and functional reorganization of pain circuits in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Holschneider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS is a risk factor for developing functional gastrointestinal disorders, and has been proposed to be related to a central amplification of sensory input and resultant visceral hyperalgesia. We sought to characterize ELS-related changes in functional brain responses during acute noxious visceral stimulation. Neonatal rats (males/females were exposed to limited bedding (ELS or standard bedding (controls on postnatal days 2–9. Age 10–11 weeks, animals were implanted with venous cannulas and transmitters for abdominal electromyography (EMG. Cerebral blood flow (rCBF was mapped during colorectal distension (CRD using [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, and analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping and functional connectivity. EMG responses to CRD were increased after ELS, with no evidence of a sex difference. ELS rats compared to controls showed a greater significant positive correlation of EMG with amygdalar rCBF. Factorial analysis revealed a significant main effect of ‘ELS’ on functional activation of nodes within the pain pathway (somatosensory, insular, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, locus coeruleus/lateral parabrachial n. [LC/LPB], periaqueductal gray, sensory thalamus, as well as in the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. In addition, ELS resulted in an increase in the number of significant functional connections (i.e. degree centrality between regions within the pain circuit, including the amygdala, LC/LPB, insula, anterior ventral cingulate, posterior cingulate (retrosplenium, and stria terminalis, with decreases noted in the sensory thalamus and the hippocampus. Sex differences in rCBF were less broadly expressed, with significant differences noted at the level of the cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, raphe, sensory thalamus, and caudate-putamen. ELS showed a sexually dimorphic effect (‘Sex x ELS’ interaction at the LC/LPB complex, globus pallidus

  1. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  2. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeijmakers, L.; Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early

  3. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  4. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  5. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  6. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eHoeijmakers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  7. Music and Quality of Life in Early-Deafened Late-Implanted Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina; Mallinckrodt, Lisa; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz; Free, Rolien

    Hypothesis and Background: The early-deafened, late-implanted (EDLI) CI users constitute a relatively new and understudied clinical population. To contribute to a better understanding of the implantation outcome, this study evaluated this population for self-reported enjoyment and perception of

  8. Parental and offspring contribution of genetic markers of adult blood pressure in early life: The FAMILY study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Robiou-du-Pont

    Full Text Available Previous genome wide association studies (GWAS identified associations of multiple common variants with diastolic and systolic blood pressure traits in adults. However, the contribution of these loci to variations of blood pressure in early life is unclear. We assessed the child and parental contributions of 33 GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for blood pressure in 1,525 participants (515 children, 406 mothers and 237 fathers of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In early life (FAMILY study followed-up for 5 years. Two genotype scores for systolic (29 SNPs and diastolic (24 SNPs blood pressure were built. Linear mixed-effect regressions showed significant association between rs1378942 in CSK and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.98±0.46, P = 3.4×10-2. The child genotype scores for diastolic and systolic blood pressure were not associated in children. Nominally significant parental genetic effects were found between the SNPs rs11191548 (CYP17A1 (paternal, β = 2.78±1.49, P = 6.1×10-2 for SBP and β = 3.60±1.24, P = 3.7×10-3 for DBP, rs17367504 (MTHFR (paternal, β = 2.42±0.93, P = 9.3×10-3 for SBP and β = 1.89±0.80, P = 1.8×10-2 for DBP and maternal, β = -1.32±0.60, P = 2.9×10-2 and β = -1.97±0.77, P = 1.0×10-2, for SBP and DBP respectively and child blood pressure. Our study supports the view that adult GWAS loci have a limited impact on blood pressure during the five first years of life. The parental genetic effects observed on blood pressure in children may suggest epigenetic mechanisms in the transmission of the risk of hypertension. Further replication is needed to confirm our results.

  9. Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Paul E.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2014-01-01

    Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a ‘silver spoon’ effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an ‘indirect’ silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent ‘direct’ silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult. PMID:24789890

  10. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Early life stress is associated with anxiety, increased stress responsivity and preference for "comfort foods" in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Portella, André Krumel; Werlang, Isabel Cristina Ribas; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2013-09-01

    Chronic stress increases anxiety and encourages intake of palatable foods as "comfort foods". This effect seems to be mediated by altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the current study, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to limited access to nesting material (Early-Life Stress group - ELS) or standard care (Control group) from postnatal day 2 to 9. In adult life, anxiety was assessed using the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT), and acute stress responsivity by measurement of plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Preference for palatable foods was monitored by a computerized system (BioDAQ, Research Diets(®)) in rats receiving only regular chow or given the choice of regular and palatable diet for 30 days. ELS-augmented adulthood anxiety in the NSFT (increased latency to eat in a new environment; decreased chow intake upon return to the home cage) and increased corticosterone (but not ACTH) secretion in response to stress. Despite being lighter and consuming less rat chow, ELS animals ate more palatable foods during chronic exposure compared with controls. During preference testing, controls receiving long-term access to palatable diet exhibited reduced preference for the diet relative to controls exposed to regular chow only, whereas ELS rats demonstrated no such reduction in preference after prolonged palatable diet exposure. The increased preference for palatable foods showed by ELS animals may result from a habit of using this type of food to ameliorate anxiety.

  12. Visualizing Changes in Cdkn1c Expression Links Early-Life Adversity to Imprint Mis-regulation in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Van de Pette

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes are regulated according to parental origin and can influence embryonic growth and metabolism and confer disease susceptibility. Here, we designed sensitive allele-specific reporters to non-invasively monitor imprinted Cdkn1c expression in mice and showed that expression was modulated by environmental factors encountered in utero. Acute exposure to chromatin-modifying drugs resulted in de-repression of paternally inherited (silent Cdkn1c alleles in embryos that was temporary and resolved after birth. In contrast, deprivation of maternal dietary protein in utero provoked permanent de-repression of imprinted Cdkn1c expression that was sustained into adulthood and occurred through a folate-dependent mechanism of DNA methylation loss. Given the function of imprinted genes in regulating behavior and metabolic processes in adults, these results establish imprinting deregulation as a credible mechanism linking early-life adversity to later-life outcomes. Furthermore, Cdkn1c-luciferase mice offer non-invasive tools to identify factors that disrupt epigenetic processes and strategies to limit their long-term impact.

  13. Early weaning and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2006-01-01

    hospitalizations with alcohol-related diagnoses according to ICD-8 or ICD-10 were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register in 1999. Nine potential confounders were included as covariates: gender of the cohort member, maternal age, parental social status, maternal prenatal smoking, unwanted pregnancy...... of early weaning was 1.47. Elevated relative risks were also associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (1.52) and unwanted pregnancy status (1.59). Other independent predictors were male gender, maternal psychiatric hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnosis, and low parental social status....... CONCLUSIONS: Independent of a number of other risk factors for alcoholism, a significant association between early weaning and elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses was observed....

  14. Early Life Stress-Related Elevations in Reaction Time Variability Are Associated with Brain Volume Reductions in HIV+ Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraina S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV, which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults. We assessed the relation of RT-IIV to neuropsychiatric symptom levels and total gray and white matter volumes in 44 HIV+ adults (26 with high ELS. RT-IIV was examined during a working memory task. Self-report measures assessed current neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total gray and white matter volumes. Compared to Low-ELS participants, High-ELS participants exhibited elevated RT-IIV, elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms, and reduced gray and white matter volumes. Across the entire sample, RT-IIV was significantly associated with gray and white matter volumes, whereas significant associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms were not observed. In the High-ELS group, despite the presence of elevated neuropsychiatric symptom levels, brain volume reductions explained more than 13% of the variance in RT-IIV, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms explained less than 1%. Collectively, these data provide evidence that, in HIV+ High-ELS adults, ELS-related cognitive difficulties (as indexed by RT-IIV exhibit strong associations with global brain volumes, whereas ELS-related elevations in

  15. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUPA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUPA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet

  16. Impact of early unanticipated revision surgery on health-related quality of life after adult spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Pereira, Susana; Vila-Casademunt, Alba; Domingo-Sàbat, Montse; Bagó, Juan; Acaroglu, Emre R; Alanay, Ahmet; Obeid, Ibrahim; Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, Francisco Javier; Kleinstück, Frank; Pellisé, Ferran

    2017-10-13

    Revision surgery represents a major event for patients undergoing adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. Previous reports suggest that ASD surgery has minimal or no impact on health-related-quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes. The present study aims to investigate the impact of early reoperations within the first year on HRQOL and on the likelihood of reaching the minimally clinically important difference (MCID) after ASD surgery. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from consecutive surgically treated adult deformity surgery patients included in a multicenter, international database. The present study included 280 patients from a multicenter international prospective database. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22), MCID were evaluated in this work. Consecutive surgical patients with ASD recruited prospectively in six different centers from four countries with a minimum 2-year follow-up were stratified into two groups: R (revision surgery within the first year) and NR (no revision). Health-related-quality of life (ODI, SF-36, SRS-22) was assessed and compared at 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up stages. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Student t tests, and linear mixed models. Forty-three patients (R Group) received 46 revision surgeries. Nineteen patients (41.3%) had implant-related complications, 9 patients (19.6%) had deep surgical site infections, 9 patients (19.6%) had proximal junctional kyphosis, 3 patients (6.5%) had hematoma, and 6 patients (13%) had other complications. Baseline characteristics differed between groups. At 6 months, all HRQOL scores improved in both groups, except in the SF-36 Mental Component Summary and SRS-22 mental health domain in the R Group. At 1 year, ODI and SRS-22 improvement was significantly greater in the NR Group, exceeding the reported MCID. At the 2-year follow-up, ODI, SRS-22, SF-36 MCS, and SF-36 PCS improvement was similar

  17. Autism in the Faroe Islands: diagnostic stability from childhood to early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočovská, Eva; Billstedt, Eva; Ellefsen, Asa; Kampmann, Hanna; Gillberg, I Carina; Biskupstø, Rannvá; Andorsdóttir, Guðrið; Stóra, Tormóður; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Childhood autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been regarded as one of the most stable diagnostic categories applied to young children with psychiatric/developmental disorders. The stability over time of a diagnosis of ASD is theoretically interesting and important for various diagnostic and clinical reasons. We studied the diagnostic stability of ASD from childhood to early adulthood in the Faroe Islands: a total school age population sample (8-17-year-olds) was screened and diagnostically assessed for AD in 2002 and 2009. This paper compares both independent clinical diagnosis and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) algorithm diagnosis at two time points, separated by seven years. The stability of clinical ASD diagnosis was perfect for AD, good for "atypical autism"/PDD-NOS, and less than perfect for Asperger syndrome (AS). Stability of the DISCO algorithm subcategory diagnoses was more variable but still good for AD. Both systems showed excellent stability over the seven-year period for "any ASD" diagnosis, although a number of clear cases had been missed at the original screening in 2002. The findings support the notion that subcategories of ASD should be collapsed into one overarching diagnostic entity with subgrouping achieved on other "non-autism" variables, such as IQ and language levels and overall adaptive functioning.

  18. Autism in the Faroe Islands: Diagnostic Stability from Childhood to Early Adult Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kočovská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been regarded as one of the most stable diagnostic categories applied to young children with psychiatric/developmental disorders. The stability over time of a diagnosis of ASD is theoretically interesting and important for various diagnostic and clinical reasons. We studied the diagnostic stability of ASD from childhood to early adulthood in the Faroe Islands: a total school age population sample (8–17-year-olds was screened and diagnostically assessed for AD in 2002 and 2009. This paper compares both independent clinical diagnosis and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO algorithm diagnosis at two time points, separated by seven years. The stability of clinical ASD diagnosis was perfect for AD, good for “atypical autism”/PDD-NOS, and less than perfect for Asperger syndrome (AS. Stability of the DISCO algorithm subcategory diagnoses was more variable but still good for AD. Both systems showed excellent stability over the seven-year period for “any ASD” diagnosis, although a number of clear cases had been missed at the original screening in 2002. The findings support the notion that subcategories of ASD should be collapsed into one overarching diagnostic entity with subgrouping achieved on other “non-autism” variables, such as IQ and language levels and overall adaptive functioning.

  19. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  20. Early Life Stress and Inflammatory Mechanisms of Fatigue in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Bower, Julienne E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is highly prevalent and causes serious disruption in quality of life. Although cross-sectional studies suggest childhood adversity is associated with adulthood fatigue, longitudinal evidence of this relationship and its specific biological mechanisms have not been established. This longitudinal study examined the association between early life stress and adulthood fatigue and tested whether this association was mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation as indexed by circulating C-re...

  1. Elevated cortisol awakening response associated with early life stress and impaired executive function in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin; Klaus, Kristel; Edwards, Laura; Pennington, Kyla

    2017-09-01

    Experiencing early life stress (ELS) and subsequent dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the aetiology of mental health disorders. However, the exact mechanisms linking HPA-axis dysregulation with the development of psychopathology have not been fully delineated. Progress in this area is hampered by the complex and often conflicting associations found between markers of HPA-axis function and risk factors for mental health disorders such as impaired executive function (EF) and ELS. This study investigated the association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with ELS and EF in a healthy adult male population (n=109, aged 21-63). As previous inconsistencies in CAR and ELS association studies may be the result of not considering ELS-related factors such as cumulative exposure, type of stressor and developmental timing of ELS, these were also investigated. The main findings were that the CAR was significantly elevated in individuals reporting ELS compared to those reporting no ELS (p=0.007) and that an elevated CAR predicted poorer problem solving/planning (p=0.046). Cumulative exposure, type of stressor and developmental timing of ELS were also found to impact significantly on the CAR. These results suggest that ELS is associated with chronic changes in HPA-axis function and that these changes may be associated with impairments in problem solving/planning. Future work should investigate further the neurobiological mechanisms linking ELS, the CAR and EF and their role in conferring risk for the development of mental health disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Chris J; Bezlyak, Vladimir; McLean, Jennifer S; Batty, G David; Ford, Ian; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A; Henderson, Marion; McGinty, Agnes; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Velupillai, Yoga N; Tannahill, Carol

    2011-01-17

    Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  3. Dissociating the effects of alternative early-life feeding schedules on the development of adult depression-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Vikki; Andrews, Clare; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with increased vulnerability to depression in humans, and depression-like phenotypes in animals. However, different types of adverse experience may leave different signatures in adulthood. We experimentally manipulated the Amount of food delivered to European starling nestlings and the begging Effort required to obtain food during early development. Here, we report behavioural data in adulthood from a task that assessed sensitivity to shifts in reward magnitude characteristic of depression-like low mood. Birds that had experienced Hard Effort were more food motivated than birds that had experienced Easy Effort. Both Effort and Amount affected sensitivity to shifts in reward magnitude: Hard Effort birds showed an enhanced negative contrast effect following loss of reward ('disappointment'), and Lean Amount birds failed to show a normal positive contrast effect following gain in reward (a lack of 'elation'). Therefore, the feeding schedule experienced for just 10 days in early life caused enduring effects on feeding motivation and sensitivity to reward loss/gain consistent with human depression. Furthermore, the contrast effects were specific to different types of adversity. These results highlight the importance of early-life feeding schedules in the development of depression-like phenotypes.

  4. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Packard, Chris J

    2011-01-17

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father\\'s occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father\\'s occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the \\'health divide\\' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  5. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Boecker

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus, indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV, with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway.

  6. Early Life Inorganic Lead Exposure Induces Testicular Teratoma and Renal and Urinary Bladder Preneoplasia in Adult Metallothionein-Knockout Mice but Not in Wild Type Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Erik J.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic lead compounds are carcinogenic in animals and have carcinogenic potential in humans. In mice, lead (Pb) is a transplacental carcinogen in the kidney. Metallothionein (MT) is a metal-binding protein that can reduce the toxicity of various metals, including Pb, either by direct sequestration or as an antioxidant for metals that generate reactive oxygen species. Although MT appears to reduce Pb carcinogenicity in adult mice it is unknown how MT deficiency may affect Pb carcinogenicity from early life exposure. Thus, groups (n = 10) of pregnant MT-I/II double knockout (MT-null) or 129/SVJ MT wild type (WT) mice were exposed to Pb acetate in the drinking water (0, 2000, 4000 ppm Pb) from gestation day 8 through birth and during lactation. Maternal drinking water Pb exposure continued to weaning at 4 weeks of age and the male offspring were then directly exposed to Pb until 8 weeks of age and observed until 2 years old. High dose (4000 ppm) but not low dose (2000 ppm) Pb reduced survival in the latter part of the study in both MT-null and WT mice. In MT-null mice, but not WT, early life Pb exposure caused a dose-related increase in testicular teratomas, to a maximum incidence of 28% compared to control (4%). Pb-induced renal cystic hyperplasia, considered preneoplastic, were a prominent occurrence in MT-null mice but nearly absent in WT mice. Pb dose-related increases in renal cystic hyperplasia occurred in adult MT-null with early life exposure with maximal incidence of 52%. Pb-treated MT-null mice also showed dose-related increases in urinary bladder hyperplasia with occasional papilloma that were absent in WT mice. Thus, MT deficiency made mice more sensitive to early life Pb exposure with regard to testes tumors, and renal and urinary bladder preneoplastic lesions. PMID:20600549

  7. MF59 Mediates Its B Cell Adjuvanticity by Promoting T Follicular Helper Cells and Thus Germinal Center Responses in Adult and Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelic Gavillet, Beatris; Eberhardt, Christiane S; Auderset, Floriane; Castellino, Flora; Seubert, Anja; Tregoning, John S; Lambert, Paul-Henri; de Gregorio, Ennio; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2015-05-15

    The early life influenza disease burden calls for more effective vaccines to protect this vulnerable population. Influenza vaccines including the MF59 oil-in-water adjuvant induce higher, broader, and more persistent Ab responses in adults and particularly in young, through yet undefined mechanisms. In this study, we show that MF59 enhances adult murine IgG responses to influenza hemagglutinin (HA) by promoting a potent T follicular helper cells (TFH) response, which directly controls the magnitude of the germinal center (GC) B cell response. Remarkably, this enhancement of TFH and GC B cells is already fully functional in 3-wk-old infant mice, which were fully protected by HA/MF59 but not HA/PBS immunization against intranasal challenge with the homologous H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) strain. In 1-wk-old neonatal mice, MF59 recruits and activates APCs, efficiently induces CD4(+) effector T cells and primes for enhanced infant responses but induces few fully functional TFH cells, which are mostly follicular regulatory T cells, and poor GC and anti-HA responses. The B cell adjuvanticity of MF59 appears to be mediated by the potent induction of TFH cells which directly controls GC responses both in adult and early life, calling for studies assessing its capacity to enhance the efficacy of influenza immunization in young infants. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Shepherd, Kathrine; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressful life events predicted subsequent increases in rumination. We also investigated whether rumination served as a mechanism underlying the longitudinal association between self-reported stressful life events and internalizing symptoms. Self-reported stressful life events, rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 separate longitudinal samples. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months. A sample of adults (N = 1,132) was assessed at 2 time points spanning 12 months. In both samples, self-reported exposure to stressful life events was associated longitudinally with increased engagement in rumination. In addition, rumination mediated the longitudinal relationship between self-reported stressors and symptoms of anxiety in both samples and the relationship between self-reported life events and symptoms of depression in the adult sample. Identifying the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that explain a greater propensity for rumination following stressors remains an important goal for future research. This study provides novel evidence for the role of stressful life events in shaping characteristic responses to distress, specifically engagement in rumination, highlighting potentially useful targets for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of depression and anxiety. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  9. Compulsive Buying and Quality of Life: An Estimate of the Monetary Cost of Compulsive Buying among Adults in Early Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; De La Rosa, Mario; Brook, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations between compulsive buying and quality of life and to estimate the monetary cost of compulsive buying for a cohort of men and women at mean age 43. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two New York counties (N=548). The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean age of participants at the most recent interview was 43.0 (SD=2.8). Fifty five percent of the participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. Linear regression analyses showed that compulsive buying was significantly associated with quality of life, despite controlling for relevant demographic and psychosocial factors. The estimated monetary cost of compulsive buying for this cohort was significant. The fact that the monetary cost of CB is not trivial suggests that individuals are both consciously and unconsciously plagued by their CB. The findings are important for interventionists and clinicians for cost-effective intervention and treatment programs. PMID:28285247

  10. Compulsive buying and quality of life: An estimate of the monetary cost of compulsive buying among adults in early midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; De La Rosa, Mario; Brook, David W

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations between compulsive buying and quality of life and to estimate the monetary cost of compulsive buying for a cohort of men and women at mean age 43. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two New York counties (N=548). The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean age of participants at the most recent interview was 43.0 (SD=2.8). Fifty five percent of the participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. Linear regression analyses showed that compulsive buying was significantly associated with quality of life, despite controlling for relevant demographic and psychosocial factors. The estimated monetary cost of compulsive buying for this cohort was significant. The fact that the monetary cost of CB is not trivial suggests that individuals are both consciously and unconsciously plagued by their CB. The findings are important for interventionists and clinicians for cost-effective intervention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early-life perturbations in glucocorticoid activity impacts on the structure, function and molecular composition of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.S.; Baily, J.; Tucker, C.S.; Matrone, G.; Vass, S.; Moran, C.; Chapman, K.E.; Mullins, J.J.; Kenyon, C.; Hadoke, P.W.F.; Denvir, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transient early-life perturbations in glucocorticoids (GC) are linked with cardiovascular disease risk in later life. Here the impact of early life manipulations of GC on adult heart structure, function and gene expression were assessed. Methods and results Zebrafish embryos were incubated in dexamethasone (Dex) or injected with targeted glucocorticoid receptor (GR) morpholino knockdown (GR Mo) over the first 120 h post fertilisation (hpf); surviving embryos (>90%) were maintained until adulthood under normal conditions. Cardiac function, heart histology and cardiac genes were assessed in embryonic (120 hpf) and adult (120 days post fertilisation (dpf)) hearts. GR Mo embryos (120 hpf) had smaller hearts with fewer cardiomyocytes, less mature striation pattern, reduced cardiac function and reduced levels of vmhc and igf mRNA compared with controls. GR Mo adult hearts were smaller with diminished trabecular network pattern, reduced expression of vmhc and altered echocardiographic Doppler flow compared to controls. Dex embryos had larger hearts at 120 hpf (Dex 107.2 ± 3.1 vs. controls 90.2 ± 1.1 μm, p hearts were larger (1.02 ± 0.07 μg/mg vs controls 0.63 ± 0.06 μg/mg, p = 0.0007), had increased vmhc and gr mRNA levels. Conclusion Perturbations in GR activity during embryonic development results in short and long-term alterations in the heart. PMID:26219824

  12. Early life stress interacts with the diet deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids during the life course increasing the metabolic vulnerability in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R Bernardi

    Full Text Available Early stress can cause metabolic disorders in adulthood. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs deficiency has also been linked to the development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess whether an early stressful event such as maternal separation interacts with the nutritional availability of n-3 PUFAs during the life course on metabolic aspects. Litters were randomized into: maternal separated (MS and non-handled (NH. The MS group was removed from their dam for 3 hours per day and put in an incubator at 32 °C on days 1° to 10° postnatal (PND. On PND 35, males were subdivided into diets that were adequate or deficient in n-3 PUFAs, and this intervention was applied during the subsequent 15 weeks. Animal's body weight and food consumption were measured weekly, and at the end of the treatment tissues were collected. MS was associated with increased food intake (p = 0.047 and weight gain (p = 0.012, but no differences were found in the NPY hypothalamic content between the groups. MS rats had also increased deposition of abdominal fat (p<0.001 and plasma triglycerides (p = 0.018 when compared to the NH group. Interactions between early life stress and n-3 PUFAs deficiency were found in plasma insulin (p = 0.033, HOMA index (p = 0.049, leptin (p = 0.010 and liver PEPCK expression (p = 0.050, in which the metabolic vulnerability in the MS group was aggravated by the n-3 PUFAs deficient diet exposure. This was associated with specific alterations in the peripheral fatty acid profile. Variations in the neonatal environment interact with nutritional aspects during the life course, such as n-3 PUFAs diet content, and persistently alter the metabolic vulnerability in adulthood.

  13. Caffeine and an adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist prevent memory impairment and synaptotoxicity in adult rats triggered by a convulsive episode in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognato, Giana P; Agostinho, Paula M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2010-01-01

    Seizures early in life cause long-term behavioral modifications, namely long-term memory deficits in experimental animals. Since caffeine and adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) antagonists prevent memory deficits in adult animals, we now investigated if they also prevented the long-term memory deficits caused by a convulsive period early in life. Administration of kainate (KA, 2 mg/kg) to 7-days-old (P7) rats caused a single period of self-extinguishable convulsions which lead to a poorer memory performance in the Y-maze only when rats were older than 90 days, without modification of locomotion or anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. In accordance with the relationship between synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction, the hippocampus of these adult rats treated with kainate at P7 displayed a lower density of synaptic proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin (but not synaptophysin), as well as vesicular glutamate transporters type 1 (but not vesicular GABA transporters), with no changes in PSD-95, NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, NR2B) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2) compared with controls. Caffeine (1 g/L) or the A(2A)R antagonist, KW6002 (3 mg/kg) applied in the drinking water from P21 onwards, prevented these memory deficits in P90 rats treated with KA at P7, as well as the accompanying synaptotoxicity. These results show that a single convulsive episode in early life causes a delayed memory deficit in adulthood accompanied by a glutamatergic synaptotoxicity that was prevented by caffeine or adenosine A(2A)R antagonists.

  14. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  15. Early life influences kidney function at age 63-64 years, but so does adult body size: results from the newcastle thousand families birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is suggested that impaired fetal growth can affect kidney development, resulting in fewer glomeruli being formed and reduced kidney function later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate early life variables in relation to adult kidney function, and compare these to the influence of later life variables. METHODS: Detailed information was collected prospectively regarding 1,142 babies, born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne. At the age of 63-64 years, 335 participants had serum creatinine successfully measured and completed a lifestyle questionnaire. These measurements were used to calculate their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI and being female were significantly negatively associated with eGFR. Birth weight was significantly positively associated with eGFR. In sex-specific analyses, BMI and cigarette smoking remained significant for males (n = 154, with a near significant association for birth weight, whereas none of the variables remained significant for females (n = 181. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that sex, size at birth and BMI may be important variables influencing adult kidney function. However, as only a small amount of variance in eGFR was explained by these variables, additional longitudinal studies would be beneficial for assessing lifecourse influences on kidney function.

  16. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar Naveed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666 recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P P Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  17. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kasanova

    Full Text Available Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD and 12 healthy controls (HC to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years and late (12-18 years was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23 = -3.35, p = .004 and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23 = -2.48, p = .023. In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11 = 3.06, p = .016 as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23 = -2.48, p = .023. Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11 = -2, p = .07, where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11 = -0.67, nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11 = .01, p = .99. These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  18. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

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    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  19. Differential effects of early- and late-life access to carotenoids on adult immune function and ornamentation in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions early in life can affect an organism's phenotype at adulthood, which may be tuned to perform optimally in conditions that mimic those experienced during development (Environmental Matching hypothesis, or may be generally superior when conditions during development were of higher quality (Silver Spoon hypothesis. Here, we tested these hypotheses by examining how diet during development interacted with diet during adulthood to affect adult sexually selected ornamentation and immune function in male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. Mallards have yellow, carotenoid-pigmented beaks that are used in mate choice, and the degree of beak coloration has been linked to adult immune function. Using a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design, we reared mallards on diets containing either low or high levels of carotenoids (nutrients that cannot be synthesized de novo throughout the period of growth, and then provided adults with one of these two diets while simultaneously quantifying beak coloration and response to a variety of immune challenges. We found that both developmental and adult carotenoid supplementation increased circulating carotenoid levels during dietary treatment, but that birds that received low-carotenoid diets during development maintained relatively higher circulating carotenoid levels during an adult immune challenge. Individuals that received low levels of carotenoids during development had larger phytohemagglutinin (PHA-induced cutaneous immune responses at adulthood; however, dietary treatment during development and adulthood did not affect antibody response to a novel antigen, nitric oxide production, natural antibody levels, hemolytic capacity of the plasma, or beak coloration. However, beak coloration prior to immune challenges positively predicted PHA response, and strong PHA responses were correlated with losses in carotenoid-pigmented coloration. In sum, we did not find consistent support for either the

  20. Effects of early life stress and adolescent ethanol exposure on adult cognitive performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in Wistar male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2017-05-01

    Early life stress combined with heavy adolescent alcohol use predicts impaired neuropsychological functioning in adulthood. We investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure combined with neonatal maternal separation in rats altered attentional processes and impulsivity in adulthood. Male Wistar rat pups were exposed to maternal separation (postnatal days (PNDs) 1-14) and moderate AIE exposure (PNDs 28-57). Adult rats were tested in the five-choice serial reaction time task, which provides separate measures of attention, motor impulsivity, and compulsivity. Rats were tested under baseline conditions and in response to task manipulations that increased attentional load and impulsive behaviors, and after acute ethanol administration. Short stimulus and short intertrial interval (ITI) durations disrupted attention while long ITI durations impaired impulsivity in all rats. Moderate- and high-dose ethanol challenges impaired attention in all rats. Rats exposed to maternal separation and/or AIE exposure had significantly decreased omissions than non-handled water-exposed rats at baseline and tended to retain this effect in response to task challenges (i.e., the shorter stimulus and ITI durations, longer test session) and ethanol challenges, indicating moderate improvement of attentional performance. Maternal separation significantly increased perseverative responses at baseline and in response to decreased stimulus duration challenge, suggesting increased compulsivity. Separate or combined exposure to early life stress and AIE exposure moderately disrupts some aspects of adult executive control functions (e.g., increased compulsivity) but improves others (e.g., increased attention). The relative intensity of either manipulation during neonatal and adolescent periods may influence the direction in which cognitive behaviors are affected in adulthood.

  1. Evidence for a Link Between Fkbp5/FKBP5, Early Life Social Relations and Alcohol Drinking in Young Adult Rats and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Ingrid; Todkar, Aniruddha; Granholm, Linnea; Vrettou, Maria; Bendre, Megha; Boon, Wout; Andershed, Henrik; Tuvblad, Catherine; Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika

    2016-10-05

    Alcohol misuse has been linked to dysregulation of stress, emotion, and reward brain circuitries. A candidate key mediator of this association is the FK506-binding protein (FKBP5), a negative regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. The aim of the present study was to further understand the Fkbp5/FKBP5-related genetic underpinnings underlying the relationship between early life social relations and alcohol drinking. The effect of maternal separation and voluntary alcohol drinking on Fkbp5 expression was investigated in the brain of young adult rats, whereas the interaction effect of the functional FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 genotype and parent-child relationship on problematic drinking was examined in young adult humans. In rats, Fkbp5 expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, core regions of the reward system, was affected in a region-dependent manner and in opposite direction by maternal separation and alcohol drinking. Fkbp5 expression in the cingulate cortex was affected by the combined effect of maternal separation and alcohol drinking. In humans, the TT genotype, in the presence of a poor relationship between the child and parents, was associated with problematic drinking behavior. The present findings suggest that Fkbp5 expression in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic regions associates with early life stress-mediated sensitivity to alcohol drinking and that FKBP5 genotype interacts with parent-child relationship to influence alcohol drinking. These findings are the first to point to a role of FKBP5 in propensity to alcohol misuse and call for studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms to identify potential drug targets.

  2. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    .... Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0...

  3. Effects of Meditation versus Music Listening on Perceived Stress, Mood, Sleep, and Quality of Life in Adults with Early Memory Loss: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2016-04-08

    Older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are at increased risk not only for Alzheimer's disease, but for poor mental health, impaired sleep, and diminished quality of life (QOL), which in turn, contribute to further cognitive decline, highlighting the need for early intervention. In this randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effects of two 12-week relaxation programs, Kirtan Kriya Meditation (KK) and music listening (ML), on perceived stress, sleep, mood, and health-related QOL in older adults with SCD. Sixty community-dwelling older adults with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes daily for 12 weeks, then at their discretion for the following 3 months. At baseline, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks, perceived stress, mood, psychological well-being, sleep quality, and health-related QOL were measured using well-validated instruments. Fifty-three participants (88%) completed the 6-month study. Participants in both groups showed significant improvement at 12 weeks in psychological well-being and in multiple domains of mood and sleep quality (p's≤0.05). Relative to ML, those assigned to KK showed greater gains in perceived stress, mood, psychological well-being, and QOL-Mental Health (p's≤0.09). Observed gains were sustained or improved at 6 months, with both groups showing marked and significant improvement in all outcomes. Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies. Findings suggest that practice of a simple meditation or ML program may improve stress, mood, well-being, sleep, and QOL in adults with SCD, with benefits sustained at 6 months and gains that were particularly pronounced in the KK group.

  4. Population structure in Atlantic cod in the eastern North Sea-Skagerrak-Kattegat: early life stage dispersal and adult migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Carl; Svedäng, Henrik; Knutsen, Halvor; Dahle, Geir; Jonsson, Patrik; Ring, Anna-Karin; Sköld, Mattias; Jorde, Per Erik

    2016-02-03

    In marine fish species, where pelagic egg and larvae drift with ocean currents, population structure has been suggested to be maintained by larval retention due to hydrographic structuring and by homing of adult fish to natal areas. Whilst natal homing of adults has been demonstrated for anadromous and coral reef fishes, there are few documented examples of philopatric migration in temperate marine fish species. Here, we demonstrate temporally stable genetic differentiation among spawning populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), and present genetic and behavioural evidence for larval drift and philopatric migration in the eastern North Sea-Skagerrak-Kattegat area. We show that juvenile cod collected in the eastern Skagerrak and central Kattegat are genetically similar to cod from offshore spawning areas in the eastern North Sea. Genetic assignment of individual 2-5 year old fish indicates that cod residing at, or migrating towards, spawning areas in Kattegat and the North Sea display philopatric behaviours. Together these findings suggest a loop between spawning, larval drift and adult return-migrations to spawning areas and underlines that both oceanographic processes and migratory behaviour in the adult phase may be important for stock separation and integrity in marine temperate fishes such as Atlantic cod.

  5. Early life origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svanes, C; Sunyer, J; Plana, E; Dharmage, S; Heinrich, J; Jarvis, D; de Marco, R; Norbäck, D; Raherison, C; Villani, S; Wjst, M; Svanes, K; Antó, J M

    2010-01-01

    Early life development may influence subsequent respiratory morbidity. The impact of factors determined in childhood on adult lung function, decline in lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was investigated...

  6. Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life: a prevalence study among Danish conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Marie; Nielsen, Rikke Beck; Fisker, Niels; Nørgaard, Mette

    2013-01-15

    Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP). We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18-25 years, 1000 (5.5%) had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.33). There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59-1.33) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88-1.05), respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.78-1.34)]. Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early adulthood. Hospitalisation for OM did not seem to

  7. Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life: a prevalence study among Danish conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Marie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. Methods We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP. We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE, stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Results Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18–25 years, 1000 (5.5% had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.33. There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59–1.33 and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.05, respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.78–1.34]. Conclusions Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive

  8. HPA axis gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in rats exposed to early life stress, adult voluntary ethanol drinking and single housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha eTodkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiological basis of early life stress (ELS impact on vulnerability to alcohol use disorder is not fully understood. The effect of ELS, adult ethanol consumption and single housing, on expression of stress and DNA methylation regulatory genes as well as blood corticosterone levels was investigated in the hypothalamus and pituitary of adult out-bred Wistar rats subjected to different rearing conditions. A prolonged maternal separation of 360 min (MS360 was used to study the effect of ELS, and a short maternal separation of 15 min (MS15 was used as a control. Voluntary ethanol drinking was assessed using a two-bottle free choice paradigm to simulate human episodic drinking. The effects of single housing and ethanol were assessed in conventional animal facility rearing (AFR conditions.Single housing in adulthood was associated with lower Crhr1 and higher Pomc expression in the pituitary, whereas ethanol drinking was associated with higher expression of Crh in the hypothalamus and Crhr1 in the pituitary, accompanied by lower corticosterone levels. As compared to controls with similar early life handling, rats exposed to ELS displayed lower expression of Pomc in the hypothalamus, and higher Dnmt1 expression in the pituitary. Voluntary ethanol drinking resulted in lower Fkbp5 expression in the pituitary and higher Crh expression in the hypothalamus, independently of rearing conditions. In rats exposed to ELS, water and ethanol drinking was associated with higher and lower corticosterone levels, respectively,. The use of conventionally reared rats as control group yielded more significant results than the use of rats exposed to short maternal separation.Positive correlations, restricted to the hypothalamus and ELS group, were observed between the expression of the HPA receptor and the methylation-related genes. Promoter DNA methylation and expression of respective genes did not correlate suggesting that other loci are involved in

  9. Recognition memory is selectively impaired in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIlvane, Nicole M; Pochiro, Joseph M; Hurwitz, Nicole R; Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, modeling human third trimester consumption. Between PD65-70, ethanol-exposed (5E) and control rats were evaluated in two variants of recognition memory, the spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task, using 20 and 240 min sample-to-test delays, and the associative object-in-context (OIC) task, using a 20 min delay. No treatment group differences were observed in object exploration during the sample session for any task. In the 20 min NOR test session the 5E rats explored the novel object significantly less than controls, relative to the total time exploring both objects. Postnatal ethanol exposure is hypothesized to impede object memory consolidation in the perirhinal cortex of 5E rats, hindering their ability to discriminate between familiar and novel objects at short delays. The 5E rats performed as well or better than control rats in the 240 min NOR and the 20 min OIC tasks, indicating developmental ethanol exposure selectively impairs the retention and expression of recognition memories in young adult rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Supramolecular structure of dietary fat in early life modulates expression of markers for mitochondrial content and capacity in adipose tissue of adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodde, Andrea; van der Beek, Eline M.; Phielix, Esther; Engels, Eefje; Schipper, Lidewij; Oosting, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that early life nutrition can modulate the development of white adipose tissue and thereby affect the risk on obesity and metabolic disease later in life. For instance, postnatal feeding with a concept infant milk formula with large, phospholipid coated lipid

  11. Prenatal Choline Supplementation Diminishes Early-Life Iron Deficiency-Induced Reprogramming of Molecular Networks Associated with Behavioral Abnormalities in the Adult Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Pisansky, Marc T; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2016-03-01

    Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Maternal iron deficiency increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Postnatal iron deficiency in young children results in cognitive and socioemotional abnormalities in adulthood despite iron treatment. The rat model of diet-induced fetal-neonatal iron deficiency recapitulates the observed neurobehavioral deficits. We sought to establish molecular underpinnings for the persistent psychopathologic effects of early-life iron deficiency by determining whether it permanently reprograms the hippocampal transcriptome. We also assessed the effects of maternal dietary choline supplementation on the offspring's hippocampal transcriptome to identify pathways through which choline mitigates the emergence of long-term cognitive deficits. Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 g Fe/kg) from gestational day (G) 2 through postnatal day (PND) 7 and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 g Fe/kg) thereafter. Control pups were provided IS diet throughout. Choline (5 g/kg) was given to half the pregnant dams in each group from G11 to G18. PND65 hippocampal transcriptomes were assayed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and analyzed with the use of knowledge-based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate a subset of altered genes. Formerly ID rats had altered hippocampal expression of 619 from >10,000 gene loci sequenced by NGS, many of which map onto molecular networks implicated in psychological disorders, including anxiety, autism, and schizophrenia. There were significant interactions between iron status and prenatal choline treatment in influencing gene expression. Choline supplementation reduced the effects of iron deficiency, including those on gene networks associated with autism and schizophrenia. Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency reprograms molecular networks associated with the

  12. Prenatal Choline Supplementation Diminishes Early-Life Iron Deficiency–Induced Reprogramming of Molecular Networks Associated with Behavioral Abnormalities in the Adult Rat Hippocampus123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Pisansky, Marc T; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Maternal iron deficiency increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Postnatal iron deficiency in young children results in cognitive and socioemotional abnormalities in adulthood despite iron treatment. The rat model of diet-induced fetal-neonatal iron deficiency recapitulates the observed neurobehavioral deficits. Objectives: We sought to establish molecular underpinnings for the persistent psychopathologic effects of early-life iron deficiency by determining whether it permanently reprograms the hippocampal transcriptome. We also assessed the effects of maternal dietary choline supplementation on the offspring’s hippocampal transcriptome to identify pathways through which choline mitigates the emergence of long-term cognitive deficits. Methods: Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 g Fe/kg) from gestational day (G) 2 through postnatal day (PND) 7 and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 g Fe/kg) thereafter. Control pups were provided IS diet throughout. Choline (5 g/kg) was given to half the pregnant dams in each group from G11 to G18. PND65 hippocampal transcriptomes were assayed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and analyzed with the use of knowledge-based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate a subset of altered genes. Results: Formerly ID rats had altered hippocampal expression of 619 from >10,000 gene loci sequenced by NGS, many of which map onto molecular networks implicated in psychological disorders, including anxiety, autism, and schizophrenia. There were significant interactions between iron status and prenatal choline treatment in influencing gene expression. Choline supplementation reduced the effects of iron deficiency, including those on gene networks associated with autism and schizophrenia. Conclusions: Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency

  13. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.

  15. Prenatal Choline Supplementation Diminishes Early-Life Iron Deficiency?Induced Reprogramming of Molecular Networks Associated with Behavioral Abnormalities in the Adult Rat Hippocampus123

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C.; Pisansky, Marc T.; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Georgieff, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Maternal iron deficiency increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Postnatal iron deficiency in young children results in cognitive and socioemotional abnormalities in adulthood despite iron treatment. The rat model of diet-induced fetal-neonatal iron deficiency recapitulates the observed neurobehavioral deficits.

  16. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Xinli Jiang; Huijie Ma; Yan Wang; Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutriti...

  17. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  18. Stress in early life inhibits neurogenesis in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, Yashmin J G; Olariu, Ana; Cameron, Heather A

    2005-04-01

    Both structure and function of the hippocampus are altered by stress: by increasing levels of corticosteroids, stress causes atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cell dendrites, inhibits adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and impairs hippocampus-dependent learning. A recent study shows that adverse experience limited to early life, specifically removal of rat pups from their mother for three hours each day, decreases production of new granule neurons in adulthood through a corticosteroid-dependent mechanism. This finding suggests that stress in early life could permanently impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and increase susceptibility to depression by inhibiting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

  19. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram

    2014-01-01

    -onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. SETTING: General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between...... 1943 and 1977, all obese men (BMI ≥31 kg/m(2), N=1930) were identified along with a random 1% sample of the others (N=3601). Our analysis includes 2392 of these men attending a research clinic in mid-life (mean age 42). For 613 of these men, data on childhood BMI are available. We summarised childhood...... that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: We found no robust evidence...

  20. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Britt J; Blount, Jonathan D; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B; Monaghan, Pat

    2012-01-31

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length.

  1. Life Skills Curriculum for Senior Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

    This life skills curriculum helps adult basic educators meet the needs of senior adult learners. An introduction contains the following sections: purpose statement; description of the senior adult learner; tips to remember on teaching senior adults; physiology of aging; teaching the hearing impaired; and teaching the visually impaired. The life…

  2. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z

    2015-05-15

    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  4. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  5. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-06-06

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  6. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Françoise Rolland-Cachera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”. Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  7. Inpatient Treatment of Early Sexually Abused Adults: Dissociation and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Ellen K. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted within a naturalistic setting at the Department for Trauma Treatment at Modum Bad Psychiatric Center, Norway. Several follow-up studies have shown that adults with polysymptomatology related to child sexual abuse (CSA) may develop chronic symptoms and disorders that seriously impair their daily life. There are few studies on the course of illness in early traumatized adults following residential (first phase) trauma treatment. The present work provides knowledge of th...

  8. Heavy drinking in early adulthood and outcomes at mid life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, F A; Costanzo, P R; Belsky, D; Holmberg, E; Malone, P S; Wang, Y; Kertesz, S

    2011-07-01

    Heavy drinking in early adulthood among Blacks, but not Whites, has been found to be associated with more deleterious health outcomes, lower labor market success and lower educational attainment at mid-life. This study analysed psychosocial pathways underlying racial differences in the impact of early heavy alcohol use on occupational and educational attainment at mid-life. Outcomes in labor market participation, occupational prestige and educational attainment were measured in early and mid-adulthood. A mixture model was used to identify psychosocial classes that explain how race-specific differences in the relationship between drinking in early adulthood and occupational outcomes in mid-life operate. Data came from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, a longitudinal epidemiologic study. Especially for Blacks, heavy drinking in early adulthood was associated with a lower probability of being employed in mid-life. Among employed persons, there was a link between heavy drinking for both Whites and Blacks and decreased occupational attainment at mid-life. We grouped individuals into three distinct distress classes based on external stressors and indicators of internally generated stress. Blacks were more likely to belong to the higher distressed classes as were heavy drinkers in early adulthood. Stratifying the data by distress class, relationships between heavy drinking, race and heavy drinking-race interactions were overall weaker than in the pooled analysis. Disproportionate intensification of life stresses in Blacks renders them more vulnerable to long-term effects of heavy drinking.

  9. Early Life Processes, Endocrine Mediators and Number of Susceptible Cells in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Early life processes, endocrine mediators and number of susceptible cells in relation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER to breast cancer ... cancer risk. Method: Five interlinked component projects covering the spectrum from endometrial to adult life . Progress report: Component projects...Analyses are pending and no findings can be reported yet. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer , early life , mammary gland specific stem cells, hormones 16

  10. Early transition into adult roles: some antecedents and some outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, F M; Frese, W

    1982-01-01

    The transition to adult roles usually occurs within a normative age span. By focusing on preadolescence to late adolescence using 2-wave panel data, this research seeks to develop a more informed picture of how "early" exit from the student role and "early" entry into the adult role of parent or spouse reflect factors operating prior to adolescence. The short term consequences of adult role transition on teenage status aspirations, life plans, other psychological orientations, and parental influence are also examined. Even though multiple role transition is frequently observed, only leaving school early appears to be related to preadolescent career decisions and academic performance in high school. The determinants of early transition to the role of parent or spouse do not appear to be socioeconomic origins, parental child rearing techniques or other specific influences, academic ability or performance, or preadolescent aspirations, as has generally been hypothesized in the literature. Research dilemmas and policy implications are discussed.

  11. Lifelong doubling of mortality in men entering adult life as obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Holst, C; Sørensen, T I A

    2011-01-01

    The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the impact of being obese in early adulthood on health throughout adult life needs elucidation. We investigated the all-cause mortality until 80 years of age in men starting adult life as obese....

  12. Parental and child genetic contributions to obesity traits in early life based on 83 loci validated in adults: the FAMILY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A; Robiou-du-Pont, S; Anand, S S; Morrison, K M; McDonald, S D; Atkinson, S A; Teo, K K; Meyre, D

    2016-12-23

    The genetic influence on child obesity has not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the parental and child contributions of 83 adult body mass index (BMI)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to obesity-related traits in children from birth to 5 years old. A total of 1402 individuals were genotyped for 83 SNPs. An unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) was generated by the sum of BMI-increasing alleles. Repeated weight and length/height were measured at birth, 1, 2, 3 and 5 years of age, and age-specific and sex-specific weight and BMI Z-scores were computed. The GRS was significantly associated with birthweight Z-score (P = 0.03). It was also associated with weight/BMI Z-score gain between birth and 5 years old (P = 0.02 and 6.77 × 10(-3) , respectively). In longitudinal analyses, the GRS was associated with weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years (P = 5.91 × 10(-3) and 5.08 × 10(-3) , respectively). The maternal effects of rs3736485 in DMXL2 on weight and BMI variation from birth to 5 years were significantly greater compared with the paternal effects by Z test (P = 1.53 × 10(-6) and 3.75 × 10(-5) , respectively). SNPs contributing to adult BMI exert their effect at birth and in early childhood. Parent-of-origin effects may occur in a limited subset of obesity predisposing SNPs. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Autism and developmental receptive language disorder--a comparative follow-up in early adult life. I: Cognitive and language outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhood, L; Howlin, P; Rutter, M

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we compare adult outcome in a group of young men with autism and a group with developmental receptive language disorders. The two groups were first assessed in early childhood, when aged 7 to 8 years of age. Although matched at that time for nonverbal IQ (mean 92-93) and expressive language ability, the Autism group was significantly more impaired on most measures of social and communication skills and stereotyped behaviours. A later follow-up, in mid-childhood, suggested that although the groups were still quite distinct, social and behavioural problems had become more apparent in the Language group. The current study was completed when the participants were aged, on average, 23 to 24 years. The findings indicated that verbal IQ and receptive language scores had improved significantly more in the Autism group than in the Language group over time. Moreover, although the Language group were less severely impaired in their social use of language, many showed a number of abnormal features in this domain. There were no differences between the groups on tests of reading or spelling. Discriminant function analysis, which had clearly distinguished between the groups as children, now showed much greater overlap between them. Regression analysis indicated that although early language ability appeared to be related to outcome in the Autism group, in the Language group there was little association between measures of childhood functioning and later progress. The implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the underlying deficit in autism and the relationship between the two disorders are discussed.

  14. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  15. Ambitious mothers--successful daughters: mothers' early expectations for children's education and children's earnings and sense of control in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Hawkes, Denise

    2008-09-01

    Mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment are related to children's educational and occupational attainment. Studies have yet to establish, however, the long-term links between maternal expectations and offspring earnings, which are not always related to occupational attainment especially in women, or between maternal expectations and offspring sense of control and self-efficacy, which are pivotal factors in career choice and development. To explore the role of mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment in children's earnings attainment and sense of control later in life. Data from sweeps of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were used. The study sample was those cohort members with complete information on all the variables of interest. The study sample (N=3,285) was more educated and less disadvantaged than the whole sample. If cohort members of this type are more likely to have a mother who has high expectations, then our results are biased downwards, which suggests that we underestimate the effect of expectations on our two outcome variables. Mothers' expectations at the age of 10 were positively related to daughters' sense of control at the age of 30 even after controlling for ethnicity, educational attainment, and concurrent partner, parent, and labour market participation status, as well as the following confounding variables (measured at the ages of 0-10): general ability and general ability squared, locus of control, emotional and behavioural problems and emotional and behavioural problems squared, socio-economic disadvantage, parental social class, parental family structure, and mothers' education, child-rearing attitudes, and mental health. Mothers' expectations had no effect on sons' adult outcomes. Given that women are particularly at risk for poor psychological and economic outcomes in adulthood, and that this study likely underestimated the effect of expectations on these two outcomes, this is an

  16. Early life of inshore fishes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus

    reported from numerous fjords in Norway, Canada and Greenland, very little is known about their early life history and the physical-biological mechanisms impacting their survival in such inshore areas. To better understand the processes of importance to the early life success of fish, I carried out......During their early life stages, the fishes face a range of challenges. To sustain the development of the pelagic eggs and larvae spawning needs to occur where the offspring is retained in optimal environmental conditions. The larvae rely on a spatial and temporal match to their prey in order...... to ensure fast growthand avoid starvation. Inshore areas may provide such favorable conditions, as these are sheltered from offshore currents and act as physical barriers that restrict dispersal and drift of eggs and larvae. Even though inshore spawning grounds of e.g. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has been...

  17. Antibiotics in early life and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition and consequently its metabolic activity, can influence body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth, which is consistent with effects of the microbiota on development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early-life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repressed or promoted growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending its susceptibility to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases, such as obesity and types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25488483

  18. Early Life Stress, Mood, and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shariful A; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2017-02-01

    Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective. Early life stress presents a complex dynamic featuring a wide spectrum of physiologic alterations: from epigenetic alterations, inflammatory changes, to dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis and has further added to the challenge of identifying biomarkers associated with psychiatric disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health's proposed Research Domain Criteria initiative incorporates a dimensional approach to assess discrete domains and constructs of behavioral function that are subserved by identifiable neural circuits. The current neurobiology of early life stress is reviewed in accordance with dimensional organization of Research Domain Criteria matrix and how the findings as a whole fit within the Research Domain Criteria frameworks.

  19. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  20. Immunity to cytomegalovirus in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane eHuygens

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CMV is the most common congenital infection and is the leading non-genetic cause of neurological defects. CMV infection in early life is also associated with intense and prolonged viral excretion, indicating limited control of viral replication. This review summarizes our current understanding of the innate and adaptive immune responses to CMV infection during fetal life and infancy. It illustrates the fact that studies of congenital CMV infection have provided a proof of principle that the human fetus can develop anti-viral innate and adaptive immune responses, indicating that such responses should be inducible by vaccination in early life. The review also emphasizes the fact that our understanding of the mechanisms involved in symptomatic congenital CMV infection remains limited.

  1. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  2. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  3. Early life origin of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knip, Mikael; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Härkönen, Taina

    2017-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as a chronic immune-mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets in genetically susceptible subjects. The incidence of T1D has increased manifold in most developed countries after World War II in parallel with a series of other immune-mediated diseases. T1D results from gene-environmental interactions. The appearance of disease-associated autoantibodies into the peripheral circulation is the first detectable sign of the initiation of the disease process leading to clinical T1D. The first autoantibodies may appear already before the age of 6 months and the seroconversion rate peaks during the second year of life. This implies that exogenous factors involved in the pathogenesis of T1D must be operative in early life, some of them most likely already during pregnancy. Here, we discuss putative endogenous factors that may contribute to the development of T1D during fetal and early postnatal life. Many environmental factors operative in early life have been implicated in the pathogenesis of T1D, but relatively few have been firmly confirmed.

  4. Early life nutrition and neural plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieff, Michael K.; Brunette, Katya E; Tran, Phu V

    2015-01-01

    The human brain undergoes a remarkable transformation during fetal life and the first postnatal years from a relatively undifferentiated but pluripotent organ to a highly specified and organized one. The outcome of this developmental maturation is highly dependent on a sequence of environmental exposures that can have either positive or negative influences on the ultimate plasticity of the adult brain. Many environmental exposures are beyond the control of the individual, but nutrition is not...

  5. Optimal scaling for early life stress measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zvinchuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life stress is associated with high risk for both negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, many of the stressful life events inventories that have been used in epidemiological research have not been validated or checked for reliability or consistency. The aim of our study is to use optimal scaling and correspondence analysis that employ categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA algorithm to consider the internal structure and the geometry of the space of variables obtained through the questions measuring early life stress. This approach was chosen because it allows quantification of categorical (both nominal and ordinal scales and reduction of initial number of variables with interval quantification of the resulting dimensions. METHODS: A questionnaire for measuring early life stress was applied to the participants of the Ukrainian component of European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood at the age of three and seven years. CATPCA algorithm was used to elaborate a tool for estimating related integral quantified characteristics.RESULTS: Application of quantification and dimension reduction techniques to the categorical variables measuring stress in three- and seven-year-old children resulted in two dimensions. The first dimension that accounts for a major part of initial variance and is associated with all the collected variables can be interpreted as the overall measure of stress. The second dimension accounts for smaller but still considerable part of variance and can be related to child’s attachment to mother and acquiring new experience as the route of development.CONCLUSIONS: Application of optimal scaling to the empirical data of early life stress measurement resulted in construction of two integral indicators – first measuring overall stress and second contrasting security related to child’s attachment to mother and new experiences – consistent across age groups of three and

  6. Predictors of poststroke quality of life in older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angel Chu Kee; Tang, Siu Wa; Tsoi, Tak Hong; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Yu, Gabriel Ka Kui

    2009-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study to identify the changes in poststroke quality of life and other clinical issues among older Chinese adults from 1 month to 6 months after stroke and the predictors of poststroke quality of life at 6 months. Stroke survivors are known to suffer from prolonged and multiple impairments leading to a compromised quality of life, but few studies report early predictors for quality of life among older Chinese adults after active rehabilitation has been undertaken during the first 6 months after stroke. A total of 214 patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke were interviewed by a research nurse at 1 month and 188 patients were interviewed again 6 months after hospital admission for stroke. Assessment of quality of life was done using the Modified Rankin Scale for Quality of Life. Changes in and relationships between quality of life and variables in five domains were explored: bio-anatomical, physical, emotional, cognitive, communicative and social support. The data were collected in 2004-2005. Quality of life among two-thirds of participants was unchanged or lower when scores at 1 month and 6 months after stroke were compared. Length of hospital stay after admission for stroke and other 1-month factors - level of worry over current health, cognitive and self-care deficits - were identified as having independent effects on quality of life at 6 months. Clinicians need to observe for early signs of mild cognitive impairments and emotional needs of stroke survivors, as well as to consider longer-term interventions to enhance poststroke quality of life.

  7. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  8. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  9. Impact of childhood vitiligo on adult life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst Homan, M. W.; de Korte, J.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Bos, J. D.; Sprangers, M. A. G.; van der Veen, J. P. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background The onset of vitiligo occurs before the age of 20 years in 50% of patients. Having a chronic disease in childhood can impede a child's health-related quality of life (HRQL). Objectives Firstly, to compare the social and psychosexual development and current HRQL of young adult patients

  10. Adult education and the quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijnman, Albert; Tuijnman, Albert C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complementary role of adult education in influencing people's objective and subjective quality of life. The analytical strategy used to achieve this end is to estimate parameters in a path model which includes both objective indicators such as

  11. Quality of Life in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedoot, Caroline; Bouwmans, Clazien; Franken, Marie-Christine; Stolk, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to explore to what extent QoL is impaired in adults who stutter (AWS). In…

  12. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  13. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  14. Organizing effects of adverse early-life condition on body mass, compensatory growth and reproduction : experimental studies in rock pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Early-life food conditions can have profound impact on adult behavioural performance. In song birds, early-life food conditions affect adult physiology and cognitive performance such as song learning and spatial learning. However, effects on reproductive behaviour other than song, such as visual

  15. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  16. Early life stress and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect the transcription of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, and the co-chaperone FKBP5, in the adult rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick H. A. Van der Doelen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS. A frequently observed endophenotype in depression is the abnormal regulation of levels of stress hormones such as glucocorticoids. It is hypothesized that altered central glucocorticoid influence on stress-related behavior and memory processes could underlie the depressogenic interaction of 5-HTTLPR and ELS. One possible mechanism could be the altered expression of the genes encoding the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor (GR, MR and their inhibitory regulator FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5 in stress-related forebrain areas. To test this notion, we exposed heterozygous (5-HTT+/- and homozygous (5-HTT-/- serotonin transporter knockout rats and their wildtype littermates (5-HTT+/+ to daily 3 h maternal separations from postnatal day 2 to 14. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and hippocampus of the adult male offspring, we found that GR, MR and FKBP5 mRNA levels were affected by ELS x 5-HTT genotype interaction. Specifically, 5-HTT+/+ rats exposed to ELS showed decreased GR and FKBP5 mRNA in the dorsal and ventral mPFC, respectively. In contrast, 5-HTT+/- rats showed increased MR mRNA levels in the hippocampus and 5-HTT-/- rats showed increased FKBP5 mRNA in the ventral mPFC after ELS exposure. These findings indicate that 5-HTT genotype determines the specific adaptation of GR, MR and FKBP5 expression in response to early life adversity. Therefore, altered extra-hypothalamic glucocorticoid signaling should be considered to play a role in the depressogenic interaction of ELS and 5-HTTLPR.

  17. Early markers of adult obesity: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, T D; Farmer, A P; McCargar, L J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors in early childhood (≤5 years of age) that are the most significant predictors of the development of obesity in adulthood. Factors of interest included exposures/insults in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) or birth place that could impact all three time periods. An extensive electronic and systematic search initially resulted in 8,880 citations, after duplicates were removed. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and following two screening processes, 135 studies were retained for detailed abstraction and analysis. A total of 42 variables were associated with obesity in adulthood; however, of these, only seven variables may be considered as potential early markers of obesity based on the reported associations. Possible early markers of obesity included maternal smoking and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Probable early markers of obesity included maternal body mass index, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and father's employment (a proxy measure for SES in many studies). Health promotion programmes/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. PMID:22171945

  18. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  19. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  20. Early-life events. Effects on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, a considerable body of evidence has emerged showing that circumstances during the fetal period and childhood may have lifelong programming effects on different body functions with a considerable impact on disease susceptibility. From a medical point of view, these long-term effects are today referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. The DOHaD concept may have a fundamental impact on our ideas about when and how to intervene in order to prevent aging-related loss of function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide a synopsis of epidemiological findings relating early-life conditions with key aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, cognitive impairments and osteoporosis. There are several mechanisms that have been suggested as linking early-life events with late-life disease. This review will discuss programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function as one of the best characterised examples of such mechanisms.

  1. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    genetically informative cohorts. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) we selected long-lived sib-pairs (n=844) and their middle-aged offspring and the offspring's partners (n=1452). From the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT) 604 (302 pairs) same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins...... number for partners was 71% (Penvironment accounts for the similarity within twin pairs. Our findings suggest that susceptibility to CMV infection......--even under continuous within-partnership exposure--appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment....

  2. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Early-life exposure to noise reduces mPFC astrocyte numbers and T-maze alternation/discrimination task performance in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaveth Ruvalcaba-Delgadillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we evaluated the long-term effects of noise by assessing both astrocyte changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mPFC-related alternation/discrimination tasks. Twenty-one-day-old male rats were exposed during a period of 15 days to a standardized rats′ audiogram-fitted adaptation of a human noisy environment. We measured serum corticosterone (CORT levels at the end of the exposure and periodically registered body weight gain. In order to evaluate the long-term effects of this exposure, we assessed the rats′ performance on the T-maze apparatus 3 months later. Astrocyte numbers and proliferative changes in mPFC were also evaluated at this stage. We found that environmental noise (EN exposure significantly increased serum CORT levels and negatively affected the body weight gain curve. Accordingly, enduring effects of noise were demonstrated on mPFC. The ability to solve alternation/discrimination tasks was reduced, as well as the number of astroglial cells. We also found reduced cytogenesis among the mPFC areas evaluated. Our results support the idea that early exposure to environmental stressors may have long-lasting consequences affecting complex cognitive processes. These results also suggest that glial changes may become an important element behind the cognitive and morphological alterations accompanying the PFC changes seen in some stress-related pathologies.

  4. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  6. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  7. All in the Golden Afternoon: The Early Life of Charles L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Ann

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the early life of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) for its implications on early environments which nurture giftedness. The paper notes the close family ties, intellectual models provided by adults, the role of imaginary games, and identification of giftedness by educators. (DB)

  8. Latent carcinogenicity of early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractEnvironmental exposures occurring early in life may have an important influence on cancer risk later in life. Here we investigated carryover effects of young-adult exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a small molecule analog of pyruvate and low-level environmental cont...

  9. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  10. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  12. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  13. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  14. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  15. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  16. Mathematical Competence of a Child - Life Success of an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To provide a brief overview of literature studying the relationship between mathematical competences in childhood and adult life success measured in academic achievements, socioeconomic status, and health measures. Results: Mathematical competences are determined by the ability to process mathematical symbols and quantity determination which is partially inborn. We can stimulate mathematical abilities by preschool stimulation, which leads to a less difficult behavioural pattern. Better mathematical competences correlate with positive socio-emotional control and positive attitudes towards learning and school which contribute to a more engaged academic life-style. Higher mathematical achievements correlate with better paid positions and also increased gross domestic product (GDP on the national level. The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth showed that their adult careers, accomplishments, and psychological well-being far exceeded base-rate expectations. On the other hand, children who are born preterm or near term experience mathematical learning difficulties which, despite the absence of overt health problems, present an obstacle into leading an otherwise fulfilling life. Conclusions: We can conclude from the findings, that mathematical precocity early in life predicts later creative contributions and leadership in critical occupational roles. Mathematical abilities are partially inborn. However, mathematical literacy can be further nurtured in preschool and school programmes. Since it is connected to a higher prosperity on individual as well as on national level, mathematical intervention should be offered especially to those who are underprivileged. When stimulating mathematical competences, a greater prosperity for all can be anticipated.

  17. Immune response parameters during labor and early neonatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protonotariou, Efthimia; Chrelias, Charalampos; Kassanos, Demetrios; Kapsambeli, Helen; Trakakis, Eftihios; Sarandakou, Angeliki

    2010-01-01

    Selected cytokines, associated with Th1 and Th2 immune response and inflammation, were studied in order to evaluate the relation between their release into maternal and neonatal circulation, during labour, and after birth, in comparison with those in adults. Cytokine concentrations were determined by very sensitive immunoassays, in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC), neonatal serum, the 1st (1N) and 5th (5N) day postpartum and in adult controls. Both IL-2 and IL-4 cytokine concentrations in UC were markedly elevated, compared to adult and MS ones. IL-2 decreased significantly in 5N, while IL-4 remained unchanged. IFN-gamma UC values were significantly lower than those in adults and MS, increasing significantly in 5N. Neonatal serum sIL-2R and sIL-4R were markedly higher than those in adults and MS. IL-1beta, IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNFRI and sTNFRII concentrations in MS and all with TNF-alpha in neonatal serum were significantly higher than in adults. IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-4R concentrations in MS, 1N and 5N were dependent on the mode of delivery. The results of this comparative study are indicative for a meaningful role for the studied cytokines and their receptors in: i) the development of neonatal immune system, ii) the regulation of immune response during labour and early life, and iii) the initiation of the processes of labour.

  18. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  19. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  20. Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB

  1. Cumulative Childhood Adversity, Educational Attainment, and Active Life Expectancy Among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998–2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50–100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels. PMID:24281740

  2. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  3. Early Earth: Lava Floods and Life Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafieva, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    At the earliest stages of the Earth development, in Archean, a large part of the Earth was molten due to active volcanism and intense meteorite bombardment that ended about 4.0 GA. Stopping or weakening of the cosmic bombardment has allowed the planet to cool and form a solid crust. It is from this time geologically documented history of the Earth begins. Accordingly, the earliest Earth rocks are igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks were formed later (the oldest metasedimentary rocks - 3.7-3.85 GA). Therefore, the question of microorganism colonization of lava at the earliest stages of life evolution on the Earth is of paramount importance. A few model objects were chosen for investigation of microbial colonization of getting cold lava floods. Among them Early Protherozoic pillow-lavas of Karelia (2.41 and 2.2 GA) and South Africa (2.22 GA). Modern volcanic glasses of pillow lavas of Mid-Atlantic ridge were used as comparative material.

  4. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    ). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding......DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants...... of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples...

  6. Early Life Lung Antioxidant Levels and Response to Ozone: Influence of Sex and Maturation in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and girls in later childhood. In adults, particularly the elderly, studies report stronger...

  7. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees

    Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85

  8. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  9. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population.

  10. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  11. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Ample empirical evidence links adverse conditions during early childhood (the period from conception to age five) to worse health outcomes and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Can early-life medical care and public health interventions ameliorate these effects? Recent research suggests that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings...

  12. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history strategies compensates for a poor start in life in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K

    2010-12-01

    Low food availability during early growth and development can have long-term negative consequences for reproductive success. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history decisions may help to mitigate these potential costs, yet adult life-history responses to juvenile food conditions remain largely unexplored. I used a food-manipulation experiment with female Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to examine age-related changes in adult life-history responses to early food conditions, whether these responses varied across different adult food conditions, and how these responses affected overall reproductive success. Guppy females reared on low food as juveniles matured at a later age, at a smaller size, and with less energy reserves than females reared on high food as juveniles. In response to this setback, they changed their investment in growth, reproduction, and fat storage throughout the adult stage such that they were able to catch up in body size, increase their reproductive output, and restore their energy reserves to levels comparable to those of females reared on high food as juveniles. The net effect was that adult female guppies did not merely mitigate but surprisingly were able to fully compensate for the potential long-term negative effects of poor juvenile food conditions on reproductive success.

  13. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  14. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  15. Early-Life Diet Affects Host Microbiota and Later-Life Defenses Against Parasites in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Shea, Lauren A; Kupselaitis, Marinna; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    Food resources can affect the health of organisms by altering their symbiotic microbiota and affecting energy reserves for host defenses against parasites. Different diets can vary in their macronutrient content and therefore they might favor certain bacterial communities of the host and affect the development and maintenance of the immune system, such as the inflammatory or antibody responses. Thus, testing the effect of diet, especially for animals with wide diet breadths, on host-associated microbiota and defenses against parasites might be important in determining infection and disease risk. Here, we test whether the early-life diet of Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) affects early- and later-life microbiota as well as later-life defenses against skin-penetrating, gut worms (Aplectana hamatospicula). We fed tadpoles two ecologically common diets: a diet of conspecifics or a diet of algae (Arthrospira sp.). We then: (1) characterized the gut microbiota of tadpoles and adults; and (2) challenged adult frogs with parasitic worms and measured host resistance (including the antibody-mediated immune response) and tolerance of infections. Tadpole diet affected bacterial communities in the guts of tadpoles but did not have enduring effects on the bacterial communities of adults. In contrast, tadpole diet had enduring effects on host resistance and tolerance of infections in adult frogs. Frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more resistant to worm penetration compared with frogs that were fed an alga-based diet as tadpoles, but less resistant to worm establishment, which may be related to their suppressed antibody response during worm establishment. Furthermore, frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more tolerant to the effect of parasite abundance on host mass during worm establishment. Overall, our study demonstrates that the diet of Cuban tree frog tadpoles affects the gut microbiota and defenses against

  16. Early Life Stress in Depressive Patients: HPA Axis Response to GR and MR Agonist

    OpenAIRE

    Baes,Cristiane Von Werne; Martins, Camila Maria Severi; Tofoli, Sandra Márcia de Carvalho; Juruena, Mário Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that early life stress (ELS) can induce persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to respond to stress in the adult life that leads to depression. These appear to be related to the impairment of HPA hormones through binding to glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ELS in HPA axis response to challenges with GR and MR agonists in depressed patients. Methods: We in...

  17. Early palliative care for adults with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Markus W; Estel, Stephanie; Rücker, Gerta; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Villalobos, Matthias; Thomas, Michael; Hartmann, Mechthild

    2017-06-12

    Incurable cancer, which often constitutes an enormous challenge for patients, their families, and medical professionals, profoundly affects the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. In standard cancer care, palliative measures generally are initiated when it is evident that disease-modifying treatments have been unsuccessful, no treatments can be offered, or death is anticipated. In contrast, early palliative care is initiated much earlier in the disease trajectory and closer to the diagnosis of incurable cancer. To compare effects of early palliative care interventions versus treatment as usual/standard cancer care on health-related quality of life, depression, symptom intensity, and survival among adults with a diagnosis of advanced cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, OpenGrey (a database for grey literature), and three clinical trial registers to October 2016. We checked reference lists, searched citations, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-randomised controlled trials (cRCTs) on professional palliative care services that provided or co-ordinated comprehensive care for adults at early advanced stages of cancer. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. We assessed risk of bias, extracted data, and collected information on adverse events. For quantitative synthesis, we combined respective results on our primary outcomes of health-related quality of life, survival (death hazard ratio), depression, and symptom intensity across studies in meta-analyses using an inverse variance random-effects model. We expressed pooled effects as standardised mean differences (SMDs, or Hedges' adjusted g). We assessed certainty of evidence at the outcome level using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and

  18. Early olfactory environment influences social behaviour in adult Octodon degus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Márquez

    Full Text Available We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1: (i a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm presented against (ii a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm. In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2. We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus.

  19. The human microbiome. Early life determinant of health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Fernando D

    2014-01-01

    The development of new technologies to isolate and identify microbial genomes has markedly increased our understanding of the role of microbiomes in health and disease. The idea, first proposed as part of the hygiene hypothesis, that environmental microbes influence the developmental trajectories of the immune system in early life, has now been considerably extended and refined. The abundant microbiota present in mucosal surfaces, especially the gut, is actively selected by the host through complex receptor systems that respond differentially depending on the molecular patterns presented to mucosal cells. Germ-free mice are more likely to develop allergic airway inflammation and show alterations in normal motor control and anxiety. These effects can be reversed by neonatal microbial recolonization but remain unchanged if recolonization occurs in adults. What emerges from these recent studies is the discovery of a complex, major early environmental determinant of lifetime human phenotypes. To change the natural course of asthma, obesity, and other chronic inflammatory conditions, active manipulation of the extensive bacterial, phage, and fungal metagenomes present in mucosal surfaces may be required, specifically during the developing years. Domesticating the human microbiome and adapting it to our health needs may be a challenge akin to, but far more complex than, the one faced by humanity when a few dozen species of plants and animals were domesticated during the transition between hunter-gatherer and sedentary societies after the end of the Pleistocene era.

  20. Genetic moderation of multiple pathways linking early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2017-05-23

    Recent research suggests that psychosocial resources and life stressors are mediating pathways explaining socioeconomic variation in young adults' health risks. However, less research has examined both these pathways simultaneously and their genetic moderation. A nationally representative sample of 11,030 respondents with prospective data collected over 13 years from the National Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was examined. First, the association between early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' (ages 25-34) cardiometabolic disease risk, as measured by 10 biomarkers, through psychosocial resources (educational attainment) and life stressors (accelerated transition to adulthood) was examined. Second, moderation of these pathways by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) was examined. There was evidence for the association between early socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through educational attainment and accelerated transitions. These direct and mediating pathways were amplified by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. These findings elucidate how early adversity can have an enduring influence on young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through psychosocial resources and life stressors and their genetic moderation. This information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should focus on early adversity, youth educational attainment, and their transition to young adulthood.

  1. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  2. Early-life exposures to infectious agents and later cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedham, Vidya; Verma, Mukesh; Mahabir, Somdat

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing understanding that several infectious agents are acquired in early life and this is the reason why available vaccines target the new born, infants, and adolescents. Infectious agents are associated with cancer development and it is estimated that about 20% of the world's cancer burden is attributed to infectious agents. There is a growing evidence that certain infectious agents acquired in early life can give rise to cancer development, but estimates of the cancer burden from this early-life acquisition is unknown. In this article, we have selected five cancers (cervical, liver, Burkitt's lymphoma-leukemia, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma) and examine their links to infectious agents (HPV, HBV, HCV, EBV, and HTLV-1) acquired in early life. For these agents, the acquisition in early life is from mother-to-child transmission, perinatal contact (with genital tract secretions, amniotic fluids, blood, and breast milk), saliva, sexual intercourse, and blood transfusion. We also discuss prevention strategies, address future directions, and propose mechanisms of action after a long latency period from the time of acquisition of the infectious agent in early life to cancer development. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Depression in young adult psychiatric outpatients: delimiting early onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana; Ekselius, Lisa; Ramklint, Mia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in childhood, adolescent and adult onset of depression. Young psychiatric outpatients (n = 156) diagnosed with a lifetime depressive episode were divided into three groups according to age of onset of their first depressive episode: childhood (≤12 years, n = 21), adolescent (13-17 years, n = 58) and early adult onset (18-25 years, n = 77). Participants were assessed by diagnostic interviews and by questionnaires measuring previous life events and childhood developmental delays. Clinical characteristics and various risk factors were compared between groups. This clinical sample was dominated by women, with onset of their first depressive episode occurring during adolescence. Childhood onset was related to an increased number of depressive episodes, higher prevalence of personality disorders, more current social problems and more reported development delays during childhood regarding literacy learning, social skills and memory. They also reported more separation anxiety symptoms and neglect during childhood and more experiences of teenage pregnancies and abortions. Childhood onset of depression is associated with more severe symptoms, more psychosocial risk factors and childhood developmental delays. Because all onset groups shared many features, the results are inconclusive if there are distinct subgroups according to age of onset. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Early-Life Determinants of Total and HDL Cholesterol Concentrations in 8-Year-Old Children; The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Oldenwening, Marieke; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and

  5. The role of early-life educational quality and literacy in explaining racial disparities in cognition in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Shannon; Gross, Alden L; Shih, Regina A; Sachs, Bonnie C; Glymour, M Maria; Bangen, Katherine J; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-07-01

    Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. The sample consisted of 1,679 U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65-102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Early life origins of psychological development and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina

    2009-12-01

    According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.

  7. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in a proteomic legacy in adult gills. Part B; the effect of a second radiation dose, after one year, on the proteomic responses in the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E; Seymour, Colin B

    2018-02-09

    This study extends the investigation of the legacy effects of exposure to a single radiation dose at one of four early life stages, in adult rainbow trout (Part A), by examining the effects of a second identical dose after one year; i.e. egg 48 h after fertilisation (48 h egg) + 1 year, eyed egg + 1 year, yolk sac larvae (YSL) + 1 year and first feeder + 1 year. This included the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated trout which had swam with the irradiated fish. The second radiation dose negated any beneficial proteomic responses following early life stage irradiation only, particularly irradiation of 48 h eggs and eyed eggs (Part A). Instead the responses after early life stage + 1 year irradiation are consistently associated with tumorigenesis, cancer progression, or are otherwise damaging: upregulation of alpha-globin 1 (YSL + 1 year and first feeders + 1 year) and downregulation of histone H1, type II keratin, malate dehydrogenase 2-2, Na/K ATPase alpha subunit isoform 1b, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (48 h egg + 1 year), electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alpha (eyed egg + 1 year), 60 S ribosomal protein L30 (YSL + 1 year) and haemoglobin subunit beta-4 (first feeder + 1 year). Most significantly the second radiation dose also negated the overwhelmingly beneficial bystander effect proteomic responses induced by trout irradiated at an early life stage only (Part A). Instead the bystander effect proteomic changes induced by trout irradiated at an early life stage and again at 1 year have been associated with uncertain, with respect to tumorigenesis, or detrimental effects; upregulation of alpha-globin 1 (YSL + 1 year and first feeder + 1 year) and downregulation of malate dehydrogenase 2-2, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (48 h egg + 1 year), transferrin precursor (eyed egg + 1 year), 60 S ribosomal protein L30 (YSL + 1 year) and serine / threonine-protein phosphatase 2 A 65 kDa (first feeder + 1 year). This difference between

  8. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lovaas Institute for Early Intervention (LIFE)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tristram

    2013-01-01

    For many years, O. Ivar Lovaas ran a small clinic for children with autism through the department of psychology at UCLA, with undergraduate students providing most of the direct instruction. Throughout the 1970s, the clinic enrolled just a few children in treatment at a time. By the early 1980s, the active caseload had increased to about 5–10 children, and this number rose slowly over the next few years. However, after the publication of Lovaas's landmark study of early intensive behavioral i...

  10. Early Motherhood and Subsequent Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were…

  11. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  12. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather...... of the newborn individual or his or her family or household as early-life indicators. We collected national annual time-series data on the above-mentioned indicators, and we combine these to the individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births in 1873-1906. The empirical analyses (mostly...

  13. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.

  14. Early life growth, socioeconomic status, and mammographic breast density in an urban US birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Liao, Yuyan; Wei, Ying; Terry, Mary Beth

    2016-08-01

    Rapid infant and childhood growth has been associated with chronic disease later in life, including breast cancer. Early life socioeconomic status (SES) influences childhood growth, but few studies have prospective measures from birth to consider the effects of early life growth and SES on breast cancer risk. We used prospectively measured early life SES and growth (percentile weight change in height and weight between each pair of consecutive time points at birth, 4 months, 1 and 7 years). We performed linear regression models to obtain standardized estimates of the association between 1 standard deviation increase in early life SES and growth and adult mammographic density (MD), a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a diverse birth cohort (n = 151; 37% white, 38% black, 25% Puerto Rican; average age at mammogram = 42.4). In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, prenatal factors, birthweight, infant and childhood growth, and adult body mass index, percentile weight change from 1 year to 7 years was inversely associated with percent MD (standardized coefficient (Stdβ) = -0.28, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.01), and higher early life SES was positively associated with percent MD (Stdβ = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43). Similar associations were observed for dense area, but those estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest opposite and independent effects of early life SES and growth on MD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S; Fall, Caroline H D; Osmond, Clive; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-08-10

    , 1·43-1·60; mid-childhood: 1·76, 1·69-1·91) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·07, 1·01-1·13; mid-childhood: 1·22, 1·15-1·30). Linear growth and relative weight gain were not associated with dysglycaemia, but a higher birthweight was associated with decreased risk of the disorder (0·89, 0·81-0·98). Interventions in countries of low and middle income to increase birthweight and linear growth during the first 2 years of life are likely to result in substantial gains in height and schooling and give some protection from adult chronic disease risk factors, with few adverse trade-offs. Wellcome Trust and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of'Life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of Life - Origin of Life on Earth. P V Sukumaran. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 4-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-02-11

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called "developmental programming" or "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease.

  18. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD. Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease.

  19. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...... time. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota....

  20. Health, family strains, dependency, and life satisfaction of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2017-07-01

    Using stress process theory and structural equation modelling, this study investigated the complex relationship between health status, family strain, dependency, and the life satisfaction of rural older adults with reported functional impairments in India. Data were extracted from a large-scale study of 903 randomly selected adults aged 61 years and older from 30 rural clusters of India. The sample for this study was confined to 653 older adults who reported functional impairments. Structural equation modelling showed that poor health status indirectly lowered the life satisfaction of older adults through family strains. Moreover, poor health status also indirectly influenced life satisfaction through dependency and family strain (poor health→dependency→family strains→life satisfaction). The findings indicate that for professionals who deal with the health of older adults, exploring relationship strains and dependency is vital to the assessment and intervention of subjective wellbeing. Inter-sectoral coordination and communication between healthcare and social service agencies might facilitate effective management of health problems among older adults. Moreover, taking family strains and dependency into account when caring for older adults with health problems is critical to help improve their quality of life and maintain their wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early life socioeconomic circumstance and late life brain hyperintensities--a population based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D Murray

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There have been many reports confirming the association between lower childhood socioeconomic circumstance and cardiovascular disease but evidence for links with cerebrovascular disease is contradictory. Hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging are associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia and death. However, the relationship between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and these lesions is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that childhood socioeconomic circumstance is associated with late life hyperintensity burden and that neither adult socioeconomic circumstance nor change in socioeconomic circumstance during life influence this effect. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: 227 community dwelling members of the 1936 Aberdeen Birth Cohort aged 68 years, who were free from dementia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relationship between early life socioeconomic circumstance (paternal occupation and abundance of late life brain hyperintensities. RESULTS: We find significant negative correlations between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and white matter hyperintensities (ρ = -0.18, P<0.01, and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = -0.15, P<0.05, between educational attainment and white matter hyperintensities (ρ = -0.15, P<0.05 and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = -0.17, P<0.05, and between childhood intelligence and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = -0.14, P<0.05. The relationship is strongest for childhood socioeconomic circumstance and regional white matter hyperintensities, where there is a step change in increased burden from paternal occupation grades equivalent to a shift from "white collar" to "blue collar" paternal occupation. Significant correlations were also found between hypertension and hyperintensity burden in all brain regions (ρ = 0.15-0.24, P<0.05. In models that include hypertension, the magnitude of the effect of childhood

  2. Quality of life of adult retinoblastoma survivors in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen-Kettenis Peggy T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the quality of life (QoL and predictors thereof in Dutch adult hereditary and non-hereditary retinoblastoma (RB survivors. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, a generic QoL questionnaire (SF-36 and a disease-specific interview were administered to 87 adult RB survivors aged 18 to 35 years. Their QoL data were compared with those of a Dutch healthy reference group. Among the RB hereditary/non-hereditary survivors, the QoL was compared and predictors for QoL were identified by linear multiple regression analyses. Results As a group, RB survivors scored significantly lower than the reference group on the SF-36 subscale 'mental health' (t = -27, df = 86, p Conclusion In this exploratory study, it appears that the group of adult RB survivors experience a relatively good overall but slightly decreased QoL compared with the reference group. However, they report more problems with regard to their mental health (anxiety, feelings of depression, and loss of control. Hereditary RB survivors differ significantly from non-hereditary RB survivors only in 'general health'. Bullying in childhood and subjective experience of impairment are the main predictors of a worse QoL. In order to prevent worsening of QoL, or perhaps to improve it, clinicians should make an inventory of these issues at an early stage. We recommend further research to assess the specific psychological factors that may lead to mental health problems in this population.

  3. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  4. Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30

  5. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  6. Transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions: A realist review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen; Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor; O'Halloran, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, which means they must make the transition from children's to adult services. This has proved a challenging process for both young adults and service providers, with complex transition interventions interacting in unpredictable ways with local contexts. To explain how intervention processes interact with contextual factors to help transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions. Systematic realist review of the literature. Literature was sourced from four electronic databases: Embase, MEDLINE, Science Direct and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to April 2016. This was supplemented with a search in Google Scholar and articles sourced from reference lists of included papers. Data were extracted using an adapted standardised data extraction tool which included identifying information related to interventions, mechanisms, contextual influences and outcomes. Two reviewers assessed the relevance of papers based on the inclusion criteria. Methodological rigor was assessed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. 78 articles were included in the review. Six interventions were identified related to an effective transition to adult services. Contextual factors include the need for children's service providers to collaborate with adult service providers to prepare an environment with knowledgeable staff and adequate resources. Mechanisms triggered by the interventions include a sense of empowerment and agency amongst all stakeholders. Early planning, collaboration between children's and adult service providers, and a focus on increasing the young adults' confidence in decision-making and engaging with adult services, are vital to a successful transition. Interventions should be tailored to their context and focused not only on organisational procedures but on equipping young adults, parents

  7. [Healthy life expectancy in older adults with social security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Ramírez-Sánchez, Teresita Jesús; Torres-Cosme, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Population aging increases the prevalence of chronic diseases. This morbidity impacts on the relatively high mortality levels and has disabling effects. Classic health indicators -life expectancy at birth and gross mortality rate- are complemented by the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), whose advantage is a standardization of concepts, sources of information and calculation methods. In this investigation, the healthy life expectancy in adult older population with social security in Mexico is estimated. Life expectancy was estimated from the mortality analysis and by constructing life tables of the population affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Chiang's method was used and the disability prevalence-adjusted life table was modified using Sullivan's method. The healthy life expectancy, life expectancy free of disability and life expectancy with disability in the older adult analysis was highlighted. Life expectancy free of disability was estimated at 66.5 years. In females, it was 16 years and, in men, 15.2 years, indicating that from this age on they live less time with a healthy life. Healthy life expectancy is an indicator that can be useful to build scenarios to support the planning, administration and strategic management of healthy aging programs.

  8. Effects of early life social stress on maternal behavior and neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2013-02-01

    Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of both mothers and their adult offspring. An active focus of maternal depression and anxiety research has been the role of chronic social stress in the development of these disorders. Chronic exposure to social stress is common in humans, especially in lactating mothers, and postpartum mood disorders have been correlated with high levels of social conflict and low levels of social support. Recent studies have described an effective and ethologically relevant chronic social stress (CSS) based rodent model for postpartum depression and anxiety. Since CSS attenuates maternal behavior and impairs both dam and offspring growth, it was hypothesized that CSS is an ethologically relevant form of early life stress for the developing female offspring and may have effects on subsequent adult maternal behavior and neuroendocrinology. Dams exposed to early life CSS as infants display substantial increases in pup retrieval and nursing behavior that are specifically associated with attenuated oxytocin, prolactin, and vasopressin gene expression in brain nuclei involved in the control of maternal behavior. Since the growth patterns of both groups were similar despite substantial increases in nursing duration, the early life CSS dams exhibited an attenuated nursing efficiency. It is concluded that early life CSS has long term effects on the neuroendocrinology of maternal care (oxytocin and prolactin) which results in decreased nursing efficiency in the adult dams. The data support the use of early life CSS as an effective model for stress-induced impairments in nursing, such as those associated with postpartum depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR. During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

  10. Genetic association of the functional CDHR3 genotype with early-onset adult asthma in Japanese populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kanazawa

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Our study supports the concept that the CDHR3 variant is an important susceptibility factor for severe adult asthma in individuals who develop the disease in early life. The interaction between the CDHR3 variant and atopy indicates that genetic predisposition to early respiratory viral infection is combined with atopy in promoting asthma.

  11. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression on anxiety and memory after early life stress in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eKanatsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of early-life stress on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that early-life stress increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of early life stress on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  12. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    Trauma comes as a result of the subject's exposure to extremely negative and stressful events, such as natural or human-provoked catastrophes, wars, serious injuries, violent deaths, tortures, terrorist attacks, rapes and other sexual crimes. A child's exposure to traumatic circumstances of this level during the crucial period of self-structuring creates rather difficult conditions for its development. Moreover, if the child does not have the opportunity to elaborate and analyze all these stressful conditions and put them into words, serious consequences, both psychological and somatic, may occur in adult life. Specific factors and child characteristics, namely, the age, the developmental stage within which the trauma occurs, its type (physical or sexual abuse, neglect or traumatic social events), frequency, duration and intensity, have been proved to seriously affect the trauma's consequences. The immediate emotional impact of trauma may include isolation, fear, feeling of weakness or loss of the sense of confidence. Moreover, mood disorders such as depression and withdrawal, negative effects on cognitive ability, language development and academic performance, difficulties in creating a secure link and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also observed. The long-term consequences for the individual's mental health can be expressed through the following: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) combined or not with depression and anxiety disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, poor control of impulsions, dissociation disorder, psychotic disorder. Finally, apart from the dramatic impact of trauma on the person itself, there is also a high social cost to be paid as a result of the individual's poor adjustment and dysfunction in the community. Early support and intervention in the child's environment may significantly minimize the negative effects of trauma. Beyond the expression of genes, good maternal care as well as psychological support, lead to normal

  13. Life Course Changes and Parent-Adult Child Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell; Deane, Glenn; Spitze, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased interest in parent-adult child relations, there has been little attention to how these are influenced by changes in their lives, reflecting transitions and linked lives within a life course perspective. Hybrid multi-level models are used to analyze change in parent-adult child contact over two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. Changes in parent-child proximity, parent and child marital status, and child parental status are associated with change in contact; continued coresidence with another adult child is related to contact with noncoresidential children; but change in parent health does not affect contact. Some patterns are stronger for daughters and biological children, who tend to have stronger relationships with parents. These analyses demonstrate how life course transitions of parents and adult children can be examined in family context to understand how changes in the life of one family member may influence relations with another. PMID:25651511

  14. Programming of the lung by early-life infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansbro, P M; Starkey, M R; Kim, R Y; Stevens, R L; Foster, P S; Horvat, J C

    2012-06-01

    Many important human diseases, such as asthma, have their developmental origins in early life. Respiratory infections in particular may alter the course of asthma and may either protect against or promote the development of this disease. It is likely that the nature of the effects depends on the type and age of infection and is determined by the impact of infection on the immune and respiratory systems. Immunity in early life is plastic and can be moulded by antigen encounter, which may enhance or reinforce the asthmatic phenotype of early life, or induce protective responses. Chlamydial respiratory infections have specific effects and may increase asthma severity in early life by promoting systemic interleukin 13 responses and causing permanent changes in lung structure. Respiratory viral infections, such as those of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus, promote pro-asthmatic responses in early life that contribute to the induction of asthma. By contrast, probiotics or infection or exposure to certain bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, may have protective effects in asthma by increasing the numbers and activity of regulatory T cells. Here, we review the impact of infections on the developmental origins of asthma. Understanding these effects may lead to new therapeutic approaches for asthma that either target deleterious infections or utilize beneficial ones.

  15. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  16. Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: A role for cognitive stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidar, Josefina; Sorato, Enrico; Malmqvist, Ann-Marie; Jansson, Emelie; Rosher, Charlotte; Jensen, Per; Favati, Anna; Løvlie, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation were, as adults, more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole cow's milk in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Paleolakes and life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct directions have begun to elucidate key parameters in the search for extinct life on Mars. Carbonate sediments, deposited about 10,000 years ago in association with biological activity, have been sampled from the paleolake beds of Lake Vanda and Meirs in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. These samples are being analyzed for simple biological signatures that remain in cold and dry paleolake sediments, namely microfossils, percent carbonate, and total organic carbon. Our second initiative is the study of Colour Lake, in the Canadian Arctic, that periodically maintains a perennial ice cover. Physical measurements started this year will be used to determine one end point for ice covered lake environments and will be compared to continuous measurements from Antarctic lakes started in November 1985. Interestingly, Colour Lake also supports benthic mat communities, but the low pH precludes carbonate deposition. This research will broaden our knowledge base for what conditions are necessary for ice covered lake formation and what biological signatures will remain in paleolake deposits.

  19. Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M.; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Subjects: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Design; Intervention: Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Measurements and Results: Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. Conclusions: These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain. Citation: Seugnet L; Suzuki Y; Donlea JM; Gottschalk L; Shaw PJ. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in

  20. The Role of Early Life Experience and Species Differences in Alcohol Intake in Microtine Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, Allison M. J.; Ahern, Todd H.; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairi...

  1. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Actions, Habits, and the Neural Systems Supporting Instrumental Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Factors contributing to the formation of habits, defined as the stimulus-response associations that form the basis of much human and animal behavior, are not well understood, and although habits are believed to underlie many negative health behaviors such as addictions, the extent to which findings from animal research on habits apply in the human is largely unknown. In Study 1 (Chapter 2), we conducted two experiments on appetitive habit formation in adults with a history of early-life stres...

  2. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  3. Quality of Life in adults who stutter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Sonneville (Caroline); C.A.M. Bouwmans-Frijters (Clazien); M-C. Franken (Marie-Christine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to

  4. Alcohol abstention in early adulthood and premature mortality: Do early life factors, social support, and health explain this association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Polce, Rebecca J; Staff, Jeremy; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    Adult alcohol abstainers have a heightened risk of premature mortality compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. We examine three plausible explanations, other than lack of alcohol, for this observed difference: Abstainers 1) have early life disadvantages that undermine long-term health; 2) lack social support; 3) are less healthy. In the National Child Development Study, an ongoing national British cohort study of individuals born in 1958, we investigated whether early life disadvantages, lack of social support, and poor physical health reduce or eliminate the elevated risk of mortality through age 51 among those abstaining from alcohol at age 33. Using Cox proportional hazard models in a stepwise approach we examined whether the alcohol-mortality relationship changed when potential confounders were included. The risk of mortality by age 51 was greater among age-33 abstainers compared to light drinkers (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.40, 3.40). Including early life disadvantages and social support in the hazard models did not alter these associations (HR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.27, 3.54). Including physical health in the model resulted in a 25% reduction in risk of death among abstainers, though the difference in risk remained statistically significant (HR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.94). Abstaining from alcohol in early adulthood, in comparison to light drinking, predicts increased risk for premature mortality, even after accounting for numerous early and young adult confounders. Future research should examine potential moderators of this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune-mediated diseases and microbial exposure in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Bønnelykke, K; Stokholm, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system......, and certain exposures may have detrimental effects in the earliest life, but no or even beneficial effects later. The human microbiome and infections are candidates as intermediary in the interaction between the host and the environment. The evidence seems inconsistent as infections as well as particular...... colonization patterns in neonates drive both short-term and long-term asthma symptoms, while, on the other hand, the composition of the microbiome in early life may protect against asthma and allergy in later life. This apparent contradiction may be explained by a deeper disease heterogeneity than we...

  6. The neonatal window of opportunity - early priming for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Harald; Adkins, Becky D; Bartfeld, Sina; Blumberg, Richard S; Farber, Donna L; Garssen, Johan; Ghazal, Peter; Hackam, David J; Marsland, Benjamin J; McCoy, Kathy D; Penders, John; Prinz, Immo; Verhasselt, Valerie; von Mutius, Erika; Weiser, Jeffrey N; Wesemann, Duane R; Hornef, Mathias W

    2017-12-13

    The concept of the neonatal window of opportunity assigns the early postnatal period a critical role for life-long host-microbial and immune homeostasis. It is supported by epidemiological evidence that links postnatal environmental exposure with disease susceptibility and mechanisms in the neonate host that facilitate the postnatal transposition, establish a stable microbiome and promote immune maturation. During the conference on "The neonatal window of opportunity - early priming for life", postnatal microbiome and immune maturation, epidemiological evidence and fundamental mechanisms were discussed to identify new targets for future preventive and interventional measures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Age validation in the long life family study through a linkage to early-life census records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T; Mykyta, Laryssa; Sebastiani, Paola; Christensen, Kaare; Glynn, Nancy W; Perls, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Studies of health and longevity require accurate age reporting. Age misreporting among older adults in the United States is common. Participants in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) were matched to early-life census records. Age recorded in the census was used to evaluate age reporting in the LLFS. The study population was 99% non-Hispanic white. About 88% of the participants were matched to 1910, 1920, or 1930 U.S. censuses. Match success depended on the participant's education, place of birth, and the number of censuses available to be searched. Age at the time of the interview based on the reported date of birth and early-life census age were consistent for about 89% of the participants, and age consistency within 1 year was found for about 99% of the participants. It is possible to match a high fraction of older study participants to their early-life census records when detailed information is available on participants' family of origin. Such record linkage can provide an important source of information for evaluating age reporting among the oldest old participants. Our results are consistent with recent studies suggesting that age reporting among older whites in the United States appears to be quite good.

  8. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  9. Life Stress Impairs Self-Control in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Lee Duckworth; Betty eKim; Eli eTsukayama

    2013-01-01

    The importance of self-control to a wide range of developmental outcomes prompted the current investigation of negative life events and self-control in early adolescence. In three prospective, longitudinal studies, negative life events reported by the mother (in Study 1) or child (in Studies 2 and 3) predicted rank-order decreases in self-control over time. In all studies, self-control was measured at two different time points using questionnaires completed by three separate raters, including...

  10. Early socioeconomic adversity, youth positive development, and young adults' cardio-metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, Thulitha

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that psychosocial resources, including self-esteem, personality, and educational attainment, may be mechanisms explaining the socioeconomic variation in health risks. However, less research has examined this possibility over the early life course. A nationally representative sample of 12,424 respondents with data collected over a 13-year period from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was examined. This study utilized a cumulative measure of early socioeconomic adversity capturing multiple dimensions of adversity to test resource focused models in a structural equation framework estimating the influence of early adversity on young adults' (ages 25-34) risk for cardio-metabolic disease, as measured by metabolic and cardiovascular bio-markers, through psychosocial resources (i.e., self-esteem, personality, and educational attainment). Lastly, potential model differences by sex and race/ethnicity were examined. The findings showed that early adversity contributed to young adults' cardio-metabolic disease risk directly. Additionally, early adversity increased young adults' cardio-metabolic disease risk indirectly through its' negative influence on the development of youths' psychosocial resources: self-esteem, positive personality, and educational attainment. The association between psychosocial resources and young adults' cardio-metabolic disease risk differed for men and women and across racial/ethnic groups. These findings contribute valuable knowledge to existing research by elucidating how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on young adults' cardio-metabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through psychosocial resources. Furthermore, this information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should focus on early adversity and the development of youths' psychosocial resources. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Vaiserman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’. Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed.

  12. The associations between early life circum-stances and later life health and employment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages

  13. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  14. Does perceived burdensomeness erode meaning in life among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Bamonti, Patricia M; King, Deborah A; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for the loss of meaning in life among older adults is needed. In this article, we test hypotheses derived from the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide concerning the role of perceptions that one is a burden on others as a risk factor for lower meaning in life. A prospective design was used to examine the temporal associations between perceptions of burdensomeness on others and perceived meaning in life among older adults (n=65) seeking mental health treatment (primarily for depression and/or anxiety) at an outpatient geriatric mental health clinic. Participants completed self-report questionnaires within a month following intake. Follow-up questionnaires were completed over the phone two months later. Perceived burdensomeness predicted lack of meaning in life two months later, while accounting for depression severity. In contrast, baseline levels of meaning in life did not significantly predict the levels of burdensomeness at two months. The findings suggest that burdensomeness may contribute to suicide morbidity and mortality in late-life by eroding meaning in life. Empirically supported treatments for late-life depression could be adapted to focus on perceptions of burdensomeness and its connections with meaning in life.

  15. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic...

  16. Spillover Effects of Early-Life Medical Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard; Daysal, N. Meltem; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spillover effects of early-life medical treatments on the siblings of treated children. We use a regression discontinuity design that exploits changes in medical treatments across the very low birth weight (VLBW) cutoff. Using administrative data from Denmark, we first confirm ...... suggest that improved interactions within the family may be an important pathway behind the observed spillover effects....

  17. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  18. Early-life origin of intestinal inflammatory disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ley, Delphine; Desseyn, Jean Luc; Mischke, Mona; Knol, Jan; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the concept of perinatal programming through which the perinatal environment affects the development of the fetus and infant, thereby modifying the risk profile for disease later in life. Increasing attention is focusing on the role of the early environment in the

  19. Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Lindsay M; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with central changes in oxytocin (OXT), prolactin (PRL), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in adult F1 females. The mothers of the rats in the current study were either allowed to raise their pups without exposure to a social stressor (control), or presented with a novel male intruder for 1h each day on lactation days 2-16 (chronic social stress). The effects of this early life chronic social stress (CSS) exposure on subsequent peripheral endocrinology, maternal behavior, and physiology were assessed. Exposure of female pups to early life CSS resulted in persistent alterations in maternal endocrinology at the end of lactation (attenuated prolactin and elevated corticosterone), depressed maternal care and aggression, increased restlessness and anxiety-related behavior, impaired lactation, and decreased saccharin preference. The endocrine and behavioral data indicate that early life CSS has long-term effects which are similar to changes seen in clinical populations of depressed mothers and provide support for the use of the chronic social stress paradigm as an ethologically relevant rodent model for maternal disorders such as postpartum depression and anxiety. © 2013.

  20. The Role of Interpersonal Problems in the Relationship Between Early Abuse Experiences and Adult Immune Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Jonathan Cook

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to test the long-term impact of abuse on immune functioning and to test the mediating role of interpersonal problems in the relationship between early child abuse experiences and immune functioning. A sample of 89 undergraduate adult women (M age = 19.24) completed reports of child abuse histories, interpersonal problems, and negative life events, and provided saliva samples to measure Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and antibody level for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1...

  1. [Early intervention for emerging mental illness in young adults : the Geneva model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsaz, Orianne; Badan Bâ, Maryse; Chantraine, Fabrice; Curtis, Logos

    2017-09-20

    Mental illness often emerges in young adulthood, usually before the age of 25 years. Early detection and intervention have a positive impact on the evolution of mental illness and quality of life. Specific interventions for this age group are recommended with a focus on ease of access to health care, adaptation to problems facing the young adult, using an integrated medical psycho-social approach. Furthermore, for this population, determination of a specific medical diagnosis does not seem essential, the concept of early stages of mental illness with less specific symptoms often being more useful. The Young Adult Psychiatry Unit in Geneva is built around these concepts and aims to offer, for the young adult with emerging mental illness, a large range of mental health services that are easily accessible.

  2. Developmental Communication Impairments in Adults: Outcomes and Life Experiences of Adults and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Judy; Ansorge, Lydia; Stackhouse, Joy; Donlan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study identifies the outcomes and documents the longitudinal life experiences of adults who attended a specialist residential school for children with pervasive and complex developmental communication impairments. Method: Semistructured interviews were carried out with 26 adult ex-pupils who had attended the school and the parents of…

  3. Early Life Microbiota, Neonatal Immune Maturation and Hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    bowl disease, later in life. The intestinal epithelium makes up a physical and biochemical barrier between the bacteria in the gut lumen and the immune cells in the submocusal tissue. This monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) makes up an extremely large surface and is highly important......Emerging epidemiologic data supports the hypothesis that early life colonization is a key player in development of a balanced immune system. Events in early life, as birth mode and infant diet, are shown to influence development of immune related diseases, like asthma, diabetes and inflammatory...... in the peripheral blood of newborns. Granular myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have recently been described in human cord blood. MDSC are potential immunosuppressive cells often described in cancer, inflammation and during sepsis. They evolve from immature myeloid cells during hematopoiesis. Several recent...

  4. Numeracy for adults with Down syndrome: it's a matter of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragher, R; Brown, R I

    2005-10-01

    Numeracy development is widely accepted as critical for adults in the general community which is equally the case for adults with Down syndrome. This paper reports some of the findings of a study including the research question: What is the justification for numeracy development for adults with Down syndrome? Investigating this question led to the search for a framework to support the ongoing development of numeracy. The research used a case study methodology. Five adults were observed and interviewed in two contexts each. The data were analyzed to identify links to the quality of life model. The research illustrates how a quality of life approach can be used to justify and guide the lifelong development of numeracy. Data from the case studies linked numeracy to quality of life under the principles of personal contexts, variability, life-span perspective, values, choices and personal control, perceptions and self-image. The principles of quality of life can provide a framework for the development of numeracy in the context of adulthood and Down syndrome. Preparation for the numeracy needs of a long and satisfying adulthood should begin in early childhood, continue in schools with the teaching of underlying mathematics concepts and skills, and be modified and refined throughout adulthood by the use of a numeracy development plan. Carers and professionals interacting in the contexts need to adopt a teaching role for numeracy.

  5. Early farm residency and prevalence of asthma and hay fever in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Donna C; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Chen, Yue; Lawson, Joshua A; Hagel, Louise; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and hay fever have been found to be both positively and negatively associated with farming lifestyles in adulthood. Lack of congruency may depend upon early life exposure. To assess the importance of different periods of farm residency for asthma and hay fever in an adult Canadian population. We conducted a questionnaire survey in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. We assessed a history of asthma and hay fever with five categories of farm residency that were mutually exclusive: first year of life only, currently living on a farm, both first year of life and currently living on a farm, other farm living, and no farm living. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for clustering effects of adults within households. Of the 7148 responding, 30.6% had an early farm living experience only, 34.4% had both early and current farm living experiences, while 17.4% had never lived on a farm. The overall prevalence of ever asthma and hay fever was 8.6% and 12.3%, respectively, and was higher in women. Sex modified the associations between ever asthma and hay fever with farm residency variables whereby women had a decreased risk for both asthma [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.47-0.96] and hay fever (ORadj: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.83) with an early farm exposure only. Men currently living on a farm without an early farm exposure had an increased risk for ever asthma (ORadj: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.02-3.24). Farm residency in the first year of life shows a protective effect for adult asthma and hay fever that appears to differ by sex.

  6. Child and Adult Factors Related to Quality of Life in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Philippa; Mandy, William; Howlin, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The WHO Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire was used to assess quality of life (QoL) among 52 adults with autism (mean age 49 years) followed-up since childhood. Overall, assessments of QOL were more positive than measures of objective social outcome (jobs, independence, relationships etc.) but correlations between caregiver and self-reports were…

  7. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  8. Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

  9. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-07

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life.

  10. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress...... indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years....... Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S...

  11. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  12. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  13. Life Impairments in Adults with Medication-Treated ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Knouse, Laura E.; Lerner, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In developing psychosocial approaches to augment outcomes for medication-treated adults with ADHD, it is important to understand what types of life-impairments are most affected by continued ADHD symptoms that occur despite medication treatment. This may assist in delineating targets for interventions, as well as assessments of…

  14. Impaired fetal growth and low plasma volume in adult life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : To estimate whether normotensive women who were born small for gestational age have low plasma volume in adult life, which is associated with later chronic hypertension. METHODS: : In 280 normotensive women with a history of hypertension in pregnancy, we recorded recalled gestational

  15. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...

  16. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  17. Quality of life in treated adult craniopharyngioma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, O. M.; Biermasz, N. R.; Smit, J. W. A.; Groot, L. E.; Roelfsema, F.; Romijn, J. A.; Pereira, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has become increasingly important in the evaluation of treatment of pituitary and hormonal diseases. A reduced QoL has been reported in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma; however, reports of QoL in adult craniopharyngioma patients are scarce. In the present study, we assessed

  18. Epigenetics and early life origins of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Walker, Sheila O; Hong, Xiumei; Bartell, Tami R; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    In light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored. Given the unique properties of the epigenome-functionality during critical time windows, such as the intrauterine period, heritability, and reversibility-enhancing our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may offer new opportunities for the development of novel early prediction and prevention paradigms. This may present an unparalleled opportunity to offer maternal and child health professionals important tools with the translational value to predict, detect, and prevent disease at an early age, long before its clinical occurrence, and as such, break lifelong and transgenerational cycles of disease. In doing so, modern technology can be leveraged to make great contributions to population health, quality of life, and reducing the burdensome economic costs of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation, can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction.

  20. Management of Turner syndrome in adult life and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2014-12-01

    To describe in practical terms the clinical management in adult life of patients with Turner syndrome. Systematic review of the literature and practical issues. An evaluation of clinical trials, meta-analysis, case reports and reviews assessing the management of different conditions related to Turner syndrome was done using the following data sources: Medline, PubMed (from 1966 to July 2014) and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register, Embase (up to July 2014). Extracted information is summarized here on karyotype, screening of malformations, malformations debuting in adult life, final height, treatments with growth hormone, cardiovascular risk, endocrino-metabolic and liver abnormalities, sensorineural disorders and osteoporosis and its treatment. This review provides recommendations for the management of adult patients with Turner syndrome and insight into the associated medical complaints. A link between karyotypes and clinical features suggests a novel hypothesis to explain the different phenotypes and clinical abnormalities of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Child and Adult Factors Related to Quality of Life in Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Philippa; Mandy, William; Howlin, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The WHO Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire was used to assess quality of life (QoL) among 52 adults with autism (mean age 49 years) followed-up since childhood. Overall, assessments of QOL were more positive than measures of objective social outcome (jobs, independence, relationships etc.) but correlations between caregiver and self-reports were low. Informant ratings indicated few correlations between current QoL and any child or adult factors. On self-report ratings, QoL was significantly negatively correlated with severity of repetitive behaviours in childhood; higher QoL was positively associated with better adult social outcomes. However, only a minority of adults (n = 22) could provide self-report data and findings highlight the need to develop valid measures for assessing the well-being of adults with autism.

  2. Impaired intestinal barrier function and relapsing digestive disease: Lessons from a porcine model of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A L; Blikslager, A T

    2017-11-01

    Within this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, an article by Pohl et al highlights new insights from a powerful porcine model of the link between early life adversity and relapsing functional gastrointestinal disorders. Early weaning stress closely mimics the early life psychosocial stressors that have been linked to adult onset gastrointestinal dysfunction. This early weaning model provides reproducible and highly translatable outcomes in young stress-challenged pigs. Due to the convincingly comparable neurological and gastroenterological anatomy and physiology between pigs and human beings, gastrointestinal stress and injury studies utilizing swine models will provide invaluable insights to improve our understanding and treatment of gastrointestinal disease in human beings. Future studies to examine mechanisms underlying this link between early life adversity and functional gastrointestinal disorders will explore the roles of gender and hypomaturity in gastrointestinal responses to stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Social representations of older adults regarding quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Cristina Gonçalves Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the social representations of older adults regarding quality of life, and to analyze the care practices adopted to promote it. Method: qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research, applying the Theory of Social Representations. Thirty older people from a Health Academy of Rio de Janeiro participated in the study. The software Alceste was used, and lexical analysis of data was performed. Results: social representations of quality of life are based on the social determinants of health; they evidence knowledge and practices of care by valuing physical activities. The practices promoting quality of life comprise healthy eating habits, daily physical exercise, social participation, interaction and socialization, accomplishment of leisure activities and daily tasks with independence and autonomy, and support and family contact. Final considerations: the elderly have a global understanding of the concept of quality of life, coordinate knowledge built in daily life and knowledge coming from the technical-professional field, which evidences the multidimensionality of the concept.

  4. Early Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome: The Role of Environmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects more than 47 million people in the U.S. Even more alarming, MetS, once regarded as an "adult problem", has become increasingly common in children. To date, most related research and intervention efforts have occurred in the adult medicine arena, with limited understanding of the root causes and lengthy latency of MetS. This review highlights new science on the early life origins of MetS, with a particular focus on exposure to two groups of environmental toxicants: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and metals during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, and their specific effects and important differences in the development of MetS. It also summarizes available data on epigenetic effects, including the role of EDCs in the androgen/estrogen pathways. Emerging evidence supports the link between exposures to environmental toxicants during early life and the development of MetS later in life. Additional research is needed to address important research gaps in this area, including prospective birth cohort studies to delineate temporal and dose-response relationships, important differences in the effects of various environmental toxicants and their joint effects on MetS, as well as epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of specific toxicants such as EDCs and metals.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Positivity Scale among Chinese Adults and Early Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted two studies to explore the psychometric properties of the Positivity Scale (P Scale among Chinese adults and early adolescents, using a sample of 552 adults (Study 1 and a sample of 888 early adolescents (i.e., middle school students (Study 2. First, item analyses and factor analyses were conducted to investigate the one-factor structure of the P Scale. Second, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and external evidences of validity were evaluated to examine its reliability and validity. Last, we used multi-group confirmatory factor analysis to test measurement invariance across gender. The two studies both provided evidence for its reliability and validity among Chinese adults and early adolescents. For the test of measurement invariance across gender, full scalar invariance was established among early adolescents; partial scalar invariance was supported among adults. Taken together, the results provided preliminary support in the Chinese context for the P Scale as a valid measure to assess the general disposition toward viewing life and experiences in a positive manner. The potential applications for future research and professional practice are discussed.

  6. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  7. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-11-03

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  8. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, and similar number of food caches available at one year of age as late breeders. Nevertheless, we found evidence of survival costs of early primiparity. Early breeders had a lower survival between one and two years of age than late breeders and a lower lifespan. Our study points out that two reproductive tactics co-occurred in this population: a tactic based on early maturity at the cost of a lower survival versus a tactic based on delayed maturity and long lifespan. High quality individuals express the most profitable tactic by breeding early whereas low quality individuals do the best of a bad job by delaying their first reproduction. PMID:16928640

  9. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwafi Hani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW. We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth D; Bordner, Kelly A; Elwafi, Hani M; Simen, Arthur A

    2010-09-29

    Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW). We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test) when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  11. Searching for Life on Early Mars: Lessons from the Pilbara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Stromatolites in the Pilbara region of Western Australia constitute the earliest outcrop-scale evidence of life on Earth (Figure 1). The stromatolites in the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) provide an important analog for searching for fossil evidence of early life on Mars, as Noachian aged sediments on Mars were formed under similar environmental conditions. Stromatolites represent possibly the best evidence that could be collected by a rover because they form recognizable macroscopic structures and are often associated with chemical and microscopic evidence.

  12. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns, and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Rosner, Bernard; Hankinson, Susan E; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C

    2011-11-02

    Multiple studies have linked alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk, but the risk of lower levels of consumption has not been well quantified. In addition, the role of drinking patterns (ie, frequency of drinking and "binge" drinking) and consumption at different times of adult life are not well understood. To evaluate the association of breast cancer with alcohol consumption during adult life, including quantity, frequency, and age at consumption. Prospective observational study of 105,986 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study followed up from 1980 until 2008 with an early adult alcohol assessment and 8 updated alcohol assessments. Relative risks of developing invasive breast cancer. During 2.4 million person-years of follow-up, 7690 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. Increasing alcohol consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk that was statistically significant at levels as low as 5.0 to 9.9 g per day, equivalent to 3 to 6 drinks per week (relative risk, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24; 333 cases/100,000 person-years). Binge drinking, but not frequency of drinking, was associated with breast cancer risk after controlling for cumulative alcohol intake. Alcohol intake both earlier and later in adult life was independently associated with risk. Low levels of alcohol consumption were associated with a small increase in breast cancer risk, with the most consistent measure being cumulative alcohol intake throughout adult life. Alcohol intake both earlier and later in adult life was independently associated with risk.

  14. [Development of the Meaning in Life Scale for Older Adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Eun; Hong, Gwi Ryung Son

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument, Meaning in Life, for elderly Korean people. Ten older adults participated in the qualitative research used to develop the initial items. Participants for the psychometric testing were 371 community-dwelling older adults. Validity and reliability analyses included content, construct, and criterion-related validities, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. The Meaning in Life Scale consisted of 12 items with three distinct factors; value of life, source of life, and will to live, which explained 86.7% of the total variance. A three-factor structure was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Criterion-related validity was supported by comparison with the Purpose in Life Test (r=.74). Reliabilities were secured with test-retest reliability of Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) .85 and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient .90. The results of this study indicate that this instrument is useful to measure meaning in life in Korean elders.

  15. Resilience Factors in Women with Severe Early-Life Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Karen; Neukel, Corinne; Hagemann, Dirk; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    Early-life maltreatment (ELM) has long-lasting negative consequences and is the most important general risk factor for mental disorders. Nevertheless, a number of maltreated children grow up to become healthy adults and have therefore been called 'resilient'. The aim of the current study is to investigate 'resilience factors' in the context of severe ELM. The study was part of the large multicenter project Understanding and Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse (UBICA). A total of 89 women were examined, 33 with ELM and at least one lifetime mental disorder (nonresilient), 19 with ELM but without lifetime mental disorders (resilient), and 37 without ELM and without lifetime mental disorders (controls). ELM and other circumstances before the age of 18 years were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview. Additional relevant person and situation factors were measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders (SCID-I), International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Multiple-Choice Vocabulary Intelligence Test (MWT-B). Factor analyses and paired t tests were performed to identify those variables which differentiate best between the three groups. In addition, a discriminant analysis was conducted to detect the accuracy of assigning women to their specific group. The factor analyses revealed 10 resilience factors based on which we could correctly assign 80% of the women to their group in the discriminant analysis. t tests of factor scores showed that resilient and nonresilient maltreated women mainly differed in current individual attributes (e.g. impulsivity, attachment style), while resilient and nonresilient maltreated women differed from controls in both their current individual attributes and their view of their situation as a

  16. A novel common variant in DCST2 is associated with length in early life and height in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Ralf J. P.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Kooijman, Marjolein N.; Guxens, Monica; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Saaf, Annika; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Geller, Frank; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Cousminer, Diana L.; Koerner, Antje; Thiering, Elisabeth; Curtin, John A.; Myhre, Ronny; Huikari, Ville; Joro, Raimo; Kerkhof, Marjan; Warrington, Nicole M.; Pitkanen, Niina; Ntalla, Ioanna; Horikoshi, Momoko; Veijola, Riitta; Freathy, Rachel M.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Barton, Sheila J.; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Bergstrom, Anna; Kull, Inger; Hakonarson, Hakon; Mentch, Frank D.; Bisgaard, Hans; Chawes, Bo; Stokholm, Jakob; Waage, Johannes; Eriksen, Patrick; Sevelsted, Astrid; Melbye, Mads; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Hofman, Albert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Taal, H. Rob; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Armstrong, Loren L.; Eriksson, Johan; Palotie, Aarno; Bustamante, Mariona; Estivill, Xavier; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Llop, Sabrina; Kiess, Wieland; Mahajan, Anubha; Flexeder, Claudia; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Murray, Clare S.; Simpson, Angela; Magnus, Per; Sengpiel, Verena; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Lewin, Alexandra; Alves, Alexessander Da Silva Couto; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Sebert, Sylvain; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Lakka, Timo; Lindi, Virpi; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ang, Wei; Newnham, John P.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Pahkala, Katja; Raitakari, Olli T.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria; Ilonen, Jorma; Franke, Lude; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pers, Tune H.; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Hocher, Berthold; Knip, Mikael; Saw, Seang-Mei; Holloway, John W.; Melen, Erik; Grant, Struan F. A.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Lowe, William L.; Widen, Elisabeth; Sergeyev, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Custovic, Adnan; Jacobsson, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Atalay, Mustafa; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Pennell, Craig E.; Niinikoski, Harri; Dedoussis, George V.; Mccarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Sunyer, Jordi; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.

    2015-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identified

  17. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatsou, Sofia; Ter Horst, Judith P; Harris, Anjanette P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Krugers, Harmen J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of ELS on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that ELS increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of ELS on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus, MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  18. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD.

  19. Early-life gut microbiome and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi, Mina; Chun, Yoojin; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert A; Burks, A Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Bunyavanich, Supinda

    2018-01-10

    Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multi-center Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected and clinical evaluation, egg specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P=5.0x10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg allergic subjects (Kruskal Wallis P adj =0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0x10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathophysiological trajectories and biological consequences of early life trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Agorastos, Agorastos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Experience of early life stress (ELS) (childhood trauma, maltreatment, neglect, separation, physical and sexual abuse, parental loss and other severe anxiety/stress symptoms) is highly prevalent in the general population and constitutes a major public health problem (Gilbert et al., 2009). The objective of this paper is to review evidence on epidemiological risk factors, pathophysiological trajectories and neurobiological pathways exerting the enduring adverse effects of ELS and lead...

  1. Life-course changes and parent-adult child contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell; Deane, Glenn; Spitze, Glenna

    2014-09-01

    Despite increased interest in parent-adult child relations, there has been little attention to how these are influenced by changes in their lives, reflecting transitions and linked lives within a life-course perspective. Hybrid multilevel models are used to analyze the change in parent-adult child contact over two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. Changes in parent-child proximity, parent and child marital status, and child parental status are associated with change in contact; continued coresidence with another adult child is related to contact with non-coresidential children; but change in parent health does not affect contact. Some patterns are stronger for daughters and biological children who tend to have stronger relationships with their parents. These analyses demonstrate how life-course transitions of parents and adult children can be examined in family context to understand how changes in the life of one family member may influence relations with another. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Vitally important - does early innate immunity predict recruitment and adult innate immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Anke; Müller, Wendt; Eens, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    The immune system is one of the most important adaptations that has evolved to protect animals from a wide range of pathogens they encounter from early life onwards. During the early developmental period this is particularly true for the innate immunity, as other components of the immune system are, as yet, poorly developed. But innate immunity may not only be crucial for early life survival, but may also have long-lasting effects, for example if early life immunity reflects the functioning of the immune system as a whole. For this reason, we investigated the importance of four constitutive innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin, and concentrations of nitric oxide) for recruitment in free-living great tits. We compared nestling immunity of recruits with nestling immunity of their nonrecruited siblings. We also investigated within individual consistency of these innate immune parameters for those individuals that recruited, which may be taken as a measure of immune capacity. In accordance with previous studies, we found a clear effect of tarsus length and a trend for body mass on the likelihood to recruit. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that higher levels of constitutive innate immunity as a nestling facilitated local recruitment. Furthermore, individual innate immunity was not consistent across life stages, that is to say, nestling immune parameters did not determine, or respectively, reflect adult innate immune parameters. This plasticity in innate immune components may explain why we did not find long-lasting survival benefits.

  3. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  4. Exposure to Chinese famine in early life and the risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xueling; Wang, Weijing; Xu, Hui; Li, Zongyao; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2018-01-03

    Early life exposure to famine may affect the susceptibility to metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia. However, few studies explored the association between them in Chinese population. We aimed to evaluate the association between Chinese famine (1959-1961) exposure during early life and the risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. The study performed a historic cohort study and data were from China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009. A total of 4843 subjects born between 1941 and 1966 were categorized into fetal-infant exposed group (N = 433), childhood exposed group (N = 2132), adolescence exposed group (N = 1140), and unexposed group (N = 1138), respectively. Dyslipidemia was defined by Chinese adult dyslipidemia prevention guide (2016 edition). We compared fetal exposed group, childhood exposed group, and adolescence exposed group to unexposed group using logistic regression models to assess the effect of famine exposure on later dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemia among subjects in unexposed group, fetal exposed group, childhood exposed group, and adolescence exposed group was 56.40, 64.00, 63.90, and 63.90%, respectively. Compared with unexposed group, participants exposed to famine in fetal period (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.70), childhood (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.23-1.69), and adolescence (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.17-1.71) had higher risks of dyslipidemia in adults after adjustment for potential confounders. Exposure to Chinese famine in early life was associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. Preventing undernutrition in early life is an appropriate recommendation to reduce the prevalence of later dyslipidemia.

  5. Differences between early and late onset adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear, whether age-of-onset identifies subgroups of depression. Aim: To assess the clinical presentation of depression with onset in the early adult age (18-30 years) as compared to depression with later onset (31-70 years). Method: A total number of 301 patients with first......, t-tests for continuous parametric data and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous nonparametric data. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to adjust the analyses for potentially confounding variables. Results: Patients with early onset of depression were characterised by a higher...

  6. 'Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-02-01

    Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese

  7. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  8. Early-life origin of intestinal inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Delphine; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Mischke, Mona; Knol, Jan; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the concept of perinatal programming through which the perinatal environment affects the development of the fetus and infant, thereby modifying the risk profile for disease later in life. Increasing attention is focusing on the role of the early environment in the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Epidemiological studies have highlighted the link between perinatal factors, such as breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, and antibiotic use, and an increased risk for inflammatory bowel disease and/or celiac disease. These links are consistent with the concept of perinatal programming of intestinal inflammatory disorders. Animal models have shown that the early-life environment affects the development of the gastrointestinal tract, but further experimental studies are needed to confirm the long-term effects of the perinatal environment on susceptibility to chronic intestinal disorders later in life. Changes in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota as well as epigenetic changes are emerging as key mechanisms through which the perinatal environment determines susceptibility to intestinal inflammatory disorders. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Life Stress Impairs Self-Control in Early Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lee Duckworth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of self-control to a wide range of developmental outcomes prompted the current investigation of negative life events and self-control in early adolescence. In three prospective, longitudinal studies, negative life events reported by the mother (in Study 1 or child (in Studies 2 and 3 predicted rank-order decreases in self-control over time. In all studies, self-control was measured at two different time points using questionnaires completed by three separate raters, including a classroom teacher who knew the child well and two other raters (parents, caregivers, and/or the child himself/herself. Psychological distress measured in Studies 2 and 3 mediated the deleterious effects of negative life events on self-control. These findings extend prior experimental laboratory research documenting the acute effects of stress on self-control.

  10. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  11. Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis in animals submitted to early-life trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Diniz Machado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes in maternal care can affect offspring’s thyroid hormone T3 levels. Pups from highly caring mothers have higher levels of thyroid hormone T3. In humans, physical abuse in childhood is related to lower levels of T3 in adolescence. This study aimed at verifying if early-life trauma in rodents is correlated with T3 levels in adulthood. Methods: From the second day of life, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to reduced nesting material (Early–Life Stress-ELS or standard care (Controls. In adult life, the animals were chronically exposed to standard diet or standard diet + palatable diet and plasma T3 levels were measured before and after the exposition to diet. Results: Thyroid hormone T3 levels in adult life correlated negatively with the licking and grooming (LG scores in the ELS group. This correlation disappeared when the animals had the opportunity to choose between two diets chronically. Conclusion: The adverse environment affected maternal behavior and caused marks on the metabolism of the intervention group (T3, which were reverted by chronic palatable food consumption. Keywords: Trauma; T3; stress

  12. Early Childhood Education Teachers: Life History, Life Course, and the Problem of Family-Work Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…

  13. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  14. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, K.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Lammers, A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (p.h.) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune

  15. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence of an IFN-γ by early life stress interaction in the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Stacey, David; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Since numerous studies have found that exposure to early life stress leads to increased peripheral inflammation and psychiatric disease, it is thought that peripheral immune activation precedes and possibly mediates the onset of stress-associated psychiatric disease. Despite early studies, IFNγ has received little attention relative to other inflammatory cytokines in the context of the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Neuroimaging endophenotypes have emerged recently as a promising means of elucidating these types of complex relationships including the modeling of the interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Here we investigate the GxE relationship between early-life stress and genetic variants of IFNγ on emotion processing. To investigate the impact of the relationship between genetic variants of IFNγ (rs1861494, rs2069718, rs2430561) and early life stress on emotion processing, a sample of healthy adults (n=409) undergoing an emotional faces paradigm in an fMRI study were genotyped and analysed. Information on early life stress was obtained via Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A positive association between early life stress and amygdala reactivity was found. Specifically, the main effect of genotype of rs1861494 on amygdala reactivity indicates a higher neural response in C allele carriers compared to T homozygotes, while we did not find main effects of rs2069718 and rs2430561. Importantly, interaction analyses revealed a specific interaction between IFNγ genotype (rs1861494) and early life stress affecting amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, resulting from a positive association between CTQ scores and amygdala reactivity in C allele carriers while this association was absent in T homozygotes. Our findings indicate that firstly the genetic variant of IFNγ (rs1861494) is involved with the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli and secondly, that this genetic variant moderates effects of early life

  17. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal...... study of the 1914 population in Glostrup, Copenhagen. Participants were all interviewed in their homes by an occupational therapist. Findings provide evidence that frail older adults more frequently express satisfaction with their daily lives when they (1) are occupied as usual; (2) have friends; (3......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  18. Early-life Stress Impacts the Developing Hippocampus and Primes Seizure Occurrence: cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tung eHuang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed.

  19. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-11-01

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  20. The Meaning of the Life on Young Adult

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, Ruşen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the meaning in young adults' lives according to gender, perceived socio economic status, perceived parental attitudes, association or separation of parents and birth order variables. In the light of scientific data, making way for individuals who search for meaning in life or who are not satisfied with the one he / she found is the secondary purpose of this study. The sample group of this research consists of randomly chosen 465 students (215 f...

  1. [Work stress in the second half of adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas

    2014-08-20

    Stress at work is a risk factor for common mental and somatic diseases. As we get past 50 and enter the second half of adult life, our body reminds us relentlessly of our advancing age. In a society dominated by ideals of youth and success, employees in the second half of their lives, experience special forms of stress. Based upon contemporary concepts of stress, solutions for the particular stressful challenges met by older people at work are discussed.

  2. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  3. Functional limitations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells limit type I interferon, T cell responses and virus control in early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Belnoue

    Full Text Available Infant mortality from viral infection remains a major global health concern: viruses causing acute infections in immunologically mature hosts often follow a more severe course in early life, with prolonged or persistent viral replication. Similarly, the WE strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-WE causes acute self-limiting infection in adult mice but follows a protracted course in infant animals, in which LCMV-specific CD8⁺ T cells fail to expand and control infection. By disrupting type I IFNs signaling in adult mice or providing IFN-α supplementation to infant mice, we show here that the impaired early life T cell responses and viral control result from limited early type I IFN responses. We postulated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC, which have been identified as one major source of immediate-early IFN-I, may not exert adult-like function in vivo in the early life microenvironment. We tested this hypothesis by studying pDC functions in vivo during LCMV infection and identified a coordinated downregulation of infant pDC maturation, activation and function: despite an adult-like in vitro activation capacity of infant pDCs, the expression of the E2-2 pDC master regulator (and of critical downstream antiviral genes such as MyD88, TLR7/TLR9, NF-κB, IRF7 and IRF8 is downregulated in vivo at baseline and during LCMV infection. A similar pattern was observed in response to ssRNA polyU, a model ligand of the TLR7 viral sensor. This suggests that the limited T cell-mediated defense against early life viral infections is largely attributable to / regulated by infant pDC responses and provides incentives for novel strategies to supplement or stimulate immediate-early IFN-α responses.

  4. Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, R C; Pepe, M S; Wright, J A; Seidel, K D; Dietz, W H

    1998-03-01

    At 5 to 6 years of age, body fatness normally declines to a minimum, a point called adiposity rebound (AR), before increasing again into adulthood. We determined whether a younger age at AR was associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and whether this risk was independent of fatness at AR and parent obesity. A retrospective cohort study using lifelong height and weight measurements recorded in outpatient medical records. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (GHC), a health maintenance organization based in Seattle, Washington. All 390 GHC members (and their parents) born at GHC between January 1, 1965, and January 1, 1971, who had at least one recorded adult height and weight measurement plus two visits with recorded height and weight measurements in each of three age intervals: 1.5 to 4, 4 to 8, and 8 to 16 years. We calculated the mean body mass index (BMI) of each subject during young adulthood (age 21 to 29 years) and the BMI of the parents when each subject was 1.5 years of age. Adult obesity was defined as a BMI >/=27.8 for males and >/=27. 3 for females. Curves were fit to each subject's BMI values between ages 1.5 and 16 years, and the age and BMI at AR were calculated from these curves. Subjects were divided into tertiles of age at AR (early, middle, and late), BMI at AR, and parent BMI (heavy, medium, and lean). The mean age at AR was 5.5 years, and 15% of the cohort was obese in young adulthood. Adult obesity rates were higher in those with early versus late AR (25% vs 5%), those who were heavy versus lean at AR (24% vs 4%), those with heavy versus lean mothers (25% vs 5%), and those with heavy versus lean fathers (21% vs 5%). After adjusting for parent BMI and BMI at AR, the odds ratio for adult obesity associated with early versus late AR was 6.0 (95% CI, 1.3-26.6). An early AR is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity independent of parent obesity and the BMI at AR. Future research should examine the biological and behavioral

  5. How Do Deaf Adults Define Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAbee, Emilee R; Drasgow, Erik; Lowrey, K Alisa

    2017-01-01

    Six deaf adults defined quality of life (QOL) in personal interviews. Questions were based on an eight-domain QOL framework: physical well-being, emotional well-being, interpersonal relations, social inclusion, personal development, material well-being, self-determination, and rights (Schalock & Alonso, 2002). The interview process had three phases. First, a pilot study (N = 3) evaluated the questions for logic, clarity, and applicability. Next, six deaf adults participated in videotaped, structured interviews. Then four deaf adults participated in videotaped, structured follow-up interviews. Interpretive coding was used in data analysis to establish themes across participants. Five QOL themes, as explained by the participants, emerged from the interviews: (a) Being deaf was integral to who the study participants were. (b) Friends and family were important. (c) Independence was valued. (d) The local vocational rehabilitation services department hindered QOL. (e) Multiple problems existed with interpreters and interpreting in the medical field.

  6. Assessment and Measurement of Pain in Adults in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A

    2016-11-01

    Pain in aging adults is a global health problem requiring a proactive and consistent assessment approach. Pain assessment is critical to detecting pain and developing a collaborative and adaptive pain management plan. Getting health providers to assess and measure pain even in older adults who are communicative and can self-report remains a challenge. Self-report is the best method for identifying pain. Using a validated pain assessment scale is key to evaluate pain intensity. This article discusses techniques to obtain self-report and describe appropriate self-report pain tools for a focused pain assessment and reassessment in adults in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The early clinical features of dengue in adults: challenges for early clinical diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny G H Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of dengue throughout the tropical world is affecting an increasing proportion of adult cases. The clinical features of dengue in different age groups have not been well examined, especially in the context of early clinical diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We structured a prospective study of adults (≥ 18 years of age presenting with acute febrile illness within 72 hours from illness onset upon informed consent. Patients were followed up over a 3-4 week period to determine the clinical outcome. A total of 2,129 adults were enrolled in the study, of which 250 (11.7% had dengue. Differences in the rates of dengue-associated symptoms resulted in high sensitivities when the WHO 1997 or 2009 classification schemes for probable dengue fever were applied to the cohort. However, when the cases were stratified into age groups, fewer older adults reported symptoms such as myalgia, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain and mucosal bleeding, resulting in reduced sensitivity of the WHO classification schemes. On the other hand, the risks of severe dengue and hospitalization were not diminished in older adults, indicating that this group of patients can benefit from early diagnosis, especially when an antiviral drug becomes available. Our data also suggests that older adults who present with fever and leukopenia should be tested for dengue, even in the absence of other symptoms. CONCLUSION: Early clinical diagnosis based on previously defined symptoms that are associated with dengue, even when used in the schematics of both the WHO 1997 and 2009 classifications, is difficult in older adults.

  8. Quality of life of adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Jiles, Valerie; Morris, Diana Lynn

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with sickle cell anemia, hemoglobin SC, or hemoglobin S beta thalassemia. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 62 adult patients (18 years of age and older) with sickle cell disease (SCD) in an outpatient clinic devoted to the care of hematological and oncological disorders. Burckhardt and Anderson's 16-item self-report Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) and a demographic questionnaire were used for data collection. The average QOLS scores for healthy populations are 90. The overall mean QOL score in this study of 83.6 (SD = 13.2) was lower than those of the general population. In this study, scores ranged from 52 to 112. Approximately 35% (n = 22) of participants' scores ranged from 52 to 75; approximately 35% (n = 22) of participants' scores ranged from 75 to 85; and approximately 30% (n = 17) of participants' scores ranged from 85 to 112. Other results were nonsignificant for all variables except the variable that assessed the extent to which participants consider themselves to be spiritual. Future research is needed to further the understanding of the impact of QOL in adults with SCD. A better understanding of adult patients with SCD QOL may ultimately improve healthcare services for this population. The findings could lead to future research that can identify factors that most impact the QOL of people living with SCD.

  9. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-11-01

    Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1-0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in “biological age”). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. Methods: We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Results: Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1–0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. Discussion: These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. PMID:26014827

  11. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Sex-Dependent Effects of Cadmium Exposure in Early Life on Gut Microbiota and Fat Accumulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Qian; Li, Mian; Chen, Peizhan; Huang, Chao; Duan, Xiaohua; Lu, Lijun; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Xie, Dong; Song, Haiyun; Wu, Yongning; Ying, Hao; Jia, Xudong; Wang, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Environmental cadmium, with a high average dietary intake, is a severe public health risk. However, the long-term health implications of environmental exposure to cadmium in different life stages remain unclear. We investigated the effects of early exposure to cadmium, at an environmentally relevant dosage, on adult metabolism and the mechanism of action. We established mouse models with low-dose cadmium (LDC) exposure in early life to examine the long-term metabolic consequences. Intestinal flora measurement by 16S rDNA sequencing, microbial ecological analyses, and fecal microbiota transplant was conducted to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. Early LDC exposure (100 nM) led to fat accumulation in adult male mice. Hepatic genes profiling revealed that fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes were elevated. Gut microbiota were perturbed by LDC to cause diversity reduction and compositional alteration. Time-series studies indicated that the gut flora at early-life stages, especially at 8 weeks, were vulnerable to LDC and that an alteration during this period could contribute to the adult adiposity, even if the microbiota recovered later. The importance of intestinal bacteria in LDC-induced fat accumulation was further confirmed through microbiota transplantation and removal experiments. Moreover, the metabolic effects of LDC were observed only in male, but not female, mice. An environmental dose of cadmium at early stages of life causes gut microbiota alterations, accelerates hepatic lipid metabolism, and leads to life-long metabolic consequences in a sex-dependent manner. These findings provide a better understanding of the health risk of cadmium in the environment. Citation: Ba Q, Li M, Chen P, Huang C, Duan X, Lu L, Li J, Chu R, Xie D, Song H, Wu Y, Ying H, Jia X, Wang H. 2017. Sex-dependent effects of cadmium exposure in early life on gut microbiota and fat accumulation in mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:437-446; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP360.

  13. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. METHODS: A cohort...... with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years. The latter relation was attenuated when educational status at age 18 years and adult social class were adjusted for, while birth characteristics and childhood activities had minor influence. Having an unskilled father at birth, low education, few...... intellectual and many social activities in childhood as well as low adult social class were associated with decline in cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Adverse social circumstances early in life were associated with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, as well as with a decline between...

  15. Gender differences in adult-infant communication in the first months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katharine; Caskey, Melinda; Rand, Katherine; Tucker, Richard; Vohr, Betty

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the verbal interactions of parents with their infants in the first months of life and to test the hypothesis that reciprocal vocalizations of mother-infant dyads would be more frequent than those of father-infant dyads. This prospective cohort study included 33 late preterm and term infants. Sixteen-hour language recordings during the birth hospitalization and in the home at 44 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and 7 months were analyzed for adult word count, infant vocalizations, and conversational exchanges. Infants were exposed to more female adult speech than male adult speech from birth through 7 months (P gender. Informing parents of the power of early talking with their young infants is recommended. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Contributions of music to aging adults' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Carme; Mercadal-Brotons, Melissa; Gallego, Sofia; Riera, Mariangels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) To evaluate and to compare the impact of three music programs (choir, music appreciation and preventive music therapy sessions) on the quality of life of healthy older adults, and (b) to identify the motivations and the difficulties that seniors encounter when participating in activities of this type, in order to come up with recommendations and strategies for the design of appropriate programs for older adults. A pre-posttest quasi-experimental design without equivalent control group was used in this project. The sample included 83 persons over 65 years of age. The data collection was carried out through an ad hoc questionnaire that included the four aspects of the construct of quality of life (physical health, subjective health, psychological well-being and interpersonal relations), a questionnaire on motivation and another on satisfaction about the program. This questionnaire on quality of life was administered twice: at the beginning of the programs (pretest) and at the end (posttest). The results of this study indicate that the participants perceived improvements in some aspects of their quality of life. In addition, the main reasons which motivate participation in these musical activities are to broaden the social network and to acquire new knowledge. The results are discussed in the light of the challenges of active and satisfactory aging.

  17. [Influencing factors on healthy life expectancy in adults in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Li, G; Gao, Y L; Wei, Z H; Wang, J; Su, J T; Liu, Q P; Wang, P

    2016-08-10

    To understand the main influencing factors related to healthy life expectancy (HALE) among adults in Beijing. The calculation on health-adjusted life expectancy was performed by Sullivan METHODS. Data from the self-reported health survey program on adults in Beijing 2012 was gathered. Hierarchical ordered probit model was used to estimate the severity-weighted prevalence of disability and then combined with the period life table to obtain the HALE. Factors associated with the severity-adjusted prevalence of the disabled were analyzed under the generalized additive models (GAM). The main influencing factors of HALE would include age (t=40.351, P<0.001), sex (t=9.689, P<0.001), levels of education (t=5.021, P< 0.001), exercise (t=5.487, P<0.001) and alcohol intake (t=-2.380, P=0.017) etc. The influence of per capita monthly income (χ(2) =3.949, P=0.044) showed as non-linear. Levels of income would directly influence the severity-weighted prevalence of the disability, which also affecting the HALE. Programs on improving healthy life style and health care in women should be promoted.

  18. Acculturation and Life Satisfaction Among Immigrant Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F. Marsiglia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Mexican Americans living in the United States, many of whom are first generation immigrants, are increasing. The process of immigration and acculturation can be accompanied by stress, as an individual attempts to reconcile two potentially competing sets of norms and values and to navigate a new social terrain. However, the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between levels of acculturation and well-being are mixed. To further investigate the dynamic of acculturation, this article will address the impact of acculturation and familismo, on reported life satisfaction and resilience among Mexican American adults living in the Southwest (N=307, the majority (89% of which are immigrants. The findings indicate that bilingual individuals report significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and resilience than their Spanish-speaking counterparts do. Speaking primarily English only predicted higher levels of resilience but not life satisfaction. Implications for social work practice with Mexican American immigrants are discussed.

  19. Early Childhood Professional Development: An Experimental Study of Adult Teaching Practices Derived from Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Mayrer, Melissa M.

    Research that describes how adults acquire and use new information, collectively called adult learning theory, has potentially important implications for facilitating such adult learning experiences as educator professional development. The purpose of this study was to examine whether integrating adult teaching practices derived from adult learning theories into early childhood educators professional development would result in better gains in educator engagement in professional development, phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness knowledge, and language and literacy beliefs. The impact on educator engagement and educator proximal knowledge was analyzed using one way ANOVA. The impact on educator phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness general knowledge, and beliefs was analyzed using a 3 X (2 X S) mixed analyses of variance to examine the pretest to posttest change between educators participating the three conditions. Results revealed significant findings for increased engagement in professional learning and gains in educators general knowledge. This study is a first step in understanding effective adult teaching practices that may or may not contribute to better educator outcomes and promoting more effective professional learning experiences for early childhood educators.

  20. [Early-life stress and vulnerability for disease in later life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Heim, Christine

    2016-10-01

    The rapidly growing research field of developmental programming of health and disease risk investigates the early life origins of individual vulnerability for common, complex disorders that confer a major burden of disease. The present article introduces the concept of developmental programming of disease vulnerability and summarizes studies on the mental and physical health consequences of exposure to childhood trauma and prenatal stress. Biological mechanisms that mediate disease risk after early life stress are discussed. The possibility of transgenerational transmission of effects of childhood trauma in exposed women to their children and potential mechanisms of this transmission are also presented. A substantial number of studies show associations between early life stress and risk for mental and somatic diseases in later life. The underlying mechanisms are currently being studied at the molecular and epigenetic level. Potentially, these findings will allow unprecedented opportunities to improve the precision of current clinical diagnostic tools and the success of interventions. However, there is currently a lack of translation of research findings related to developmental programming to clinical applications.

  1. The impact of neighborhood walkability on walking: does it differ across adult life stage and does neighborhood buffer size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    We explored the impact of neighborhood walkability on young adults, early-middle adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults' walking across different neighborhood buffers. Participants completed the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System Survey (2003-2009) and were allocated a neighborhood walkability score at 200m, 400m, 800m, and 1600m around their home. We found little difference in strength of associations across neighborhood size buffers for all life stages. We conclude that neighborhood walkability supports more walking regardless of adult life stage and is relevant for small (e.g., 200m) and larger (e.g., 1600m) neighborhood buffers. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  2. Early life stress and hippocampal neurogenesis in the neonate: sexual dimorphism, long term consequences and possible mediators. A minireview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima eLajud

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse early life experience decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and results in increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite that the effects of postnatal stress on neurogenesis have been widely studied in adult individuals, few efforts have been done to evaluate its immediate effects on the developing hippocampus. Moreover, it is not clear whether postnatal stress causes a differential impact in hippocampus development in male and female neonates that could be related to emotional deficits in adulthood. It has been proposed that the long term effects of early stress exposure rise from a persistent HPA axis activation during sensitive time windows; nevertheless the exact mechanisms and mediators remain unknown. Here, we summarize the immediate and late effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rat pups, compare its later consequences in emotionality, and highlight some relevant mediator peptides that could be potentially involved in programming.

  3. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin...... with atopic heredity (p = 0.017), whereas smoking exposure during pregnancy (p = 0.019) and in the 1st year of life (p = 0.018) was less prevalent. Wheezy bronchitis was equally frequent among subjects with and without atopic predisposition (p = 0.893). Wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years seems...... to be independent of familial predisposition to atopic disease and significantly increases the likelihood for development of atopy in genetically susceptible individuals. Parental knowledge of atopic heredity significantly influences smoking and breast-feeding habits....

  4. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  5. Early-life soy exposure and age at menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Rogan, Walter J; Adair, Linda; Edwards, Lloyd J; Westreich, Daniel; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant-feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed prospectively. Early-life feeding regimes, categorised as primarily breast, early formula, early soy and late soy, were defined using infant-feeding questionnaires administered during infancy. For this analysis, age at menarche was assessed using questionnaires administered approximately annually between ages 8 and 14.5. Eligible subjects were limited to term, singleton, White females. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at menarche and risk of menarche over the study period. The present analysis included 2920 girls. Approximately 2% of mothers reported that soy products were introduced into the infant diet at or before 4 months of age (early soy). The median age at menarche [interquartile range (IQR)] in the study sample was 153 months [144-163], approximately 12.8 years. The median age at menarche among early soy-fed girls was 149 months (12.4 years) [IQR, 140-159]. Compared with girls fed non-soy-based infant formula or milk (early formula), early soy-fed girls were at 25% higher risk of menarche throughout the course of follow-up (hazard ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.71]). Our results also suggest that girls fed soy products in early infancy may have an increased risk of menarche specifically in early adolescence. These findings may be the observable manifestation of mild endocrine-disrupting effects of soy isoflavone exposure. However, our study is limited by few soy-exposed subjects and is not designed to assess biological mechanisms. Because soy formula use is common in some populations, this subtle association with menarche warrants more in

  6. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin...... test reactivity to 10 common aeroallergens was measured using standard techniques. Atopic disease was defined as a history of hayfever and/or asthma concomitantly with a positive skin-prick test. Logistic regression showed that parental atopy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1...

  7. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  8. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J; Armstrong, Julie; Dorosty, Ahmad R; Emmett, Pauline M; Ness, A; Rogers, I; Steer, Colin; Sherriff, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related risk factors for obesity. Main outcome measures Obesity at age 7 years, defined as a body mass index 3 95th centile relative to reference data for the UK population in 1990. Results Eight of 25 putative risk factors were associated with a risk of obesity in the final models: parental obesity (both parents: adjusted odds ratio, 10.44, 95% confidence interval 5.11 to 21.32), very early (by 43 months) body mass index or adiposity rebound (15.00, 5.32 to 42.30), more than eight hours spent watching television per week at age 3 years (1.55, 1.13 to 2.12), catch-up growth (2.60, 1.09 to 6.16), standard deviation score for weight at age 8 months (3.13, 1.43 to 6.85) and 18 months (2.65, 1.25 to 5.59); weight gain in first year (1.06, 1.02 to 1.10 per 100 g increase); birth weight, per 100 g (1.05, 1.03 to 1.07); and short (< 10.5 hours) sleep duration at age 3 years (1.45, 1.10 to 1.89). Conclusion Eight factors in early life are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood. PMID:15908441

  9. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila eLoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats showed a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age-and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

  11. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2017-01-07

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Elie; Milone, Margherita

    2017-11-01

    Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency as a predominant feature of the clinical phenotype are uncommon and underestimated in adults. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of patients with hereditary myopathies who demonstrated early respiratory insufficiency before the need for ambulatory assistance. Only patients with disease-causing mutations or a specific histopathological diagnosis were included. Patients with cardiomyopathy were excluded. We identified 22 patients; half had isolated respiratory symptoms at onset. The diagnosis of the myopathy was often delayed, resulting in delayed ventilatory support. The most common myopathies were adult-onset Pompe disease, myofibrillar myopathy, multi-minicore disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Single cases of laminopathy, MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike events), centronuclear myopathy, and cytoplasmic body myopathy were identified. We highlighted the most common hereditary myopathies associated with early respiratory insufficiency as the predominant clinical feature, and underscored the importance of a timely diagnosis for patient care. Muscle Nerve 56: 881-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, J; Zandveld, J; Mulder, M; Brakefield, P M; Kirkwood, T B L; Shanley, D P; Zwaan, B J

    2014-11-01

    Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these 'yoyo' groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four 'yoyo' fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  15. The Association of Early and Recent Psychosocial Life Stress With Leukocyte Telomere Length

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verhoeven, Josine E; van Oppen, Patricia; Puterman, Eli; Elzinga, Bernet; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is related to worse somatic health. This association applies both to stressors early in life, such as childhood adversities, and more recent life stress, such as stressful life events...

  16. The Association of Early and Recent Psychosocial Life Stress With Leukocyte Telomere Length

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josine E Verhoeven; Patricia van Oppen; Eli Puterman; Bernet Elzinga; Brenda WJH Penninx

    2015-01-01

      Chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is related to worse somatic health. This association applies both to stressors early in life, such as childhood adversities, and more recent life stress, such as stressful life events...

  17. Increased amygdala reactivity following early life stress: a potential resilience enhancer role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Toki, Shigeru; Siegle, Greg J; Takamura, Masahiro; Takaishi, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okada, Go; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Nakao, Takashi; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Kaseda, Yumiko; Murakami, Tsuneji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-18

    Amygdala hyper-reactivity is sometimes assumed to be a vulnerability factor that predates depression; however, in healthy people, who experience early life stress but do not become depressed, it may represent a resilience mechanism. We aimed to test these hypothesis examining whether increased amygdala activity in association with a history of early life stress (ELS) was negatively or positively associated with depressive symptoms and impact of negative life event stress in never-depressed adults. Twenty-four healthy participants completed an individually tailored negative mood induction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment along with evaluation of ELS. Mood change and amygdala reactivity were increased in never-depressed participants who reported ELS compared to participants who reported no ELS. Yet, increased amygdala reactivity lowered effects of ELS on depressive symptoms and negative life events stress. Amygdala reactivity also had positive functional connectivity with the bilateral DLPFC, motor cortex and striatum in people with ELS during sad memory recall. Increased amygdala activity in those with ELS was associated with decreased symptoms and increased neural features, consistent with emotion regulation, suggesting that preservation of robust amygdala reactions may reflect a stress buffering or resilience enhancing factor against depression and negative stressful events.

  18. Mifepristone Treatment during Early Adolescence Fails to Restore Maternal Deprivation-Induced Deficits in Behavioral Inhibition of Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Joëls, Marian; van der Veen, Rixt

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has a profound impact on brain development and later life health. Animal models have provided insight how early life stress programs stress responsiveness and might contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, the long-term effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on behavioral inhibition and attention were examined in adult male Wistar rats. To this end animals were tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice SRTT). We also explored the potential of a 3-day treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone during early adolescence to normalize putative behavioral effects of early life stress. Deprivation of the mother for 24 h on postnatal day (PND) 3 led to a modest but significant increase in premature responses in the 5-choice SRTT, but did not affect measures of attention. Body weight was lower in deprived animals from weaning until the start of testing. Early adolescent mifepristone treatment (PND 26-28) did not influence performance on the 5-choice SRTT and did not mitigate the deprivation-related impairment in behavioral inhibition. Our results indicate that MD leads to impaired behavioral inhibition, and that mifepristone treatment during early adolescence does not normalize the behavioral changes caused by early life stress.

  19. Food-Related Symptoms and Food Allergy in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Vetander, Mirja; Kull, Inger; Hedlin, Gunilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Bergström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for persistence of food-related symptoms (FRS) and food allergy (FA) from early life to adolescence are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for FRS and FA in adolescence amongst children with FRS or FA in the first four years of life (early life). In children enrolled in a Swedish birth cohort and followed to 16 years (n = 2572), we defined children with early life FRS in the absence of FA, and FA. Corresponding phenotypes were defined at 16 years. Associations between potential risk factors at 4 years and FRS and FA at 16 years were investigated using logistic regression. Early life FRS and FA prevalences were 12.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Amongst children with early life FRS, 35.7% had FRS or FA at 16 years, whereas 74.3% of the children with early life FA had FA at 16 years. For each of the early life phenotypes, parental allergy, early life allergic multimorbidity, early life reactions to peanuts/tree nuts and IgE reactivity at 4 years were statistically significantly associated with FRS or FA at 16 years. In contrast, male sex was associated with an increased risk of FA at 16 years among children with early life FA only. In early life, food-related symptoms are twice as common as food allergy. Unlike food allergy, food-related symptoms often remit by adolescence. Yet, these phenotypes have many common risk factors for persistence to adolescence.

  20. Individual differences in personality change across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaba, Ted; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2017-05-16

    A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the life span is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into 14 age groups (ages 16-84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Across the adult life span, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For Emotional Stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the life span. These results inform theories of life span development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seico eBenner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED, and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior.

  2. Operationalisation of quality of life for adults with severe disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, L E; Arias, B; Verdugo, M Á; Tassé, M J; Brown, I

    2015-10-01

    The operationalisation of quality of life for people with more severe disabilities has been acknowledged in the published research for more than two decades. This study aims to contribute to our knowledge and understanding of the quality of life of adults with severe disabilities by developing a set of quality of life indicators appropriate to this population using a Delphi method and the eight-domain conceptual model proposed by Schalock & Verdugo (2002). The participating panel in the Delphi method included 12 experts who evaluated each proposed item according to four criteria: suitability, importance, observability and sensitivity. Descriptive analyses were used to select the best items in each of the four rounds of this Delphi study, as well as examining the coefficients of concordance that were calculated for the final pool of items. The four rounds of the Delphi study resulted in a final pool of 118 items (91 that were considered valid in the first round plus 27 items proposed, reformulated or discussed in the following rounds). Importance and sensitivity were the criteria that received the highest and lowest ratings, respectively, but also the ones that had the highest and lowest mean coefficients of concordance. Experts showed the strongest agreement for items related to material well-being, while the weakest was found for items related to personal development. This study further contributes to our understanding of how to operationalise and measure quality of life in adults with severe disabilities. The item pool generated may prove helpful in the development of instruments for the measurement of quality of life-related outcomes in this population. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early Life Fructose Exposure and Its Implications for Long-Term Cardiometabolic Health in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly clear that maternal nutrition can strongly influence the susceptibility of adult offspring to cardiometabolic disease. For decades, it has been thought that excessive intake of fructose, such as sugar-sweetened beverages and foods, has been linked to increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in various populations. These deleterious effects of excess fructose consumption in adults are well researched, but limited data are available on the long-term effects of high fructose exposure during gestation, lactation, and infancy. This review aims to examine the evidence linking early life fructose exposure during critical periods of development and its implications for long-term cardiometabolic health in offspring.

  4. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  5. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  6. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p noise sensitivity (p anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  7. Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Winkens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic developmental processes during pregnancy, infancy, childhood and adolescence, exposure to PFASs is hypothesized to have the most pronounced negative effects during this period. In this review we critically evaluate the current state of the science regarding human early life exposure processes (until 18 years of age to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. Efficient placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs results in relatively high prenatal exposure compared with many neutral organic contaminants. The few biomonitoring studies that specifically target infants, toddlers and other children suggest relatively high serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA in early life with peak concentrations occurring sometime before the child reaches 20 months. This peak in serum concentrations is most likely explained by exposure via breastfeeding, ingestion of house dust and/or specific contact events with consumer products leading to high body weight normalized estimated daily intakes (EDIs. Although children have higher EDIs of PFASs than adults, these are not always reflected by higher serum levels of PFASs in children in cross-sectional biomonitoring studies due to the confounding effect of age and birth cohort, and different exposure histories due to production changes. Longitudinal exposure studies measuring internal and external exposure (for multiple pathways and PFASs at several time points during early life are strongly encouraged to understand temporal changes in exposure of individual children. A better quantitative understanding of early life exposure processes would help to improve the validity of epidemiological studies and allow informed decisions regarding setting of regulatory thresholds and appropriate mitigation actions.

  8. Early memories in young adults from separated and non-separated families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Federica; Reese, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Two studies investigated the earliest memories of New Zealand European young adults (N = 80, Study 1 and N = 120, Study 2) from separated and non-separated families. Participants' earliest memories were assessed for age, for density (how far apart the memories were, Study 2) and for narrative coherence of the memories. Questionnaires were designed to investigate the role of changes in family structure, for example, in the number of adults in the participants' households and the timing of the parental separation. Study 2 further investigated stress and painful divorce-related feelings as additional variables in adjustment after divorce. No overall differences in age of earliest memory emerged between young adults from separated and non-separated parents. Within the group from separated parents, however, memories were earlier when parents separated early in the child's life (early childhood (Study 2). Participants from separated families reported earlier but sparser memories when they reported higher levels of stress and painful feelings about the separation. The development of early autobiographical memories and the offset of childhood amnesia are discussed via transition and social interaction theories of autobiographical memory.

  9. Errors in the Production of Adult Early and Late Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the grammatical knowledge of adult second language (L2 learners and heritage speakers. Given the differences in the mode and age of acquisition between L2 learners (late bilinguals and heritage speakers (early bilinguals, the question arises as to whether and how these groups differ from each other in their knowledge of Korean. To address this question, the present study looks at the production of Korean relative clauses by three groups of learners (26 L2 learners, 11 simultaneous bilinguals, and 38 early sequential bilinguals. The results of a written production task showed that all three groups made similar types of errors such as those involving the use of incorrect word order and case markers. Yet differences were also observed in the nature of errors made by these three groups. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications are drawn for classroom instruction.

  10. Effectiveness of Positive Psychology Group Interventions on Meaning of Life and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kashaniyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological changes impact the psychological and interpersonal function in late life. Therefore, the general health and well-being diminish with decreasing the ages. These changes lead to decreasing life satisfaction and meaning of life in elderly individuals. The aim of study is to examine the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions (PPIs on meaning of life and life satisfaction among older adults. Methods: This study is quasi-experimental with pre and post-tests. Thirty elderly residents were selected from Tohid nursing home in Tehran in 2015. The participants were assigned randomly to the control (15 subjects with mean’s age 74.66 ± 6.62 and experimental groups (15 subjects with mean’s age 76.73± 9.45. PPIs were conducted during 10 sessions (each 90 minutes per week. Then the questionnaire was administered at post-test. Statistical analysis was conducted using Paired Samples T-test and Analysis of Covariance. The research instruments were the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Results: There was a significant difference between the pretest and post-test scores of meaning of  life (t= 3.85 and life satisfaction (t= 4.10 in the experimental group (p < 0.05. Also, there was significant difference between means of meaning of life (F= 19.88 and life satisfaction (F= 18.72 by eliminating the pretest effect (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The finding emphasized that PPIs is a kind of psychotherapy that addresses strengths, resources, values and hopes instead of deficits and weaknesses. Hence, it could be considered in therapeutic intervention to enhance the component of well-being as life satisfaction and  meaning of life. health improvement. On the other hand understanding of relationship between type of leisure activities and mental health, provides evidence for policy makers and health care planners to offer and facilitate a context in

  11. Early life precursors, epigenetics, and the development of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-09-01

    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of nongenetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birth weight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the interrelationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations, and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA.

  12. Early Life Origins of Obesity and Related Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2017-12-16

    The idea that nutrition in early life (such as before conception, during pregnancy and in infancy) can influence, or programme, long-term health, known as the 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis', has generated great scientific interest. This concept is particularly relevant for the development of obesity and its complications, arguably the most important public health issue of the twenty-first century worldwide. The concept is strongly supported by evidence from animal studies, both observational and experimental (randomised) studies in humans, and is highly relevant for population health in both low-income and high-incomes countries. For instance, optimising nutrition in pregnancy (both in terms of under-nutrition and over-nutrition) and preventing too fast infant weight gain have been shown to reduce the risk of future obesity. Proposed mechanisms have included effects of early nutrition on the epigenome, hormones such as insulin, and regulation of appetite, that effect long-term risk of obesity. Although further data from experimental studies is required to support a causal link between early nutrition and future adiposity, the developmental origins hypothesis is already changing health policy and practice globally. The present review considers the evidence for the developmental origins of obesity, the mechanisms involved, and the implications for public health.

  13. The stepwise evolution of early life driven by energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, James G; House, Christopher H

    2006-06-01

    Two main theories have emerged for the origin and early evolution of life based on heterotrophic versus chemoautotrophic metabolisms. With the exception of a role for CO, the theories have little common ground. Here we propose an alternative theory for the early evolution of the cell which combines principal features of the widely disparate theories. The theory is based on the extant pathway for conversion of CO to methane and acetate, largely deduced from the genomic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. In contrast to current paradigms, we propose that an energy-conservation pathway was the major force which powered and directed the early evolution of the cell. We envision the proposed primitive energy-conservation pathway to have developed sometime after a period of chemical evolution but prior to the establishment of diverse protein-based anaerobic metabolisms. We further propose that energy conservation played the predominant role in the later evolution of anaerobic metabolisms which explains the origin and evolution of extant methanogenic pathways.

  14. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Keesom

    Full Text Available Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male ("mixed" pairs. Vocal behavior (USVs and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence.

  15. TRANSIENT EARLY-LIFE FOREBRAIN CRH ELEVATION CAUSES LONG LASTING ANXIOGENIC AND DESPAIR-LIKE CHANGES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Benedict J.; Boyle, Maureen P.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Kelley, Crystal L.; Onwuzurike, Chiamaka C.; Nettles, Sabin; Vogt, Sherri K.; Muglia, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    During development, early-life stress, such as abuse or trauma, induces long-lasting changes that are linked to adult anxiety and depressive behavior. It has been postulated that altered expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can at least partially account for the various effects of stress on behavior. In accord with this hypothesis, evidence from pharmacological and genetic studies has indicated the capacity of differing levels of CRH activity in different brain areas to produce behavioral changes. Furthermore, stress during early life or adulthood causes an increase in CRH release in a variety of neural sites. To evaluate the temporal and spatial specificity of the effect of early-life CRH exposure on adult behavior, the tetracycline-off system was used to produce mice with forebrain-restricted inducible expression of CRH (FBCRHOE). After transient elevation of CRH during development only, behavioral testing in adult mice revealed a persistent anxiogenic and despair-like phenotype. These behavioral changes were not associated with alterations in adult circadian or stress-induced corticosterone release but were associated with changes in CRH receptor type 1 expression. Furthermore, the despair-like changes were normalized with antidepressant treatment. Overall, these studies suggest that forebrain-restricted CRH signaling during development can permanently alter stress adaptation leading to increases in maladaptive behavior in adulthood. PMID:20164342

  16. Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants

  17. Retrospective life course data from European countries on how early life experiences determine health in old age and possible mid-life mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduwin Pakpahan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is related to the research paper entitled “The long arm of childhood circumstances on health in old age: Evidence from SHARELIFE” (E. Pakpahan, R. Hoffmann, H. Kröger, 2016 [1]. It presents the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES and health from childhood until old age in thirteen European countries. In order to capture the characteristics of longitudinal data, which resembles life course data, we divide the data into three schematic periods: childhood (up to 15 years old, adulthood (30 to 60 years old, and old age (61 to 90 years old. This data set contains respondents’ life histories, ranging from childhood conditions (such as housing and health to detailed questions on education, adult SES (working history, income, and wealth and old age health. The data can be used not only to understand on how early life experiences determine health in old age, but also to recognise the importance of possible mid-life mediators.

  18. The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delpierre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifecourse studies suggest that the metabolic syndrome (MetS may be rooted in the early life environment. This study aims to examine the pathways linking early nutritional and psychosocial exposures and the presence of MetS in midlife. Methods Data are from the National Child Development Study including individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain and followed-up until now. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Mother’s pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy of the early nutritional environment and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE as a proxy for early psychosocial stress. Socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions were extracted as potential confounders. Adult health behaviors, BMI, socioeconomic environment and psychological state were considered as mediating variables. Multivariate models were performed by including variables sequentially taking a lifecourse approach. Results 37.5 % of men and 19.8 % of women had MetS. Participants with an obese/overweight mother presented a higher risk of MetS than those whose mother had a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Men exposed to two ACE or more, and women exposed to one ACE, were more at risk of MetS compared to unexposed individuals. After including confounders and mediators, mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI was still associated with MetS in midlife but the association was weakened after including participant’s adult BMI. ACE was no longer associated with MetS after including confounders in models. Conclusions The early nutritional environment, represented by mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI, was associated with the risk of MetS in midlife. An important mechanism involves a mother-to-child BMI transmission, independent of birth or perinatal conditions, socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors over the lifecourse. However this mechanism is not sufficient for

  19. The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, C; Fantin, R; Barboza-Solis, C; Lepage, B; Darnaudéry, M; Kelly-Irving, M

    2016-08-18

    Lifecourse studies suggest that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be rooted in the early life environment. This study aims to examine the pathways linking early nutritional and psychosocial exposures and the presence of MetS in midlife. Data are from the National Child Development Study including individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain and followed-up until now. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was used as a proxy of the early nutritional environment and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) as a proxy for early psychosocial stress. Socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions were extracted as potential confounders. Adult health behaviors, BMI, socioeconomic environment and psychological state were considered as mediating variables. Multivariate models were performed by including variables sequentially taking a lifecourse approach. 37.5 % of men and 19.8 % of women had MetS. Participants with an obese/overweight mother presented a higher risk of MetS than those whose mother had a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Men exposed to two ACE or more, and women exposed to one ACE, were more at risk of MetS compared to unexposed individuals. After including confounders and mediators, mother's pre-pregnancy BMI was still associated with MetS in midlife but the association was weakened after including participant's adult BMI. ACE was no longer associated with MetS after including confounders in models. The early nutritional environment, represented by mother's pre-pregnancy BMI, was associated with the risk of MetS in midlife. An important mechanism involves a mother-to-child BMI transmission, independent of birth or perinatal conditions, socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors over the lifecourse. However this mechanism is not sufficient for explaining the influence of mother's pre-pregnancy BMI which implies the

  20. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A. Mwanyangala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.

  1. Factors predicting life-threatening infections with respiratory syncytial virus in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Yoon; Kim, Taeeun; Jang, Young Rock; Kim, Min-Chul; Chong, Yong Pil; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of acute respiratory illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from self-limiting upper respiratory infection to severe lower respiratory infection in elderly persons as well as young children. However, there are limited data on risk factors for life-threatening infections that could guide the appropriate use of antiviral agents in adult patients with RSV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from October 2013 to September 2015. Adult patients with RSV who visited the emergency department were enrolled. Primary outcome was life-threatening infection (admission to intensive care unit, need for ventilator care or in-hospital death). A total of 227 patients were analysed. Thirty-four (15%) were classified as having life-threatening infections. By logistic regression, lower respiratory infection, chronic lung disease and bacterial co-infection were independent predictors of life-threatening infections. We developed a simple clinical scoring system using these variables (lower respiratory tract infection = score 4, chronic respiratory disease = score 3, bacterial co-infection = score 3 and fever ≥38 °C = score 2) to predict life-threatening infection. A score of >5 differentiated life-threatening RSV from non-life-threatening RSV with 82% sensitivity (95% CI, 66-93) and 72% specificity (95% CI, 65-78). The use of a clinical scoring system based on lower respiratory infection, chronic respiratory disease, bacterial co-infection and fever appears to be useful for outcome prediction and risk stratification in order to select patients who may need early antiviral therapy.

  2. Early-life metal exposure and schizophrenia: A proof-of-concept study using novel tooth-matrix biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabbernia, A; Velthorst, E; Gennings, C; De Haan, L; Austin, C; Sutterland, A; Mollon, J; Frangou, S; Wright, R; Arora, M; Reichenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    Despite evidence for the effects of metals on neurodevelopment, the long-term effects on mental health remain unclear due to methodological limitations. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of studying metal exposure during critical neurodevelopmental periods and to explore the association between early-life metal exposure and adult schizophrenia. We analyzed childhood-shed teeth from nine individuals with schizophrenia and five healthy controls. We investigated the association between exposure to lead (Pb(2+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and zinc (Zn(2+)), and schizophrenia, psychotic experiences, and intelligence quotient (IQ). We reconstructed the dose and timing of early-life metal exposures using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We found higher early-life Pb(2+) exposure among patients with schizophrenia than controls. The differences in log Mn(2+) and log Cu(2+) changed relatively linearly over time to postnatal negative values. There was a positive correlation between early-life Pb(2+) levels and psychotic experiences in adulthood. Moreover, we found a negative correlation between Pb(2+) levels and adult IQ. In our proof-of-concept study, using tooth-matrix biomarker that provides direct measurement of exposure in the fetus and newborn, we provide support for the role of metal exposure during critical neurodevelopmental periods in psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1......Increasing pressure to the environment due to human activities manifests the necessity of applying new approaches to determine the environmental impact of a new product before scale-up. Nanoadsorbents as an emerging product and a special application of nanomaterial play an important role...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  4. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  5. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    ). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...... of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples...

  6. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  7. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  8. Misregulated inflammation as an outcome of early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietert, Rodney R

    2012-01-01

    This review introduces a potential unifying concept involving the risk of chronic diseases in which early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can program host responses for misregulated inflammation. Inflammation is a part of host defense against pathogenic challenges and one of the processes necessary for normal tissue homeoregulation and for reproduction (e.g., implantation, labor). Deviations from tightly regulated inflammation present a significant health risk because unresolved inflammation can compromise tissue function and increase the risk for later-life cancer in the affected target tissue. The critical windows of innate immune vulnerability during prenatal and neonatal maturation are when developmental programming and the trajectory for childhood and adult inflammatory responses are largely established. Misregulated inflammation is a common thread that links most significant chronic diseases and conditions across all physiologic systems as well as the associated comorbid conditions. As a result, chronic diseases exist both as a myriad of conditions and as an integrated, dysfunctionally connected unit. Because the hormone microenvironment exerts a significant effect on resident innate immune cell function, endocrine disruption is likely to produce misregulated inflammation in tissues. Among the factors determining specific health risks and disease outcomes across a lifetime are the age of exposure, sex, genetic background, and transgenerational epigenetic experiences. Additional research into early-life EDC exposure and misregulation of inflammation appears to be a useful avenue for reducing environmental health risks.

  9. Tolerance and immunity to pathogens in early life: insights from HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Michelle; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Immunity is not static but varies with age. The immune system of a newborn infant is not "defective" or "immature." Rather, there are distinct features of innate and adaptive immunity from fetal life to adulthood, which may alter the susceptibility of newborn infants to infections compared to adults. Increased protection to certain infectious diseases during early life may benefit from a dampened immune response as a result of decreased immune pathology. This concept may offer an alternative interpretation of the different pathological manifestations clinically observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients during the natural history of infection. Herein, we review the immune pathological features of HBV infection from early life to adulthood and challenge the concept of a generic immune tolerant state in young people. We then discuss how the different clinical and virological manifestations during HBV infection may be related to the differential antiviral immunity and pro-inflammatory capacity generated at different ages. Lastly, we address the potential to consider earlier therapeutic intervention in HBV-infected young patients to achieve effective immune control leading to better outcomes.

  10. Proinflammatory T Cell Status Associated with Early Life Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Hengesch, Xenia; Leenen, Fleur A D; Schritz, Anna; Sias, Krystel; Schaan, Violetta K; Mériaux, Sophie B; Schmitz, Stephanie; Bonnemberger, Fanny; Schächinger, Hartmut; Vögele, Claus; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2017-12-15

    Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired cellular immunity, and immunosenescence. However, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. Additionally, stress systems and health behaviors are altered in ELA, which may contribute to the generation of the ELA immune phenotype. The present investigation tested cell-specific immune differences in relationship to the ELA immune phenotype, altered stress parameters, and health behaviors in individuals with ELA (n = 42) and those without a history of ELA (control, n = 73). Relative number and activation status (CD25, CD69, HLA-DR, CD11a, CD11b) of monocytes, NK cells, B cells, T cells, and their main subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. ELA was associated with significantly reduced numbers of CD69+CD8+ T cells (p = 0.022), increased numbers of HLA-DR+ CD4 and HLA-DR+ CD8 T cells (p ELA also showed a trend toward higher numbers of CCR4+CXCR3-CCR6+ CD4 T cells. Taken together, our data suggest an elevated state of immune activation in ELA, in which particularly T cells are affected. Although several aspects of the ELA immune phenotype were related to increased activation markers, neither stress nor health-risk behaviors explained the observed group differences. Thus, the state of immune activation in ELA does not seem to be secondary to alterations in the stress system or health-risk behaviors, but rather a primary effect of early life programming on immune cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  13. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Reynolds

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  14. Thyroid Function during Early Life and Dental Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, S; Korevaar, T I M; Dhamo, B; Jaddoe, V W V; Peeters, R P; Wolvius, E B; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2017-08-01

    the early stages of life onward.

  15. Life's utilization of B vitamins on early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, D R; Gómez-Consarnau, L; Suffridge, C; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S A

    2017-01-01

    Coenzymes are essential across all domains of life. B vitamins (B1 -thiamin, B2 -riboflavin, B3 -niacin, B5 -pantothenate, B6 -pyridoxine, B7 -biotin, and B12 -cobalamin) represent the largest class of coenzymes, which participate in a diverse set of reactions including C1 -rearrangements, DNA repair, electron transfer, and fatty acid synthesis. B vitamin structures range from simple to complex heterocycles, yet, despite this complexity, multiple lines of evidence exist for their ancient origins including abiotic synthesis under putative early Earth conditions and/or meteorite transport. Thus, some of these critical coenzymes likely preceded life on Earth. Some modern organisms can synthesize their own B vitamins de novo while others must either scavenge them from the environment or establish a symbiotic relationship with a B vitamin producer. B vitamin requirements are widespread in some of the most ancient metabolisms including all six carbon fixation pathways, sulfate reduction, sulfur disproportionation, methanogenesis, acetogenesis, and photosynthesis. Understanding modern metabolic B vitamin requirements is critical for understanding the evolutionary conditions of ancient metabolisms as well as the biogeochemical cycling of critical elements such as S, C, and O. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quality of life amongst young adults with stroke living in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Abstract. Background: The world has been experiencing an increase of stroke among young adults. Occurrence of stroke in young adults dramatically affects the quality of life of the individuals. Objectives: To investigate the quality of life amongst young adults who experienced a stroke living in Kenya.

  17. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  18. A Study on Body Image, Sexual Quality of Life, Depression, and Quality of Life in Middle-aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Sun; Kang, Sook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations of body image, sexual quality of life (SQOL), depression, and quality of life, and to identify the influencing factors on quality of life of middle-aged adults in the community. Methods: The participants of this study were 367 middle-aged adults. Data were collected through personal interviews using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation...

  19. Purpose in Life and Positive Health Outcomes Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musich, Shirley; Wang, Shaohung S; Kraemer, Sandra; Hawkins, Kevin; Wicker, Ellen

    2017-07-05

    Purpose in life (PIL) is conceptualized as having goals, a sense of direction, and a feeling that there is meaning to present and past life. PIL has been associated with positive health outcomes among older adults, including fewer chronic conditions, less disability, and reduced mortality. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of PIL among AARP Medicare Supplement insureds, identify associated characteristics, and measure impact on selected health outcomes. In 2016, surveys were sent to a random stratified sample; PIL was measured using a 7-item scale with 5 responses. Scores were averaged across responses and categorized to PIL levels of low, medium, and high. Survey responses were weighted to adjust for nonresponse bias and to weight to a nationally representative population. Multivariate regression models, adjusting for confounding covariates, were utilized to determine characteristics associated with PIL levels and the impact on health care utilization and expenditures, preventive services compliance and quality of life (QOL). Among weighted survey respondents (N = 15,680), low, medium, and high PIL levels were 24.2%, 21.1%, and 54.7%, respectively. The strongest characteristics of medium and high PIL included social support, resilience, reliance on faith, high health literacy, and good health status. Individuals with medium and high PIL had significantly lower health care utilization and expenditures, increased preventive services compliance, and higher QOL. PIL is strongly associated with improved mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. Thus, interventions to improve and/or maintain higher levels of PIL over time may promote successful aging.

  20. Quality of life in the Iranian adults with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Mansoureh; Pourpak, Zahra; Khalesi, Mojtaba; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Sharifi, Laleh; Souzanchi, Golnoosh; Movahedi, Masoud; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Mahlooji, Maryam; Moin, Mostafa

    2012-12-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common global health problem with approximately one quarter of the world population affected. The quality of life (QOL) of sufferers with AR is significantly affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the QOL of adults with AR. This study was designed for adults with AR above 18 years old. The study was conducted using a valid Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaires (RQLQ) which was completed for each patient during clinic visit and analyzed by applying statistical methods. One-hundred and ten AR patients participated in this study. Mean age of these patients was 32 years old and 62% were female. The correlation between severity of AR and QOL impairment was significant. Frequencies of mild persistent, moderate-severe persistent, mild intermittent and moderate-severe intermittent types of AR were 18%, 34.5%, 9% and 38%, respectively. Completed RQLQ indicated that about 55% of the cases were suffering from severe disturbances in their QOL. Furthermore, congestion (88%) was the most common symptom. The correlation between congestion and QOL reduction was significant. The correlation between congestion and sleep impairment was significant. AR was more common in young as well as female patients and their QOL was affected more than the others. The results showed a good relevancy between severity of symptoms and QOL scores. Consisting with ARIA classification, it was found that reduction in the quality of life is higher in patients with moderate-severe intermittent and persistent asthma. Nasal congestion was a bothersome and prevalent symptom in AR that was responsible for sleep problems. Therefore, nasal congestion was associated with sleep-disordered breathing, nocturnal sleep impairment, day time fatigue and somnolence which finally lead to QOL impairment.

  1. Programming of hippocampal structure and function by early-life stress: Opportunities for nutritional intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life is a critical developmental phase during which brain structure and function are shaped 'for life'. When early-life is disturbed by stress-exposure, this lastingly programs our brains and is associated with impaired cognition and predisposition to psychopathology in adulthood.

  2. Early Life Nutrition, Growth and Kidney Function in Children : the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Miliku (Kozeta)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, we examined early life determinants of growth and childhood kidney function.Adverse environmental exposures during early life may lead to fetal growth adaptations and influence on the development of chronic kidney disease in later life,as indicated by many lines of

  3. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  4. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  5. Early predictors of suicidal ideation in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Erika; Low, Nancy C P; Rodriguez, Daniel; Burrows, Stephanie; Contreras, Gisèle; Chaiton, Michael; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    To identify early predictors of suicidal ideation in young adults, and to determine when specific time-varying determinants become important in predicting later suicidal ideation. Data were available for 877 participants in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens study, an ongoing prospective cohort of students aged 12 to 13 years at cohort inception in 1999. Time-invariant covariates included age, sex, mother's education, language, and self-esteem. Time-varying covariates included depression symptoms, family stress, other stress, alcohol use, cigarette use, and team sports. Independent predictors of past-year suicidal ideation at age 20 years were identified in 5 multivariable logistic regression analyses, one for each of grades 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. Eight per cent of participants (mean age 20.4 years [SD 0.7]; 46% male) reported suicidal ideation in the past year. In grade 7, none of the potential predictor variables were statistically significantly associated with suicidal ideation. In grade 8, participation in sports teams in and (or) outside of school protected against suicidal ideation (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8; P = 0.002). Depression symptoms in grades 9, 10, and 11 were independent predictors of suicidal ideation (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2, OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5, and OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.4, respectively). No other variables were statistically significant in the multivariate models. Depression symptoms as early as in grade 9 predict suicidal ideation in early adulthood. It is possible that early detection and treatment of depression symptoms are warranted as part of suicide prevention programs.

  6. The effect of early-life education on later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A; Hsu, Yu-Chieh; Taylor, Lowell J

    2015-12-01

    Many studies link cross-state variation in compulsory schooling laws to early-life educational attainment, thereby providing a plausible way to investigate the causal impact of education on various lifetime outcomes. We use this strategy to estimate the effect of education on older-age mortality of individuals born in the early twentieth century U.S. Our key innovation is to combine U.S. Census data and the complete Vital Statistics records to form precise mortality estimates by sex, birth cohort, and birth state. In turn we find that virtually all of the variation in these mortality rates is captured by cohort effects and state effects alone, making it impossible to reliably tease out any additional impact due to changing educational attainment induced by state-level changes in compulsory schooling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  8. Health Literacy: Cancer Prevention Strategies for Early Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-01

    Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Stimulator of Interferon Genes As a Robust Adjuvant Target for Early Life Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Borriello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunization is key to preventing infectious diseases, a leading cause of death early in life. However, due to age-specific immunity, vaccines often demonstrate reduced efficacy in newborns and young infants as compared to adults. Here, we combined in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify adjuvant candidates for early life immunization. We employed newborn and adult bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs to perform a screening of pattern recognition receptor agonists and found that the stimulator of interferon genes ligand 2′3′-cGAMP (hereafter cGAMP induces a comparable expression of surface maturation markers in newborn and adult BMDCs. Then, we utilized the trivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA influenza vaccine, Flublok, as a model antigen to investigate the role of cGAMP in adult and early life immunization. cGAMP adjuvantation alone could increase rHA-specific antibody titers in adult but not newborn mice. Remarkably, as compared to alum or cGAMP alone, immunization with cGAMP formulated with alum (Alhydrogel enhanced newborn rHA-specific IgG2a/c titers ~400-fold, an antibody subclass associated with the development of IFNγ-driven type 1 immunity in vivo and endowed with higher effector functions, by 42 days of life. Highlighting the amenability for successful vaccine formulation and delivery, we next confirmed that cGAMP adsorbs onto alum in vitro. Accordingly, immunization early in life with (cGAMP+alum promoted IFNγ production by CD4+ T cells and increased the proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+ CXCR5+ PD-1+ T follicular helper and germinal center (GC GL-7+ CD138+ B cells, suggesting an enhancement of the GC reaction. Adjuvantation effects were apparently specific for IgG2a/c isotype switching without effect on antibody affinity maturation, as there was no effect on rHA-specific IgG avidity. Overall, our studies suggest that cGAMP when formulated with alum may represent an effective adjuvantation system to foster

  10. The Relationship Between Early Life Events, Parental Attachment, and Psychopathic Tendencies in Adolescent Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Erica J; Meltzer, Christine L; Thede, Linda L; Kosson, David S

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in understanding psychopathic traits in youth, the role of early environmental factors in the development of psychopathic traits is not well understood. No prior studies have directly examined the relationship between early life events and psychopathic traits. We examined links between life events in the first 4 years of life and indices of the core affective and interpersonal components of psychopathy. Additionally, we examined relationships between early life events, psychopathic traits, and attachment to parents among 206 adjudicated adolescents. Results indicated that the total number of early life events was positively correlated with indices of the affective component of psychopathy. Moreover, psychopathic traits moderated the relationship between the number of early life events and later reports of attachment to parents. Findings suggest that early environmental factors could have important implications for the development of psychopathic traits and may impact attachment to parents for youth with psychopathic traits.

  11. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  12. Effects of early-life environment and epigenetics on cardiovascular disease risk in children: highlighting the role of twin studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Burgner, David P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Saffery, Richard; Huang, Rae-Chi; Vuillermin, Peter J; Cheung, Michael; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and originates in early life. The exact mechanisms of this early-life origin are unclear, but a likely mediator at the molecular level is epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression. Epigenetic factors have thus been posited as the likely drivers of early-life programming of adult-onset diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in epidemiology and epigenetic research of CVD risk in children, with a particular focus on twin studies. Classic twin studies enable partitioning of phenotypic variance within a population into additive genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental variances, and are invaluable in research in this area. Longitudinal cohort twin studies, in particular, may provide important insights into the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of CVD. We describe candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of CVD, and discuss the potential for evidence-based interventions. Identifying epigenetic changes associated with CVD-risk biomarkers in children will provide new opportunities to unravel the underlying biological mechanism of the origins of CVD and enable identification of those at risk for early-life interventions to alter the risk trajectory and potentially reduce CVD incidence later in life.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Early Versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Serena P.; Bang, Heejung; Severe, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Ambroise, Alex; Edwards, Alison; Hippolyte, Jessica; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; McGreevy, Jolion; Riviere, Cynthia; Marcelin, Serge; Secours, Rode; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Background In a randomized clinical trial of early versus standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 in Haiti, early ART decreased mortality by 75%. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of early versus standard ART in this trial. Methods and Findings Trial data included use of ART and other medications, laboratory tests, outpatient visits, radiographic studies, procedures, and hospital services. Medication, laboratory, radiograph, labor, and overhead costs were from the study clinic, and hospital and procedure costs were from local providers. We evaluated cost per year of life saved (YLS), including patient and caregiver costs, with a median of 21 months and maximum of 36 months of follow-up, and with costs and life expectancy discounted at 3% per annum. Between 2005 and 2008, 816 participants were enrolled and followed for a median of 21 months. Mean total costs per patient during the trial were US$1,381 for early ART and US$1,033 for standard ART. After excluding research-related laboratory tests without clinical benefit, costs were US$1,158 (early ART) and US$979 (standard ART). Early ART patients had higher mean costs for ART (US$398 versus US$81) but lower costs for non-ART medications, CD4 cell counts, clinically indicated tests, and radiographs (US$275 versus US$384). The cost-effectiveness ratio after a maximum of 3 years for early versus standard ART was US$3,975/YLS (95% CI US$2,129/YLS–US$9,979/YLS) including research-related tests, and US$2,050/YLS excluding research-related tests (95% CI US$722/YLS–US$5,537/YLS). Conclusions Initiating ART in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 in Haiti, consistent with World Health Organization advice, was cost-effective (US$/YLS <3 times gross domestic product per capita) after a maximum of 3 years, after excluding research-related laboratory tests. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00120510 Please see

  14. Causes and consequences of early-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We examine the consequences of child health for economic and health outcomes in adulthood, using height as a marker of childhood health. After reviewing previous evidence, we present a conceptual framework that highlights data limitations and methodological problems that complicate the study of this topic. We then present estimates of the associations between height and a range of outcomes--including schooling, employment, earnings, health, and cognitive ability--measured in five data sets from early to late adulthood. These results indicate that, on average, taller individuals attain higher levels of education. Height is also positively associated with better economic, health, and cognitive outcomes. These associations are only partially explained by the higher average educational attainment of taller individuals. We then use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults survey to document the associations between health, cognitive development, and growth in childhood. Even among children with the same mother, taller siblings score better on cognitive tests and progress through school more quickly. Part of the differences found between siblings arises from differences in their birth weights and lengths attributable to mother's behaviors while pregnant. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that childhood health influences health and economic status throughout adulthood.

  15. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  16. ACTH Prevents Deficits in Fear Extinction Associated with Early Life Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Massey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early life seizures are often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that are detrimental to quality of life. In a rat model of early life seizures (ELS, we explored long-term cognitive outcomes in adult rats. Using ACTH, an endogeneous HPA-axis hormone given to children with severe epilepsy, we sought to prevent cognitive deficits. Through comparisons with dexamethasone, we sought to dissociate the corticosteroid effects of ACTH from other potential mechanisms of action. We found that while rats with a history of ELS were able to acquire a conditioned fear learning paradigm as well as controls, these rats had significant deficits in their ability to extinguish fearful memories. ACTH treatment did not alter any seizure parameters but nevertheless was able to significantly improve this fear extinction, while dexamethasone treatment during the same period did not. This ACTH effect was specific for fear extinction deficits and not for spatial learning deficits in a water maze. Additionally, ACTH did not alter seizure latency or duration suggesting that cognitive and seizure outcomes may be dissociable. Expression levels of melanocortin receptors, which bind ACTH, were found to be significantly lower in animals that had experienced ELS than in control animals, potentially implicating central melanocortin receptor dysregulation in the effects of ELS and suggesting a mechanism of action for ACTH. Taken together, these data suggest that early treatment with ACTH can have significant long-term consequences for cognition in animals with a history of ELS independently of seizure cessation, and may act in part through a CNS melanocortin receptor pathway.

  17. Cellulose Supplementation Early in Life Ameliorates Colitis in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Hollister, Emily B.; Luna, Ruth Ann; Szigeti, Reka; Tatevian, Nina; Smith, C. Wayne; Versalovic, James; Kellermayer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23437211

  18. Early life maltreatment but not lifetime depression predicts insecure attachment in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Reck, Corinna; Mueller, Mitho; Herpertz, Sabine C; Neukel, Corinne; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Fuehrer, Daniel; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Attar, Catherine Hindi; Jaite, Charlotte; Dittrich, Katja; Boedeker, Katja

    2017-08-01

    Early life maltreatment (ELM) poses a risk for the development of insecure attachment and depression over the life span, depending on the type of maltreatment (physical, sexual, emotional, neglect) and its severity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ELM and lifetime depression on adult insecure attachment in a female sample (N = 188), consisting of n = 81 women with ELM and n = 107 without ELM. Women with ELM reported significantly higher scores on insecure attachment than women without ELM. A significant interaction effect for ELM × lifetime depression was found: Contradictory to the hypotheses, women with ELM but without lifetime depression scored highest on avoidant attachment, differing significantly from women with ELM and lifetime depression, even though the severity of ELM was higher among women with ELM and lifetime depression and they experienced significantly more severe neglect and sexual abuse, but not physical or emotional abuse. Regression analyses revealed that ELM was the only predictor of avoidant attachment, explaining 15.5% of the variance. Results underline the strong influence of ELM on adult attachment and are of special importance for prevention and intervention programs.

  19. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    ...://www.neuropsychopharmacologyreviews.org Web End =www.neuropsychopharmacologyreviews.org 99 Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma? [notdef][notdef][notdef...

  20. Early Life Health, Trauma and Social Determinants of Lifetime Abstention from Alcohol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, William C; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K; Williams, Edwina; Lown, E Anne; Lui, Camillia K

    2016-01-01

    .... We evaluate relationships between early life experiences, social factors, and demographic characteristics on lifetime abstainer status in models disaggregating by gender and, among women, race/ethnicity...

  1. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions following early life stress is associated with impaired social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-10-01

    Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. IGF-1 Restores Visual Cortex Plasticity in Adult Life by Reducing Local GABA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system architecture is markedly modified by sensory experience during early life, but a decline of plasticity occurs with age. Recent studies have challenged this dogma providing evidence that both pharmacological treatments and paradigms based on the manipulation of environmental stimulation levels can be successfully employed as strategies for enhancing plasticity in the adult nervous system. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 is a peptide implicated in prenatal and postnatal phases of brain development such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and experience-dependent plasticity. Here, using the visual system as a paradigmatic model, we report that IGF-1 reactivates neural plasticity in the adult brain. Exogenous administration of IGF-1 in the adult visual cortex, indeed, restores the susceptibility of cortical neurons to monocular deprivation and promotes the recovery of normal visual functions in adult amblyopic animals. These effects were accompanied by a marked reduction of intracortical GABA levels. Moreover, we show that a transitory increase of IGF-1 expression is associated to the plasticity reinstatement induced by environmental enrichment (EE and that blocking IGF-1 action by means of the IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB1 prevents EE effects on plasticity processes.

  3. Contribution of Socioeconomic Status at 3 Life-Course Periods to Late-Life Memory Function and Decline: Early and Late Predictors of Dementia Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Jessica R; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M Maria

    2017-10-01

    Both early life and adult socioeconomic status (SES) predict late-life level of memory; however, evidence is mixed on the relationship between SES and rate of memory decline. Further, the relative importance of different life-course periods for rate of late-life memory decline has not been evaluated. We examined associations between life-course SES and late-life memory function and decline. Health and Retirement Study participants (n = 10,781) were interviewed biennially from 1998-2012 (United States). SES measurements for childhood (composite score including parents' educational attainment), early adulthood (high-school or college completion), and older adulthood (income, mean age 66 years) were all dichotomized. Word-list memory was modeled via inverse-probability weighted longitudinal models accounting for differential attrition, survival, and time-varying confounding, with nonrespondents retained via proxy assessments. Compared to low SES at all 3 points (referent), stable, high SES predicted the best memory function and slowest decline. High-school completion had the largest estimated effect on memory (β = 0.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.22), but high late-life income had the largest estimated benefit for slowing declines (for 10-year memory change, β = 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.46). Both early and late-life interventions are potentially relevant for reducing dementia risk by improving memory function or slowing decline. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The effect of rainfall during gestation and early childhood on adult height in a foraging and horticultural society of the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Ricardo; Tanner, Susan; Reyes-García, Victoria; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas W; Vento, Melanie; Broesch, James; Fitzpatrick, Ian C; Giovannini, Peter; Huanca, Tomás

    2008-01-01

    Recent research documents the effects of adverse conditions during gestation and early childhood on growth responses and health throughout life. Most research linking adverse conditions in early life with adult health comes from industrial nations. We know little about the plasticity of growth responses to environmental perturbations early in life among foragers and horticulturalists. Using 2005 data from 211 women and 215 men 20+ years of age from a foraging-horticultural society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we estimate the association between (a) adult height and (b) rainfall amount and variability during three stages in the life cycle: gestation (year 0), birth year (year 1), and years 2-5. We control for confounders such as height of the same-sex parent. Rainfall amount and variability during gestation and birth year bore weak associations with adult height, probably from the protective role of placental physiology and breastfeeding. However, rainfall variability during years 2-5 of life bore a negative association with adult female height. Among women, a 10% increase in the coefficient of variation of rainfall during years 2-5 was associated with 0.7-1.2% lower adult height (1.08-1.93 cm). Environmental perturbations that take place after the cessation of weaning seem to leave the strongest effect on adult height. We advance possible explanations for the absence of effects among males. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth: the EPQ lie-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have noted differences in social acquiescence and interpersonal relations among adults born preterm or with very low birth weight compared to full term adults. In addition, birth weight has been observed to be negatively correlated with lie-scale scores in two studies. We attempted to replicate and extend these studies by examining young adult lie-scale scores in a Danish birth cohort. Weight, length and head circumference of 9125 children from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort were measured at birth and at 1, 3 and 6 years. A subsample comprising 1182 individuals participated in a follow-up at 20-34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for single-mother status, parity, mother's age, father's age, parental social status, age at EPQ measurement, intelligence, and adult size. Male infants with lower weight, length, and head-circumference at birth and the following three years grew up to have higher scores on the lie-scale as young adults. Most of these associations remained significant after adjustment for the included covariates. No associations were found for females. Analyses were also conducted with neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism as outcome variables, but no significant associations were found for these traits after adjustment. The findings replicate and extend findings from previous studies suggesting that size at birth and during the first three years of life is significantly associated with social acquiescence in adult men. They highlight the potential influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development.

  6. Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Flory, Janine D; Pratchett, Laura C; Buxbaum, Joseph; Ising, Marcus; Holsboer, Florian

    2010-10-01

    Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects of the biology of PTSD may reflect biological correlates of risk. This paper will examine how empirical findings regarding the biological basis of ELS can inform our understanding of the neuroendocrinology of PTSD. This paper will also propose a hypothetical model to guide future research that integrates genetic, epigenetic, neuroendocrine, and psychological observations to understand the contribution of ELS neurobiology to PTSD. Recent genetic findings demonstrate heritable aspects of at least some of these cortisol-related disturbances. Furthermore, ELS may produce at least some of the PTSD-associated changes in glucocorticoid responsiveness through epigenetic mechanisms such as developmental programming. These, then, may contribute to enduring changes in stress responsiveness as well as enhanced risk for adult exposure and PTSD. Molecular mechanisms associated with gene x environment interactions or GR programming are essential in explaining current observations in the neuroendocrinology of PTSD that have been difficult to understand through the lens of contemporary stress theory.

  7. Genetic variability in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and body size in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole Elizabeth M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life body size and circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 have been linked to increased risks of breast and other cancers, but it is unclear whether these exposures act through a common mechanism. Previous studies have examined the role of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 genetic variation in relation to adult height and body size, but few studies have examined associations with birthweight and childhood size. Methods We examined whether htSNPs in IGF-1 and the IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 gene region are associated with the self-reported outcomes of birthweight, body fatness at ages 5 and 10, and body mass index (BMI at age 18 among healthy women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS and NHSII. We used ordinal logistic regression to model odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI of a one category increase for birthweight and somatotypes at ages 5 and 10. We used linear regression to model associations with BMI at age 18. Results Among 4567 healthy women in NHS and NHSII, we observed no association between common IGF-1 or IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 SNPs and birthweight, body fatness at ages 5 and 10, or BMI at age 18. Conclusions Common IGF-1 and IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 SNPs are not associated with body size in early life.

  8. Early life predictors of childhood intelligence: evidence from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Batty, G David; Morton, Susan M B; Deary, Ian J; Macintyre, Sally; Ronalds, Georgina; Leon, David A

    2005-08-01

    To identify the early life predictors of childhood intelligence. Cohort study of 10 424 children who were born in Aberdeen (Scotland) between 1950 and 1956. Social class of father around the time of birth, gravidity, maternal age, maternal physical condition, whether the child was born outside of marriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth, and childhood height were all independently associated with childhood intelligence at ages 7, 9, and 11. The effect of social class at birth was particularly pronounced, with a graded linear association across the distribution even with adjustment for all other covariates (pintelligence scores that were on average 0.9-1.0 of a standard deviation lower than those from the higher groups (I and II) at each of the three ages of intelligence testing. Collectively, the early life predictors that were examined explained 16% of the variation in intelligence at each age. Father's social class around the time of birth was an important predictor of childhood intelligence, even after adjustment for maternal characteristics and perinatal and childhood factors. Studies of the association of childhood intelligence with future adult disease need to ensure that the association is not fully explained by socioeconomic position.

  9. Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether the temperament of behavioral inhibition is a significant marker for psychopathology in early adulthood and whether such risk is buffered by peer social networks. Participants (N = 165) were from a prospective study spanning the first two decades of life. Temperament was characterized during infancy and early childhood. Extent of involvement in peer social networks was measured during adolescence, and psychopathology was assessed in early adulthood. Latent Class Analyses generated comprehensive variables at each of three study time-points. Regressions assessed (a) the direct effect of early behavioral inhibition on adult psychopathology (b) the moderating effect of adolescent involvement in social peer networks on the link between temperamental risk and adult psychopathology. Stable behavioral inhibition in early childhood was negatively associated with adult mental health (R(2 ) = .07, p = .005, β = -.26), specifically increasing risk for adult anxiety disorders (R(2) = .04, p = .037, β = .19). These temperament-pathology relations were significantly moderated by adolescent peer group social involvement and network size (Total R(2) = .13, p = .027, β = -.22). Temperament predicted heightened risk for adult anxiety when adolescent social involvement was low (p = .002, β = .43), but not when adolescent social involvement was high. Stable behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood is a risk factor for adult anxiety disorders and interacts with adolescent social involvement to moderate risk. This is the first study to demonstrate the critical role of adolescent involvement in socially active networks in moderating long-lasting temperamental risk over the course of two decades, thus informing prevention/intervention approaches. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Association of PER2 genotype and stressful life events with alcohol drinking in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Blomeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clock genes govern circadian rhythms and shape the effect of alcohol use on the physiological system. Exposure to severe negative life events is related to both heavy drinking and disturbed circadian rhythmicity. The aim of this study was 1 to extend previous findings suggesting an association of a haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphism of PER2 gene with drinking patterns, and 2 to examine a possible role for an interaction of this gene with life stress in hazardous drinking. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an epidemiological cohort study on the outcome of early risk factors followed since birth. At age 19 years, 268 young adults (126 males, 142 females were genotyped for PER2 rs56013859 and were administered a 45-day alcohol timeline follow-back interview and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Life stress was assessed as the number of severe negative life events during the past four years reported in a questionnaire and validated by interview. RESULTS: Individuals with the minor G allele of rs56013859 were found to be less engaged in alcohol use, drinking at only 72% of the days compared to homozygotes for the major A allele. Moreover, among regular drinkers, a gene x environment interaction emerged (p = .020. While no effects of genotype appeared under conditions of low stress, carriers of the G allele exhibited less hazardous drinking than those homozygous for the A allele when exposed to high stress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may suggest a role of the circadian rhythm gene PER2 in both the drinking patterns of young adults and in moderating the impact of severe life stress on hazardous drinking in experienced alcohol users. However, in light of the likely burden of multiple tests, the nature of the measures used and the nominal evidence of interaction, replication is needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  11. Social representations of older adults regarding quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marielle Cristina Gonçalves; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Silva, Rafael Celestino da; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2017-01-01

    to identify the social representations of older adults regarding quality of life, and to analyze the care practices adopted to promote it. qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research, applying the Theory of Social Representations. Thirty older people from a Health Academy of Rio de Janeiro participated in the study. The software Alceste was used, and lexical analysis of data was performed. social representations of quality of life are based on the social determinants of health; they evidence knowledge and practices of care by valuing physical activities. The practices promoting quality of life comprise healthy eating habits, daily physical exercise, social participation, interaction and socialization, accomplishment of leisure activities and daily tasks with independence and autonomy, and support and family contact. the elderly have a global understanding of the concept of quality of life, coordinate knowledge built in daily life and knowledge coming from the technical-professional field, which evidences the multidimensionality of the concept. identificar as representações sociais de idosos sobre qualidade de vida e analisar as práticas de cuidado por eles adotadas para promovê-la. pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva, com aplicação da Teoria das Representações Sociais. Participaram 30 idosos de uma Academia Carioca de Saúde. Utilizou-se o software Alceste e realizou-se análise lexical dos dados. As representações sociais de qualidade de vida sustentam-se nos determinantes sociais de saúde, evidenciam saberes e práticas de cuidado, com valorização de atividades físicas. As práticas promotoras de qualidade de vida congregam hábitos alimentares saudáveis, exercícios físicos diários, participação social, convívio e interação, realização de atividades de lazer e tarefas cotidianas com independência e autonomia, apoio e contato familiar. Os idosos têm uma compreensão global do conceito de qualidade de vida, articulam

  12. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-12-01

    We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. A cohort of 11 532 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953-7906, 10 246 and 2483 participants-had completed assessments of cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, respectively. Linear regression was used to investigate the association of early-life characteristics with cognitive test scores at these ages and with score changes from early to mid-adulthood. The cognitive scores at age 57 years had high correlations with scores at ages 12 (r = 0.67) and 18 years (r = 0.70), and these two scores also showed bivariate correlation (r = 0.69). Having a father from the working class at birth was associated with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years. The latter relation was attenuated when educational status at age 18 years and adult social class were adjusted for, while birth characteristics and childhood activities had minor influence. Having an unskilled father at birth, low education, few intellectual and many social activities in childhood as well as low adult social class were associated with decline in cognitive function. Adverse social circumstances early in life were associated with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, as well as with a decline between these ages. Educational status at age 18 years and adult social class seemed to account for most of the associations, whereas childhood activities were independent predictors that did not explain the social inequality.

  14. Time well spent: the duration of foster care and early adult labor market, educational, and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of cocaine dependence and early life stress on pituitary-adrenal axis responses to CRH and the Trier social stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Back, Sudie E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Baker, Nathaniel L; Spratt, Eve G; Simpson, Annie N; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-11-01

    Long-term changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a result of early life stress could be related to the development of substance use disorders during adulthood. In this study, the neuroendocrine, physiologic (HR), and subjective responses to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) in individuals with cocaine dependence, with (n=21)/without early life stress (n=21), non-dependent individuals with early life stress (n=22), and a control group were examined (n=21). CRH increased cortisol and ACTH levels in all groups. However, a significant effect of early life stress on ACTH was observed indicating that the increase in ACTH was greatest in subjects with a history of childhood stress. Post hoc analysis indicated the early life stress/non-cocaine dependent individuals exhibited significantly higher levels of ACTH as compared to the early life stress/cocaine-dependent group. Despite the elevated ACTH response there was no difference between the groups in the cortisol response to CRH. The TSST produced a significant elevation in ACTH and cortisol all study groups. No significant group differences were observed. The subjective stress and peak heart rate responses to the TSST were greatest in cocaine-dependent subjects without early life stress. In response to CRH, subjective stress and craving were positively correlated in cocaine-dependent subjects regardless of early life stress history, while stress and craving following the TSST were correlated only in cocaine-dependent subjects without a history of early life stress. Findings support previous studies demonstrating that subjects with a history of childhood adversity exhibit elevated ACTH and blunted cortisol levels in response to stress. In contrast, HR and subjective stress in response to the TSST were greatest in cocaine-dependent subjects without a history of early life stress, suggesting that childhood adversity may desensitize autonomic and subjective

  16. Effect of early life physical growth on midlife vertebral dimensions - The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Ojaniemi, Marja; Auvinen, Juha; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro; Niinimäki, Jaakko

    2017-08-01

    Small vertebral size is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Physical growth in early life is related to bone health in later life, but the relationship of early growth versus vertebral size has been inconclusively studied. Utilizing the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with a 47-year follow-up, we investigated how physical growth in early life is associated with midlife vertebral dimensions. We obtained several physical growth parameters of 1) birth (gestational age, length, weight, BMI), 2) infancy and childhood (peak height velocity (PHV), peak weight velocity (PWV), adiposity peak (AP), adiposity rebound (AR)), and 3) puberty (BMI at growth spurt take-off (TO), PHV, height change). We also studied 4) the ages at which AP, AR, pubertal TO and pubertal PHV occurred. The outcome variable, vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA), was obtained from magnetic resonance imaging scans at the mean age of 46.7years (n=517). Sex-stratified linear regression analyses were used with adjustments for gestational age, smoking, and education. Birth length/weight/BMI, and adult height/weight/BMI were also used as covariates, depending on the model. According to our results, birth weight (p≤0.006) and infant PWV (p≤0.001) were positively associated with midlife vertebral CSA among both sexes. Length/height variables were associated with vertebral size only before including adult height in the models, and became non-significant thereafter. Among women, BMIs at birth, AP, AR, and pubertal TO were positively associated with midlife vertebral CSA (p<0.05), whereas among men, only high BMI at AR was associated with large vertebral size (p=0.028). Gestational age and timing of growth were not associated with future vertebral CSA. We conclude that early life weight gain is positively associated with midlife vertebral CSA, and suggest that adult height may mediate the effect of height gain on vertebral size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations among Aspects of Meaning in Life and Death Anxiety in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants ("N" = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was…

  19. To end life or to save life: ageism moderates the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Levi-Belz, Yossi

    2016-08-01

    Global suicide rates among older adults are very high. Public attitudes towards older adults' suicide may affect older adults upon their contemplating such an act. Previous research has demonstrated that message framing affects persons' judgments and decision making. Thus, message framing may have particular significance in the context of attitudes towards end-of-life phenomena, such as physician-aided suicide. This study examined the possible role of ageism in moderating the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide. Two studies examined the association between ageism and attitudes towards older adults' suicide. Study 1 assessed both variables by self-administered questionnaires; Study 2 further examined these variables, incorporating participants' responses to a suicide-related vignette, and evaluating the possible effect of message framing, using a between-participants design. High-ageism participants expressed greater acceptance for older adults' suicide, whereas low-ageism participants expressed a less permissive approach to it (Study 1). In addition, ageism moderated the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide: High-ageism participants revealed a more permissive attitude towards older adults' suicide when the issue was presented in positive terms of not prolonging life, relative to a negative presentation of ending life; a similar effect was not found for low-ageism participants (Study 2). The moderating effect of ageism on attitudes towards older adults' suicide has both theoretical and practical implications. We discuss these implications with respect to suicide prevention among older adults, and suggest future research.

  20. Work-related social support modulates effects of early life stress on limbic reactivity during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2017-12-15

    Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.

  1. Early adiposity rebound: causes and consequences for obesity in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Maillot, M; Bellisle, F

    2006-12-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem, with a rapidly increasing frequency worldwide. Identification of critical periods for the development of childhood and adolescent obesity could be very useful for targeting prevention measures. Weight status in early childhood is a poor predictor of adult adiposity status, and most obese adults were not obese as children. We first proposed to use the body mass index (BMI) charts to monitor individual BMI development. The adiposity rebound (AR) corresponds to the second rise in BMI curve that occurs between ages 5 and 7 years. It is not as direct a measure as BMI at any age, but because it involves the examination of several points during growth, and because it is identified at a time when adiposity level clearly change directions, this method provides information that can help us understand individual changes and the development of health risks. An early AR is associated with an increased risk of overweight. It is inversely associated with bone age, and reflects accelerated growth. The early AR recorded in most obese subjects and the striking difference in the mean age at AR between obese subjects (3 years) and non-obese subjects (6 years) suggest that factors have operated very early in life. The typical pattern associated with an early AR is a low BMI followed by increased BMI level after the rebound. This pattern is recorded in children of recent generations as compared to those of previous generations. This is owing to the trend of a steeper increase of height as compared to weight in the first years of life. This typical BMI pattern (low, followed by high body fatness level) is associated with metabolic diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Low body fatness before the AR suggests that an energy deficit had occurred at an early stage of growth. It can be attributable to the high-protein, low-fat diet fed to infants at a time of high energy needs, the former triggering height velocity and

  2. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardamagna Ornella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La

  3. The Distinctive Role of Romantic Relationships in Moderating the Effects of Early Caregiving on Adult Anxious-Depressed Symptoms over Nine Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a model of young adult romantic quality as a moderator of the effects of early caregiving on anxious-depressed symptoms over a nine-year period in adulthood. Participants (n = 93) were a subsample from a longitudinal study of risk and adaptation. Quality of early caregiving was measured using observational data collected at five points in the first four years of life. Young adult romantic relationship quality was assessed from interviews with participants at age 23. Self-report anxious-depressed symptoms were measured at ages 23, 26, and 32. The results indicated that romantic quality moderated early caregiving to predict symptom levels across this period, with evidence for inoculation, amplification, and compensation effects. A discriminant analysis examining young adult work competence as a moderator provided further evidence for the distinctiveness of romantic relationships in changing the association between early caregiving and adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:23880395

  4. Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Katia G; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Sharps, Phyllis; Lee, Jerry

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p differences. However, tests of three-way interactions of gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Early-Life Antibiotic Exposure Causes Intestinal Dysbiosis and Exacerbates Skin and Lung Pathology in Experimental Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Heena; Goulet, Philippe-Olivier; Mashiko, Shunya; Desjardins, Jade; Pérez, Gemma; Koenig, Martial; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Constante, Marco; Santos, Manuela M; Sarfati, Marika

    2017-11-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) display altered intestinal microbiota. However, the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on the development of experimental SSc remains unknown. Topoisomerase I peptide-loaded dendritic cell immunization induces SSc-like disease, with progressive skin and lung fibrosis. Breeders were given streptomycin and pups continued to receive antibiotic (ATB) until endpoint (lifelongATB). Alternately, ATB was withdrawn (earlyATB) or initiated (adultATB) during adulthood. Topoisomerase I peptide-loaded dendritic cell (no ATB) immunization induced pronounced skin fibrosis, with increased matrix (Col1a1), profibrotic (Il13, Tweakr), and vascular function (Serpine1) gene expression. Remarkably, earlyATB exposure was sufficient to augment skin Col5a1 and Il13 expression, and inflammatory cell infiltration, which included IL-13+ cells, mononuclear phagocytes, and mast cells. Moreover, skin pathology exacerbation was also observed in lifelongATB and adultATB groups. Oral streptomycin administration induced intestinal dysbiosis, with exposure limited to early life (earlyATB) being sufficient to cause long-term modification of the microbiota and a shift toward increased Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio. Finally, aggravated lung fibrosis and dysregulated pulmonary T-cell responses were observed in earlyATB and lifelongATB but not adultATB-exposed mice. Collectively, intestinal microbiota manipulation with streptomycin exacerbated pathology in two distinct sites, skin and lungs, with early life being a critical window to affect the course of SSc-like disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Global Research Trends on Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Chaffee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the epidemiologic literature related to early-life feeding practices and early childhood caries (ECC with regard to publication attributes and trends in these attributes over time. Methods. Systematic literature review including electronic and manual searches (in BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and WHOLIS, covering the years 1990–2013. Attributes of publications meeting a priori inclusion criteria were abstracted and organized by global region and trends over time. Attributes included country of origin and study design of included publications and age and caries prevalence of the populations studied. Results. 244 publications drawn from 196 independent study populations were included. The number of publications and the countries represented increased over time, although some world regions remained underrepresented. Most publications were cross-sectional (75%; while this percentage remained fairly constant over time, the percentage of studies to account for confounding factors increased. Publications varied with respect to the caries experience and age range of children included in each study. Conclusions. Publication productivity regarding feeding practices and ECC research has grown, but this growth has not been evenly distributed globally. Individual publication attributes (i.e., methods and context can differ significantly and should be considered when interpreting and synthesizing the literature.

  7. Global Research Trends on Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Cheng, Ashley

    2014-05-19

    Describe the epidemiologic literature related to early-life feeding practices and early childhood caries (ECC) with regard to publication attributes and trends in these attributes over time. Systematic literature review including electronic and manual searches (in BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and WHOLIS), covering the years 1990-2013. Attributes of publications meeting a priori inclusion criteria were abstracted and organized by global region and trends over time. Attributes included country of origin and study design of included publications and age and caries prevalence of the populations studied. 244 publications drawn from 196 independent study populations were included. The number of publications and the countries represented increased over time, although some world regions remained underrepresented. Most publications were cross sectional (75%); while this percentage remained fairly constant over time, the percentage of studies to account for confounding factors increased. Publications varied with respect to the caries experience and age range of children included in each study. Publication productivity regarding feeding practices and ECC research has grown, but this growth has not been evenly distributed globally. Individual publication attributes (i.e. methods and context) can differ significantly and should be considered when interpreting and synthesizing the literature.

  8. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris. We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old, at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old, and once the birds were independent (55 days old. Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  9. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  10. Early life factors and risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu eShrestha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about etiology of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, early life factors are suspected in the etiology. We explored this hypothesis using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and the California birth rolls. Incident cases were 359 children < 6 year old (218 embryonal, 81 alveolar, 60 others diagnosed in 1988-2008. Controls (205,173, frequency matched on birth year (1986-2007, were randomly selected from the birth rolls. We examined association of birth characteristics such as birth weight, size for gestational age, and timing of prenatal care with all-type rhabdomyosarcoma, embryonal and alveolar subtypes. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were estimated using logistic regression. In contrast to a previous study, we observed statistically non-significant association for embryonal subtype among high birth weight (4000-5250 grams children for term births [OR (95%CI: 1.28 (0.85, 1.92] and all births adjusted for gestational age [OR (95%CI: 1.21 (0.81, 1.81]. On the other hand, statistically significant 1.7-fold increased risk of alveolar subtype (95%CI: 1.02, 2.87 was observed among children with late or no prenatal care and a 1.3-fold increased risk of all rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes among children of fathers ≥ 35 years old at child birth (95%CI: 1.00, 1.75, independent of all covariates. Our finding positive association on male sex for all rhabdomyosarcoma types is consistent with previous studies. While we did not find a convincingly positive association between high birth weight and RMS, our findings on paternal age at childbirth and prenatal care supports the hypothesis that prenatal environment modifies risk for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  11. Early adult outcomes for Irish children with behavioural difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of Irish children and, to date, no studies reporting long-term outcome for those with behavioural disorder in childhood. This paper describes psychological and educational outcomes for a group of Irish children initially assessed at age 11 years and re-examined 10 years later. The period during which the research was conducted coincided with a time of increasing wealth in Ireland and the consequent development of psychological and educational services. To follow up and assess psychological and educational outcomes for a group of young people aged 21 years, half of whom had high levels of behavioural problems at age 11. Data were gathered at two time points for 97 children and their families. Childhood measures included psychological and behavioural functioning, IQ, family background and economic circumstances. Outcome measures assessed in young adulthood included psychological functioning, educational attainment and trouble with the law. Behavioural deviance at age 11 was found to be highly predictive of negative outcomes in early adulthood including a greater likelihood of involvement in criminal activity and less educational success. The likelihood of educational failure increased with the accumulation of risk factors including economic disadvantage and low IQ. These findings, supported in other international studies, underline the importance of behavioural difficulties in childhood for adult outcome, even in an environment of greater service and educational opportunities and access.

  12. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania....../bipolar disorder were included among whom 29 (18.4%) were between 18 and 25 years and 129 patients were 26 years or older. For both age groups, the point estimate of the hazard ratio of re-hospitalisation was insignificantly decreased for patients treated in the mood disorder clinic versus standard treatment...... but more so for patients between 18 and 25 years (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.10-1.07; p=0.064) than for patients 26 years or older (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.40-1.14, p=0.14). Younger adults treated in the mood disorder clinic used mood stabilisers and antipsychotics more in contrast to those treated in standard care...

  13. Childhood asthma and early life exposure to indoor allergens, endotoxin and beta(1,3)-glucans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelsen, R.J.; Carlsen, K.C.L.; Granum, B.; Doekes, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070079803; Haland, G.; Mowinckel, P.; Lovik, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Divergent results have been reported regarding early life exposure to indoor environmental agents and the risk of asthma and allergic sensitization later in life. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether early exposure to indoor allergens, beta(1,3)-glucans and endotoxin modifies the risk of

  14. The OBELIX project: early life exposure to endocrine disruptors and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; van de Bor, M.; Schoeters, G.; van der Ven, L.; Eggesbo, M.; Koppe, J.; Trnovec, T.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals:

  15. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  16. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a

  17. Sex differences in the consequences of early-life exposure to epidemiological stress--a life-history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to infectious disease in early life has been suggested to have a negative effect on later-life survival,possibly through the induction of inflammatory responses. Although a life-course perspective emphasizes the importance of both survival and reproduction for individual fitness, to date, no studies have investigated whether early-life exposure to infectious disease has an impact on reproduction as it has been suggested for later survival. To address this question, I have used family reconstitution data from a historical (18th and 19th century) human population in the Krummhörn (Germany) comparing survival and reproduction between an exposed and a non-exposed group. The exposed group comprised those exposed to a high-infectious disease load during prenatal and early postnatal development. The results show a marked sex difference in the impact of early-life exposure to infectious disease. Exposed females show no effect on their life expectancy but significantly reduced fertility (number of children). For exposed males, however, the effect on survival is opponent over time: mortality is increased during childhood but decreased in late adulthood. Above that, exposed males reproduce earlier and have a smaller proportion of surviving children. This study does not support former studies indicating a negative association between early-life disease load and later survival. I argue that due to differences in male and female life strategies, males in general are more vulnerable especially early in life. Hence, adverse environmental conditions may have a stronger effect on male survivability and reproductive performance.

  18. Quality of life and its related factors for adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Huang, Pai-Chuan

    2017-12-11

    Improved quality of life is an important outcome for adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, little research has examined factors associated with quality of life among adults with autism spectrum disorder. This study comparing 66 adults with autism spectrum disorder (intelligence quotient > 70) aged 20-38 years with neuro-typical adults investigated their quality of life and related factors. All the participants were interviewed with questionnaires by a registered occupational therapist. Participants with autism spectrum disorder scored significantly lower in all domains of quality of life than did the controls. Adults with autism spectrum disorder reported higher anxiety level, more loneliness, and higher scores on four sensory quadrants than neuro-typical adults. The predictors of the physical health domain were anxiety and sensation-sensitivity behaviors. Loneliness and sensation-sensitivity behaviors were predictive of the psychological health domain. Comorbid psychiatric disorders and loneliness were predictive of the social relationship domain. Adults with autism spectrum disorder need more supportive social contexts and interventions to improve their quality of life. Social relationships, psychological health, and sensory processing difficulty must be considered when designing treatment programs for adults with autism spectrum disorder. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults with autism spectrum disorder scored significantly lower in all domains of quality of life than did the neuro-typical adults. Occupational therapy can provide more supportive social contexts and interventions on social relationship and sensory processing difficulty to improve their quality of life. Understanding factors associated with quality of life among adults with autism spectrum disorder can contribute to address their needs. Occupational therapy can facilitate health promotion through working with adults with autism spectrum disorder. Social relationships

  19. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Raine, A; Chan, F; Venables, P H; Mednick, S A

    2010-06-01

    A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding.MethodThis study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy.

  20. Life-course origins of social inequalities in adult immune cell markers of inflammation in a developing southern Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Douglas A; Leung, Gabriel M; Jiang, Chao Q; Elwell-Sutton, Timothy M; Zhang, Wei S; Lam, Tai H; Cheng, Kar K; Schooling, C Mary

    2012-04-03

    Socioeconomic position (SEP) throughout life is associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms linking these two are unclear. It is also unclear whether there are critical periods in the life course when exposure to better socioeconomic conditions confers advantages or whether SEP exposures accumulate across the whole life course. Inflammation may be a mechanism linking socioeconomic position (SEP) with cardiovascular disease. In a large sample of older residents of Guangzhou, in southern China, we examined the association of life course SEP with inflammation. In baseline data on 9,981 adults (≥ 50 years old) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2006-08), we used multivariable linear regression and model fit to assess the associations of life course SEP at four stages (childhood, early adult, late adult and current) with white blood, granulocyte and lymphocyte cell counts. A model including SEP at all four life stages best explained the association of life course SEP with white blood and granulocyte cell count for men and women, with early adult SEP (education) making the largest contribution. A critical period model best explained the association of life course SEP with lymphocyte count, with sex-specific associations. Early adult SEP was negatively associated with lymphocytes for women. Low SEP throughout life may negatively impact late adult immune-inflammatory status. However, some aspects of immune-inflammatory status may be sensitive to earlier exposures, with sex-specific associations. The findings were compatible with the hypothesis that in a developing population, upregulation of the gonadotropic axis with economic development may obscure the normally protective effects of social advantage for men.

  1. Life-course origins of social inequalities in adult immune cell markers of inflammation in a developing southern Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Douglas A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic position (SEP throughout life is associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms linking these two are unclear. It is also unclear whether there are critical periods in the life course when exposure to better socioeconomic conditions confers advantages or whether SEP exposures accumulate across the whole life course. Inflammation may be a mechanism linking socioeconomic position (SEP with cardiovascular disease. In a large sample of older residents of Guangzhou, in southern China, we examined the association of life course SEP with inflammation. Methods In baseline data on 9,981 adults (≥ 50 years old from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2006-08, we used multivariable linear regression and model fit to assess the associations of life course SEP at four stages (childhood, early adult, late adult and current with white blood, granulocyte and lymphocyte cell counts. Results A model including SEP at all four life stages best explained the association of life course SEP with white blood and granulocyte cell count for men and women, with early adult SEP (education making the largest contribution. A critical period model best explained the association of life course SEP with lymphocyte count, with sex-specific associations. Early adult SEP was negatively associated with lymphocytes for women. Conclusions Low SEP throughout life may negatively impact late adult immune-inflammatory status. However, some aspects of immune-inflammatory status may be sensitive to earlier exposures, with sex-specific associations. The findings were compatible with the hypothesis that in a developing population, upregulation of the gonadotropic axis with economic development may obscure the normally protective effects of social advantage for men.

  2. Chronic methylphenidate treatment during early life is associated with greater ethanol intake in socially isolated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kathryn E; Chappell, Ann M; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Porrino, Linda J; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a stimulant prescribed to treat attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Its primary mechanism of action is in the dopamine system, alterations of which are associated with vulnerability to alcohol abuse. There are concerns that juvenile MPH treatment may influence adult drinking behavior. This study examined the interaction of MPH treatment and environmental rearing conditions, which are known to independently influence ethanol (EtOH) drinking behavior, on anxiety-like behavior and vulnerability to alcohol abuse in a juvenile rodent model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in enriched, standard, or isolated conditions for 4 weeks, starting at postnatal day 21. Rats were concurrently treated with 8 mg/kg/d MPH or saline, delivered via osmotic minipump. Anxiety-like behavior was determined at the end of the treatment session, and 5 weeks later. After MPH treatment, rats were exposed to a 2-bottle choice EtOH drinking procedure that lasted 3 weeks. Early life chronic MPH treatment was associated with greater EtOH intake and greater EtOH preference, but only in socially isolated animals. Isolated animals had greater levels of anxiety-like behavior than standard-housed or enriched animals after 4 weeks of exposure to the housing conditions, a difference that persisted even after all animals had been individually housed for an additional 5 weeks and exposed to EtOH. These results suggest that early life MPH treatment may increase vulnerability to EtOH drinking in adulthood in a subset of the population. Additionally, this study highlights the importance of early rearing condition for establishing long-lasting behavioral phenotypes. Environmental histories should be considered when prescribing MPH treatment to young children. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2-12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood.

  4. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to childhood adversities (CA is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV. Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4 with (n = 27 or without (n = 31 CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life.

  5. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  6. Health-related quality of life in adult survivors of childhood sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Hoffmann, Anne Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes......AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes...

  7. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  8. Quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer compared to a group of young adults with no history of cancer. The impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors and self-esteem on survivors' quality of life and worries was studied.

  9. Change in quality of life after rehabilitation: prognostic factors for visually impaired adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.; Boer, M.R. de; Nispen, R.M.A. van; Wouters, B.; Moll, A.C.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults,

  10. Change in quality of life after rehabilitation: prognostic factors for visually impaired adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.; de Boer, M.R.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Wouters, B.; Moll, A.C.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults,

  11. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…