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Sample records for early adolescent antisocial

  1. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  2. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...

  3. Friday on My Mind: The Relation of Partying with Antisocial Behavior of Early Adolescents. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2010-01-01

    The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N = 1,076; M age = 13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antisocial behavior depends on the way the need to…

  4. Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, T J; Andrews, D W; Crosby, L

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the close friendships of early adolescent boys in relation to antisocial behavior. 186 13-14-year-old boys and their close friends were interviewed, assessed at school, and videotaped in a problem-solving task. Similarity was observed between the demographic characteristics and antisocial behavior of the boys and their close friends. There was a tendency for the close friends of antisocial boys to live within the same neighborhood block and to have met in unstructured, unsupervised activities. Direct observations of interactions with close friends revealed a reliable correlation between antisocial behavior, directives, and negative reciprocity. Positive interactions within the friendship were uncorrelated with antisocial behavior and relationship quality. Implications of these findings for clinical and developmental theory are discussed.

  5. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  6. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-12-16

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA), as follows: neither childhood conduct disorder (CCD) nor alcohol abuse/dependence; CCD but no alcohol abuse or dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence but no CCD; both CCD and alcohol abuse/dependence. The outcome measure was the sum of positive responses to 55 interview items capturing a variety of antisocial behaviours engaged in since age 15. Severity of lifetime alcohol-related and CCD problems served as predictor variables in regression analysis. Antisocial behaviour problems were greatest in individuals with a history of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol abuse/dependence. While CCD was strongly predictive of adult antisocial behaviour, this effect was both mediated and moderated (exacerbated) by AOAA.

  7. EARLY CHILDHOOD PREDICTORS OF LOW-INCOME BOYS' PATHWAYS TO ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE, AND EARLY ADULTHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Robert J; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (Grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2 years post-high school, self-reported serious crimes through 2 years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records through 1 year post-high school, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms and diagnosis at 2 years post-high school. CU traits measured in 7th grade were highly predictive of 5 of the 6 antisocial outcomes-general delinquency, juvenile and adult arrests, and early adult antisocial personality disorder criterion count and diagnosis-over and above prior and concurrent conduct problem behavior (i.e., criterion counts of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (criterion count). Incorporating a CU traits specifier for those with a diagnosis of conduct disorder improved the positive prediction of antisocial outcomes, with a very low false-positive rate. There was minimal evidence of moderation by sex, race, or urban/rural status. Urban/rural status moderated one finding, with being from an urban area associated with stronger relations between CU traits and adult arrests. Findings clearly support the inclusion of CU traits as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, at least with respect to predictive validity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Self-control and early adolescent antisocial behavior: A longitudinal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kemp, R.A.T.; Vermulst, A.A.; Finkenauer, C.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Overbeek, G.; Rommes, E.W.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a three-wave longitudinal study that investigates the relationship between self-control and aggressive and delinquent behavior of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consists of 1,012 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.3) in their first year of secondary education.

  10. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior : The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Van Roon, A. M.; Groot, P. F. C.; Riese, H.

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a

  11. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees Jan; Spechler, Philip A.; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N.; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R.; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Background Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Methods Impulsivity was estimated

  12. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  13. Early concern and disregard for others as predictors of antisocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P.; Boeldt, Debra L.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John. K.; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Young, Susan E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Background Prediction of antisocial behavior is important given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and active disregard for others in distress in toddlers and young children predict antisocial behavior during middle childhood and adolescence. Methods A representative sample of same-sex twins (N = 956) recruited in Colorado was examined. Mother-rated and researcher-observed concern and disregard for others assessed at age 14 to 36 months were examined as predictors of parent- (age 4 to 12), teacher- (age 7 to 12), and self-reported (age 17) antisocial behavior. Results Observed disregard for others predicted antisocial behavior assessed by three different informants (parents, teachers, and self), including antisocial behavior assessed 14 years later. It also predicted a higher-order antisocial behavior factor (β = .58, p concern for others. Mother-rated disregard for others predicted parent-reported antisocial behavior. Contrary to predictions, neither mother-rated nor observed concern for others inversely predicted antisocial behavior. Results of twin analyses suggested that the covariation between observed disregard for others and antisocial behavior was due to shared environmental influences. Conclusions Disregard for others in toddlerhood/early childhood is a strong predictor of antisocial behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. The results suggest the potential need for early assessment of disregard for others and the development of potential interventions. PMID:23320806

  14. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

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    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  15. Irrational evaluations and antisocial behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević-Gvozden Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two subsamples - the first consisted of male adolescents (N=116, aged 16 to 19, and the second comprised male adolescents 50 out of whom were sentenced by juvenile court judges, aged averagely 17 and a half, and 50 members of the control group. The modified version of the General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS (Marić, 2002, 2003 and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS (Opačić, 2010, in print were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of the score on antisocial behavior scale was “the demand for absolute correctness of others and their devaluation”, followed by the aspiration towards perfectionism and success which acts as the factor that reduces the probability of antisocial behavior. Almost identical results were obtained by group comparison. The obtained results provide guidelines for designing preventive programs (sketched in the discussion that would be able to reduce the frequency of aggressive and antisocial behavior at adolescent age.

  16. Early concern and disregard for others as predictors of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Boeldt, Debra L; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A; Waldman, Irwin D; Young, Susan E; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2013-02-01

    Prediction of antisocial behavior is important, given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and active disregard for others in distress in toddlers and young children predict antisocial behavior during middle childhood and adolescence. A representative sample of same-sex twins (N=956) recruited in Colorado was examined. Mother-rated and researcher-observed concern and disregard for others assessed at age 14-36 months were examined as predictors of parent- (age 4-12), teacher- (age 7-12), and self-reported (age 17) antisocial behavior.   Observed disregard for others predicted antisocial behavior assessed by three different informants (parents, teachers, and self), including antisocial behavior assessed 14 years later. It also predicted a higher order antisocial behavior factor (β=.58, pconcern for others. Mother-rated disregard for others predicted parent-reported antisocial behavior. Contrary to predictions, neither mother-rated nor observed concern for others inversely predicted antisocial behavior. RESULTS of twin analyses suggested that the covariation between observed disregard for others and antisocial behavior was due to shared environmental influences. Disregard for others in toddlerhood/early childhood is a strong predictor of antisocial behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. The results suggest the potential need for early assessment of disregard for others and the development of potential interventions. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction…

  18. Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behavior in context: the roles of neighborhood dangerousness and parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Cheong, JeeWon

    2009-08-01

    This study examined an ecological perspective on the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence, examining direct, additive, and interactive effects of child and both parenting and community factors in relation to youth problem behavior. To address this goal, the authors examined early adolescent dispositional qualities as predictors of boys' antisocial behavior within the context of parents' knowledge of adolescent activities and neighborhood dangerousness. Antisocial behavior was examined using a multimethod latent construct that included self-reported delinquency, symptoms of conduct disorder, and court petitions in a sample of 289 boys from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds who were followed longitudinally from early childhood through adolescence. Results demonstrated direct and additive findings for child prosociality, daring, and negative emotionality, which were qualified by interactions between daring and neighborhood dangerousness, and between prosociality and parental knowledge. The findings have implications for preventive intervention approaches that address the interplay of dispositional and contextual factors to prevent delinquent behavior in adolescence.

  19. Antisocial behavior in adolescence: Typology and relation to family context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlička, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 8 (2013), s. 1091-1115 ISSN 0272-4316 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : family * antisocial behavior * typology * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2013

  20. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  1. Parents’ Monitoring Knowledge Attenuates the Link Between Antisocial Friends and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities were tested as moderators of transactional associations between friends’ antisociality and adolescent delinquent behavior. 504 adolescents (50% female) provided annual reports (from ages 12 to 16) of their parents’ knowledge and (from ages 13 to 16) their own delinquent behavior and their friends’ antisociality. Parents also reported the adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify two sub-groups based on their monitoring knowledge growth trajectories. Adolescents in the sub-group characterized by decreasing levels of parents’ knowledge reported more delinquent behavior and more friend antisociality in early adolescence, and reported greater increases in delinquent behavior and friend antisociality from early to middle adolescence compared to adolescents in the sub-group characterized by increasing levels of parents’ knowledge. Transactional associations consistent with social influence and social selection processes also were suppressed in the increasing knowledge sub-group as compared to the decreasing knowledge sub-group. PMID:17874291

  2. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parent-Adolescent Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study in a Chinese Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Hing Keung

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationships between parent-adolescent conflict and antisocial and prosocial behavior in Chinese adolescents. Results showed that father-adolescent conflict and mother-adolescent conflict were concurrently related to adolescent antisocial and prosocial behavior. Findings suggest that the linkage between father-adolescent conflict and…

  4. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  5. The delicate balance between parental protection, unsupervised wandering, and adolescents' autonomy and its relation with antisocial behavior : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, M.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Lindenberg, S.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the

  6. The Delicate Balance between Parental Protection, Unsupervised Wandering, and Adolescents' Autonomy and Its Relation with Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the level of biological maturation and having antisocial…

  7. Parenting style dimensions as predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    David Álvarez-García; Trinidad García; Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo; Alejandra Dobarro; Ángela Antúnez

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescen...

  8. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting and antisocial behavior: a model of the relationship between adolescent self-disclosure, parental closeness, parental control, and adolescent antisocial behavior.

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    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects on parental knowledge and antisocial behavior. Parenting style (e.g., parent-child closeness), on the other hand, is directly related to adolescent self-disclosure, which in turn is positively related to parental knowledge and negatively related to adolescents' antisocial behavior. A structural equation model, which incorporated data from parents and adolescents, largely supported the hypothesized model. Gender-specific models also found some gender differences among adolescents and parents, as the hypothesized model adequately fit the subsample of mothers but not fathers. Mothers' closeness to girls predicted their knowledge of their daughters' behavior; mothers' control predicted boys' antisocial behavior.

  10. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Parenting style dimensions as predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Álvarez-García

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007 to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age from Asturias (Spain. Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships. Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  13. Expressed emotion and its relationship to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Bee-Horng; Wu, Wen-Chi; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2010-02-01

    Despite widespread recognition of the occurrence of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents, the specifics of the relationship between them have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of expressed emotion as a proximal factor for depression and antisocial behavior among adolescents, by looking at direct and indirect relationships. Secondary data analysis using path analysis was carried out on 2004 data from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evaluation project. The study sample consisted of 1599 seventh-grade students in Northern Taiwan. Variables included family factors, personal factors (sex and academic performance), expressed emotion [emotional involvement (EI) and perceived criticism (PC)], depression, and antisocial behavior. We found that one dimension of expressed emotion, PC, directly influenced student depression and related indirectly to antisocial behavior. Depression was an important mediator between PC and antisocial behavior. Another dimension, EI, did not influence either depression or antisocial behavior. Sex was related directly to expressed emotion, depression, and antisocial behavior, and also indirectly to antisocial behavior through PC and depression. Academic performance was related directly to expressed emotion and indirectly to antisocial behavior through PC and depression. Greater PC from parents directly contributed to higher levels of student depression and was related indirectly to more student antisocial behavior. It is suggested that parents should decrease overly critical parenting styles to promote adolescent mental health and avoid the development of antisocial behavior. (c) 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Parental Monitoring on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Adolescent Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Moscatelli, Silvia; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, youth antisocial behaviors reach a peak. Parents can use different strategies, such as parental solicitation and control, to monitor their children’s activities and try to prevent or reduce their antisocial behaviors. However, it is still unclear if, and for which adolescents, these parental monitoring behaviors are effective. The aim of this study was to examine if the impact of parental solicitation and control on adolescent antisocial behaviors depends on adolescent empathy. In order to comprehensively address this aim, we tested the moderating effects of multiple dimensions (affective and cognitive) of both trait and state empathy. Participants were 379 Dutch adolescents (55.9% males) involved in a longitudinal study with their fathers and mothers. At T1 (conducted when adolescents were 17-year-old) adolescents filled self-report measures of antisocial behaviors and trait empathy during one home visit, while their state empathy was rated during a laboratory session. Furthermore, parents reported their own monitoring behaviors. At T2 (conducted 1 year later, when adolescents were 18-year-old), adolescents reported again on their antisocial behaviors. Moderation analyses indicated that both affective and cognitive state empathy moderated the effects of parental solicitation on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Results highlighted that solicitation had unfavorable effects on antisocial behaviors in adolescents with high empathy whereas the opposite effect was found for adolescents with low empathy. In contrast, neither state nor trait empathy moderated the effects of control on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27857703

  15. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

  16. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  17. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.

  18. Expressed Emotion and its Relationship to Adolescent Depression and Antisocial Behavior in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee-Horng Lue

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Greater PC from parents directly contributed to higher levels of student depression and was related indirectly to more student antisocial behavior. It is suggested that parents should decrease overly critical parenting styles to promote adolescent mental health and avoid the development of antisocial behavior.

  19. Predictors of antisocial and prosocial behavior in an adolescent sports context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.A.; Schuengel, C.; Dirks, E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Hoeksma, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multi-level analyses showed that team membership explained 20 and 13 percent of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The

  20. Parenting and Antisocial Behavior: A Model of the Relationship between Adolescent Self-Disclosure, Parental Closeness, Parental Control, and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects…

  1. Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Button, Tanya M M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E Mavis

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the interplay of genotypes and malleable risk factors in influencing adolescent psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Information on these processes is crucial in designing programs for the prevention of psychiatric disorders. To assess whether latent genetic factors and measured parent-child relationships interact (G x E) in predicting adolescent antisocial behavior and depression. We characterized risk of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents by means of a genetically informed design. We used in-home questionnaire and observational measures of adolescent outcomes and environmental moderators (parenting), and a latent variable behavior genetic analytic model. A nationally distributed sample recruited from random-digit dialing and national market panels. A total of 720 families with at least 2 children, 9 through 18 years old, stratified by genetic relatedness (monozygotic and dizygotic twins, full biological siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies, and half-siblings and biologically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies). Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. There was an interaction of genotype and both parental negativity and low warmth predicting overall antisocial behavior, as well as aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior, but not depression. Genetic influence was greater for adolescent antisocial behavior when parenting was more negative or less warm. Genotype-environment correlation was partialled out in the analysis and thus did not account for the results. This study demonstrates, on the basis of careful measurement and appropriate analytic methods, that a continuous measure of parenting in the normative range moderates the influence of genotype on antisocial behavior.

  2. Parents' Monitoring Knowledge Attenuates the Link between Antisocial Friends and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities were tested as moderators of transactional associations between friends' antisociality and adolescent delinquent behavior. 504 adolescents (50% female) provided annual reports (from ages 12 to 16) of their parents' knowledge and (from ages 13 to 16)…

  3. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A; Kemp, Andrew H; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model. Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  4. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  5. Social gradients in child and adolescent antisocial behavior: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Patrycja J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing more behavioral difficulties than children from high-socioeconomic families. Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous concept that encompasses behaviors as diverse as physical fighting, vandalism, stealing, status violation and disobedience to adults. Whether all forms of antisocial behavior show identical social gradients is unclear from previous published research. The mechanisms underlying social gradients in antisocial behavior, such as neighborhood characteristics and family processes, have not been fully elucidated. This review will synthesize findings on the social gradient in antisocial behavior, considering variation across the range of antisocial behaviors and evidence regarding the mechanisms that might underlie the identified gradients. Methods In this review, an extensive manual and electronic literature search will be conducted for papers published from 1960 to 2011. The review will include empirical and quantitative studies of children and adolescents ( Discussion This systematic review has been proposed in order to synthesize cross-disciplinary evidence of the social gradient in antisocial behavior and mechanisms underlying this effect. The results of the review will inform social policies aiming to reduce social inequalities and levels of antisocial behavior, and identify gaps in the present literature to guide further research.

  6. Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…

  7. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  8. The role of contextual risk, impulsivity, and parental knowledge in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A.; Barker, E.D.; Koot, H.M.; Maughan, B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597;

  9. Moral Emotion Attributions and Personality Traits as Long-Term Predictors of Antisocial Conduct in Early Adulthood: Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Asendorpf, Jens B.; Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated long-term relations between moral emotion attributions in childhood and adolescence and antisocial conduct in early adulthood while taking into account potentially confounding personality factors. Specifically, onset of prediction, unique and indirect effects of moral emotion attributions were examined. In a longitudinal…

  10. The relationship between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior is partially mediated by early-onset alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John

    2012-10-01

    Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Tobacco Smoking and Antisocial Deviance among Vietnamese, Vietnamese-American, and European-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Tam; Trung, Lam; Ngo, Victoria; Lau, Anna

    2018-03-21

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most significant modifiable behavioral health risk factors worldwide. Although smoking rates in some high-income countries (HIC) have declined, rates in many low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) remain high. Adolescence is a key developmental risk period for smoking initiation. Research indicates that a major adolescent risk factor for tobacco smoking is antisocial deviance, which includes such behaviors as aggression, risk-taking, and rule-breaking. The linkages between antisocial deviance and smoking suggest that these behaviors and their underlying attitudes can be important targets for smoking prevention programs, but for public health efficiency it is important to target the components of antisocial deviance most closely linked smoking. However, although 80% of smokers live in LMIC, most relevant research has been conducted in HIC and its applicability to LMIC is unclear, given cultural differences between many HIC and LMIC. The purpose of the present study was to assess cross-cultural variations in relations among components of antisocial deviance and self-reported tobacco smoking among 2,724 10th and 11th grade Vietnamese, Vietnamese-American, and European-American students. Within the combined sample the relation between self-reported smoking and overall antisocial deviance was β = 0.33. However, the component of antisocial deviance most strongly related to smoking varied across groups, with Risk-taking most strongly related to smoking for Vietnamese-American (β = 0.37) and Vietnamese (β = 0.36) adolescents, and Rule-breaking Behavior most strongly related to smoking for European-American (β = 0.51) adolescents. These and other findings suggest the possible importance of culturally-tailored foci for smoking prevention programs emphasizing different aspects of antisocial deviance.

  12. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued ...

  13. Expanding our Lens: Female Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339

  14. Early detection of children at risk for antisocial behaviour using data from routine preventive child healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Youth antisocial behaviour is highly prevalent. Young people are usually not willing to disclose such behaviour to professionals and parents. Our aim was to assess whether child health professionals (CHP) working in preventive child healthcare could identify pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour through using data that they obtain in routine practice. Methods CHPs examined a national sample of 974 pre-adolescents aged 8-12 years (response 79.1%), and interviewed parents and children during routine well-child assessments. We obtained data on family background and current health of the child from the CHP; on developmental concerns from parents, and on social and emotional well-being, injuries, and substance use from the children. Antisocial behaviour concerned the adolescent-reported 15 item International Self-Reported Delinquency study questionnaire, among which are 5 items on violence against people. Results The prevalence of 2+acts of any antisocial behaviour was 21.8%, and 33.9% for 1+acts of violence (10.5% for 2+). Children who were male, had a young mother, no parent employed, recent injuries, poor performance at school or who were bored by school, and who had parental concerns more often reported 2+antisocial acts and 1+violence against people. Detection algorithms on the basis of these variables were moderately able to classify outcomes, with Areas-Under-the-Curves ranging from 0.66 to 0.71. Conclusions Data from routine well-child assessment can help CHPs to detect pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour, but detection algorithms need to be further improved. This could be done by obtaining additional information on factors that are associated with antisocial behaviour. PMID:22405493

  15. Early detection of children at risk for antisocial behaviour using data from routine preventive child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Sijmen A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth antisocial behaviour is highly prevalent. Young people are usually not willing to disclose such behaviour to professionals and parents. Our aim was to assess whether child health professionals (CHP working in preventive child healthcare could identify pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour through using data that they obtain in routine practice. Methods CHPs examined a national sample of 974 pre-adolescents aged 8-12 years (response 79.1%, and interviewed parents and children during routine well-child assessments. We obtained data on family background and current health of the child from the CHP; on developmental concerns from parents, and on social and emotional well-being, injuries, and substance use from the children. Antisocial behaviour concerned the adolescent-reported 15 item International Self-Reported Delinquency study questionnaire, among which are 5 items on violence against people. Results The prevalence of 2+acts of any antisocial behaviour was 21.8%, and 33.9% for 1+acts of violence (10.5% for 2+. Children who were male, had a young mother, no parent employed, recent injuries, poor performance at school or who were bored by school, and who had parental concerns more often reported 2+antisocial acts and 1+violence against people. Detection algorithms on the basis of these variables were moderately able to classify outcomes, with Areas-Under-the-Curves ranging from 0.66 to 0.71. Conclusions Data from routine well-child assessment can help CHPs to detect pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour, but detection algorithms need to be further improved. This could be done by obtaining additional information on factors that are associated with antisocial behaviour.

  16. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1 the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2 the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3 the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4 the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  17. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail. PMID:22125466

  18. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment.

  19. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  20. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  1. On- and Off-Field Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Esther A.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Biesta, Gert J. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent team membership predicts on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in (pre)adolescent athletes. Effects of team-membership were related to characteristics of the team environment, such as relational support from the coach towards team members, fair play attitude and sociomoral reasoning within the…

  2. Cyberbullying behavior and adolescents' use of media with antisocial content: A cyclic process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hamer, A.H.; Konijn, E.A.; Keijer, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the role of media use in adolescents' cyberbullying behavior. Following previous research, we propose a Cyclic Process Model of face-to-face victimization and cyberbullying through two mediating processes of anger/frustration and antisocial media content. This model was

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on conduct and antisocial personality problems in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseldijk, Laura W; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M

    2017-01-01

    Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and

  4. On- and Off-field Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.A.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Schuengel, C.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Hoeksma, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent team membership predicts on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in (pre)adolescent athletes. Effects of team-membership were related to characteristics of the team environment, such as relational support from the coach towards team members, fair

  5. Antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption by school adolescents Conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol en adolescentes escolares Conduta anti-social e consumo de álcool em adolescentes escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Selene López García

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a vulnerable period and facilitates the start of risk behaviors, for instance the use of drugs. This study aims to describe the differences between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption according to gender, age and education; as well as to discover the relation between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption in 1,221 school adolescents from Monterrey - Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The findings reveal differences in antisocial behavior according to gender. Evidences showed that 41.3% of the students had consumed alcohol at sometime in their lives, and that differences exist in alcohol consumption according to age and education. Finally, the study found positive and significant relations between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption (r s = .272, p La adolescencia se convierte en una etapa de vulnerabilidad y facilitador para el inicio de conductas de riesgo como es el consumo de drogas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: describir las diferencias de la conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol según sexo, edad y escolaridad; conocer la relación existente de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol en 1221 adolescentes escolares de Monterrey, Nuevo Léon, México, en relación a los hallazgos encontrados se presentan diferencias de la conducta antisocial por sexo; se destaca que 41.3% de los estudiantes consumieron alcohol alguna vez en su vida, y existen diferencias de consumo de alcohol por edad y escolaridad. Finalmente se encontró relación positiva y significativa de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol (r s=.272, pA adolescência se apresenta como uma etapa de vulnerabilidade e facilitadora para o início de condutas de risco como o consumo de drogas. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: descrever as diferenças entre sexo, idade e escolaridade na conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool e conhecer a relação existente entre a conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool em 1221

  6. High novelty seeking as a predictor of antisocial behaviour in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, James; Boden, Joseph; Horwood, John; Mulder, Roger

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial behaviours (age 18-35). A New Zealand general population birth cohort was studied from 1977 to 2012. Sample sizes ranged from n = 962 (age 35) to n = 1025 (age 18). NS was measured at age 16 using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Perpetration of antisocial behaviours was ascertained by self-report at ages 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35. Generalized estimating equation models investigated the association between NS and antisocial behaviours net of individual factors and correlates of NS before age 16 and alcohol and substance use disorders at age 18-35. Higher NS scores were associated with a higher unadjusted incidence of all forms of antisocial behaviour. Assault, theft, property damage and dishonesty offending remained associated with NS after adjustment for individual factors and correlates of NS before age 16. After further adjustment for alcohol and substance use disorders, NS was not associated with any antisocial behaviour outcomes, suggesting those disorders mediate the association between NS and antisocial behaviours. Alcohol and substance use disorders mediate the association between NS and antisocial behaviours in early adulthood. NS may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the causation of externalizing behaviours. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective / Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pacheco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  8. Adolescent antisocial behavior explained by combining stress-related parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platje, Evelien; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Suzan J. T.; Popma, Arne

    Many stress-related parameters have been associated with antisocial behavior, including low cortisol awakening responses (CAR), as well as low cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to stress. These parameters reflect different, yet interrelated components of the stress system, yet it remains to be

  9. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  10. Heartless and Cunning? The Relationship between Intelligence, Psychopathic Traits and Antisocial Behaviour in Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two main questions: (1) Is there a direct link between psychopathic traits and intelligence? (2) Is the combination of psychopathic traits and high IQ related to more severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents?

  11. Theory of Mind and Empathy as predictors of antisocial behavior during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olber Eduardo Arango Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the characteristics of theory of mind and empathy are important predictors of behavioural disorders during childhood and adolescence. This study compared a group of teenagers with the characteristics of antisocial behavior disorder and a group of teenagers as controls in terms of their performance on tests assessing the theory of mind and empathy, with the further aim of establishing risk and protective factors predictive of the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence. There were significant statistical differences between the two groups on the theory of mind and empathy tests. The dimension of empathy known as as perspective taking as well as the adolescent’s skills in understanding mental and emotional states were established as protective factors according to the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.

  12. Change in Parents’ Monitoring Knowledge: Links with Parenting, Relationship Quality, Adolescent Beliefs, and Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, Robert D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective design was used to examine antisocial behavior, two aspects of the parent–child relationship, inept parenting, and adolescents’ beliefs in the appropriateness of monitoring as predictors of parents’ monitoring and change in monitoring during the high school years. 426 adolescents provided reports of their parents’ monitoring knowledge during four yearly assessments beginning the summer before entering grade 9. Greater concurrent levels of monitoring knowledge were a...

  13. Personality patterns predict the risk of antisocial behavior in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel A; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C; Revuelta-Menéndez, Javier; Ramírez-Lira, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from a forensic population (those who committed a crime) and 585 adolescents from the normal population (no crime committed). All of participants answered personality tests about neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and violence risk. Principal component analysis of the data identified two independent factors: (i) the disinhibited behavior pattern (PDC), formed by the dimensions of neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsivity and risk of violence; and (ii) the extrovert behavior pattern (PEC), formed by the dimensions of sensation risk and extraversion. Both patterns significantly contributed to the prediction of adolescent antisocial behavior in a logistic regression model which properly classifies a global percentage of 81.9%, 86.8% for non-offense and 72.5% for offense behavior. The classification power of regression equations allows making very satisfactory predictions about adolescent offense commission. Educational level has been classified as a protective factor, while age and gender (male) have been classified as risk factors.

  14. Influences of Biological and Adoptive Mothers’ Depression and Antisocial Behavior on Adoptees’ Early Behavior Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Natsuaki, Misaki; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers’ reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior to children’s behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers’ related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood. PMID:23408036

  15. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on conduct and antisocial personality problems in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseldijk, Laura W; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M

    2017-06-21

    Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors on variation in conduct problems measured at childhood and adolescence and antisocial personality problems measured at adulthood and on the covariation across ages. We also tested whether these estimates differed by sex. Longitudinal data were collected in the Netherlands Twin Register over a period of 27 years. Age appropriate and comparable measures of conduct and antisocial personality problems, assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, were available for 9783 9-10-year-old, 6839 13-18-year-old, and 7909 19-65-year-old twin pairs, respectively; 5114 twins have two or more assessments. At all ages, men scored higher than women. There were no sex differences in the estimates of the genetic and environmental influences. During childhood, genetic and environmental factors shared by children in families explained 43 and 44% of the variance of conduct problems, with the remaining variance due to unique environment. During adolescence and adulthood, genetic and unique environmental factors equally explained the variation. Longitudinal correlations across age varied between 0.20 and 0.38 and were mainly due to stable genetic factors. We conclude that shared environment is mainly of importance during childhood, while genetic factors contribute to variation in conduct and antisocial personality problems at all ages, and also underlie its stability over age.

  17. Typologie antisociálního chování v rané adolescenci a jeho vztah k dalším formám rizikového chování

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlička, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2009), s. 428-440 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7025354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : antisocial behavior * typology * early adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.226, year: 2009

  18. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  19. [Aggressive behaviour and substance abuse among schizophrenic adolescents compared to antisocial adolescents--a follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Dreher, Jan; Walger, Petra; Junglas, Jürgen; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze aggressive behaviour towards others by schizophrenic as opposed to antisocial adolescents, and the influence of substance abuse before, during and after their hospitalization. We analyzed 21 schizophrenic adolescents and compared their aggressive behaviour and their substance abuse to that of 21 antisocial juveniles before and during their hospitalization and again at the time of a follow-up interview. The two samples were matched for age, sex and intelligence. In a first step, data were gathered from the hospital records, in a second step, for follow-up data we conducted standardized telephone interview with the patient and his or her parent or caregiver. Within the analysis we focused on aggressive behaviour towards other people and objects, as well as on criminal acts and regular substance abuse. We found less aggressive behaviour among psychotic patients during and post-hospitalization than among their antisocial counterparts. As inpatients, the acutely psychotic juveniles were at higher risk for aggressive acts, but adequate treatment subdued their offensive behaviour. In the long term, there were fewer criminal arrests among psychotic patients. Only in connection with their substance abuse, their aggressive misconduct towards others increased. Our results suggest that drug treatment during adolescence might help to lessen the risk of aggressive behaviour towards others.

  20. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Crocetti

    Full Text Available Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support, and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  1. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between0020parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of rater bias. As the presence of significant shared environmental effects has often been attributed to rater bias in the past (Baker, Jacobsen, Raine, Lozano, & Bezdjian, 2007; Bartels et al., 2004; Bartels et al., 2003; Hewitt, Silberg, Neale, & Eaves, 1992), it would be important to confirm that findings of shared environmental mediation persist when even examining (presumably more objective) observer-ratings of these constructs. The current study thus examined the origins of the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent acting-out behavior, as measured using both observer-ratings and various informant-reports. Participants included 1,199 adopted and non-adopted adolescents in 610 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results indicated that parent-child conflict consistently predicts acting-out behavior in adopted adolescents, and moreover, that this association is equivalent to that in biologically-related adolescents. Most importantly, these findings did not vary across parent- and adolescent-reported or observer-ratings of parent-child conflict and acting-out behavior. Such findings argue strongly against rater bias as a primary explanation of shared environmental mediation of the association between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior. PMID:21484334

  2. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads. PMID:26990191

  3. Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pacheco

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O termo anti-social tem sido amplamente utilizado na literatura científica para descrição de problemas de comportamento não específicos, como comportamentos delinqüentes, agressividade e oposicionismo. O objetivo desse estudo é descrever e discutir o conceito de comportamento anti-social, como um indicador de transtornos mentais específicos e de algumas categorias de problemas comportamentais. Para isso, examinamos a relação entre o comportamento anti-social e o Transtorno Desafiador Opositivo, o Transtorno da Conduta, o Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade e o Transtorno de Personalidade Anti-social. Além disso, discute-se também os fatores que contribuem para a estabilidade desse comportamento na transição da infância para a adolescência e os prejuízos decorrentes ao longo do desenvolvimento. Propõe-se a ampliação das discussões conceituais acerca dos transtornos mentais, utilizando-se categorias mais amplas, como a de comportamento anti-social.The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  4. The role of gender identity in adolescents' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Trillo, Vanesa; Mirón Redondo, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the relevance of the variables sex and gender to explain delinquency is a topic of growing interest in Criminology. This study tests a model of juvenile delinquency that integrates gender identity, the association with deviant peers, and a lack of attachment to conventional contexts. We used a sample of 970 adolescents of both sexes, representative of the urban population, between 12 and 18 years, attending public schools in Galicia (Spain). The results of path analysis confirm that: a) weak attachment to conventional contexts, and belonging to a deviant groups are precedents for deviation of adolescents of both sexes; b) these contexts also contribute to the development of gender identity; and c) gender identity affects the likelihood of deviation: femininity tends to reduce this behavior, and masculinity (in particular, negatively valued masculinity) contributes to increase it. These findings support the adequacy of including gender identity in the explanatory models of delinquency. They also suggest the need to reconsider the role of conventional settings in the socialization of masculinity and, therefore, in the genesis of adolescent delinquency of both sexes.

  5. Extending the construct of psychopathy to youth: implications for understanding, diagnosing, and treating antisocial children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    This paper reviews several attempts to extend the construct of psychopathy to children and adolescents. The research suggests that the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits may be particularly important. Specifically, the presence of these traits designates a clinically important subgroup of youth with childhood-onset conduct problems who show a particularly severe, aggressive, and stable pattern of antisocial behaviour. Also, children with CU traits show numerous emotional, cognitive, and personality features that are distinct from other antisocial youth that are similar to features found in adults with psychopathy. The research on CU traits has important implications for understanding the different causal pathways through which children develop severe antisocial and aggressive behaviour, as well as implications for diagnosing and intervening with antisocial youth.

  6. Early prevention of the antisocial behaviour of youth: situation in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kronberga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion on prevention is often very narrow and stigmatised: the concept of prevention is more often related to a crime than to antisocial behaviour. Often such approach limits not only the understanding of the usability and content of prevention methods but also the age of children at which a successful use of these methods is acceptable. Due to the aforementioned, it is possible to put forward a hypothesis: successful prevention of antisocial behaviour in the work with children at a young age decreases the necessity of crime prevention in later years of children and youth development. Therefore, this publication will focus on the use and practice of prevention methods in the early period of child development – pre-school and primary school.

  7. Translating models of antisocial behavioral development into efficacious intervention policy to prevent adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  9. Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-Social Behavior of Schooling Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…

  10. Peer Network Dynamics and the Amplification of Antisocial to Violent Behavior among Young Adolescents in Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao

    2018-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in peer network selection and influence associated with self-reported antisocial behavior (AB) and violent behavior (VB) over the course of middle school in a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents. Youth and families were randomly assigned to a school-based intervention focused on the prevention of…

  11. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  12. Antisocial Behavior and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…

  13. Early pubertal onset and its relationship with sexual risk taking, substance use and anti-social behaviour: a preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries age at pubertal onset has declined substantially. Relatively little attention has been paid to how this decline may affect adolescent behaviours such as substance use, violence and unprotected sex and consequently impact on public health. Methods In the UK, two opportunistic samples (aged 16-45 years, paper-based (n = 976 and online (n = 1117, examined factors associated with earlier pubertal onset and whether earlier age of onset predicted sexual risk-taking, substance use and anti-social behaviours during early adolescence. Results Overall, 45.6% of females reported menarche ≤ 12 years and 53.3% of males were categorised as having pubertal onset ≤ 11 years. For both sexes earlier pubertal onset was associated with poorer parental socio-economic status. Other pre-pubertal predictors of early onset were being overweight, more childhood illnesses (females and younger age at time of survey (males. For both sexes earlier puberty predicted having drunk alcohol, been drunk, smoked and used drugs Conclusion Results provide sufficient evidence for changes in age of pubertal onset to be further explored as a potential influence on trends in adolescent risk behaviours. Further insight into the relationship between early puberty and both obesity and socio-economic status may help inform early interventions to tackle the development of risk behaviours and health inequalities during early adolescence.

  14. Amygdala reactivity predicts adolescent antisocial behavior but not callous-unemotional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey L. Dotterer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB and callous-unemotional (CU traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11–15; 49.5% female; 38.2% Hispanic, half of whom had a family history for depression and thus were at relatively elevated risk for late starting, emotionally dysregulated AB. We found that AB was significantly related to increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions independent of sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression. CU traits were not related to fear- or anger-related amygdala reactivity. The present study further demonstrates that AB is related to increased amygdala reactivity to interpersonal threat cues in adolescents, and that this relationship generalizes across sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression.

  15. Amygdala reactivity predicts adolescent antisocial behavior but not callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Hailey L; Hyde, Luke W; Swartz, Johnna R; Hariri, Ahmad R; Williamson, Douglas E

    2017-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11-15; 49.5% female; 38.2% Hispanic), half of whom had a family history for depression and thus were at relatively elevated risk for late starting, emotionally dysregulated AB. We found that AB was significantly related to increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions independent of sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression. CU traits were not related to fear- or anger-related amygdala reactivity. The present study further demonstrates that AB is related to increased amygdala reactivity to interpersonal threat cues in adolescents, and that this relationship generalizes across sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavioral, Personality, and Communicative Predictors of Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from prosocial, antisocial, and withdrawn behavior,…

  17. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  18. Differential heritability of adult and juvenile antisocial traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M J; True, W R; Eisen, S A; Goldberg, J; Meyer, J M; Faraone, S V; Eaves, L J; Tsuang, M T

    1995-11-01

    Studies of adult antisocial behavior or criminality usually find genetic factors to be more important than the family environment, whereas studies of delinquency find the family environment to be more important. We compared DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder symptoms before vs after the age of 15 years within a sample of twins, rather than comparing across studies. We administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version III-revised by telephone to 3226 pairs of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Biometrical modeling was applied to each symptom of antisocial personality disorder and summary measures of juvenile and adult symptoms. Five juvenile symptoms were significantly heritable, and five were significantly influenced by the shared environment. Eight adult symptoms were significantly heritable, and one was significantly influenced by the shared environment. The shared environment explained about six times more variance in juvenile anti-social traits than in adult traits. Shared environmental influences on adult antisocial traits overlapped entirely with those on juvenile traits. Additive genetic factors explained about six times more variance in adult vs juvenile traits. The juvenile genetic determinants overlapped completely with genetic influences on adult traits. The unique environment (plus measurement error) explained the largest proportion of variance in both juvenile and adult antisocial traits. Characteristics of the shared or family environment that promote antisocial behavior during childhood and early adolescence also promote later antisocial behavior, but to a much lesser extent. Genetic causal factors are much more prominent for adult than for juvenile antisocial traits.

  19. Parents and Peers as Social Influences to Deter Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Henson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Growth curve analyses were used to investigate parents' and peers' influence on adolescents' choice to abstain from antisocial behavior in a community-based sample of 416 early adolescents living in the Southeastern United States. Participants were primarily European American (91%) and 51% were girls. Both parents and peers were important…

  20. Internet gaming disorder in early adolescence: Associations with parental and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, L; Kriston, L; Kramer, M; Schwedler, A; Lincoln, T M; Kammerl, R

    2017-06-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Currently, associations between IGD in early adolescence and mental health are largely unexplained. In the present study, the relation of IGD with adolescent and parental mental health was investigated for the first time. We surveyed 1095 family dyads (an adolescent aged 12-14 years and a related parent) with a standardized questionnaire for IGD as well as for adolescent and parental mental health. We conducted linear (dimensional approach) and logistic (categorical approach) regression analyses. Both with dimensional and categorical approaches, we observed statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher degree of adolescent antisocial behavior, anger control problems, emotional distress, self-esteem problems, hyperactivity/inattention and parental anxiety (linear regression model: corrected R 2 =0.41, logistic regression model: Nagelkerke's R 2 =0.41). IGD appears to be associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Moreover, the findings of the present study provide first evidence that not only adolescent but also parental mental health is relevant to IGD in early adolescence. Adolescent and parental mental health should be considered in prevention and intervention programs for IGD in adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The importance of early anti-social behaviour among men with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a specialist forensic psychiatry hospital unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    People with a major mental disorder are at increased risk of committing crimes, especially violent crimes, compared with the general population. Sub-groups have been identified based on age of onset of anti-social or violent behaviour. Mentally disordered offenders with early onset anti-social...

  2. The importance of early anti-social behaviour among men with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a specialist forensic psychiatry hospital unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    People with a major mental disorder are at increased risk of committing crimes, especially violent crimes, compared with the general population. Sub-groups have been identified based on age of onset of anti-social or violent behaviour. Mentally disordered offenders with early onset anti-social be...

  3. Do Specific Transitional Patterns of Antisocial Behavior during Adolescence Increase Risk for Problems in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.; Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Connell, Arin M.; Connell, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Latent transition analysis was used to identify patterns and trajectories of antisocial behavior (ASB) and their association with young adult outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 5,422; 53.9% female). Participants were on average 13.96 years of age (SD= 1.06) at wave 1 of the study. Latent class analysis identified four classes of ASB including a non-ASB class, an aggressive class, a petty theft class, and a serious ASB class. In general, youth who were classified as serious stable ASB were the most at risk for problematic functioning in young adulthood. Youth who escalated to more serious patterns of ASB or reduced involvement also were at greater risk of negative outcomes in young adulthood compared to stable non-ASB youth, although they generally fared better than youth involved in stable patterns of more serious ASB. Gender differences indicated that involvement in ASB was a greater risk factor for alcohol use among boys and a greater risk factor for depression among girls in young adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of the predictive validity of classes of ASB to functioning in young adulthood and the implications of this research for prevention efforts. PMID:24893667

  4. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  5. Etiological heterogeneity in the development of antisocial behavior: the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development and the Young Adult Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Judy L; Rutter, Michael; Tracy, Kelly; Maes, Hermine H; Eaves, Lindon

    2007-08-01

    Longitudinal, genetically informed, prospective data collected on a large population of male twins (n=1037) were used to examine developmental differences in the etiology of antisocial behavior. Analyses were carried out on both mother- and child-reported symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) in 10- to 17-year-old twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and self-reported antisocial behavior by the twins as young adults from the Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU) study. The following trends were identified: (1) a single genetic factor influencing antisocial behavior beginning at age 10 through young adulthood ('life-course persistent'); (2) a shared-environmental effect beginning in adolescence ('adolescent-onset'); (3) a transient genetic effect at puberty; and (4) a genetic influence specific to adult antisocial behavior. Overall, these etiological findings are consistent with predictions from Moffitt's developmental theory of antisocial behavior. The genetic effect at puberty at ages 12-15 is also consistent with a genetically mediated influence on the timing of puberty affecting the expression of genetic differences in antisocial outcomes.

  6. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Serotonin Transporter, and Monoamine Oxidase-A-Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Thibodeau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes, TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA uVNTR, were examined. In addition to child maltreatment status, we also considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer-, and adult counselor-reports. In a series of ANCOVAs, child maltreatment and its parameters demonstrated strong main effects on early antisocial behavior as assessed by all forms of report. Genetic effects operated primarily in the context of gene-environment interactions, moderating the impact of child maltreatment on outcomes. Across the three genes, among nonmaltreated children no differences in antisocial behavior were found based on genetic variation. In contrast, among maltreated children specific polymorphisms of TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA were each related to heightened self-report of antisocial behavior; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and developmental timing of maltreatment also indicated more severe antisocial outcomes for children with early onset and recurrent maltreatment based on genotype. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR interacted with maltreatment subtype to predict peer-report of antisocial behavior; genetic variation contributed to larger differences in antisocial behavior among abused children. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms also moderated the effects of maltreatment subtype on adult report of antisocial behavior; again genetic effects were strongest for children who were abused. Additionally, TPH1 moderated the effect of developmental timing of maltreatment and chronicity on adult report of antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate how genetic variation contributes to identifying which maltreated children are most vulnerable to antisocial development. PMID:22781862

  7. Moral Orientation and Relationships in School and Adolescent Pro-and Antisocial Behaviors : A Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J.; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation,

  8. A longitudinal twin study of borderline and antisocial personality disorder traits in early to middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Czajkowski, N; Ystrøm, E; Ørstavik, R; Aggen, S H; Tambs, K; Torgersen, S; Neale, M C; Røysamb, E; Krueger, R F; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the temporal stability of these etiological factors in adulthood. DSM-IV criteria for ASPD and BPD were assessed using structured interviews in 2282 Norwegian twins in early adulthood and again approximately 10 years later. Longitudinal biometric models were used to analyze the number of endorsed criteria. The mean criterion count for ASPD and BPD decreased 40% and 28%, respectively, from early to middle adulthood. Rank-order stability was 0.58 for ASPD and 0.45 for BPD. The best-fitting longitudinal twin model included only genetic and individual-specific environmental factors. Genetic effects, both those shared by ASPD and BPD, and those specific to each disorder remained completely stable. The unique environmental effects, however, changed substantially, with a correlation across time of 0.19 for the shared effects, and 0.39 and 0.15, respectively, for those specific to ASPD and BPD. Genetic effects accounted for 71% and 72% of the stability over time for ASPD and BPD, respectively. The genetic and environmental correlations between ASPD and BPD were 0.73, and 0.43, respectively, at both time points. ASPD and BPD traits were moderately stable from early to middle adulthood, mostly due to genetic risk factors which did not change over the 10-year assessment period. Environmental risk factors were mostly transient, and appear to be the main source of phenotypic change. Genetic liability factors were, to a large extent, shared by ASPD and BPD.

  9. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  10. Anti-Social Behaviour and Police Contact among 13- to 15-Year-Old English Adolescents with and without Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Halpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the rates of anti-social behaviour (ASB) among adolescents with/without mild/moderate intellectual disability (MMID). To estimate whether any differences could be attributable to differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors. Design: Secondary analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. Methods:…

  11. Perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviour among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents: Mediating effects of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia

    2017-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in urban areas of Beijing, China, we examined the mediating effects of social support (i.e. teacher support and classmate support) in the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and antisocial behaviour (ASB) among Chinese migrant adolescents. Participants were 897 adolescents (459 boys and 438 girls, mean age = 13.34 years) from four migrant schools (68.8%) and four public schools (31.2%). Participants completed self-report questionnaires concerning PD, ASB, teacher support and classmate support. Results indicated that Chinese migrant adolescents who perceived more discrimination were more likely to engage in ASB. Teacher support partially mediated the relationship between PD and ASB. Gender moderated this mediational relationship, such that teacher support exerted a mediating role among girls, but not boys. The findings suggest that reductions in teacher support may partially account for the effect of PD on ASB among Chinese migrant adolescents girls. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. The Relation Between Antisocial and Borderline Personality Symptoms and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. PMID:23650153

  13. How Individual and Contextual Factors Affects Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors: A Comparison between Young Offenders, Adolescents at Risk of Social Exclusion, and a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Duran-Bonavila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems associated with violence during adolescence have been on the rise in recent decades. Many studies have focused only on environmental causes or individual causes of violence, although a combination of both variables would seem to be the best option for prediction. The current study aims to assess the relevance of individual characteristics (personality traits, intelligence, and historical and clinical factors linked to the risk of violence, contextual risk factors and protective factors in explaining antisocial and delinquent behaviors in adolescence by comparing three different samples: a community sample, a sample at risk of social exclusion, and a sample of juvenile offenders. The results show that the samples at risk of social exclusion and the sample of juvenile offenders have a very similar profile in terms of personality traits and intelligence, although they differ from the community sample. However, these two samples do differ in such contextual variables as peer delinquency, poor parental management, community disorganization, or early caregiver disruption.

  14. Early Attachment Organization Moderates the Parent-Child Mutually Coercive Pathway to Children's Antisocial Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Stellern, Sarah A.; O'Bleness, Jessica J.

    2009-01-01

    This multimethod study of 101 mothers, fathers, and children elucidates poorly understood role of children's attachment security as "moderating" a common maladaptive trajectory: from parental power assertion, to child resentful opposition, to child antisocial conduct. Children's security was assessed at 15 months, parents' power assertion observed…

  15. Research review: evaluating and reformulating the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Calder, Andrew J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    The developmental taxonomic theory proposes that there are two subtypes of antisocial behaviour. The first is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in early childhood and follows a life-course persistent course, whereas the second emerges in adolescence, remits in early adulthood and reflects peer processes such as mimicry of antisocial peers. The aim of this review was to evaluate the developmental taxonomic theory in the light of recent empirical research. We conducted a comprehensive literature review comparing these subtypes of antisocial behaviour based on searches on PubMed and other scientific databases covering the period from 1993 to 2013. We focused on research encompassing psychiatric epidemiology, personality assessment, neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, genetics, and structural and functional neuroimaging. Sixty one empirical studies were identified that investigated one of these forms of antisocial behaviour separately or explicitly compared childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour. Empirical research provides support for the hypothesis that life-course persistent antisocial behaviour is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in the transactions between individual vulnerabilities and environmental adversity. In contrast to the developmental taxonomic theory, however, empirical findings suggest that severe antisocial behaviour that emerges in adolescence frequently has a negative prognosis and is rarely limited to the adolescent period. In addition, both forms of antisocial behaviour are associated with emotion processing deficits, changes in brain structure and function, alterations in cortisol secretion, and atypical personality traits (such as increased callous-unemotional traits). We conclude that the developmental taxonomic theory is in need of revision, as differences between life-course persistent and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour appear to be quantitative, rather than qualitative, in

  16. The relation between antisocial and borderline personality symptoms and early maladaptive schemas in a treatment seeking sample of male substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. Antisocial (ASPD) and Borderline (BPD) personality disorder symptoms are prevalence among individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. Early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie the development of ASPD and BPD symptoms, and are also prevalence among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Findings from the current study suggest that specific early maladaptive schema domains predict ASPD and BPD symptoms in a substance abuse treatment seeking sample of adult males. The treatment of ASPD and BPD among men seeking substance use treatment may want to focus on early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Multiple Forms and Settings of Exposure to Violence and Values: Unique and Interactive Relationships With Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Affuso, Gaetana; Aquilar, Serena

    2015-10-01

    The general purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between multiple forms and settings of exposure to violence (ETV) as well as personal values and antisocial behavior (ASB) in adolescence. The association of ETV as witness or victim in different contexts (family, school, or neighborhood) and the association of the selected values of power, universalism, and conformity with ASB were analyzed. In addition, the role of ETV in moderating the relationship between values and ASB was tested. A total of 369 adolescents participated in the study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed. Results revealed that ASB was independently affected by exposure to family violence as a victim, exposure to school violence as a witness, exposure to neighborhood violence as a witness, and by all three selected values. The associations of ASB with universalism and conformity were negative. Conversely, the association of ASB with power was positive. One interaction had statistically significant effects. Results revealed that exposure to school violence as a witness moderates the relationship between universalism and ASB. The results highlight a high percentage of explained variance by ETV and values on ASB and suggest the importance of adopting a socio-ecological framework in interpreting adolescent behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Research Review: Evaluating and reformulating the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Goozen, Stephanie HM; Calder, Andrew J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe developmental taxonomic theory proposes that there are two subtypes of antisocial behaviour. The first is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in early childhood and follows a life-course persistent course, whereas the second emerges in adolescence, remits in early adulthood and reflects peer processes such as mimicry of antisocial peers. The aim of this review was to evaluate the developmental taxonomic theory in the light of recent empirical research. MethodsWe conducted a comprehensive literature review comparing these subtypes of antisocial behaviour based on searches on PubMed and other scientific databases covering the period from 1993 to 2013. We focused on research encompassing psychiatric epidemiology, personality assessment, neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, genetics, and structural and functional neuroimaging. Sixty one empirical studies were identified that investigated one of these forms of antisocial behaviour separately or explicitly compared childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour. ResultsEmpirical research provides support for the hypothesis that life-course persistent antisocial behaviour is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in the transactions between individual vulnerabilities and environmental adversity. In contrast to the developmental taxonomic theory, however, empirical findings suggest that severe antisocial behaviour that emerges in adolescence frequently has a negative prognosis and is rarely limited to the adolescent period. In addition, both forms of antisocial behaviour are associated with emotion processing deficits, changes in brain structure and function, alterations in cortisol secretion, and atypical personality traits (such as increased callous-unemotional traits). ConclusionsWe conclude that the developmental taxonomic theory is in need of revision, as differences between life-course persistent and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour appear to be

  19. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  20. Pathways from harsh parenting to adolescent antisocial behavior: a multidomain test of gender moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Mandi L; Oshri, Assaf; Lax, Rachael; Richards, Dayton; Ragbeer, Shayne N

    2012-08-01

    We tested for gender moderation within a multidomain model of antisocial behavior (ASB) among community youth, drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study. Youths (N = 1,639) were 9 to 12 years old at baseline and were followed for two additional waves, spaced approximately 2.5 years apart. We hypothesized that harsh and physically coercive parenting, a familial level risk factor, would impact individual level risk factors for ASB, such as childhood temperament ratings of emotionality and inhibitory control, and preadolescent externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as involvement with antisocial peers. We further hypothesized that this process and its impact on ASB would be moderated by gender. We used both multiple indicator multiple causes and multiple group analyses to test for gender moderation and a structural equation modeling multiple mediation framework to evaluate the strength of indirect effects. We tested the role of family, individual, and peer level influences on ASB, after accounting for the role of known contextual factors, including poverty, race, and neighborhood. Our overall model fit the data well for males and females, indicating harsh parenting, disinhibition, emotionality, and peers exert a strong influence on risk for ASB. Gender moderated the pathway from harsh parenting to externalizing behavior, such that this was a significant pathway for girls, but not boys. We discussed the importance of these findings with regard to intervention planning for youth at risk for ASB and future gender-informed models of ASB.

  1. Developmental Precursors of Moral Disengagement and the Role of Moral Disengagement in the Development of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to advance our understanding of the developmental precursors of Moral Disengagement (MD) and the role of MD in the development of antisocial behavior from early risk among an ethnically diverse sample of 187 low-income boys followed prospectively from ages 1.5 to 17. Results indicated associations between early rejecting parenting, neighborhood impoverishment, and child empathy and later MD. The link between some of these early constructs and later antisocial behavior was mediated by MD. Finally, in an exploratory path model both MD and biases in social information processing were found to mediate separate paths from early risk factors to later antisocial behavior. Results were partially consistent with the notion that adolescent MD was predicted by a combination of early family, neighborhood, and child risk factors, and that MD may be a mechanism underlying some boys' risk of antisocial behavior. PMID:19777337

  2. Drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil Uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial entre adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug use is a social and a public health problem that has been related with antisocial behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil. METHOD: A total of 7,176 adolescents from low-income neighborhoods and public schools aged 14 to 19 years were assessed in five geographical regions in Brazil. Data on biosociodemographic characteristics and on drug use and antisocial behavior were assessed from complete answers to a national survey on risk and protective factors among adolescents. RESULTS: Over 80% of the adolescents who used alcohol and cigarettes were between 14 and 17 years old. The percentage of participants with antisocial behaviors was significantly higher among users of marijuana, cocaine, or crack than among adolescents who were not drug users. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention programs aimed at reducing substance use might help to decrease antisocial behaviors.INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de drogas é um problema social e de saúde pública que tem sido relacionado a comportamentos antissociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial em adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil. MÉTODO: No total, 7.176 jovens com idades entre 14 e 19 anos estudantes de escolas públicas das cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil foram avaliados. Foram utilizados dados biossociodemográficos e sobre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial obtidos na Pesquisa Nacional sobre Fatores de Risco e Proteção da Juventude Brasileira. RESULTADOS: Mais de 80% dos adolescentes que fizeram uso de bebidas alcoólicas e cigarro tinham entre 14 e 17 anos. O percentual de pacientes com comportamento antissocial foi significativamente maior entre usuários de maconha, cocaína ou crack do que entre adolescentes não usuários. CONCLUSÕES: Programas de prevenção direcionados à redução do uso de subst

  3. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  4. The mediating effect of parental neglect on adolescent and young adult anti-sociality: a longitudinal study of twins and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Lindon J; Prom, Elizabeth C; Silberg, Judy L

    2010-07-01

    The causes of correlation between parental treatment and offspring behavior are ambiguous since genetic and social factors are correlated in typical family studies. The problem is complicated by the need to characterize the effects of genes and environment on both juvenile and adult behavioral outcomes. A model is developed for the resemblance between juvenile and adult twins and their parents that allows some of these effects to be resolved. Data on childhood adversity, parental anti-social behavior, and longitudinal adult and juvenile anti-social behavior were obtained from 1,412 families of adolescent and young adult twins. A structural model is fitted that allows for the effects of genetic and social transmission of information from parents to children. Environmental effects of parents may be mediated through measured features of the home environment. Parameters were estimated by diagonal weighted least squares applied to the 33 distinct polychoric correlations between relatives and between variables within and between ages. Sub-hypotheses were tested. Results confirmed that effects of genes and environment were both highly significant. Genetic effects were large in juveniles and largely age and sex-specific. Approximately 30% of the variation due to the shared environment was due to the effect of childhood adversity. The remaining shared environmental effects are unexplained. Adversity is affected significantly by maternal anti-social behavior. The correlation between paternal ASP and adversity may be explained by antisocial fathers selecting (or creating) antisocial mothers. All significant environmental effects of parental ASP are mediated through the measure of adversity. Though transmission of ASP is both genetic and social, passive genotype-environment correlation is very small. Assortative mating for ASP has barely detectable consequence for the genetic correlation between siblings. The longitudinal study of twins and their parents makes it possible to

  5. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  6. Assessing the links among adolescent and youth offending, antisocial behaviour, victimization, drug use, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Estévez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio ex post facto se centra en el análisis de tres factores de riesgo relacionados con la delincuencia juvenil: la implicación en comportamientos antisociales,el hecho de haber sido víctima de algún acto delictivo, y el consumo de drogas. La investigación previa sobre estos factores de riesgo sigue presentando cuestiones no resueltas sobre las direcciones de influencia. Además, los estudios con población femenina son mucho más escasos que aquellos desarrollados con población masculina. El propósito del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones bidireccionales entre la delincuencia, la conducta antisocial, la victimización y el consumo de drogas en una muestra de 4980 participantes con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 25 años, en función de los grupos de género y edad. Los análisis estadísticos se llevaron a cabo con regresiones lineales y un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en los patrones de interacción entre las variables de estudio en hombres y mujeres, así como entre los grupos de la adolescencia temprana-media y la adolescencia tardía-juventud. Se comentan las principales implicaciones prácticas en relación a políticas de prevención para los jóvenes en riesgo de continuar con un estilo de vida fundamentado en el incumplimiento de las normas socialmente establecidas.

  7. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  8. Interpersonal Callousness from Childhood to Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories and Early Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Amy L; Hawes, Samuel W; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2018-01-01

    Youth with a callous interpersonal style, consistent with features of adult psychopathy (e.g., lack of guilt, deceitful), are at risk for exhibiting severe and protracted antisocial behaviors. However, no studies have examined changes that occur in interpersonal callousness (IC) from childhood to adolescence, and little is known about the influence of early child, social, and contextual factors on trajectories of IC. The current study examined distinct patterns of IC across childhood and adolescence and associations with early risk factors. Participants were an at-risk sample of 503 boys (56% African American) assessed annually from around ages 7-15. Analyses examined child (anger dysregulation, fearfulness), social (peer, family, maltreatment), and contextual (psychosocial adversity) factors associated with teacher-reported IC trajectories across childhood and adolescence. Using latent class growth analysis, five trajectories of IC were identified (early-onset chronic, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, low). Approximately 10% of boys followed an early-onset chronic trajectory, and a roughly equal percent of youth followed childhood-limited trajectory (10%) or an adolescent-onset trajectory (12%) of IC across development. Specifically, half of the boys with high IC in childhood did not continue to exhibit significant levels of these features into adolescence, whereas an equal proportion of youth with low IC in childhood demonstrated increasing levels during the transition to adolescence. Boys in the early-onset chronic group were characterized by the most risk factors and were differentiated from those with childhood-limited and adolescent-onset IC only by higher conduct problems, fearlessness, and emotional abuse/neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental models of IC and several avenues for early targeted interventions.

  9. Longitudinal Latent Cognitive Profiles and Psychosocial Well-being in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne

    2017-10-01

    Engaging in exploratory risky behaviors and experiencing poor mental health during early adolescence are important markers for poor health during adulthood. Prior research suggests protective effects from cognition, but less is known about the associations between early childhood cognition and early adolescent psychosocial well-being, as identified by self-esteem, mental health, and exploratory risky behaviors. This article investigates the extent that early adolescent psychosocial well-being at the age of 11 years is associated with patterns of cognitive skills measured across the first decade of a child's life. We used data collected from the four follow-up sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study and utilized latent profile analysis to identify three discernible cognitive profiles (n = 16,899). We find cohort members in low-achieving profiles to be more likely to engage in exploratory risky behaviors-drinking, smoking, and antisocial conduct-and to have poor self-esteem and more problem behaviors, compared with their peers in high-achieving profiles. Socioeconomic and family psychosocial markers considerably attenuated these disadvantages. Understanding which adolescents have adverse psychosocial well-being has implications for the prevention of chronic diseases and for clinical care and policy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  11. Erikson's Psychosocial Theories Help Explain Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, M. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…

  12. Antisocial Notworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial Notworking refers to a repository of projects that explore the pseudo-agency of online social platforms. It takes a number of recent software projects as its inspiration to reflect upon the fashion for 'participation' within the arts sector and culture in general. The concern is how th...

  13. The Prospective Links Between Hyperactive/Impulsive, Inattentive, and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors in Childhood and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Influence of Gender and the Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-12-01

    We prospectively investigated the effect of child hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional/defiant behaviors on the development of youth antisocial behaviors, and the moderating influence of gender and the parent-child relationship quality in a normative sample. Participants (N = 673, 50 % girls) were assessed at 10 years of age (parent reports) and at age 15 (parent and adolescent reports). Using latent change models, we found that initial levels of, as well as increases in, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional behaviors and initial levels of inattention behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors. The increase in oppositional behaviors was predictive of youth antisocial behaviors in girls only. Child hyperactive/impulsive behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors only in children for whom the quality of the parent-child relationship deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. Thus, both initial levels of and increases in disruptive behaviors as well as gender are important for understanding the development of antisocial behaviors in adolescence. We received partial support for the hypothesized, moderating role of a high-quality parent-child relationship.

  14. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  15. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  16. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  17. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  18. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  19. Comportamiento antisocial durante la adolescencia: teoría, investigación y programas de prevención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Herrera Paredes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of several causes of antisocial behavior during adolescence seems to respond, not only to the combination of many risk factors within different levels of human development, but also to cultural and historical processes affecting, in many ways, severalgenerations since their early childhood. This paper revises the main explicative theories about antisocial behavior during adolescence and highlights the theory of the Neuropsychological Taxonomy of the Antisocial Behavior proposed by Terrie E. Moffitt (1993, 1994, 1996, 2003. Moreover, some studies are mentioned due to the fact that they confirm the cross-culturalvalidity of Moffitt’s theorical model and its  contributions to the design of prevention programs against delinquency for youngsters and adolescents in our context.

  20. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  1. Evidence for an agitated-aggressive syndrome in early-onset psychosis correlated with antisocial personality disorder, forensic history, and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian G; Hochstrasser, Lisa; Meister, Klara; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Lambert, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Agitation, aggression, and violence are increased in psychotic disorders. Additionally, an earlier age at onset may be associated with aggressive behavior. However, the relationship of age at onset, an agitated-aggressive syndrome as measured with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia - Excited Component (PANSS-EC), and its potential correlates in first-episode psychosis (FEP) has not been studied. This study assessed the association between age at onset, an agitated-aggressive syndrome, and its potential correlates in a prospective sample of 52 FEP patients with early-onset and adult-onset followed up for 12months. Twenty-six patients conformed to the criteria of early-onset psychosis. Early age at onset was associated with antisocial personality disorder (p=0.004; φc=0.39), a history of legal involvement (p=0.005; φc=0.39), and higher rates of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD; p=0.002; φc=0.42). Early-onset patients had significantly higher PANSS-EC scores over the course of observation (F(1,44.4)=5.39; p=0.025; d=0.656), but no significant group differences emerged for the remaining PANSS subscores. PANSS-EC scores were correlated positively with antisocial personality disorder and forensic history at 6weeks, 3months, 6months, and 12months, and with lifetime substance use disorder at 3months and 6months. Patients with early onset psychosis may have increased levels of agitation/aggressiveness, and, more likely, antisocial personality disorder, forensic history, and lifetime substance use disorder. These variables were linked to suicidality, aggressiveness, and involuntary treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence antisociálního chování českých adolescentů z městských oblastí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Sobotková, Veronika; Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 297-310 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7025354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : antisocial behavior * adolescence * theory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.279, year: 2006

  3. Stability and predictors of psychopathic traits from mid-adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Kosson, David; Westerman, Johan; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2015-12-01

    High levels of psychopathic traits in youth are associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, aggressive behavior, and criminality. Evidence regarding stability of psychopathic traits is contradictory. No previous study has examined long-term stability of psychopathic traits assessed with validated clinical measures. The present study examined the stability of psychopathic traits from mid-adolescence to early adulthood and explored adolescent factors that predicted psychopathic traits five years later. The sample included 99 women and 81 men who had consulted a clinic for substance misuse in adolescence. At an average age of 16.8 years, the adolescents were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and five years later using the PCL-Revised (PCL-R). Additionally, extensive clinical assessments of the adolescents and their parents were completed in mid-adolescence. Among both females and males, moderate to high rank-order stability was observed for total PCL and facet scores. Among both females and males, there was a decrease in the mean total PCL score, interpersonal facet score, affective facet score, and lifestyle facet score. However, the great majority of females and males showed no change in psychopathy scores over the five-year period as indicated by the Reliable Change Index. Despite the measures of multiple family and individual factors in adolescence, only aggressive behavior and male sex predicted PCL-R total scores in early adulthood after taking account of PCL:YV scores. Taken together, these results from a sample who engaged in antisocial behavior in adolescence suggest that factors promoting high psychopathy scores act early in life. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Relationship between Large Cavum Septum Pellucidum and Antisocial Behavior, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Psychopathy in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F.; Brislin, Sarah; Sinclair, Stephen; Fowler, Katherine A.; Pope, Kayla; Blair, R. James R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been previously associated with antisocial behavior/psychopathic traits in an adult community sample. Aims: The current study investigated the relationship between a large CSP and symptom severity in disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; conduct disorder and oppositional defiant…

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of a Family-Based Intervention in Early Adolescence on Parent-Youth Relationship Quality, Late Adolescent Health, and Early Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Nowicka, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family CheckUp, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 yrs) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent–youth relationship quality (ages 12–15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent–youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent–youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity. PMID:23421838

  6. Early Adolescence: A Resource Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaves, David, Comp.

    This is a resource directory for professionals who work with young adolescents (10- to 15-year-olds). It is a multidisciplinary list of organizations, publications, and readings to help professionals in their research and practice. Although the directory is not meant to be all-inclusive, an attempt has been made to include the major networks,…

  7. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  8. Parasocial Interactions and Relationships in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.

    2017-01-01

    Parasocial interactions and relationships, one-sided connections imagined with celebrities and media figures, are common in adolescence and might play a role in adolescent identity formation and autonomy development. We asked 151 early adolescents (Mage = 14.8 years) to identify a famous individual of whom they are fond; we examined the type of celebrities chosen and why they admired them, and the relationships imagined with these figures across the entire sample and by gender. Adolescents emphasized highly salient media figures, such as actors, for parasocial attention. While different categories of celebrities were appreciated equally for their talent and personality, actors/singers were endorsed for their attractiveness more so than other celebrity types. Most adolescents (61.1%) thought of their favorite media figures as relationship partners, and those who did reported more parasocial involvement and emotional intensity than those who did not. Gender differences emerged in that boys chose more athletes than girls and were more likely to imagine celebrities as authority figures or mentors than friends. Celebrities afforded friendship for girls, who overwhelmingly focused on actresses. Hierarchical parasocial relationships may be linked to processes of identity formation as adolescents, particularly boys, imagine media figures as role models. In contrast, egalitarian parasocial relationships might be associated with autonomy development via an imagined affiliation with an attractive and admirable media figure. PMID:28280479

  9. The nonlinear dynamics of family problem solving in adolescence: the predictive validity of a peaceful resolution attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Forgatch, Marion; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    In this study we examined the videotaped family interactions of a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Youths were assessed in early to late adolescence on their levels of antisocial behavior. At age 16-17, youths and their parents were videotaped interacting while completing a variety of tasks, including family problem solving. The interactions were coded and compared for three developmental patterns of antisocial behavior: early onset, persistent; adolescence onset; and typically developing. The mean duration of conflict bouts was the only interaction pattern that discriminated the 3 groups. In the prediction of future antisocial behavior, parent and youth reports of transition entropy and conflict resolution interacted to account for antisocial behavior at age 18-19. Families with low entropy and peaceful resolutions predicted low levels of youth antisocial behavior at age 18-19. These findings suggest the need to study both attractors and repellers to understand family dynamics associated with health and social and emotional development.

  10. First steps to misbehaving : The co-development of early adolescent friendship and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, A.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in externalizing behaviors such as antisocial behavior, alcohol use, and tobacco use during adolescence, and the role of peers in this increase of externalizing behavior, has been explained by Moffitt’s (1993) dual-taxonomy model. This model assumes that adolescents who start to feel

  11. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  12. Maternal depressive symptoms in childhood and risky behaviours in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal patterns of maternal depressive symptoms have yet to be linked to risky behaviours, such as substance use or violence, in early adolescence, when such behaviours may be particularly detrimental. This study was carried out to do this. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, it modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms at child ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years on antisocial behaviour and delinquency at age 11 years (N = 12,494). It also explored their role in predicting moral judgement and attitudes to alcohol at age 11, important predictors of delinquent or antisocial behaviour and alcohol use, respectively. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal depressive symptoms (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal symptom typology predicted antisocial behaviour in males and attitudes to alcohol in females, even after adjusting for youth's age and pubertal status and after correcting for confounding. Specifically, compared to males growing up with never-depressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high or accelerating maternal depressive symptoms were more likely to report engaging in loud and rowdy behaviour, alcohol use and bullying. Females exposed to chronically high maternal depressive symptoms were more likely than those growing up with never-depressed mothers to support the view that alcohol use is harmless. While causal conclusions cannot be drawn, these findings suggest that preventing or treating maternal depressive symptoms in childhood may be a useful approach to reducing future externalising and health-risk behaviours in offspring.

  13. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  14. Personality Trait Differences in Boys and Girls with Clinical or Sub-Clinical Diagnoses of Conduct Disorder versus Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested differences in personality traits measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a community sample of adolescents with definite or probable conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses that did not progress to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) by early adulthood (n=43), those with definite or probable…

  15. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  16. Pulmonary dysfunction in obese early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Supriyatno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Obesity leads to various complications, including pulmonary dysfunction. Studies on pulmonary function of obese children are limited and the results are controversial. This study was aimed to determine proportion of pulmonary dysfunction on early adolescents with obesity and to evaluate correlation between obesity degree with pulmonary dysfunction degree.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Indonesia, from November 2007 to December 2008. Subjects were 10 to 12 year-old adolescents with obesity. Subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT to assess FEV1/FVC, FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25.Results 110 subjects fulfilled study criteria, 83 (75.5% were male and 27 (24.5% were female with median BMI 26.7 (22.6-54.7 kg/m2; 92 subjects (83.6% were superobese. History of asthma and allergic rhinitis were found in 32 (29.1% and 46 (41.8% subjects, respectively. 64 (58.2% subjects had abnormal PFT results consisting of restrictive type in 28 (25.5% subjects, obstructive in 3 (2.7%, and combined type in 33 (30%. Mean FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25 values were below normal, while mean FEV1/FVC ratio was normal. There was no statistically significant correlation between BMI and PFT parameters. No significant correlation was found between degree of obesity and the severity of pulmonary dysfunction.Conclusions Pulmonary dysfunction occurs in 58.2% obese early adolescents. The most common abnormality was combined type (30%, followed by restrictive (25.5%, and obstructive type (2.7%. There was no correlation between BMI and pulmonary function test parameters. (Med J Indones 2010;19:179-84Key words: early adolescents, obesity, pulmonary function test

  17. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  18. Direct and indirect effects of a family-based intervention in early adolescence on parent-youth relationship quality, late adolescent health, and early adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2013-02-01

    We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family Check-Up, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 years) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent-youth relationship quality (ages 12-15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent-youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent-youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  20. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  1. LISTENING TO MUSIC AND MUSIC PREFERENCES IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Ina Reić; Dobrota, Snježana; Surić, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the life of adolescents. Dealing with music represents a very important free-time activity during adolescence, while by listening to music or performing music adolescents can satisfy a range of needs, both personal and those of social nature. Therefore, this paper presents the results of research on musical taste and listening to music habits in early adolescence. We hypothesized that students generally like listening to music and that they mostly prefer do...

  2. Testing developmental pathways to antisocial personality problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Diamantopoulou; F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. van der Ende (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the development of antisocial personality problems (APP) in young adulthood from disruptive behaviors and internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. Parent ratings of 507 children's (aged 6-8 years) symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  3. Testing Developmental Pathways to Antisocial Personality Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of antisocial personality problems (APP) in young adulthood from disruptive behaviors and internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. Parent ratings of 507 children's (aged 6-8 years) symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety, were linked to…

  4. Early adolescent sexual debut in peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savickaite, Ruta; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adolescent sexual activity is considered a normative aspect of adolescent development and the transition to adulthood, however, there are potential risks involved when adolescents start having sex, such as teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and undesirable long-term

  5. The Challenge of Sexual Maturation in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This fifth chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" looks at the issue of sexual maturation in early adolescence via four articles. "The Counselor's Impact on Middle-Grade Students," by Hershel Thornburg, examines physical, intellectual, and social developmental tasks of early adolescence. "Contraceptive and Sexuality Knowledge…

  6. Vocational Preferences of Early Adolescents: Their Development in Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Fred W.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias; Wiesner, Margit

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the timing of early vocational preferences in young adolescents from former East Germany and West Germany. Results suggested that as the memory of the Communist system fades and as younger adolescents have had less exposure to it, East-West differences tend to disappear. The formation of early vocational preferences was…

  7. Objective and Subjective Attractiveness and Early Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Jasna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used data from Pennsylvania Early Adolescent Transitions Study to assess how objective physical attractiveness (PA), indexed by appraisals from others, and subjective PA, indexed by self-appraisals, related to each other and to early adolescent adjustment. Findings indicated low relationship between objective and subjective PA; only subjective PA…

  8. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  9. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…

  10. Father's and mother's perceptions of parenting styles as mediators of the effects of parental psychopathology on antisocial behavior in outpatient children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-06-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys). Parenting style had a mediating effect on the studied relationships. Maternal psychopathology was positively associated with antisocial behavior in children, either directly or partially by parenting style, while paternal psychopathology was positively associated with offspring antisocial behavior only through the mediator role of parenting style. Child's sex did not moderate these relationships. Parenting style could be a target for prevention and intervention of antisocial behavior in the offspring of parents with mental health problems.

  11. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lizotte, Alan J; Krohn, Marvin D; Smith, Carolyn A

    2003-04-01

    There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers.

  12. Interpersonal Complementarity – Self-rated Behavior by Normal and Antisocial Adolescents with a Liked and Disliked Peer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hakelind

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior as developed by Benjamin (1974 were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  13. Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Male Adolescents with Early-Onset or Adolescence-Onset Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Calder, Andrew J.; Stollery, Sarah J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that…

  14. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  15. Characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Godinho, José; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Ramos, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence. The sample was comprised of 1,680 adolescents (884 girls and 796 boys) aged 13, attending private and public schools in Porto, Portugal, during 2003/2004. Adolescents completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic, social and behavioral characteristics, including the time spent watching television and playing computer games on week and weekend days. Logistic and propor...

  16. Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Santiesteban, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  17. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  18. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  19. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  20. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early adolescent symptoms of social phobia prospectively predict alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.

  2. Heritability of antisocial behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; DeLisi, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews important strands of research on the heritability of antisocial behavior and crime, including both quantitative genetic studies using twin or adoption designs as well as molecular genetic approaches. Study designs are introduced and findings discussed. Contemporary avenues

  3. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  4. Marital conflict and early adolescents' self-evaluation: the role of parenting quality and early adolescents' appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.

  5. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  6. Antisocial Personality disorder | Chinasa | Abia State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality disorders are mental disorders that are characterized by persistent maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience. These patterns develop early in life, are inflexible and associated with significant distress or disability. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a psychiatric condition ...

  7. The association between early generative concern and caregiving with friends from early to middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Heather L; Doyle, Anna-Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2013-12-01

    Generativity, defined as concern for future generations, is theorized to become a priority in midlife, preceded by a stage in which intimacy is the central issue. Recent research, however, has found evidence of generativity even in adolescence. This longitudinal study explored the associations between caregiving in friendships, closely related to intimacy, and early generative concern in a young adolescent sample. Given the importance of close friendships in adolescence, it was hypothesized that responsive caregiving in early adolescent friendships would predict later generative concern. Approximately 140 adolescents (56 % female, aged 14 at Time 1) completed questionnaires regarding generative concern and responsive caregiving with friends yearly across 2 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that caregiving predicted generative concern 1 year later but generative concern did not predict later caregiving. These results suggest that caregiving in close friendships plays an important role in the development of adolescents' motivation to contribute to future generations.

  8. Father's and Mother's Perceptions of Parenting Styles as Mediators of the Effects of Parental Psychopathology on Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…

  9. Early life predictors of adolescent suicidal thoughts and adverse outcomes in two population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Dykxhoorn

    Full Text Available Understanding suicidality has proven challenging given the complex aetiology in early childhood. Being able to accurately predict groups at increased risk of developing suicidal thoughts may aid in the development of targeted prevention programs that mitigate increased vulnerability. Further, the predictors of suicidal thoughts may be shared with other outcomes in adolescence. Previous research has linked many factors to suicidality, so the objective of this study was to consider how these factors may act together to increase risk of suicidal thoughts and other non-mental health outcomes.Two longitudinal datasets were used in this analysis: the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY and the Avon Longitudinal Survey of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A Classification and Regression Tree model comprised of 75 factors describing early childhood was constructed to identify subgroups of adolescents at high risk of suicidal thoughts in the NLSCY and was validated in ALSPAC. These subgroups were investigated to see if they also had elevated rates of antisocial behaviour, substance misuse, poor physical health, poor mental health, risky health behaviours, and/or poor academic performance.The sensitivity was calculated to be 22·7%, specificity was 89·2%, positive predictive value 17·8%, and negative predictive value 91·8% and had similar accuracy in the validation dataset. The models were better at predicting other adverse outcomes compared to suicidal thoughts.There are groups of risk factors present in early life that can predict higher risk of suicidality in adolescence. Notably, these factors were also predictive of a range of adverse outcomes in adolescence.

  10. Exploration of Gender Norms and Socialization Among Early Adolescents: The Use of Qualitative Methods for the Global Early Adolescent Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert W; Atnafou, Rebkha; Chilet, Elisa; de Meyer, Sara; El-Gibaly, Omaima; Basu, Sharmistha; Bello, Bamidele; Maina, Beatrice; Zuo, Xiayun

    2017-10-01

    The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was launched in 2014 with the primary goal of understanding the factors in early adolescence that predispose young people to subsequent sexual risks, and conversely, those that promote healthy sexuality across different cultural contexts. The present article describes the methodology that was used for the first phase of GEAS, which consisted of conducting qualitative research to understand the gendered transitions into adolescence and the role that gender norms play within the key relationships of adolescents. Researchers from each of the sites that had completed data collection were also elicited for their feedback on the key strengths, challenges, and lessons learned from conducting research among 11- to 14-year-old adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the description of each of the methods that were used in GEAS, as well as the researchers' perspectives of using the methods among early adolescents in their sites. The GEAS is being implemented through a collaboration of university and nongovernmental institutions from 15 cities: Assiut (Egypt) Baltimore (U.S.), Blantyre (Malawi), Cape Town (South Africa), Cochabomba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador), Edinburgh (Scotland), Ghent (Belgium), Hanoi (Vietnam), Ile-Ife (Nigeria), Kinshasa (DRC), Nairobi (Kenya), New Delhi (India), Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and Shanghai (China). Approximately 30 in-depth interviews among adolescents and 30 in-depth interviews with their parent/guardian were conducted at each site, with adults and adolescents interviewed separately. To build trust and increase engagement among the adolescent participants, we used two different visual research methods: (1) timeline exercise which was small group based and (2) the Venn diagram exercise which was conducted individually and used at the start of the in-depth interview. The visual aspects of both the timeline and the Venn diagrams not only helped to produce data for the purposes of the

  11. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not.

  12. Prosocial And Antisocial Boys Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ronald A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    It may not help antisocial boys to segregate them, but wouldn't it harm prosocial boys to be integrated with antisocial boys? This study examines both propositions in the light of investigation at a summer camp. (Author)

  13. Childhood risk factors associated with adolescent gun carrying among Black and White males: An examination of self-protection, social influence, and antisocial propensity explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Jordan; Docherty, Meagan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Pardini, Dustin

    2018-04-01

    Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys. Analyses then examined whether racial differences in risk factors accounted for racial differences in gun carrying. Data came from a sample of 485 Black and White boys who were repeatedly assessed from 2nd grade until age 18. Multi-informant data collected across the first 3 years of the study were used to assess neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems. Illegal gun carrying was assessed annually from 5th grade through age 18. Growth curve analyses indicated that children with higher initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement, as well as those who increased in conduct problems across childhood, were more likely to carry a gun prior to age 18. Black boys were also more likely to carry guns than Whites. Racial differences were greatly reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement. Findings suggest that early prevention programs designed to reduce adolescent gun violence (including racial disparities in gun violence) should target boys with severe conduct problems and those who affiliate with delinquent peers during elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Re-offending in forensic patients released from secure care: the role of antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, substance dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; McCarthy, Lucy; Huband, Nick; Duggan, Conor

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that a particular externalising phenotype, manifested in a developmental trajectory from severe childhood conduct disorder through early-onset substance abuse to adult antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, may increase risk of antisocial behaviour in general and criminal recidivism in particular. This study aims to test the hypothesis that antisocial/borderline co-morbidity together with the triad of substance dependence, severe conduct disorder and borderline pathology would result in an increased risk of criminal recidivism. Fifty-three men who had been assessed and treated in a secure hospital unit were followed up after they had returned to the community. They were assessed for severity of the following: (i) antisocial personality disorder; (ii) borderline personality disorder; (iii) drug/alcohol dependence; and (iv) high Psychopathy Checklist Revised scores (factors 1 and 2). Patients with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity took significantly less time to re-offend compared with those without such co-morbidity. Both Psychopathy Checklist Revised factor 2 and the tripartite risk measure significantly predicted time to re-offence; the former largely accounted for the predictive accuracy of the latter. Risk of criminal recidivism can be adequately assessed without recourse to the pejorative term 'psychopath'. It is sufficient to assess the presence of the three elements of our risk measure: borderline and antisocial personality disorders in the context of drug/alcohol dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder. Practical implications of the study are as follows. (i) Sound assessment of personality, inclusive of a detailed history of childhood conduct disorder as well as adolescent and adult substance misuse, yields good enough information about risk of recidivism without recourse to the pejorative concept of 'psychopathy'. (ii) Given the high risk of alcohol-related violence in individuals with antisocial/borderline co

  15. Violencia intrafamiliar en hogares de adolescentes pinareños con diagnóstico de trastorno disocial Intrafamily violence in homes of adolescents having the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Barón Hernádez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en el municipio Pinar del Río se identificó el incremento de diversas manifestaciones de violencia en las familias de los adolescentes diagnosticados con trastorno disocial. Objetivo: caracterizar la violencia intrafamiliar en las familias de adolescentes con diagnóstico de trastorno disocial residentes en el municipio Pinar del Río. Material y métodos: constituyó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en una muestra intencional de veinticinco familias de veintiséis adolescentes (dos hermanos y convivientes de las comunidades que reportaron las cifras más altas de prevalencia del trastorno de 2006 a 2010. Las técnicas aplicadas fueron: entrevistas semiestructuradas, escalas de valoración, escudo familiar, dibujo de la familia y autorretrato; además de, entrevistas a los especialistas que atendían a los adolescentes y revisión de las historias clínicas. Resultados: los tipos de violencia física y psicológica expresadas a la vez fueron predominantes y se asociaron a eventos paranormativos del ciclo vital familiar. En todas las familias se reportaron antecedentes de comportamientos violentos. Los miembros de mayor participación en situaciones violentas fueron los adolescentes y sus madres. La reacción predominante de los adolescentes ante la violencia intrafamiliar fue la agresión verbal, ocupando estos posiciones de agredido y agresor/agredido, en lo fundamental. Conclusiones: en la mayoría de las familias los comportamientos violentos se mantuvieron desde las primeras manifestaciones, con independencia de la singularidad de su expresión, asociados a eventos paranormativos del ciclo vital. Las situaciones violentas en las familias involucraron a los adolescentes y facilitaron modelos a imitar para estos.Introduction: an increase of varied manifestations of violence was identified in families of adolescents having the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in Pinar del Rio municipality. Objective: to

  16. Maternal Employment and Early Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of maternal employment on use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs by ninth graders (n=48). Comparison of maternal employment patterns (full-time versus part-time versus not employed outside the home) indicated no significant differences in substance use behavior among adolescents. Findings support literature on…

  17. Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 132 junior high school students completed a biographical data sheet, short forms of the Beck Depression Inventory, a Sensation-Seeking Scale, the Family Environment Scale, a social support index, and a life stress inventory, to determine to what extent depression in young adolescents could be predicted. (Author/PN)

  18. Coping and resilience resources in early adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 240-240 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * coping * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  19. Automatic prejudice in childhood and early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.; Wentura, D.

    2010-01-01

    Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as

  20. Parental Self-Control and the Development of Male Aggression in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Test of Self-Control Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meldrum, Ryan C.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Dekovic, Maja

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies have evaluated associations between parenting practices, adolescent self-control, and adolescent antisocial behavior. Yet, few studies have examined associations between these constructs in early childhood or examined the extent to which both maternal and paternal self-control

  1. What motivates early adolescents for school? A longitudinal analysis of associations between observed teaching and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    For many early adolescent students, motivation for school declines after their transition to secondary education. Increasingly, the decisive importance of teachers in shaping early adolescents' motivation is stressed; thus far, however, both longitudinal and observational studies on this topic have

  2. Characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, José; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Ramos, Elisabete

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to identify socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence. The sample was comprised of 1,680 adolescents (884 girls and 796 boys) aged 13, attending private and public schools in Porto, Portugal, during 2003/2004. Adolescents completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic, social and behavioral characteristics, including the time spent watching television and playing computer games on week and weekend days. Logistic and proportional ordinal regressions showed that attending public schools, sleeping less time, using tobacco and presenting low levels of physical activity were factors associated with high media use. In boys living with one of their parents as well as living with younger and older parents were also associated with high media use. Besides the association with less healthier behaviours, we also found higher media use among adolescents from lower social classes and less structured families, which may increase their exposure to negative influence of the media.

  3. Characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Godinho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence. The sample was comprised of 1,680 adolescents (884 girls and 796 boys aged 13, attending private and public schools in Porto, Portugal, during 2003/2004. Adolescents completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic, social and behavioral characteristics, including the time spent watching television and playing computer games on week and weekend days. Logistic and proportional ordinal regressions showed that attending public schools, sleeping less time, using tobacco and presenting low levels of physical activity were factors associated with high media use. In boys living with one of their parents as well as living with younger and older parents were also associated with high media use. Besides the association with less healthier behaviours, we also found higher media use among adolescents from lower social classes and less structured families, which may increase their exposure to negative influence of the media.

  4. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  5. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  6. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  7. Positive Home Environment and Behaviour Development in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. This transition involves physical, cognitive and socio- emotional changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degree of disturbance. The changes they undergo sometimes results in…

  8. Early Adolescents' Attitudes andPerceptions about their Parents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of early adolescents towards their parents as well as their perceptions about their parents' attitude towards them and the parenting styles they use were examined. The survey was carried out using a semi-structured interview guide, on 930 primary six pupils in 25 randomly selected schools from 10 Districts spread ...

  9. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  10. Assessment and Implications of Social Avoidance in Chinese Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi

    2018-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…

  11. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  12. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  13. Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, A.H.N.; Mayeux, L.; Ha, P.T.; Bruyn, E.H. de; LaFontana, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an

  14. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  15. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  16. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  17. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of hearing status by gender; popularity varied as a function of hearing status and educational setting. Deaf boys in mainstream education were less accepted and popular than their hearing classmates and than deaf peers in special education. Deaf girls in mainstream education were also less popular but not less accepted. Communicative skills varied as a function of hearing status, whereas social behavior varied as a function of educational setting. Deaf mainstreamed children showed less developed pragmatic and strategic communicative skills (monitoring, improvisation, initiating/maintaining) than their hearing classmates, but more social adjustment than deaf peers in special education (more prosocial behavior, less antisocial or withdrawn behavior, and more agreeableness). For acceptance, deaf girls in mainstream education compensated the lack of improvisation with higher levels of prosocial behavior, agreeableness, monitoring, and pragmatic skills, and lower levels of antisocial behavior than deaf boys. Monitoring and pragmatic skills negatively affected a deaf mainstream boy's acceptance. In special education, gender differences in prosocial behavior explained deaf boys' lower acceptance. Popularity was explained by pragmatic skills and improvisation as a function of hearing status. Voter population difference and different social behavior norms are considered as an explanation for popularity differences as a function of educational setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mali adolescents: early parenthood does not equal more choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This paper highlights the impact of laws and policies on reproductive rights in adolescents and young girls in Mali. The Center for Reproductive Law and the Association of Women Lawyers in the country uncovered several areas of concern on the adolescents in Mali. It was noted that 94% of the women in reproductive age have undergone female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision. According to the report, 34% of the female adolescents have experienced pregnancy despite their knowledge that early pregnancies are critical risk factors in maternal and infant mortality. The adolescent pregnancy is attributed to their law, which permits girls to marry at an early age. Moreover, the low level of knowledge on contraceptives contributed to the increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS infection in the country. Also documented was the outlawing of abortion in Mali and is permitted only when the life of the woman is at risk. Because of this, adolescents flood to illegal abortions, putting themselves at risk of infection and complications. In response to this report, the UN recommended that Mali government should establish strategies against maternal mortality.

  19. Alcohol and drug use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotton, Tina; Haans, Dave

    2004-05-01

    This analysis presents the prevalence of substance use among young adolescents. The extent to which factors such as peer behaviour, parenting practices and school commitment and achievement are associated with drinking to intoxication and other drug use is investigated. The data are from the 1998/99 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Analysis is based on a cross-sectional file from 4,296 respondents aged 12 to 15. Prevalence estimates for alcohol and drug use were calculated by sex. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, peer and parent substance use, parenting practices, school commitment/attachment, emotional health and religious attendance. In general, drinking to intoxication and drug use were more common among 14- and 15-year-olds than among 12- and 13-year-olds. The odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use were highest among adolescents whose friends used alcohol or drugs or were often in trouble, who reported low commitment to school, or whose parents had a hostile and ineffective parenting style.

  20. Sleep habits, circadian preference, and school performance in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo M; Biasi, Valeria; Cipolli, Carlo; Mallia, Luca; Caponera, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to cast light on the relationships between sleep habits, perceived sleep problems and school performance in Evening-type (E-type) compared with Morning-type (M-type) early adolescents. Comparison of questionnaire data of E-type and M-type adolescents random-selected from a large sample of eight-grade adolescents who took part in a national survey of competence in mathematics and science. The proportions of sleep problems that were observed to occur more than once per week and the frequency of struggling to fall asleep and/or falling asleep in distinct everyday situations were much higher in E-type than in M-type adolescents. Moreover, E-type adolescents showed more disturbed and poorer sleep during both school and weekend days and reported lower grades in mathematics, science and Italian. E-type adolescents showed a partial recovery of sleep debt during weekend days. This finding suggests that they could improve their school performance if tests and classwork would be scheduled on their most alert school days, namely the post-weekend ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  2. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all poverweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  3. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  4. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

  5. Moral Cognition: Explaining the Gender Difference in Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…

  6. Correlates of firesetting in a community sample of young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A; Richardson, Angela S; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate relationships between firesetting, antisocial behaviour, individual, family and parenting factors in a large community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study of students (n = 2596) aged 13 years on average, from 27 schools in South Australia with a questionnaire on firesetting, antisocial behaviour (adapted 21-item Self Report Delinquency Scale), risk-taking, drug use, suicidality, physical and sexual abuse, depressive symptomatology, hopelessness, anxiety, locus of control, self-esteem, family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device) and parenting style (Influential Relationships Questionnaire). Data analysis included chi2, anova and logistic regression. Large significant differences are found between firesetters and non-firesetters on all measures. Among adolescents with serious levels of antisocial behaviour (7+ acts included in diagnostic guidelines for DSM-IV conduct disorder), firesetters differ from non-firesetters in reporting more extreme antisocial behaviour (10+ acts), extreme drug use, suicidal behaviour, and perceived failure at school. Gender differences are apparent. A study limitation is the single item assessment of firesetting. Self-report firesetting is strongly associated with extreme antisocial behaviour in young community adolescents, in support of existing evidence from incarcerated delinquent and psychiatric populations. Early detection of community firesetters demands further assessment and intervention. Clinicians should consider its coexistence with serious drug use and high risk-taking (especially in girls), and suicidality, sexual and physical abuse (in boys).

  7. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Melissa D; Cook, Nina; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Kettle, Jonathan W L; Schwartz, Orli; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images. Adolescent participants did not exhibit fear-potentiated startle blink. However, they did display affect-consistent zygomatic and corrugator activity during reactivity, as well as inhibition of some of these facial patterns during regulation. Skin conductance demonstrated arousal dependent activity during reactivity, and overall decreases during regulation. These findings suggest that early adolescents display reactivity to valenced pictures, but not to startle probes. Psychophysiological patterns during emotion regulation indicate additional effort and/or attention during the regulation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychodynamic Therapy in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.

  10. Consumption of pornographic materials in early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cecilia M S; Shek, Daniel T L

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in pornography consumption and related psychosocial correlates (ie, positive youth development qualities and family function) among Hong Kong early adolescents. In this study, adolescent consumption of pornographic materials was examined in 3 waves of longitudinal data. A total of 3,325 Secondary 1 students (Grade 7) from 28 schools participated in the study at Wave 1. The mean age of the participants was 12.6 years old (SD = .74). Results showed that the internet was the most common medium for consuming pornography materials. Boys consumed more pornographic materials than did girls. Findings showed that family functioning and positive youth development were negatively associated with consumption of pornographic materials over time. This study highlights the importance of developing adolescents' competencies and establishing an atmosphere that reduces the use of pornographic materials among adolescents. It sheds light on designing early prevention programs on pornography consumption for young people in Hong Kong. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Adversity and Antisocial Behavior: Mediating Effects of Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Shawn E; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents. This study investigated the potential mediating effects of ANS activity on the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in a group of 7- to 10-year-old children from the community (N = 339; 48.2% male). Moderated multiple mediation analyses revealed that low resting heart rate, but not PEP or HRV, mediated the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in males only. Social adversity but not ANS measures were associated with antisocial behavior in females. Findings have implications for understanding the neural influences that underlie antisocial behavior, illustrate the importance of the social environment regarding the expression of these behaviors, and highlight essential gender differences.

  12. Longitudinal associations in adolescence between cortisol and persistent aggressive or rule-breaking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platje, E.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Raine, A.; Branje, S.T.J.; Doreleijers, Th.A.H.; de Vries-Bouw, M.; Popma, A.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Vermeiren, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have associated antisocial behavior with decreased cortisol awakening responses (CAR), studies in adolescent samples yielded inconsistent results. In adolescence however, the CAR develops and antisocial behavior is heterogeneous in type and persistence. Therefore this

  13. Early childhood risk factors for rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    the risk factors for non-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children finding family history of atopic diseases and gender to be of importance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors in early life for rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Methods......Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis is a global health problem and one of the most common chronic conditions in children. Development of rhinoconjunctivitis depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Many studies have investigated rhinoconjunctivitis, but only few studies have evaluated...... between early-life risk factors and the development of rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Results: Follow-up rate at 14-years was 66.2%. The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 32.8%. Family history of atopic diseases (aOR 2.25), atopic dermatitis (aOR 3.24), food...

  14. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…

  15. The theory of planned behavior: Precursors of marijuana use in early adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Precursors of marijuana use in early adolescence are largely unknown because studies generally focus on marijuana use among older adolescents or adults. Methods: In this study, we examined precursors of marijuana use in a sample of 1023 Dutch early adolescents (aged 11-14 at Time 1) who

  16. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Inattention/Overactivity Following Early Severe Institutional Deprivation: Presentation and Associations in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Kreppner, Jana M.; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Rutter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the persistence and phenotypic presentation of inattention/overactivity (I/O) into early adolescence, in a sample of institution reared (IR) children adopted from Romania before the age of 43 months. Total sample comprised 144 IR and 21 non-IR Romanian adoptees, and a comparison group of 52 within-UK adoptees, assessed…

  18. High School Sports Involvement Diminishes the Association Between Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adult Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Elkins, Irene J; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2015-07-01

    Life course-persistent antisocial behavior manifests as a display of aggressive and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood (conduct disorder [CD]) and lasting through adulthood (adult antisocial personality disorder). This study aimed to build on prior research by evaluating whether involvement in high school sports helped attenuate the association between CD and subsequent adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A prospective sample of 967 male and female adolescents (56% adopted) was used. Structured interviews were used to assess CD (symptoms before the age of 15 years), involvement in sports during high school, and past-year adult antisocial personality disorder symptoms in young adulthood (M age = 22.4 years). As expected, the association between CD and AAB was significantly less for those involved in sports (β = .28; p antisocial behavior in the model (age, gender, adoption status), and results were consistent across males and females. Involvement in other extracurricular activities (e.g., student government, plays, clubs) did not significantly moderate the relationship between CD and AAB. Although selection effects were evident (those with more CD symptoms were less likely to be involved in sports), findings nevertheless suggest high school sports involvement may be a notable factor related to disrupting persistent antisocial behavior beginning in childhood and adolescence and lasting through young adulthood. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Insomnia is Associated with Cortical Hyperarousal as Early as Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Li, Yun; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fang, Jidong; Gaines, Jordan; Calhoun, Susan L.; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15–35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample. Methods: A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We examined low-beta (15–25 Hz) and high-beta (25–35 Hz) relative power at central EEG derivations during sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep onset (SO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Results: Compared to controls (n = 21), individuals with insomnia (n = 23) showed increased SOL and WASO and decreased sleep duration and efficiency, while no differences in sleep architecture were found. Insomniacs showed increased low-beta and high-beta relative power during SOL, SO, and NREM sleep as compared to controls. High-beta relative power was greater during all sleep and wake states in insomniacs with short sleep duration as compared to individuals with insomnia with normal sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescent insomnia is associated with increased beta EEG power during sleep, which suggests that cortical hyperarousal is present in individuals with insomnia as early as adolescence. Interestingly, cortical hyperarousal is greatest in individuals with insomnia with short sleep duration and may explain the sleep complaints of those with normal sleep duration. Disturbed cortical networks may be a shared mechanism putting individuals with insomnia at risk of psychiatric disorders. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J, Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fang J, Gaines J, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia is associated with cortical hyperarousal as early as adolescence. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1029–1036. PMID:26951400

  20. Insomnia is Associated with Cortical Hyperarousal as Early as Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Li, Yun; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fang, Jidong; Gaines, Jordan; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2016-05-01

    To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15-35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample. A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We examined low-beta (15-25 Hz) and high-beta (25-35 Hz) relative power at central EEG derivations during sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep onset (SO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Compared to controls (n = 21), individuals with insomnia (n = 23) showed increased SOL and WASO and decreased sleep duration and efficiency, while no differences in sleep architecture were found. Insomniacs showed increased low-beta and high-beta relative power during SOL, SO, and NREM sleep as compared to controls. High-beta relative power was greater during all sleep and wake states in insomniacs with short sleep duration as compared to individuals with insomnia with normal sleep duration. Adolescent insomnia is associated with increased beta EEG power during sleep, which suggests that cortical hyperarousal is present in individuals with insomnia as early as adolescence. Interestingly, cortical hyperarousal is greatest in individuals with insomnia with short sleep duration and may explain the sleep complaints of those with normal sleep duration. Disturbed cortical networks may be a shared mechanism putting individuals with insomnia at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  2. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.

  3. Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh C Nguyen

    Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  6. Views of adolescent female youth on physical activity during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  7. VIEWS OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE YOUTH ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope E. Yungblut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004. This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  8. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  9. Patterns of depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)

  10. Interpersonal and Affective Features of Psychopathy in Children and Adolescents: Advancing a Developmental Perspective--Introduction to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, deceitful) and affective (e.g., callous, unemotional) features associated with adult psychopathy have been identified in children and adolescents. Although early research suggests that these features have clinical utility in identifying a particularly severe and recalcitrant form of antisocial behavior with…

  11. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol: Interaction of early adversity and 5-HTTLPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Stroud, Catherine B; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and early adversity on trait-like levels of cortisol. A community sample of 117 early adolescent girls (M age=12.39years) provided DNA samples for 5-HTTLPR genotyping, and saliva samples for assessing cortisol 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking, and bedtime) over a three-day period. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) was modeled using the first 2 samples of each day. Early adversity was assessed with objective contextual stress interviews with adolescents and their mothers. A significant 5-HTTLPR×early adversity interaction indicated that greater early adversity was associated with lower LTC levels, but only among individuals with either L/L or S/L genotype. Findings suggest that serotonergic genetic variation may influence the impact of early adversity on individual differences in HPA-axis regulation. Future research should explore whether this interaction contributes to the development of psychopathology through HPA axis functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-esteem in Early Adolescence as Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Motivational and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, M; Van Roekel, E; Oldehinkel, A J

    2018-05-01

    Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.

  13. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chloe E.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey’s post-ho...

  14. Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: a latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Pakstis, Andrew J; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Leckman, James F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation programme in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all eight genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid and cholinergic signalling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential 'co-action' of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the aetiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may allow the identification of a

  15. Friendship selection and friends' influence : Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea Beate

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents

  16. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  17. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  18. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…

  19. [The neurobiology of antisocial behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, M M; Tulen, J H M; van Marle, H J C

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-imaging is being used increasingly to provide explanations for antisocial behaviour. To make a neurobiological contribution to the diagnosis of many types of antisocial behaviour. The literature was searched using PubMed and combinations of the keywords 'psychopathy', 'antisocial', 'neurobiology' and 'neuro-anatomy' for the period 1990-2009. Impairments in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, corpus callosum and anterior cingulate cortex provide a possible explanation for a large number of the symptoms associated with antisocial behaviour. The concept of psychopathy is connected mainly with impairments in a prefrontal-temporal-limbic system. CONCLUSION Combinations of deficiencies in the associated brain areas and malfunctioning of the communication between the various brain structures seem to play a more important role than deficiencies in the separate brain structures.

  20. Effects of Popularity and Gender on Peers' Perceptions of Prosocial, Antisocial, and Jealousy-Eliciting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeux, Lara

    2011-01-01

    Perceived popularity is associated with both positive and negative characteristics, and adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity reflect this paradox. The current study investigated adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity and gender, as well as their liking for popular peers who engage in prosocial, antisocial, and…

  1. Social cognition in antisocial populations

    OpenAIRE

    Bratton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impairments in facial affect recognition have been linked to the development of various disorders. The aim of the current work is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining whether this ability is impaired in males with psychopathy or antisocial traits, when compared to healthy individuals. Method: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they compared facial affect recognition in either a) psychopathic vs. antisocial males, b) psychopa...

  2. Antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders: Evidence for Gene × Environment × Development interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Hicks, Brian M; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Gene × Environment interaction contributes to externalizing disorders in childhood and adolescence, but little is known about whether such effects are long lasting or present in adulthood. We examined gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use disorders) at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. The sample included 1,382 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. We detected a Gene × Environment interaction at age 17, such that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior and substance use disorders were greater in the context of greater antisocial peer affiliation. This Gene × Environment interaction was not present for antisocial behavior symptoms after age 17, but it was for substance use disorder symptoms through age 29 (though effect sizes were largest at age 17). The results suggest adolescence is a critical period for the development of externalizing disorders wherein exposure to greater environmental adversity is associated with a greater expression of genetic risk. This form of Gene × Environment interaction may persist through young adulthood for substance use disorders, but it appears to be limited to adolescence for antisocial behavior.

  3. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders: Evidence for Gene × Environment × Development Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Gene × environment interaction contributes to externalizing disorders in adolescence, but little is known about whether such effects are long-lasting or present in adulthood. We examined gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use disorders) at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. The sample included 1,382 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. We detected a gene × environment interaction at age 17, such that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior and substance use disorders were greater in the context of greater antisocial peer affiliation. This gene × environment interaction was not present for antisocial behavior symptoms after age 17, but was for substance use disorder symptoms through age 29 (though effect sizes were largest at age 17). Results suggest adolescence is a critical period for the development of externalizing disorders wherein exposure to greater environmental adversity is associated with a greater expression of genetic risk. This form of gene × environment interaction may persist through young adulthood for substance use disorders, but is limited to adolescence for antisocial behavior. PMID:27580681

  4. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention

  5. Trajectories of Change and Relationship between Parent-Adolescent School-Related Conflict and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkovic, Irma; Keresteš, Gordana; Puklek Levpušc?ek, Melita

    2014-01-01

    The study explored changes in parent-adolescent school-related conflict rate and academic performance over a 5-year period among Croatian early adolescents and gender differences in these changes. Furthermore, it examined the relationship between conflict and achievement. The study was performed by applying an accelerated approach to overlapping…

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Anxiety Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity...

  7. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventive Child Health Care Findings on Early Childhood Predict Peer-Group Social Status in Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank; Reijneveld, Menno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status.

  9. Antisocial Personality as a Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian

    2018-05-07

    Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual revisions of APD.

  10. Construction of Social Reality during Early Adolescence: Can Expecting Storm and Stress Increase Real or Perceived Storm and Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Christy M.; Hughes, Johna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether mothers' or adolescents' expectations concerning "storm and stress" behaviors at adolescence predict subsequent real or perceived adolescent behavior and attributes during the early years of adolescence. The study used a short-term longitudinal design. Participants were 6th- and 7th-grade adolescents and their mothers…

  11. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Early Adolescents' Social Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…

  12. Preliminary findings demonstrating latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use onset on cortical architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Filbey

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond.

  13. Middle Grades' School Models and Their Impact on Early Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Earley, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, school grade structures are most variable during the early adolescent years when students can find themselves in a variety of school models. This paper investigates the impact of two popular school models in the United States (middle school and K-8) on the self-esteem and self-concept of early adolescents. Based on mixed…

  14. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  15. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  16. Prevention of alcohol use in early adolescents: A joint venture of school and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents

  17. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  18. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  19. Risky decisions and their consequences: neural processing by boys with Antisocial Substance Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Crowley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with conduct and substance problems ("Antisocial Substance Disorder" (ASD repeatedly engage in risky antisocial and drug-using behaviors. We hypothesized that, during processing of risky decisions and resulting rewards and punishments, brain activation would differ between abstinent ASD boys and comparison boys.We compared 20 abstinent adolescent male patients in treatment for ASD with 20 community controls, examining rapid event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD responses during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In 90 decision trials participants chose to make either a cautious response that earned one cent, or a risky response that would either gain 5 cents or lose 10 cents; odds of losing increased as the game progressed. We also examined those times when subjects experienced wins, or separately losses, from their risky choices. We contrasted decision trials against very similar comparison trials requiring no decisions, using whole-brain BOLD-response analyses of group differences, corrected for multiple comparisons. During decision-making ASD boys showed hypoactivation in numerous brain regions robustly activated by controls, including orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. While experiencing wins, ASD boys had significantly less activity than controls in anterior cingulate, temporal regions, and cerebellum, with more activity nowhere. During losses ASD boys had significantly more activity than controls in orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum, with less activity nowhere.Adolescent boys with ASD had extensive neural hypoactivity during risky decision-making, coupled with decreased activity during reward and increased activity during loss. These neural patterns may underlie the dangerous, excessive, sustained risk-taking of such boys. The findings suggest that the dysphoria, reward

  20. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Dieting, exercise, and intuitive eating among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Jordan; Petrie, Trent A; Dockendorff, Sally; Greenleaf, Christy; Martin, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Dieting to lose weight, with its focus on restriction of caloric intake, may disrupt intuitive eating processes, though other forms of weight loss, such as exercising, which do not emphasize food may not. In a sample of 669 middle school boys and 708 girls, regardless of sex or exercising, dieting was related to feeling less free to eat what was wanted and to eating more to soothe emotions than to satisfy actual physical hunger. Exercising, independent of dieting, was associated with feeling less permission to eat what was wanted, but also eating to satisfy physical hunger as opposed to coping with emotional distress. Overall, girls were more aware and trusting of their bodily hunger and satiety cues than boys, but when boys were exercising, they scored similarly to girls on this dimension. These findings suggest that different weight loss approaches - dieting vs. exercising - have unique relationships to young adolescents' intuitive eating and these associations tend to be stable across sex. Longitudinal studies now are needed to examine how dieting that begins in childhood or early adolescence might have long-term effects on the progression of intuitive eating. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Chloe E; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah A; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C

    2017-01-26

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O'ahu, Hawai'i ( n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  3. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe E. Panizza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR. Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93. Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%. Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216 at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  4. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Sanja; Kocijancic, Radojka; Belojevic, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  5. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Lee, Lydia; Yang, Yaling; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Those with CSP (n = 19) were compared with those lacking CSP (n = 68) on antisocial personality, psychopathy and criminal offending. Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls. Results could not be attributed to prior trauma exposure, head injury, demographic factors or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Our findings appear to be the first to provide evidence for a neurodevelopmental brain abnormality in those with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, and support the hypothesis that early maldevelopment of limbic and septal structures predisposes to the spectrum of antisocial behaviours.

  6. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Lee, Lydia; Yang, Yaling; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. Aims This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Method Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Those with CSP (n = 19) were compared with those lacking CSP (n = 68) on antisocial personality, psychopathy and criminal offending. Results Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls. Results could not be attributed to prior trauma exposure, head injury, demographic factors or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Conclusions Our findings appear to be the first to provide evidence for a neurodevelopmental brain abnormality in those with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, and support the hypothesis that early maldevelopment of limbic and septal structures predisposes to the spectrum of antisocial behaviours. PMID:20807962

  7. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  8. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group. They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior.

  9. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Francisco J. P.; Herrera, Ana del Refugio C.; Rubalcava, San J. A.; Martínez, Kalina I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group). They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior. PMID:28626430

  10. Chronic anger as a precursor to adult antisocial personality features: The moderating influence of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Samuel W; Perlman, Susan B; Byrd, Amy L; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-01-01

    Anger is among the earliest occurring symptoms of mental health, yet we know little about its developmental course. Further, no studies have examined whether youth with persistent anger are at an increased risk of exhibiting antisocial personality features in adulthood, or how cognitive control abilities may protect these individuals from developing such maladaptive outcomes. Trajectories of anger were delineated among 503 boys using annual assessments from childhood to middle adolescence (ages ∼7-14). Associations between these trajectories and features of antisocial personality in young adulthood (age ∼28) were examined, including whether cognitive control moderates this association. Five trajectories of anger were identified (i.e., childhood-onset, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, and low). Boys in the childhood-onset group exhibited the highest adulthood antisocial personality features (e.g., psychopathy, aggression, criminal charges). However, boys in this group were buffered from these problems if they had higher levels of cognitive control during adolescence. Findings were consistent across measures from multiple informants, replicated across distinct time periods, and remained when controlling for general intelligence and prior antisocial behavior. This is the first study to document the considerable heterogeneity in the developmental course of anger from childhood to adolescence. As hypothesized, good cognitive control abilities protected youth with persistent anger problems from developing antisocial personality features in adulthood. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Antisocial behavior: Connection with bullying/cyberbullying and conflict resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to explore the relations among antisocial behavior, engagement in bullying/cyberbullying, and conflict resolution skills. The sample comprised 3,026 Spanish participants, aged between 12 and 18years (48.5% males, 51.5% females, enrolled in various public (45.6% and private (54.4% schools of the Basque Country. Using a descriptive and correlational design, 4 assessment instruments were administered to measure the variables under study (antisocial behavior, bullying/cyberbullying, and conflict resolution skills. The correlational analyses and analyses of variance confirmed that adolescents and youth of both sexes with high scores in antisocial behavior were significantly more involved in all the roles of bullies and cyberbullies (victims, bullies, and bystanders and they used significantly more aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict resolution technique. The study identifies relevant variables for the design of intervention programs. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing psychoeducational prevention and intervention programs targeting antisocial behavior, as well as the role of the family and society.

  12. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little

  13. Factors in Early Adolescence Associated With a Mole-Prone Phenotype in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoming; Marchetti, Michael A; Dusza, Stephen W; Chung, Esther; Fonseca, Maira; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Bishop, Marilyn; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2017-10-01

    Nevi are important phenotypic risk factors for melanoma in adults. Few studies have examined the constitutional and behavioral factors associated with a mole-prone phenotype in adolescents. To identify host, behavioral, and dermoscopic factors in early adolescence (age, 14 years) that are associated with a mole-prone phenotype in late adolescence (age, 17 years). A prospective observational cohort study from the Study of Nevi in Children was conducted from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, with a 2- to 3-year follow-up. A total of 569 students from the school system in Framingham, Massachusetts, were enrolled in the 8th or 9th grade (baseline; mean [SD] age, 14.4 [0.7] years). The overall retention rate was 73.3%, and 417 students were reassessed in the 11th grade. Mole-prone phenotype in the 11th grade, defined as total nevus count of the back and 1 randomly selected leg in the top decile of the cohort or having any nevi greater than 5 mm in diameter. Of the 417 students assessed at follow-up in the 11th grade (166 females and 251 males; mean [SD] age, 17.0 [0.4] years), 111 participants (26.6%) demonstrated a mole-prone phenotype: 69 students (62.2%) with 1 nevus greater than 5 mm in diameter, 23 students (20.7%) with total nevus count in the top decile, and 19 students (17.1%) with both characteristics. On multivariate analysis, baseline total nevus count (adjusted odds ratio, 9.08; 95% CI, 4.0-23.7; P adolescents for higher-intensity counseling about sun protection and skin self-examination.

  14. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence and Physical Health Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesler, Pamela C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Denise B

    2016-05-01

    To examine the prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders nicotine dependence (ND) and other individual and parental factors in adolescence on self-reported health symptoms in early adulthood. Multiethnic prospective longitudinal cohort of adolescents from grades 6-10 and a parent (N = 908) from the Chicago Public Schools. Adolescents were interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and once 4.5 years later (Wave 6). Parents were interviewed annually three times (W1, W3, W5). Multivariate regressions estimated prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ND, other individual and familial risk factors in adolescence (mean age 16.6) on physical health symptoms in early adulthood (mean age 21.3), controlling for health symptoms in adolescence. Levels of health symptoms declined from adolescence to early adulthood, except among dependent smokers. Nicotine dependent adolescents reported more health symptoms as young adults than nonsmokers and nondependent smokers, especially if depressed. ND and health symptoms in adolescence were the strongest predictors of health in early adulthood. These two adolescent factors, depression, and the familial factors of parental ND, depression and health conditions, each independently predicted health symptoms in young adulthood. Females reported more symptoms than males. There is continuity of health status over time. ND, depression, and parental factors in adolescence contribute to poor health in early adulthood. The findings highlight not only the role of adolescent behavior, but the importance of the family in the development of young adult health. Reducing smoking, particularly ND, and depression among adolescents and parents will decrease physical health burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [The Influence of Media Consumption During Early Childhood on Media Use and Psychological Disorders in Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Julius; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    The Influence of Media Consumption During Early Childhood on Media Use and Psychological Disorders in Adolescence There are many studies that suggest that there is a link between high media consumption and psychological, physiological and social disorders. Nevertheless, there are also inconsistent results, methodical limitations and a lack of longitudinal studies. The present study analyses habits of media consumption in children and adolescents, the influence of different early childhood risk factors on the use of the media in adolescence and the links between early childhood media consumption and disorders in adolescence. The source of the data is the longitudinal project Future Family III. 249 families participated in the last data collection in the adolescence. Adolescents use the media more than five hours per day on average, nearly fifty percent of these adolescents can be considered as internet addicted and a majority consumes violent contents. A low socioeconomic status, low socio-emotional competences and low intelligence of the child as well as unfavorable educational style and psychological stress of the mother are risk factors for the media use in adolescence. Adolescents with a migration background have an increased risk of internet and computer game dependency. On the other hand, the overall utilization of media in the early childhood has only a low predictive power. The results indicate that these connections seem to be more complex than assumed. There is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to get a better understanding of the consequences of media consumption.

  18. Gender Moderation of the Intergenerational Transmission and Stability of Depressive Symptoms from Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Chmelka, Mary B; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Factors that might exacerbate or mitigate the transmission of depressive symptoms from parents to adolescents and the continuity of depressive symptoms into early adulthood are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission and stability of depressive symptoms would be stronger for girls than boys over adolescence and into early adulthood, while considering the possibility that the pattern of gender moderation might vary depending on parent gender and developmental timing. The participants were 667 rural Midwestern adolescents (52 % female) and their parents. Survey data on maternal and paternal depressive symptoms (at youth age 11) and on adolescent and young adult depressive symptoms (at youth ages 11, 18, and 21) were analyzed via multiple group structural equation modeling. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for girls but not boys, and adolescent depressive symptoms were more stable in girls. Paternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for all youth. The findings suggest the need for early, tailored interventions.

  19. Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.

  20. The Timing of Middle-Childhood Peer Rejection and Friendship: Linking Early Behavior to Early-Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a sample of 551 children surveyed yearly from ages 6 to 13 to examine the longitudinal associations among early behavior, middle-childhood peer rejection and friendedness, and early-adolescent depressive symptoms, loneliness, and delinquency. The study tested a sequential mediation hypothesis in which (a) behavior problems in the…

  1. Erratum to: On the Progression and Stability of Adolescent Identity Formation. A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeus, Wim; van de Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Schwartz, S.J.; Branje, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article corrects: On the Progression and Stability of Adolescent Identity Formation: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescence Vol. 81, Issue 5, 1565–1581,

  2. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  3. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels o...

  4. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  6. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives: Associations with affect and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  8. Relational and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Early Adolescents' Forgiveness of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Katherine J.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Busby, Dean M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Day, Randal D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how mother and father-child relationship quality and marital forgiveness were related to early adolescents' forgiveness of mothers and fathers. Adolescents' social-cognitive skills (empathy and emotional regulation) and parents' forgiveness of child were examined as mediators. Mother, father, and child self-reported…

  9. Early Adolescent Sexual Debut: The Mediating Role of Working Memory Ability, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[subscript baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart,…

  10. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  11. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Vermulst, A.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekovic, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers,

  12. Observed Gossip Moderates the Link between Anxious Withdrawal and Friendship Quality in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Melissa M.; McDonald, Kristina L.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Schulz, Annie

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether gossip between best friends moderated the relation between anxious withdrawal and friendship quality in early adolescence, using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model ("APIM," Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) approach. Participants (n = 256) were 5th and 6th grade young adolescents (actors) and their best friends…

  13. Longitudinal Relations among Parenting, Best Friends, and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Testing Bidirectional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the bidirectional relations between parenting and friends' deviance, on one hand, and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior, on the other hand, are examined. Of the 650 adolescents (13- to 14-year-olds) who filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about their parents at two times…

  14. The Role Played by the Family in Shaping Early and Middle Adolescent Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Nation, Maury; Voight, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multi-informant methodology, the current study examines the relative influence of multiple parental characteristics (civic responsibility, encouragement of civic action, parent-youth closeness) on adolescents' civic responsibility (local and global). The participants were 384 early and middle adolescents (47.9% male), randomly selected…

  15. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  16. Improving Empathy and Communication Skills of Visually Impaired Early Adolescents through a Psycho-Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Duy, Baki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interpersonal communication skills psycho-education program to improve empathy and communication skills of visually impaired adolescents. Participants of the study were sixteen early adolescents schooling in an elementary school for visually impaired youth in Diyarbakir. The…

  17. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  18. Early adolescent boys’ exposure to Internet pornography: relationships to pubertal timing, sensation seeking, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyens, I.; Vandenbosch, L.; Eggermont, S.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (Mage = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  20. Associations of Peer Acceptance and Perceived Popularity with Bullying and Victimization in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Wissink, Inge B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of peer acceptance and perceived popularity in bullying and victimization in early adolescent peer groups. Peer acceptance is the degree to which adolescents are well liked by their peers; perceived popularity indicates visibility, dominance, and prestige. It was hypothesized that acceptance negatively predicts…

  1. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical and Sedentary Activities of Early Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines physical and sedentary activities of early adolescent boys and girls using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a method that can link mood and behaviors in specific social situations. Twenty-seven assessments were collected across 7 days from 82 participating adolescents, three times in seventh grade and one time in eighth…

  2. Parental Divorce and Offspring Depressive Symptoms: Dutch Developmental Trends during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…

  3. Parental divorce and offspring depressive symptoms : Dutch developmental trends during early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.

    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15

  4. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  5. The Relationship between Media Multitasking and Executive Function in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Weeda, Wouter D.; van der Heijden, Lisa L.; Huizinga, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of media multitasking among adolescents is concerning because it may be negatively related to goal-directed behavior. This study investigated the relationship between media multitasking and executive function in 523 early adolescents (aged 11-15; 48% girls). The three central components of executive functions (i.e.,…

  6. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  7. Who was first on Facebook? : Determinants of early adoption among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, B.; Corten, R.; van Tubergen, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    We study what determines whether someone is an early Facebook adopter in a context in which Facebook is still relatively new compared to a far more popular Dutch social networking site (SNS) (Hyves). We use representative survey data of 4363 adolescents aged 14–15 years. First, adolescents who

  8. Changes in Parent-Child Relationship Quality across Early Adolescence: Implications for Engagement in Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Alyssa D.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at…

  9. Beverage Intake in Early Childhood and Change in Body Fat from Preschool to Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnain, Syed Ridda; Singer, Martha R.; Bradlee, M. Loring; Moore, Lynn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is closely associated with adult obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This study's aim was to determine the effects of beverage intake patterns on body composition from early childhood into adolescence in the Framingham Children's Study.

  10. Adolescent Leadership Development: Building a Case for an Authenticity Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on adolescent leadership development and connects the concept of leadership authenticity as a way to influence anti-social adolescent behavior for pro-social outcomes. Because adolescent leaders develop from both pro-social and anti-social constructs, educators must recognize the unique power of both leadership…

  11. Early Adolescent Sexual Debut: The Mediating Role of Working Memory Ability, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart, the present study tested the hypothesis that weak working memory ability predicts early sexual initiation and explored whether this relationship is mediated b...

  12. Mentalization mediates the relation between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Taubner Svenja; Curth Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether mentalization serves as a protective factor against aggressive behavior in adolescence in the context of early traumatization. We present data from a non-clinical sample of adolescents from Germany (n=97) and calculate a mediation model to test the link between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior with mentalizing skills as a mediator. Mentalization was assessed with the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult-Attachment-Inter...

  13. Depression and Self-Esteem in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Ingrid; Roje, Romilda; Krnić, Silvana; Nazor, Mirjana; Karin, Željka; Čapkun, Vesna

    2015-06-01

    Depression prevalence has increased in the last few decades, affecting younger age groups. The aim of this research was to determine the range of depression and low self-esteem in elementary school children in the city of Split. Testing was carried out at school and the sample comprised 1,549 children (714 boys and 832 girls, aged 13). Two psychological instruments were used: the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) and the Children and Adolescent Depression Scale (SDD). The average value of scores obtained by SEI test was 17.8 for all tested children. No statistically significant difference was found be-tween boys and girls. It was found that 11.9% of children showed signs of clinically significant depression, and 16.2% showed signs of depression. Statistically significant association between low self-esteem and clinically significant depression was found. No statistically significant difference among boys and girls according to dimension of cognitive depression was found, whereas statistically significant level of emotional depression was higher in girls than boys. It was found that both dimensions of depression decreased proportionally with the increase of SEI test score values: cognitive and emotional dimension of depression. The results of this study show that it is necessary to provide early detection of emotional difficulties in order to prevent serious mental disorders. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  14. Attitudes of early adolescent age students towards physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dušanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that a positive attitude towards physical education (PE is in connection with students' engagement in PE classes and with the development of an active lifestyle. The objective of this study was to examine attitudes of early adolescent age students towards physical education, as well as to examine whether such attitudes vary with regard to gender, grade they attend and students' engagement in sport and physical exercises in extracurricular activities. The research was conducted on the sample of 531 students from 6th to 8th grade. The instrument Student's Attitudes toward Physical Education - SATPE was used to measure student's attitude towards PE. A special questionnaire was used to collect data on gender, grade and engagement in sport and physical exercising outside school. The results have shown that students have positive attitudes of moderate intensity towards physical education. MANOVA has shown that male students have more positive attitudes than female students, as well as that positivity of attitudes declines with age. Likewise, it was shown that students with more positive attitudes towards PE are more often engaged in physical exercises outside school. The connection between the attitude towards PE and involvement in organized sport was not confirmed. The paper presents suggestions for further research of students' attitude towards PE and its connection with physical activity of students.

  15. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694

  16. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Dong, Qi; Niu, Haijing

    2018-04-01

    Early childhood (7-8 years old) and early adolescence (11-12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across development. Copyright

  17. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood (7–8 years old and early adolescence (11–12 years old constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across

  18. Examining moral thinking of adolescents through intermediate concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frichand Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines moral thinking of adolescents through intermediate concepts. Intermediate concepts describe a level of analysis that falls between the general default schemas defined in Kohlberg's theory and specific ethical codes. They are related to the ability to identify good and bad actions and justifications in solving specific moral dilemmas. Participants were adolescent males and females in early, middle and late adolescence. The type of education, expressed antisocial behaviour and the primary group of socialization (family were analyzed as well. The results indicate that the ability to identify good and bad actions and justifications is increasing with age. Female adolescents have higher scores on this ability than male adolescents. Individuals in late adolescence, who are concentrating more on moral values and principles during education, show higher ability in identifying bad actions and justifications. In middle adolescence those who exhibit antisocial behaviour have lower ability in identifying intermediate concepts, compared to their peers who do not show this type of behaviour. Similar results are true for those living in institutions for children without parents and parental care when compared to adolescents who are living with their parents. .

  19. Gender differences in the transmission of risk for antisocial behavior problems across generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Li

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that children of alcohol use disorder (AUD parents are more likely to develop alcohol problems as well as antisocial and other behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine gender discordance in the effect of early maternal and paternal influences on antisocial behaviors of boys and girls, as well as the environmental factors that moderate the parental effects. Specifically, we examined the effects of childhood and adulthood antisocial behavior of the parents on offspring antisocial behavior as young adults. We also examined whether mothers' and fathers' drinking problems when offspring were young children (6-8 years affected offspring antisocial behavior as young adults (18-21 years. We evaluated 655 children from 339 families in the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS, a prospective study of AUD and non-AUD families. Path models were constructed in order to test for the parental contributions to offspring outcomes. We found that both mothers' and fathers' antisocial behavior contributed to the children's young adult antisocial behavior. Only mothers' drinking problems while their children were little had a significant effect on their sons' later drinking, but not on their daughters'. These different parental effects suggest that maternal and paternal influences may be mediated by different mechanisms.

  20. 'Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-02-01

    Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese

  1. "Role magnets"? An empirical investigation of popularity trajectories for life-course persistent individuals during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacob T N

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship has focused on the role of social status in peer groups to explain the fact that delinquency is disproportionately committed during adolescence. Yet, the precise mechanism linking adolescence, social status, and antisocial behavior is not well understood. Dual-taxonomy postulates a testable mechanism that links the sudden increase in risky behavior among adolescents to the social magnetism of a small group of persistently antisocial individuals, referred to here as the "role magnet" hypothesis. Using semi-parametric group-based trajectory modeling and growth-curve modeling, this study provides the first test of this hypothesis by examining physical violence and popularity trajectories for 1,845 male respondents age 11-32 from a nationally representative sample (54 % non-Hispanic White; 21 % non-Hispanic African American; 17 % Hispanic; 8 % Asian). Individuals assigned to a "chronic violence" trajectory group showed consistently lower average levels of popularity from 11 to 19. But, these same individuals experienced increases in popularity during early adolescence and subsequent declines in late adolescence. These findings are linked to current research examining social status as a mechanism generating antisocial behavior during adolescence and the consequences of delayed entry into adult roles.

  2. Expozice komunitnímu násilí a školní šikana a jejich vztah k antisociálnímu chování v rané adolescenci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika; Osecká, Terezie; Jelínek, Martin; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2012), s. 409-419 ISSN 0009-062X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : antisocial behavior * exposure to violence * school bullying Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.244, year: 2012

  3. Does Violence in Adolescence Differentially Predict Offending Patterns in Early Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Stephanie M; Piquero, Alex R

    2018-05-01

    Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Prior arrests, violence exposure, and gang involvement distinguished adolescents who engaged in violence at baseline. A violent offense at baseline was not predictive of a higher frequency of rearrests but was associated with membership in the low offending trajectory. In conclusion, violent offending in adolescence might be a poor predictor of chronic and heterogeneous patterns of offending throughout the life course.

  4. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  5. School sport participation during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Rachel; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Scarapicchia, Tanya; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between participation in school sport during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 853) reported participation in school sport in each grade throughout the 5 years of secondary school. In early adulthood, participants reported depressive symptoms, level of stress, and self-rated mental health. Involvement in school sport during adolescence was a statistically significant predictor of lower depression symptoms, lower perceived stress, and higher self-rated mental health in young adulthood. School sport participation may protect against poor mental health in early adulthood. Policies to increase school sport participation may be warranted as part of public health strategies to promote mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathways from maternal distress and child problem behavior to adolescent depressive symptoms: a prospective examination from early childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill

    2013-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.

  7. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saalfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1 and >3 weeks (CTA2 post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS, respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25% or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P 25–45 (early AIE or P45-65 (late AIE, or were left non-manipulated (NM. During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5 g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  8. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  10. Risk for obesity in adolescence starts in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, S; Bann, C; Das, A; Lester, B; Bada, H; Bauer, C R; La Gasse, L; Higgins, R D

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of body mass index (BMI) at earlier ages on risk of overweight/obesity at age of 11 years. This is a longitudinal study of 907 children from birth to age of 11 years. Predictors include BMI at earlier ages and outcome is overweight/obesity status at age of 11 years. Analyses were adjusted for covariates known to affect BMI. At 11 years, 17% were overweight and 25% were obese. Children whose BMI was measured as ≥85th percentile once at preschool age had a twofold risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Risk increased by 11-fold if a child's BMI measured was noted more than once during this age. During early elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years was fivefold and increased by 72-fold if noted more than two times. During late elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity was 26-fold and increased by 351-fold if noted more than two times. Risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years was noted with higher maternal prepregnancy weight, higher birth weight, female gender and increased television viewing. Children in higher BMI categories at young ages have a higher risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Effect size was greater for measurements taken closer to 11 years of age. Pediatricians need to identify children at-risk for adolescent obesity and initiate counseling and intervention at earlier ages.

  11. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  12. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Cai; Qi Dong; Haijing Niu

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood (7–8 years old) and early adolescence (11–12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological ...

  13. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Kalinina, Natallia; Winther Kestner, Kamma; Ettrup Andresen, Lærke

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between the term psychopathy formulated by Robert D. Hare, and the official diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In relation to this, the project discusses the development of moral judgment and empathy, and under which conditions one might develop psychopathy and ASPD - how it is sociologically and biologically wired. Furthermore, we will take into consideration the ethical issues of labeling. We will discuss difficulties and possibilities ...

  14. Birth and Adoptive Parent Antisocial Behavior and Parenting: A Study of Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2017-03-01

    Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Early adolescents' relationships with parents, teachers, and peers and increases in social anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2018-04-05

    Previous research on social anxiety has clearly identified interpersonal relationships as important for social anxiety symptoms. Few studies, however, have utilized longitudinal designs and have examined mechanisms that might explain links between negative interpersonal relationships and changes in youths' social anxiety over time. Recent models of social anxiety suggest that negative interpersonal relationships are linked to social anxiety through effects on social skills and behaviors. Using an autoregressive design and a sample of 416 two-parent families (51% female, 91% White), this study examined whether connections among parent-adolescent hostility, teacher support (6th grade), and changes in early adolescent social anxiety symptoms (6th to 8th grades) are mediated by youths' compliance with peers (7th grade). Results indicated that youths who experienced greater parent-adolescent hostility and lower teacher support engaged in greater compliance with peers. In turn, those who engaged in greater compliance with peers experienced increases in social anxiety symptoms. Significant indirect effects were substantiated for only parent-adolescent hostility. Associations were unique to adolescent social anxiety after accounting for depressive symptoms. Associations did not differ for early adolescent girls and boys. The results reveal that nuanced social processes involving social behaviors and relationships with parents and teachers have important and potentially unique implications for changes in early adolescent social anxiety symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The importance of family management, closeness with father and family structure in early adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Cherine; Santoro, Joseph; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John; Leslie, Eva; Williams, Joanne

    2010-10-01

    To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father-adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10-14 years). Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Family management-which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use-had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father-adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Family Relationships from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System following Firstborns' Leaving Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…

  18. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  19. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  20. Which came first, personality traits or identity processes during early and middle adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatano, Kai; Sugimura, Kazumi; Klimstra, T.A.

    No previous studies examined longitudinal associations between personality facets and identity dimensions in early and middle adolescence. To uncover these relationships; we test the direction of effects of domain-and facet-level personality traits with identity dimensions in early and middle

  1. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  2. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control during early adolescence. Found that monitoring was anteceded by proactive parenting style and advantageous family-ecological characteristics. Psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and mothers' report of earlier child…

  3. Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

  4. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  5. Reducing early marriage of adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in Lebanon: Improving access to sexual and reproductive health information and services ... on family planning, and higher risk of gender-based violence. ... in the 2016-2030 WHO led Global Strategy for Women, Children and Adolescents, ...

  6. Parental Divorce during Adolescence and Adjustment in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Stacey; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of parental divorce during adolescence, interparental conflict, and intimacy with parents on young adult adjustment. High levels of interparental conflict were found to be negatively associated with adjustment and current intimacy of parents. (Author)

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Perceived neighborhood social resources as determinants of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Perkins, Douglas D; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo; Mazzardis, Sonia

    2012-09-01

    The present study aims to develop an integrative model that links neighborhood behavioral opportunities and social resources (neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood friendship and neighborhood attachment) to prosocial (sharing, helping, empathic) behavior in early adolescence, taking into account the potential mediating role of perceived support of friends. Path analysis was used to test the proposed theoretical model in a sample of 1,145 Italian early adolescents (6th through 8th graders). More perceived opportunities and social resources in the neighborhood are related to higher levels of adolescent prosocial behavior, and this relationship is partially mediated by perceived social support from friends. The results offer promising implications for future research and intervention programs that aim to modify social systems to improve child and adolescent social competencies.

  9. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-03-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as "Americanization". This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica ( n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families.

  10. Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Context: How Neighborhoods, Parents and Peers Impact Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use; yet, these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use two years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  11. Patterns of Sensitivity to Parenting and Peer Environments: Early Temperament and Adolescent Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-03-14

    Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  12. Prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and positive mental wellbeing in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may

  13. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory and Everyday Memory during Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Karen A.; Desrocher, Mary; Levine, Brian; Rovet, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory (AM) performance during late childhood and early adolescence. Using the newly developed Children’s Autobiographical Interview (CAI), the present study examined the effects of age and sex on episodic and semantic AM and everyday memory in 182 children and adolescents. Results indicated that episodic and semantic AM both improved between 8 and 16 years of age; however, age-related changes were larger for episodic AM th...

  14. Big Five personality stability, change, and co-development across adolescence and early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Borghuis, J.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Oberski, D.L.; Sijtsma, K.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S; Koot, H.M.; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Using data from 2 large and overlapping cohorts of Dutch adolescents, containing up to 7 waves of longitudinal data each (N = 2,230), the present study examined Big Five personality trait stability, change, and codevelopment in friendship and sibling dyads from age 12 to 22. Four findings stand out. First, the 1-year rank-order stability of personality traits was already substantial at age 12, increased strongly from early through middle adolescence, and remained rather stable during late ado...

  15. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reve...

  16. Feedback Seeking in Early Adolescence: Self-Enhancement or Self-Verification?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Principe, Connor P.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether early adolescents (N = 90) solicit self-enhancing feedback (i.e., positive feedback) or self-verifying feedback (i.e., feedback congruent with self-views, even when these views are negative). Sixth, seventh, and eighth graders first completed a self-perception measure and then selected whether to receive positive or negative feedback from an unknown peer in different domains of self. Results were consistent with self-verification theory; adolescents who perceived ...

  17. Reconsidering Parenting in Chinese Culture: Subtypes, Stability, and Change of Maternal Parenting Style During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Wei, Xing; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2017-05-01

    Parenting in Chinese culture has been a central topic and there have been debate on whether western-derived parenting style is applicable to Chinese cultures in terms of both behavioral profiles and their relationships with child and adolescent adjustment. This study identified the subtypes of Chinese maternal parenting style and examined their stability and changes over the transition to early adolescence. In an urban Chinese sample (N = 2173, 48% girls), four waves of longitudinal data were collected when the adolescents were in the fifth (M = 11.27 years), sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Latent profile analysis identified four subtypes of parenting style: authoritative, authoritarian, average-level undifferentiated, and strict-affectionate. Adolescents of authoritative mothers exhibited the best overall adjustment, while adolescents of authoritarian mothers showed the worst adjustment. Adolescents of strict-affectionate mothers generally adjusted as well as those of authoritative mothers, except they showed lower academic achievement. The strict-affectionate parenting represented a culture-specific subtype of parenting style in Chinese culture. Latent transition analysis revealed high stability of parenting styles during early adolescence, but transitions between subtypes were also evident. These findings highlight the importance of revisiting Chinese parenting and examining the developmental course of parenting style.

  18. Pathways to Achievement: Career and Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Latina/o Immigrant Parents and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavira, Gabriela; Cooper, Catherine R.; Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural and related theories, 4 questions examined career and educational aspirations and expectations among 24 immigrant Latina/o early adolescents and their parents as predictors of students' grades. First, adolescents' career aspirations and expectations were correlated, and both parents and adolescents held educational…

  19. Childhood internalizing symptoms are negatively associated with early adolescent alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Heron, Jon; Cho, Seung Bin; Hickman, Matt; Lewis, Glyn; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between childhood internalizing problems and early adolescent alcohol use has been infrequently explored and remains unclear. Methods We employed growth mixture modeling of internalizing symptoms for a large, population-based sample of UK children (the ALSPAC cohort) to identify trajectories of childhood internalizing symptoms from age 4 through age 11.5. We then examined the relationship between membership in each trajectory and alcohol use in early adolescence (reported at age 13.8). Results Overall, children experiencing elevated levels of internalizing symptoms were less likely to use alcohol in early adolescence. This finding held true across all internalizing trajectories; i.e., those exhibiting increasing levels of internalizing symptoms over time, and those whose symptoms desisted over time, were both less likely to use alcohol than their peers who did not exhibit internalizing problems. Conclusions We conclude that childhood internalizing symptoms, unlike adolescent symptoms, are negatively associated with early adolescent alcohol experimentation. Additional studies are warranted to follow up on our preliminary evidence that symptoms of phobia and separation anxiety drive this effect. PMID:24848214

  20. The Relationship Between Midday Napping And Neurocognitive Function in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaopeng; Li, Junxin; Liu, Jianghong

    2018-02-01

    The impact of midday napping on neurocognitive function in adolescents has not been well established. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-reported midday-napping behaviors and neurocognitive function in early adolescents. The sample was comprised of 363 early adolescents (12.00 ± 0.38 years old) from Jintan, China. Midday napping, nighttime sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Neurocognitive function was measured by the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (accuracy and reaction times). Generalized linear regression was used to analyze the relationships. Sixty-four percent of our sample took more than 3 naps per week, and 70.11% reported nap durations of over 30 min. Participants with higher frequencies or longer durations of midday napping reported significantly better nighttime sleep quality (p napping duration subgroups, early adolescents who took naps of any length were estimated to have faster reaction speeds on the sustained attention task compared with participants who never napped (ps napping and neurocognitive function in early adolescents, especially in China, where midday napping is a cultural practice.

  1. Decision Making in Children and Adolescents: Impaired Iowa Gambling Task Performance in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana G.; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Disadvantageous decision making is cited as one of the premier problems in childhood development, underlying risky behavior and causing adolescents to make poor choices that could prove detrimental later in life. However, there are relatively few studies looking at the development of decision making in children and adolescents, and fewer still…

  2. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  3. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  4. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and

  5. Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents is common worldwide, but our understanding of perpetration, gender differences and the role of social-ecological factors remains limited. Objectives. To explore the prevalence of physical and sexual IPV perpetration and victimisation by gender, and ...

  6. Body Structure and Physical Self-Concept in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Karkus, Zsolt; Utczas, Katinka; Bodzsar, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    In adolescence, the complexity of human ontogenesis embraces biological growth and maturation as well as mental, affective, and cognitive progress, and adaptation to the requirements of society. To accept our morphological constellation as part of our gender may prove a problem even to a child of average rate of maturation. The main purposes of…

  7. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathryn L; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-11-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11-17 and 22-30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking.

  8. Inhibitory Control during Emotional Distraction across Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from…

  9. Characteristics and early outcomes of children and adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study found DRV/r-, RAL- and ETR-containing regimens to be effective in a group of treatment-experienced children and adolescents with multidrug-resistant HIV. Although the treatment regimens in this study were individualised based on HIV genotyping results, further research evaluating the safety and efficacy of ...

  10. An Adolescent and Early Adulthood Dietary Pattern Associated with Inflammation and the Incidence of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Willett, Walter C; Vaidya, Rita L; Michels, Karin B

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a highly susceptible period for mammary carcinogenesis, but few prospective studies have examined the role of adolescent diet in breast cancer risk. Reduced rank regression has previously been used to identify a dietary pattern associated with markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, IL6, and TNFα receptor 2). We investigated whether an adolescent and early adulthood inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with breast cancer among 45,204 women in the Nurses' Health Study II using reduced rank regression. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1998 about their high school diet (HS-FFQ) and a FFQ in 1991 when they were ages 27-44 years. Among women who completed the HS-FFQ, 1,477 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed during 22 years of follow-up. An adolescent and early adulthood dietary pattern characterized by inflammation was associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Women in the fifth quintile of the inflammatory pattern score had multivariable adjusted HRs for premenopausal breast cancer of 1.35 for adolescent diet [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06-1.73; P trend = 0.002] and 1.41 for early adulthood diet (95% CI, 1.11-1.78; P trend = 0.006) compared with women in the first quintile. The corresponding RRs for postmenopausal breast cancer were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.60-1.17) for adolescent and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54-1.06) for adult intake. Overall, our findings support the notion that an adolescent and early adulthood diet characterized by high intake of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks, refined grains, red and processed meat, and margarine, and low intake of green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and coffee may increase the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1179-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Classes of Trajectory in Mobile Phone Dependency and the Effects of Negative Parenting on Them during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mijung; Choi, Eunsil

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the classes of trajectory in mobile phone dependency using growth mixture modeling among Korean early adolescents from elementary school to the middle school transition. The effects of negative parenting on determining the classes were also examined. The participants were 2,378 early adolescents in the Korean…

  12. The Role of Inflexible Friendship Beliefs, Rumination, and Low Self-Worth in Early Adolescents' Friendship Jealousy and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen L.; Parker, Jeffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more…

  13. The Relation between Early Adolescents' Trust Beliefs in Peers and Reactions to Peer Provocation: Attributions of Intention and Retaliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…

  14. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  15. Dairy Consumption in Adolescence and Early Adulthood and Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Eliassen, A Heather; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2018-05-01

    Background: Carcinogenic exposure in early life may be critical for subsequent breast cancer risk. Dairy consumption was examined during adolescence and early adulthood in relation to incident breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Methods: For the analyses of early adulthood dairy consumption, we included 90,503 premenopausal women ages 27 to 44 years in 1991 who reported dairy consumption using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. From 1991 to 2013, 3,191 invasive breast cancer cases were identified. In 1998, 44,264 women recalled adolescent dairy consumption. This subgroup of women was followed up from 1998 to 2013; 1,318 invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: Adolescent and early adulthood total dairy consumption was not associated with overall breast cancer risk (each serving/day during adolescence, total dairy HR = 1.02, 95% CI, 0.97-1.07; for early adulthood total dairy HR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.97-1.04), as were intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and lactose. Adolescent consumption of total and high-fat dairy was associated with higher risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (each serving/day: total dairy HR = 1.11, 95% CI, 1.00-1.24; high-fat dairy HR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.04-1.31). However, higher adolescent high-fat dairy consumption was associated with lower risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor positive tumors (each serving/day HR = 0.91, 95% CI, 0.86-0.97). Conclusions: Our results suggest no overall association between dairy consumption during adolescence or early adulthood and breast cancer risk, but the findings may differ by hormone receptor status of tumors. Impact: Dairy consumption in adolescence or early adulthood may not be a significant predictor of breast cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(5); 575-84. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer

  16. Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Arnold, Charles D; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-02-18

    Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. The mean consumption of animal-source foods was 10.3 times/week. In multivariate analysis, socioeconomic status, education, and food security were generally positively associated with anthropometric indicators and dietary practices but not with iron or vitamin A status. Our findings confirm that there is a high burden of undernutrition among these Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. Understanding factors related to undernutrition can help to identify adolescent pregnant women at higher risk and provide appropriate counseling and care. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Change in depression across adolescence: The role of early anger socialization and child anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R; Weston, Lynsey C; He, Xin; Huang, Keng-Yen; Pine, Daniel S; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relations of early socialization of anger with change in adolescent depression, and moderation by child anger. Using a sample of low-income, ethnic minority children at familial risk for psychopathology in the United States (n = 92; ages 3-5; 53% female; 65% African American; 27% Latina/o), early anger socialization (i.e., parent response to child anger) was tested as a predictor of change in depression from preadolescence to adolescence [i.e., age 8 (n = 63), 11 (n = 58), and 13 (n = 44)]. A videotaped parent-child interaction was coded for parental socialization of preschooler anger, and psychiatric interviews of depression were conducted three times across preadolescence and adolescence. Major depression diagnoses increased from preadolescence to adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated parent discouragement of child anger was a significant predictor of an increase in the child's later depression from preadolescence to adolescence, and child anger intensity was a significant moderator. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of the Perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-02-01

    Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

  19. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  20. Structural connectomics of anxious arousal in early adolescence: Translating clinical and ethological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Sharp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiological explanations of clinical anxiety can be advanced through understanding the neural mechanisms associated with anxiety in youth prior to the emergence of psychopathology. In this vein, the present study sought to investigate how trait anxiety is related to features of the structural connectome in early adolescence. 40 adolescents (21 female, mean age = 13.49 years underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging scan. We hypothesized that the strength of several a priori defined structural connections would vary with anxious arousal based on previous work in human clinical neuroscience and adult rodent optogenetics. First, connection strength of caudate to rostral middle frontal gyrus was predicted to be anticorrelated with anxious arousal, predicated on extant work in clinically-diagnosed adolescents. Second, connection strength of amygdala to rostral anterior cingulate and to medial orbital frontal cortex would be positively and negatively correlated with anxious arousal, respectively, predicated on rodent optogenetics showing the former pathway is anxiogenic and the latter is anxiolytic. We also predicted that levels of anxiety would not vary with measures of global network topology, based on reported null findings. Results support that anxiety in early adolescence is associated with (1 the clinical biomarker connecting caudate to frontal cortex, and (2 the anxiogenic pathway connecting amygdala to rostral anterior cingulate, both in left but not right hemisphere. Findings support that in early adolescence, anxious arousal may be related to mechanisms that increase anxiogenesis, and not in a deficit in regulatory mechanisms that support anxiolysis.

  1. Family homework and school-based sex education: delaying early adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-11-01

    Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons. Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  2. Dimensions of self-concept and sports engagement in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the differences in particular dimensions of selfconcept in female and male adolescents depending on sports engagement, as well as to determine which domain-specific self-perceptions provide the highest contributions to global self-worth in female and male adolescents engaged in sport and those not engaged in it. This research included 400 subjects at early adolescent age, of both genders (235 females and 164 males further divided to sub-samples of athletes and non-athletes. An adapted version of a scale Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1988 was applied, which consists of nine subscales. The obtained results indicate that sport-engaged adolescents of both genders provide more favourable perception of themselves in most tested aspects of self-concept than those not engaged in an organized sports activity. Engagement in sport has special effect on selfconcept of male adolescents. Results of multiple regression analysis point out unambiguously the significance of self-perception of physical appearance in global self-worth of adolescents of both genders, irrespective of whether they are involved in sports activity or not.

  3. Preadolescent sensation seeking and early adolescent stress relate to at-risk adolescents' substance use by age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2017-06-01

    Substance use during adolescence can lead to the development of substance use disorders and other psychosocial problems. These negative outcomes are especially likely for individuals who use substances at earlier ages and those who engage in heavier use during adolescence, behaviors which are both more common among youth at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder, such as those with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+). Factors such as increased sensation seeking and greater exposure to stressors among FH+ youth may influence these associations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relative and unique contributions of sensation seeking during preadolescence and exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence to cumulative substance use by mid-adolescence among FH+ youth. A total of 167 mostly Hispanic FH+ youth (ages 12-15) who were participating in an ongoing longitudinal study were included in these analyses. Participants' data from biennial waves covering approximately 2.5years were used. Self-reported sensation seeking, exposure to stressors, and substance use were compared. Higher sensation seeking during preadolescence and greater exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence were both associated with substance use by age 15. These factors differentiated Substance Users from Non-Users, and also related to level of substance use. Elevated sensation seeking and exposure to stressors are both associated with substance use by age 15 among high-risk youth. Additionally, these factors can distinguish youth who develop heavier substance use during this important developmental period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Adolescent murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A; Bradford, J M; Bourget, D; Jones, B; Carmichael, M

    1991-10-01

    Clinical, developmental and environmental factors were retrospectively studied in 14 adolescent murderers who had been referred to a forensic psychiatric clinic over an 11 year period. Results of these analyses were compared with findings from previous reports. The majority of subjects came from split families. There was a greater than expected degree of psychiatric illness in the adolescents. Previous psychiatric contact, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse were common among these adolescents. A tentative profile of adolescents who are likely to commit murder can therefore be drawn up, which may suggest direction for preventive action and rehabilitation.

  5. Mentalization mediates the relation between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taubner Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether mentalization serves as a protective factor against aggressive behavior in adolescence in the context of early traumatization. We present data from a non-clinical sample of adolescents from Germany (n=97 and calculate a mediation model to test the link between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior with mentalizing skills as a mediator. Mentalization was assessed with the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult-Attachment-Interview and aggressive behavior was measured with the Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire. Traumatic experience was operationalized as physical and/or sexual abuse as reported in the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results show a complete mediation for Reflective Functioning on the relationship between early abuse and aggressive behavior. Thus, the findings of the study support an understanding of mentalizing as a protective factor for the relationship between early abusive experience and the development of aggressive behavior. Clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Internet Communication and Empathy in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the influence of modern means of communication on the development of empathy in adolescents and young adults.The article contains an analytical overview of current research in this area with the fixation of the contradictory findings about the nature of virtual communication influence on empathic ability in adolescents and young adults.We propose that the balance of virtual communication and direct contact plays leading role for the development of social cognition.The article presents study results of indicators of severity of empathy in adolescents and universities students according to channels of communication with other people they prefer – face-to-face contact, social networking, phone, Skype and various sites on the Internet.The study involved 170 people of Moscow's educational institutions (colleges, schools and universities, which offers a questionnaire aimed at identifying the preferred communication channels, as well as the technique of "Interpersonal Reactivity Index" M.Davis tests the empathic abilities.The main conclusions are made on the basis of the data: most of today's adolescents and university students from all channels of communication prefer face-to-face communication; they differ from those who prefer to communicate in social networks, higher rates of empathic abilities. This article was prepared with the financial support of the Russian Science Foundation (project N 14-18-03461 on the base of Federal State Budgetary Institution «V. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology» of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

  7. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use among Malaysian adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Muzafar Mohd; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use in Malaysian adolescents and young adults. Participants (n = 859; M age = 17.24 years, SD = 2.75 years, range = 13-25 years; 59% male) were recruited from secondary schools, technical colleges, a juvenile detention center and a national training center in Malaysia. A version of the Communities That Care survey validated for use in Malaysia (Razali & Kliewer, 2015) was used to assess study constructs. One in 6 adolescents and 1 in 3 young adults reported lifetime recreational and hard drug use, with greater use reported by males across all drug categories. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the strongest risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use. The overall pattern of findings was similar for recreational and hard drug use. Shared risk factors for lifetime recreational and hard drug use included early initiation of antisocial behavior, peer antisocial behavior, and peer reinforcement for engaging in antisocial behavior; shared protective factors included religious practices and opportunities for prosocial school involvement. Multiple group analyses comparing adolescents and young adults indicated that patterns of risk and protective factors predicting drug use differed across these age groups. There were fewer significant predictors of either recreational or hard drug use for young adults relative to adolescents. Results suggest that interventions should target multiple microsystems (e.g., peer groups, family systems, school environments) and be tailored to the developmental stage of the individual. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  10. Cumulative Risk and Continuity in Nonparental Care from Infancy to Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Meece, Darrell; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Variations in amounts of nonparental care across infancy, preschool, early elementary school, and early adolescence were examined in a longitudinal sample (N = 438). Of interest was (a) continuity in use of the different arrangements, (b) whether the arrangements were additively and cumulatively associated with children’s externalizing behavior problems, and (c) whether predictive relations were accounted for by social-ecological (socioeconomic status, mothers’ employment status, marital stat...

  11. Self-differentiation and eating disorders in early and middle adolescence: A cross-sectional path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doba, Karyn; Berna, Guillaume; Constant, Emilie; Nandrino, Jean-Louis

    2018-03-07

    This study examines the impact of self-differentiation, alexithymia and psychological distress on eating disorder symptoms in young and middle adolescence. Four hundred fifty-one adolescents completed self-report measures. Early and middle adolescents were categorized into two groups (12-14 years and 15-17 years) to represent distinct developmental stages. Significant differences were found between younger and older adolescents. The association between low self-differentiation and both eating disorders symptoms and psychological dimensions related to eating attitudes was stronger in early adolescence than in middle adolescence. The association between low self-differentiation and eating disorder symptoms was mediated by alexithymia and psychological distress in middle adolescence. Taken together, these findings suggest that self-differentiation could be useful in understanding psychological distress and alexithymia in eating disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  13. Burn! How implicit and explicit evaluation predict early adolescents' "hot sauce" aggression towards classroom peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined to what extent early adolescents' implicit and explicit evaluations of a classmate predict (a) their own aggressive behavior toward that classmate and (b) their classmate's aggressive behavior toward them. Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 148

  14. Naturalistic Observations of Schoolyard Social Participation: Marker Variables for Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…

  15. Studying motivation in classrooms : effects of teaching practices on early adolescents' motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, Kim

    2014-01-01

    For many early adolescent students, motivation for school declines after the transition toward secondary education. Kim Stroet aimed to identify how these motivational developments are affected by teaching practices, thereby intending to—ultimately—help schools diminish or counter the declines. Next

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Positivity Scale among Chinese Adults and Early Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted two studies to explore the psychometric properties of the Positivity Scale (P Scale among Chinese adults and early adolescents, using a sample of 552 adults (Study 1 and a sample of 888 early adolescents (i.e., middle school students (Study 2. First, item analyses and factor analyses were conducted to investigate the one-factor structure of the P Scale. Second, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and external evidences of validity were evaluated to examine its reliability and validity. Last, we used multi-group confirmatory factor analysis to test measurement invariance across gender. The two studies both provided evidence for its reliability and validity among Chinese adults and early adolescents. For the test of measurement invariance across gender, full scalar invariance was established among early adolescents; partial scalar invariance was supported among adults. Taken together, the results provided preliminary support in the Chinese context for the P Scale as a valid measure to assess the general disposition toward viewing life and experiences in a positive manner. The potential applications for future research and professional practice are discussed.

  17. Behavioural Development of Early Adolescents by Dint of Positive School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is the period where the transition from child to adult takes place gradually. A major physical and cognitive change during this period is accompanied by social and emotional development. The growth spurt in this period makes them stronger and plays an important role in developing self identities. The journey through this crucial…

  18. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  19. Somatic Complaints in Early Adolescence: The Role of Parents' Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Christiane E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Harley, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parent emotion socialization and youth somatic complaints (SC) in an early adolescent sample using a longitudinal experimental design. An emotion-focused parenting intervention, which taught parent's skills to improve their emotional competence and emotion socialization, was used to examine whether…

  20. Correlates of Shyness and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Urban and Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differentiation and correlates of shyness and unsociability during early adolescence in urban and rural China. Participants were 93 urban and 229 rural Chinese sixth- to eighth-graders. Students rated their shyness, unsociability, fear of negative evaluation, self-efficacy for peer interactions, and…

  1. Effects of Need Supportive Teaching on Early Adolescents' Motivation and Engagement: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we systematically review the corpus of evidence on the effects of need supportive teaching on early adolescents' motivation and engagement for school. Based on Self-Determination Theory, we define need supportive teaching in terms of teachers' provision of autonomy support, structure, and involvement. The results of an…

  2. Maternal Warmth and Early Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms and Externalizing Behavior: Mediation via Emotional Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Albert; Benson, Mark J.; Pérez-Escoda, Núria

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal warmth and the internalizing and externalizing problems of early adolescents, and the potential mediation of this relation by emotional insecurity. The hypotheses for the study derive from Cummings and Davies' theory of emotional security. The current study extends the theory to security processes…

  3. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  4. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  5. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  6. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallimberti

    2015-01-01

    The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.”

  7. Effects of need supportive teaching on early adolescents' motivation and engagement : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie; Minnaert, Alexander

    In the present paper we systematically review the corpus of evidence on the effects of need supportive teaching on early adolescents' motivation and engagement for school. Based on Self-Determination Theory, we define need supportive teaching in terms of teachers' provision of autonomy support,

  8. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  9. Self-Esteem and Mental Health in Early Adolescence: Development and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Monique; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study of a general population (n=219; M age 12, 13, and 14), was carried out between 1990 and 1993 over 3 years in Lausanne (Switzerland). Sought information on global changes in self-esteem during early adolescence, ways in which young people perceive themselves, differences between boys and girls regarding self-esteem, and…

  10. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…

  11. Early trauma and familial risk in the development of the extended psychosis phenotype in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, J. T. W.; van Winkel, R.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; van Os, J.; Vollebergh, W. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Wigman JTW, van Winkel R, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, van Os J, Vollebergh WAM. Early trauma and familial risk in the development of the extended psychosis phenotype in adolescence. Objective: Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development of psychotic outcomes;

  12. Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence : A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early

  14. Functioning of Social Skills from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsolnai, Anikó; Kasik, László

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the social skills that crucially affect children's social behaviour in the school. Our objective was to gather information about the functioning of social skills from middle childhood to early adolescence. The sample consisted of 7-, 9-, and 11-year-old Hungarian students (N = 1398). Based on…

  15. Early Adolescent Family Experiences and Perceived Social Support in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayman, Mathew D.; Turner, R. Jay; Cislo, Andrew M.; Eliassen, A. Henry

    2011-01-01

    Although the protective role of social support is well established in the health literature, antecedents of perceived social support are not well understood. Research on family experiential factors during early adolescence, an important psychosocial developmental period in the life course, represents a promising line of inquiry. Using a sample of…

  16. Popularity in the Peer Group and Victimization within Friendship Cliques during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Leanna M.; Watanabe, Lori

    2018-01-01

    Victimization has been primarily studied within the broader peer group, leaving other potentially important contexts, such as friendship cliques, unexplored. This study examined the role of popularity in identifying protective factors that buffer against victimization within early adolescents' (N = 387) friendship cliques. Previously identified…

  17. Associations among Friendship Jealousy, Peer Status, and Relational Aggression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Caroline; Mayeux, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among peer status, friendship jealousy, and relational aggression in early adolescence, with a focus on peer status as a moderator of the association between relational aggression and friendship jealousy. Three hundred eighteen sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students completed a sociometric assessment…

  18. The Social Self in Early Adolescence: Two Longitudinal Investigations in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoh, Peipei; Qin, Lili; Zhang, Xin; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how children's inclusion of social personal attributes (e.g., talkative and argumentative) in their views of themselves changes over early adolescence in the United States and China. In 2 studies (N = 825 in Study 1 and 394 in Study 2) using open-ended methods (e.g., completion of "I ... " stems), American and…

  19. Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…

  20. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were

  1. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  2. Implicit Associations with Popularity in Early Adolescence: An Approach-Avoidance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 241 early adolescents' implicit and explicit associations with popularity. The peer status and gender of both the targets and the perceivers were considered. Explicit associations with popularity were assessed with sociometric methods. Implicit associations with popularity were assessed with an approach-avoidance task (AAT).…

  3. The Association between Relational Aggression and Perceived Popularity in Early Adolescence: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangel, Meghan J.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Shanahan, Lilly; O'Brien, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This study examined two competing hypotheses regarding the moderators of the association between relational aggression and peer status in early adolescence. The "mitigation relational aggression" hypothesis examined whether positive social behaviors reduced the negative effects of relational aggression, thus amplifying the association…

  4. Feedback Seeking in Early Adolescence: Self-Enhancement or Self-Verification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Principe, Connor P.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined whether early adolescents ("N" = 90) solicit self-enhancing feedback (i.e., positive feedback) or self-verifying feedback (i.e., feedback congruent with self-views, even when these views are negative). Sixth, seventh, and eighth graders first completed a self-perception measure and then selected whether to receive…

  5. Early Sexual Intercourse : Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; Wijtzes, A.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Bannink, R.; Raat, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in

  6. Early sexual intercourse: Prospective associations with adolescents physical activity and screen time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avelar e Silva, R.N. (Raquel Nogueira); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); Van De Bongardt, D. (Daphne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); R. Bannink (Rienke); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study

  7. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  8. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  9. Similar Developmental Trajectories in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: From Early Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Duku, Eric; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Boyle, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to chart the developmental trajectories of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from early childhood to adolescence using the presence and absence of structural language impairment (StrLI) as a way of differentiating autism from Asperger syndrome (AS). Method: Sixty-four…

  10. Effects of Self-Esteem and Narcissism on Bullying and Victimization during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period, between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) Greek Cypriot early adolescents ("M" age = 12.89) who completed a battery of self-report measures. The small correlation found between…

  11. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  12. Insecure Attachment and Eating Pathology in Early Adolescence: Role of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether associations exist between attachment dimensions toward mother and different forms of eating pathology (EP) in a group of early adolescent boys and girls, and whether these associations were mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were…

  13. Substance use risk profiles and associations with early substance use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity (i.e., revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale) would be related to the lifetime prevalence and age of onset of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, and to polydrug use in early adolescence.

  14. Behavioral, Personality, and Communicative Predictors of Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, N.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from

  15. Effects of Tennis Training on Personality Development in Children and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…

  18. Internet Use and Video Gaming Predict Problem Behavior in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised…

  19. Do Guilt- and Shame-Proneness Differentially Predict Prosocial, Aggressive, and Withdrawn Behaviors during Early Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…

  20. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  1. Early puberty, negative peer influence, and problem behaviors in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend's deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls' race/ethnicity. Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend's deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend's deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the "other" racial/ethnic minority group only. Early puberty and friends' deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences.

  2. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  3. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohajer A. Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs in early adolescence.Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12.Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044 and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010 is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012.Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  4. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433

  5. Secrets from friends and parents: longitudinal links with depression and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D; Bridges, Brittanee J; Marsee, Monica A

    2013-08-01

    Keeping secrets from parents is associated with depression and antisocial behavior. The current study tested whether keeping secrets from best friends is similarly linked to maladjustment, and whether associations between secrecy and maladjustment are moderated by the quality of the friendship. Adolescents (N = 181; 51% female, 48% white, non-Hispanic, 45% African American) reported their secrecy from parents and best friends, the quality of their parent-adolescent relationships and best friendships, and their depression and antisocial behavior at ages 12 and 13. Keeping more secrets from best friends was associated with more depression, but not with more antisocial behavior, when controlling for earlier adjustment, secrecy from parents, and the quality of the friendship. For girls associations between maladjustment and secrecy were conditioned by the quality of the relationships and whether secrets were kept from parents and friends. Discussion argues for expanding the study of secrecy in adolescence beyond the parent-child dyad. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuancing the role of social skills- a longitudinal study of early maternal psychological distress and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Kaasbøll, Jannike; Kjeldsen, Anne

    2018-04-10

    Social skills might play an important role for the relationship between maternal psychological distress and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. The majority perspective is that social skills is adaptive and protective, but there is a need to also highlight the potential maladaptive effect of social skills in some settings or for some sub groups. The current study examined the longitudinal interplay between maternal-reported psychological distress in early childhood (age 1.5), and offspring reports on social skills and depressive symptoms in early (age 12.5) and middle adolescence (age 14.5). We used data from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families to examine direct links and interactions between early maternal distress (measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and early adolescent offspring social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and middle adolescent depressive symptoms (measured with the Moods and Feelings Questionnaire) in 370 families (in total 740 mothers and adolescents). Exposure to childhood maternal distress predicted offspring depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. Higher social skills in early adolescence predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms for girls, but not for boys, in middle adolescence. An interaction effect was found in which adolescents exposed to early maternal distress who reported high social skills in early adolescence had the highest level of depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. The findings highlight the nuances in the role of social skills for adolescent depressive symptoms - having the potential to be both adaptive as well as maladaptive for some subgroups (those experiencing maternal psychological distress). This has important implications for social skill programs.

  7. Schools and Child Antisocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven J. R. Pauwels

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contextual research on delinquency is primarily based on the idea that residential areas provide a major ecological setting that (indirectly shapes observed differences in delinquency. Just like neighborhoods, schools differ in terms of their level of structural characteristics such as the concentration of immigrant children and children from disrupted families. Such characteristics may also shape delinquency. The present study aims to test the relationship between structural characteristics of schools and child antisocial behavior, using a sample of elementary school children (N = 779, aged 10-12 years in the urban context of Ghent, Belgium. This study found that the concentration of children from disrupted families has an independent effect on child delinquency, independent of social bonds, moral cognitions, and moral emotions. The contextual effect is fully mediated by exposure to peer delinquency.

  8. The Impact of Smoking in Adolescence on Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms and the Relationship between Infant Vulnerability Factors for Anxiety and Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms: The TOPP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–19years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, panxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85,panxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence. PMID:23696803

  9. Big Five personality stability, change, and codevelopment across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghuis, Jeroen; Denissen, Jaap J A; Oberski, Daniel; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2017-10-01

    Using data from 2 large and overlapping cohorts of Dutch adolescents, containing up to 7 waves of longitudinal data each (N = 2,230), the present study examined Big Five personality trait stability, change, and codevelopment in friendship and sibling dyads from age 12 to 22. Four findings stand out. First, the 1-year rank-order stability of personality traits was already substantial at age 12, increased strongly from early through middle adolescence, and remained rather stable during late adolescence and early adulthood. Second, we found linear mean-level increases in girls' conscientiousness, in both genders' agreeableness, and in boys' openness. We also found temporal dips (i.e., U-shaped mean-level change) in boys' conscientiousness and in girls' emotional stability and extraversion. We did not find a mean-level change in boys' emotional stability and extraversion, and we found an increase followed by a decrease in girls' openness. Third, adolescents showed substantial individual differences in the degree and direction of personality trait changes, especially with respect to conscientiousness, extraversion, and emotional stability. Fourth, we found no evidence for personality trait convergence, for correlated change, or for time-lagged partner effects in dyadic friendship and sibling relationships. This lack of evidence for dyadic codevelopment suggests that adolescent friends and siblings tend to change independently from each other and that their shared experiences do not have uniform influences on their personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  11. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Maternal depression and co-occurring antisocial behaviour: testing maternal hostility and warmth as mediators of risk for offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in the parent-child relationship is a commonly hypothesized risk factor through which maternal depression may increase risk for offspring psychopathology. However, maternal depression is commonly accompanied by other psychopathology, including antisocial behaviour. Few studies have examined the role of co-occurring psychopathology in depressed mothers. Using a longitudinal study of offspring of mothers with recurrent depression, we aimed to test whether maternal warmth/hostility mediated links between maternal depression severity and child outcomes, and how far direct and indirect pathways were robust to controls for co-occurring maternal antisocial behaviour. Mothers with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring (9-17 years at baseline) were assessed three times between 2007 and 2010. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own depression severity and antisocial behaviour at Time 1 (T1). The parent-child relationship was assessed using parent-rated questionnaire and interviewer-rated 5-min speech sample at Time 2 (T2). Offspring symptoms of depression and disruptive behaviours were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at Time 3 (T3). Maternal hostility and warmth, respectively, mediated the association between maternal depression severity and risk for offspring psychopathology. However, the effects were attenuated when maternal antisocial behaviour was included in the analysis. In tests of the full theoretical model, maternal antisocial behaviour predicted both maternal hostility and low warmth, maternal hostility predicted offspring disruptive behaviour disorder symptoms, but not depression, and maternal warmth was not associated with either child outcome. Parenting interventions aimed at reducing hostility may be beneficial for preventing or reducing adolescent disruptive behaviours in offspring of depressed mothers, especially when depressed mothers report co

  13. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  14. Social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially induce BDNF-regulated immediate early genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Coppens

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life events generally enhance the vulnerability for the development of human psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders and depression. The incidence rates of adult mental disorders steeply rises during adolescence in parallel with a structural and functional reorganization of the neural circuitry underlying stress reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to stress and manifestation of mental disorders during adolescence are little understood. We hypothesized that heightened sensitivity to stress during adolescence reflects age-dependent differences in the expression of activity-dependent genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we compared the effect of social stress during adolescence with social stress in adulthood on the expression of a panel of genes linked to induction of long-term potentiation (LTP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. We show that social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially regulates expression of the immediate early genes BDNF, Arc, Carp, and Tieg1, as measured by qPCR in tissue lysates from prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, mRNA levels for all four genes were robustly elevated following social defeat in adolescence, whereas none were induced by defeat in adulthood. The relationship to coping style was also examined using adult reactive and proactive coping rats. Gene expression levels of reactive and proactive animals were similar in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, a trend toward a differential expression of BDNF and Arc mRNA in the nucleus accumbens was detected. BDNF mRNA was increased in the nucleus accumbens of proactive defeated animals, whereas the expression level in reactive defeated animals was comparable to control animals. The results demonstrate striking differences in immediate early gene expression in response to social defeat in adolescent and adult rats.

  15. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  16. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early sexual debut and condom nonuse among adolescents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyun; Lee, Jong-Eun

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to sexual debut among adolescents, and to examine the association between subject characteristics and condom nonuse among those who experienced sexual intercourse in South Korea. Data were obtained from the 2009 Korean Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, a nationally representative sample. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the factors related to sexual debut, associations of condom nonuse and subject characteristics. Among male adolescents, age, early age at first emission, low academic achievement, living with a step-parent, perceived low level of household income, frequent drinking and smoking, and depressive feelings were associated with early sexual debut. Attending a coeducational school, living with a single biological parent and step-parent, risky health behaviour such as drinking and smoking, and depressive feelings were related risks factors for early sexual debut among female students. Factors associated with condom nonuse included early sexual debut (less than 16 years of age) (odds ratio (OR)=1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32-2.43) and frequent smoking behaviour (OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.08-2.05) for males and early sexual debut (OR=4.37, 95% CI=1.02-18.68) and frequent drinking (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.12-3.75) for females. Appropriate interventions should be implemented for adolescents in Korea to delay sexual debut and educate them on the proper use of condoms.

  18. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective inter-relationships between late adolescent personality and major depressive disorder in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G

    2014-02-01

    A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.

  20. Early adolescent substance use as a risk factor for developing conduct disorder and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; McCarty, Carolyn A; Mason, W Alex; King, Kevin M; Baer, John S; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Conduct disorder and depression symptoms are well-established risk factors for substance use during adolescence. However, few investigations have examined whether early substance use increases adolescents' risk of developing conduct disorder/depression symptoms. Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students (51.6% male), we tested whether substance use (indicated by alcohol and marijuana use, and use-related impairment) in 8th and 9th grade increased risk of conduct disorder and depression symptoms in 9th and 12th grade over and above prior symptoms. We examined whether associations between substance use and conduct disorder/depression symptoms were consistent across self- or parent-reported symptoms and whether associations were moderated by gender. Analyses indicated that, over and above prior symptoms, elevated substance use in 8th grade predicted elevated conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade, and substance use in 9th grade predicted conduct disorder symptoms in 12th grade. In contrast, substance use failed to predict later depression symptoms independent of prior symptoms. These findings were consistent across self- and parent-reported conduct disorder/depression symptoms. With one exception (association between substance use in 8th grade and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade), relations between early substance use and later conduct disorder symptoms did not differ between boys and girls. Study findings underscore the unique contribution of substance use during early adolescence to the development of conduct disorder symptoms by late adolescence.

  1. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals.

  2. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  3. The natural course of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: factors related to persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2017-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems during childhood and adolescence. This study examined the course of anxiety symptoms in early adolescents from the general population over three phases. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred and forty-two participants (mean-age of 13.52) from a baseline sample of 1514 (mean-age of 10.23) were followed up three times. Of the 1514 children, those with emotional risk and controls without risk constituted the second-phase sample (n = 562; mean-age of 11.25). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-SCARED was administered in all three phases. Fifty-six percent and 32% of respondents showed total scores above the SCARED cutoff point at one and three years follow-up, respectively. Eight percent showed fluctuating symptoms. Fifty-five percent of respondents showed high scores for any subtype of anxiety over three years. Social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms were the most prevalent and persistent. Participants with persistent separation anxiety showed the highest co-occurrence with symptoms of other psychopathological disorders. Participants with persistent anxiety showed lower academic performance. Being male was a protective factor against persistence. The data support anxiety maintenance during early adolescence. Early adolescence is a critical period which may involve other serious academic, social, and family problems.

  4. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  5. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  6. Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those

  7. Do discriminatory pay regimes unleash antisocial behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how pay-regime procedures affect antisocial behavior at the workplace. In a real-effort experiment we vary two determinants of pay regimes: discrimination and justification of payments by performance. In our Discrimination treatment half of the workforce is randomly selected and promoted and participate in a tournament (high-income workers) whereas the other half receives no payment (lowincome workers). Afterwards, antisocial behavior is measured by a Joy-of-Destruct...

  8. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syudo Yamasaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N = 4478. We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015. The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p < .001 was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = −.0066, p = 0.318 and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p = 0.321 were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  9. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  10. Research Review: The Relationship between Childhood Violence Exposure and Juvenile Antisocial Behavior--A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Stover, Carla Smith; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The connection between childhood violence exposure and antisocial behavior in adolescence has received much attention and has important implications for understanding and preventing criminal behavior. However, there are a limited number of well-designed prospective studies that can suggest a causal relationship, and little is known…

  11. The Latent Structure of Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: Is Moffitt's Developmental Taxonomy a True Taxonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether life-course-persistent (LCP) and adolescence-limited (AL) antisocial behavior form distinct categories or lie along a common dimension. Method: Taxometric analyses were performed on 2,175 men and women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (Center for Human Resource…

  12. Mediation of Sensation Seeking and Behavioral Inhibition on the Relationship between Heart Rate and Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expected that the relationship between HR and…

  13. Using forum theatre in organised youth soccer to positively influence antisocial and prosocial behaviour: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.A.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Dekovic, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Schuengel, C.; Verweel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre-test

  14. Using Forum Theatre in Organised Youth Soccer to Positively Influence Antisocial and Prosocial Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Esther A.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Verweel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre-test to post-test, small but positive changes were…

  15. Using forum theatre in organized youth soccer to positively influence antisocial and prosocial behavior: A Pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.A.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Dekovic, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Schuengel, C.; Verweel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre-test

  16. Using forum theatre in organized youth soccer to positively influence antisocial and prosocial behavior: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.A.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Deković, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Schuengel, C.; Verweel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on‐ and off‐field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre‐test

  17. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities.

  18. Early Election Returns and the Voting Behavior of Adolescent Voters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Leon; And Others

    1971-01-01

    High school students participated in a field experiment that tested the effects of exposure to early election returns in a nonpartisan referendum. Students in the brighter classes changed their vote less frequently, but when they changed their preferences they showed a greater bandwagon effect. Students in the classes of lower academic achievement…

  19. Early to Bed, Early to Rise?: An Exploration of Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl

    2011-01-01

    Cognition, memory, safety, mental health, and weight are all affected by inadequate sleep. Biological studies indicate significant changes in sleep architecture during adolescence, such as changes in melatonin secretion, and a need for greater total sleep time. Yet, social contexts and cultural values impinge on these changing biological sleep…

  20. Trajectories of Antisocial Behaviour towards Siblings Predict Antisocial Behaviour towards Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Rosie; Marks, Alex; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young siblings' antisocial behaviour is common yet its impact has received relatively little research attention. Methods: We examined trajectories of antisocial behaviour for a socially diverse sample (n = 99, 58 boys and 41 girls) who were filmed with their older siblings (52 boys and 47 girls) at ages 3 and 6 and with unfamiliar…