WorldWideScience

Sample records for early action measures

  1. Action Research: Its Origins and Early Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stuart W.

    This paper contains informal remarks on action research in social psychology from its post World War II origins to its current status. Kurt Lewin first described action research in the 1946 article, "Action Research and Minority Problems," as a three-step process of program planning, program execution, and follow-up evaluation. Ronald Lippitt and…

  2. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  3. Early rationality in action perception and production? A theoretical exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Király, Ildikó

    2013-10-01

    Within recent years, the question of early rationality in action perception and production has become a topic of great interest in developmental psychology. On the one hand, studies have provided evidence for rational action perception and action imitation even in very young infants. On the other hand, scholars have recently questioned these interpretations and proposed that the ability to rationally evaluate actions is not yet in place in infancy. Others have examined the development of the ability to make rational action choices and have indicated limitations of young children's ability to act rationally. This editorial to the special issue on Early Rationality in Action Perception and Production? introduces the reader to the current debate. It elucidates the underlying theoretical assumptions that drive the debate on whether or not young children's action perception and production is rational. Finally, it summarizes the papers and their contributions to the theoretical debate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are ...

  5. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach.

  6. Early Action on HFCs Mitigates Future Atmospheric Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret; Fleming, Eric; Newman, Paul; Li, Feng; Liang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    As countries take action to mitigate global warming, both by ratifying the UNFCCC Paris Agreement and enacting the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol to manage hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), it is important to consider the relative importance of the pertinent greenhouse gases (GHGs), the distinct structure of their atmospheric impacts, and how the timing of potential GHG regulations would affect future changes in atmospheric temperature and ozone. Chemistry-climate model simulations demonstrate that HFCs could contribute substantially to anthropogenic climate change by the mid-21st century, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere i.e., global average warming up to 0.19K at 80hPa. Three HFC mitigation scenarios demonstrate the benefits of taking early action in avoiding future atmospheric change: more than 90% of the climate change impacts of HFCs can be avoided if emissions stop by 2030.

  7. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  8. Children’s early helping in action: Piagetian developmental theory and early prosocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Stuart I.

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems, and issues, this paper examines children’s early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget’s “Moral Judgment of the Child” (Piaget, 1932/1997), “Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood” (Piaget, 1945/1951), and the “Grasp of Consciousness” (Piaget, 1976). Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping. PMID:25101027

  9. Children's early helping in action: Piagetian developmental theory and early prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Stuart I

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems, and issues, this paper examines children's early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget's "Moral Judgment of the Child" (Piaget, 1932/1997), "Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood" (Piaget, 1945/1951), and the "Grasp of Consciousness" (Piaget, 1976). Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping.

  10. Children’s Early Helping in Action: Piagetian Developmental Theory and Early Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Ian Hammond

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems and issues, this paper examines children’s early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget’s ‘Moral Judgment of the Child’ (1932/1997, ‘Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood’ (1945/1951, and the ‘Grasp of Consciousness’ (1974. Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping.

  11. Measurement Practices in Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellis D.

    This overview of measurement practices in early childhood education discusses some of the basic issues and concerns of both researchers and practitioners. Although techniques for the measurement of young children's behavior received primary attention, procedures for measuring parent and teacher behavior are also discussed. Trends in measurement…

  12. Planning my actions to accommodate yours: Joint action development during early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, M.; Wel, R.P.R.D. van der; Hunnius, S.

    2016-01-01

    The planning and adjusting of one's actions in relation to an action partner is fundamental to smooth joint action. During their first years of life, children gradually become more engaged in joint actions. Here, we investigated whether and at what age children take their partner into account in

  13. The early social significance of shared ritual actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Kinzler, Katherine D; Woodward, Amanda L

    2018-02-01

    Many rituals are socially stipulated such that engaging in a group's rituals can fundamentally signal membership in that group. Here, we asked whether infants infer information about people's social affiliation based on whether those people perform the same ritualistic action versus different actions. We presented 16-month-old infants with two people who used the same object to achieve the same goal: turning on a light. In a first study, the actions that the actors used to turn on the light had key properties of ritual: they were not causally necessary to reach the overall goal, and there were no features of the situation that required doing the particular actions. We varied whether the two actors performed the same action or performed different actions to turn on the light. Infants expected people who used the same ritualistic action to be more likely to affiliate than people who used different actions. A second study indicated that these results were not due to perceptual similarity: when the differences in the actors' actions were not marked by properties of ritual, but were instead due to situational constraints, infants expected the actors to affiliate. Thus, infants understand the social significance of people engaging in common, potentially ritualistic actions, and expect these actions to provide information about third-party social relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal scaling for early life stress measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zvinchuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life stress is associated with high risk for both negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, many of the stressful life events inventories that have been used in epidemiological research have not been validated or checked for reliability or consistency. The aim of our study is to use optimal scaling and correspondence analysis that employ categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA algorithm to consider the internal structure and the geometry of the space of variables obtained through the questions measuring early life stress. This approach was chosen because it allows quantification of categorical (both nominal and ordinal scales and reduction of initial number of variables with interval quantification of the resulting dimensions. METHODS: A questionnaire for measuring early life stress was applied to the participants of the Ukrainian component of European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood at the age of three and seven years. CATPCA algorithm was used to elaborate a tool for estimating related integral quantified characteristics.RESULTS: Application of quantification and dimension reduction techniques to the categorical variables measuring stress in three- and seven-year-old children resulted in two dimensions. The first dimension that accounts for a major part of initial variance and is associated with all the collected variables can be interpreted as the overall measure of stress. The second dimension accounts for smaller but still considerable part of variance and can be related to child’s attachment to mother and acquiring new experience as the route of development.CONCLUSIONS: Application of optimal scaling to the empirical data of early life stress measurement resulted in construction of two integral indicators – first measuring overall stress and second contrasting security related to child’s attachment to mother and new experiences – consistent across age groups of three and

  15. Repositioning Early Childhood Leadership as Action and Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Christine; Busch, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Robust leadership is increasingly recognised as a critical element of healthy professions, yet some research suggests that early childhood practitioners do not readily identify with the concept of leadership. This article explores some dimensions of leadership in early childhood and how it is understood and practised in Australian early childhood…

  16. Human Action Recognition Using Ordinal Measure of Accumulated Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wonjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognizing human actions from a single query action video. We propose an action recognition scheme based on the ordinal measure of accumulated motion, which is robust to variations of appearances. To this end, we first define the accumulated motion image (AMI using image differences. Then the AMI of the query action video is resized to a subimage by intensity averaging and a rank matrix is generated by ordering the sample values in the sub-image. By computing the distances from the rank matrix of the query action video to the rank matrices of all local windows in the target video, local windows close to the query action are detected as candidates. To find the best match among the candidates, their energy histograms, which are obtained by projecting AMI values in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, are compared with those of the query action video. The proposed method does not require any preprocessing task such as learning and segmentation. To justify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, the experiments are conducted on various datasets.

  17. First Steps: Taking Action Early To Prevent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Nageer, Sherlina; Cohen, Larry; Tepperman, Jean; Biderman, Fran; Henkle, Gretchen

    This report pulls together what is known about the intersection of early childhood development and violence prevention into a coherent strategy. It presents essential information about key risk and resiliency factors relevant to early development and violence prevention, research on a broad range of violence prevention issues, and recommendations…

  18. Measuring achievement motivation at early adolescent age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the sample of adult respondents from the domestic population we defined the structure of achievement motivation with four relatively independent dimensions of competing with others, perseverance in achieving goals, achieving goals as a source of pleasure and orientation towards planning. Based on this model we constructed the MOP/D scale for measuring achievement motivation at early adolescent age, containing 35 items and three-level categories of responses. This scale was administered together with the questionnaires exploring the motivation for school learning and personality features on the initial sample (261 respondents; 48% female and the cross-validation sample (2234 respondents; 49% female aged 10 to 16. It has been shown that the MOP/D scale is highly representative, with excellent reliability, and, considering the expected complexity of the space of measuring, acceptable homogeneity. Using the exploratory factor analysis on both samples, four primary dimensions were defined: planning, studying, competing and perseverance, and the general factor of achievement motivation. The results of correlation analyses revealed satisfactory criterion, convergent and discriminatory validity of the MOP/D scale against the measures of academic motivation, personality features and the variables derived from data on school success. Hence, the MOP/D scale has good psychometric characteristics and can be applied in research and practical psychological activities for measuring achievement motivation of respondents at early adolescent age.

  19. Cardiac action potential repolarization revisited: early repolarization shows all-or-none behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenor, Beatriz; Cardona, Karen; Saiz, Javier; Noble, Denis; Giles, Wayne

    2017-11-01

    In healthy mammalian hearts the action potential (AP) waveform initiates and modulates each contraction, or heartbeat. As a result, AP height and duration are key physiological variables. In addition, rate-dependent changes in ventricular AP duration (APD), and variations in APD at a fixed heart rate are both reliable biomarkers of electrophysiological stability. Present guidelines for the likelihood that candidate drugs will increase arrhythmias rely on small changes in APD and Q-T intervals as criteria for safety pharmacology decisions. However, both of these measurements correspond to the final repolarization of the AP. Emerging clinical evidence draws attention to the early repolarization phase of the action potential (and the J-wave of the ECG) as an additional important biomarker for arrhythmogenesis. Here we provide a mechanistic background to this early repolarization syndrome by summarizing the evidence that both the initial depolarization and repolarization phases of the cardiac action potential can exhibit distinct time- and voltage-dependent thresholds, and also demonstrating that both can show regenerative all-or-none behaviour. An important consequence of this is that not all of the dynamics of action potential repolarization in human ventricle can be captured by data from single myocytes when these results are expressed as 'repolarization reserve'. For example, the complex pattern of cell-to-cell current flow that is responsible for AP conduction (propagation) within the mammalian myocardium can change APD and the Q-T interval of the electrocardiogram alter APD stability, and modulate responsiveness to pharmacological agents (such as Class III anti-arrhythmic drugs). © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  20. Transforming Early Learning Vision into Action in Ontario, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grieve, Jim

    ..., Canada’s most populous province, has taken to implement a new vision for early learning including universal full-day kindergarten for all children aged four and five and modernizing the province’s childcare system...

  1. Back-action Evading Measurements of a Nanomechanical Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukum, Tchefor; Rocheleau, Tristan; Schwab, Keith

    2010-03-01

    By driving a 5GHz superconducting, co-planar waveguide (CPW) resonator coupled to a radio-frequency nanomechanical resonator with both red and blue-detuned, phase coherent microwave signals, we have demonstrated amplifier noise back-action evading (BAE) detection of one quadrature of nanomechanical motion. With this quantum non-demolition (QND) scheme we have shown precise measurements of a single motional quadrature with additive measurement noise of 4 times the zero point amplitude, and a reduction in sensitivity to injected measurement noise of a factor of 43 in comparison to a single tone, non-BAE measurement. By increasing the CPW frequency to 7.5GHz, quadrupling the coupling strength and improving the (internal) quality factor of the CPW, we expect to be able to demonstrate sensitivity to one quadrature with additive measurement noise below the zero-point level, a necessary ingredient to produce and measure squeezed states of motion.

  2. Back action evading quantum limited measurements of a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukum, Tchefor; Rocheleau, Tristan; Hertzberg, Jared; Schwab, Keith

    2009-03-01

    By driving a 5GHz superconducting, co-planar waveguide (CPW) resonator coupled to a radio-frequency nanomechanical resonator with both red- and blue-detuned, phase coherent microwave signals, we demonstrate amplifier noise back action evading(BAE) detection of one quadrature of nanomechanical motion. With this method we show precise measurements of a single motional quadrature with additive measurement noise of 4 times the zero point amplitude, and a reduction in sensitivity to injected measurement noise of a factor of 43 in comparison to a single tone, non-BAE measurement. We have also found a parametric instability which limits the coupling strength possible in our device, which will be described elsewhere. With straightforward improvements to the microwave resonator, we expect to be able to demonstrate sensitivity to one quadrature with additive measurement noise below the zero-point level, a necessary ingredient to produce and measure squeezed states of motion.

  3. Measures of Early Adolescent Development and School Contexts: Narrowing the Research to Practice Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Bridget K.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    This special issue highlights recent research on measures of early adolescents' development and the school contexts in which they spend their time. We are particularly interested in measures with direct application--providing actionable data to teachers, principals, parents, school counselors, or the students themselves, in ways that promote…

  4. Validity of DIBELS Early Literacy Measures with Korean English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwood, Michael L.; Nam, Jeanie E.; Sun, Jennifer W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of two Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) early literacy measures with first-grade Korean speaking English Learners (ELs). A total of 30 first-grade Korean ELs were screened three times during the year using early literacy measures from DIBELS. A sample of students was…

  5. Improvement of best practice in early breast cancer : Actionable surgeon and hospital factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Otter, Rene; Klazinga, Niek S.

    To identify actionable elements for improving best practice, this study examined the relative effects of patient, surgeon and hospital factors on surgical treatment variation of 2,929 early breast cancer patients, diagnosed from January 1998 to January 2002 in the region of the Comprehensive Cancer

  6. Accuracy of measurement in electrically evoked compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Matthias; Müller-Deile, Joachim

    2015-01-15

    Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) in cochlear implant (CI) patients are characterized by the amplitude of the N1P1 complex. The measurement of evoked potentials yields a combination of the measured signal with various noise components but for ECAP procedures performed in the clinical routine, only the averaged curve is accessible. To date no detailed analysis of error dimension has been published. The aim of this study was to determine the error of the N1P1 amplitude and to determine the factors that impact the outcome. Measurements were performed on 32 CI patients with either CI24RE (CA) or CI512 implants using the Software Custom Sound EP (Cochlear). N1P1 error approximation of non-averaged raw data consisting of recorded single-sweeps was compared to methods of error approximation based on mean curves. The error approximation of the N1P1 amplitude using averaged data showed comparable results to single-point error estimation. The error of the N1P1 amplitude depends on the number of averaging steps and amplification; in contrast, the error of the N1P1 amplitude is not dependent on the stimulus intensity. Single-point error showed smaller N1P1 error and better coincidence with 1/√(N) function (N is the number of measured sweeps) compared to the known maximum-minimum criterion. Evaluation of N1P1 amplitude should be accompanied by indication of its error. The retrospective approximation of this measurement error from the averaged data available in clinically used software is possible and best done utilizing the D-trace in forward masking artefact reduction mode (no stimulation applied and recording contains only the switch-on-artefact). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Turning the corner : Canada's credit for early action program[Catalogue no. En84-59/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Credit for Early Action Program will recognize firms that took verified early action to reduce greenhouse gases between 1992 and 2006. The purpose of the program is to address the disadvantage that a firm could incur for having undertaken an incremental action to reduce greenhouse gases before the regulatory regime was detailed. This document was intended to obtain feedback on the proposed Credit for Early Action Program, including eligibility rules and the process for allocating credits. The paper presented the objective of the program, guiding principles, and participants. The guiding principles that were discussed included simplicity and cost-effectiveness; fairness; transparency; and consistency. This document also discussed the characteristics of early action credits, the application process, and program requirements such as eligibility and allocation and issuance of early action credits. Several technical issues regarding quantification of greenhouse gas reductions were introduced, along with evidence and the timing of implementation. 1 fig.

  8. Personal Action Potency: Early Years Practitioners Participating in Interprofessional Practice in Early Years Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payler, Jane Katherine; Georgeson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on case study research in the UK analysing the participation of early years staff in interprofessional practice to provide effective care and education for children, primarily those with special educational needs. Even though case study staff in different "outstanding" settings had equivalent qualifications and similar…

  9. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Endedijk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other’s actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children’s interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction.

  10. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Overview: Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookings Institution, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO) initiative began in 2014 in anticipation of a new global emphasis on early childhood development (ECD). Led by UNESCO, the World Bank, the Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution, and UNICEF, the initiative aims to promote feasible, accurate and useful measurement of…

  12. Early phase clean-up actions after nuclear accidents. Guidelines for the planner. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvsand, T

    1997-06-01

    The work reported has been performed with the purpose of working out a guide for planners of early clean-up actions in nuclear fallout situations and for decision makers in the Nordic countries. The actions considered are hosing of roofs, walls and paved areas, lawn mowing, removal of snow, pruning of trees and bushes and vacuum cleaning of streets. The expected effects, mainly as life time dose reduction, and consequences regarding practicability, waste produced, staffing and protection are presented for urban, suburban and rural living environments. The work has been performed within the fram work of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994-97 (Statens Raeddningsverk). (au)

  13. Searching for roots of entrainment and joint action in early musical interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica ePhillips-Silver

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When people play music and dance together, they engage in forms of musical joint action that are often characterized by a shared sense of rhythmic timing and affective state (i.e., temporal and affective entrainment. In order to understand the origins of musical joint action, we propose a model in which entrainment is linked to dual mechanisms (motor resonance and action simulation, which in turn support musical behavior (imitation and complementary joint action. To illustrate this model, we consider two generic forms of joint musical behavior: chorusing and turn-taking. We explore how these common behaviors can be founded on entrainment capacities established early in human development, specifically during musical interactions between infants and their caregivers. If the roots of entrainment are found in early musical interactions which are practiced from childhood into adulthood, then we propose that the rehearsal of advanced musical ensemble skills can be considered to be a refined, mimetic form of temporal and affective entrainment whose evolution begins in infancy.

  14. Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

    2012-02-01

    Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 have allowed analysing the consequences of the Lakagígar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakagígar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

  15. Implementation of mechanism of action biology-driven early drug development for children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew D J; Herold, Ralf; Rousseau, Raphaël; Copland, Chris; Bradley-Garelik, Brigid; Binner, Debbie; Capdeville, Renaud; Caron, Hubert; Carleer, Jacqueline; Chesler, Louis; Geoerger, Birgit; Kearns, Pamela; Marshall, Lynley V; Pfister, Stefan M; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Spadoni, Cesare; Sterba, Jaroslav; van den Berg, Hendrick; Uttenreuther-Fischer, Martina; Witt, Olaf; Norga, Koen; Vassal, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    An urgent need remains for new paediatric oncology drugs to cure children who die from cancer and to reduce drug-related sequelae in survivors. In 2007, the European Paediatric Regulation came into law requiring industry to create paediatric drug (all types of medicinal products) development programmes alongside those for adults. Unfortunately, paediatric drug development is still largely centred on adult conditions and not a mechanism of action (MoA)-based model, even though this would be more logical for childhood tumours as these have much fewer non-synonymous coding mutations than adult malignancies. Recent large-scale sequencing by International Genome Consortium and Paediatric Cancer Genome Project has further shown that the genetic and epigenetic repertoire of driver mutations in specific childhood malignancies differs from more common adult-type malignancies. To bring about much needed change, a Paediatric Platform, ACCELERATE, was proposed in 2013 by the Cancer Drug Development Forum, Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer, the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents and the European Society for Paediatric Oncology. The Platform, comprising multiple stakeholders in paediatric oncology, has three working groups, one with responsibility for promoting and developing high-quality MoA-informed paediatric drug development programmes, including specific measures for adolescents. Key is the establishment of a freely accessible aggregated database of paediatric biological tumour drug targets to be aligned with an aggregated pipeline of drugs. This will enable prioritisation and conduct of early phase clinical paediatric trials to evaluate these drugs against promising therapeutic targets and to generate clinical paediatric efficacy and safety data in an accelerated time frame. Through this work, the Platform seeks to ensure that potentially effective drugs, where the MoA is known and thought to be relevant to paediatric

  16. Video Game Learning Dynamics: Actionable Measures of Multidimensional Learning Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Debbie Denise; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Kosko, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Valid, accessible, reusable methods for instructional video game design and embedded assessment can provide actionable information enhancing individual and collective achievement. Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor-enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs) design and embedded assessment quantify player behavior to study knowledge discovery and…

  17. Emerging Early Actions to Bend the Curve in Sub-Saharan Africa's Nutrition Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggblade, Steven; Duodu, Kwaku G; Kabasa, John D; Minnaar, Amanda; Ojijo, Nelson K O; Taylor, John R N

    2016-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the last region to undergo a nutrition transition and can still avoid its adverse health outcomes. The article explores emerging responses to "bend the curve" in sub-Saharan Africa's nutrition transition to steer public health outcomes onto a healthier trajectory. Early responses in 3 countries at different stages of food system transformation are examined: South Africa-advanced, Ghana-intermediate, and Uganda-early. By comparing these with international experience, actions are proposed to influence nutrition and public health trajectories as Africa's food systems undergo rapid structural change. Arising from rapid urbanization and diet change, major public health problems associated with overweight are taking place, particularly in South Africa and among adult women. However, public health responses are generally tepid in sub-Saharan Africa. Only in South Africa have policy makers instituted extensive actions to combat overweight and associated noncommunicable diseases through regulation, education, and public health programs. Elsewhere, in countries in the early and middle stages of transition, public health systems continue to focus their limited resources primarily on undernutrition. Related pressures on the supply side of Africa's food systems are emerging that also need to be addressed. Three types of intervention appear most feasible: maternal and child health programs to simultaneously address short-term undernutrition problems while at the same time helping to reduce future tendencies toward overweigh; regulatory and fiscal actions to limit access to unhealthy foods; and modernization of Africa's agrifood food system through job skills training, marketing reforms, and food industry entrepreneurship. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Developing the early warning system for identification of students at risk of dropping out using a collaborative action research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Olja 0000-0001-8860-6717

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents findings of collaborative action research aimed at exploring and describing the process of the development of the early warning system for identification of students at risk of dropping (EWS. The study has been conducted in collaboration between practitioners from five vocational agriculture and food science schools and research team with expertise in the field of educational psychology. Study employed one cycle of collaborative action research including planning, acting, observing, reflecting and revising phase. During the planning and action phase, Instrument for identification of students at risk of dropping out has been developed and implemented on the sample of 485 first grade students. The collected data has been used to highlight the students who are beginning to exhibit warning signs that could become obstacles to graduation, as well as to craft meaningful prevention and intervention measures. Observations regarding the implementation of proposed methodology and reflections on collected data and ongoing processes have been systematically recorded through regular monthly meetings between researchers and practitioners. Analysis of 73 documents, collected during observation and reflection phase, resulted in 18 categories, grouped into two broad themes: pitfalls and strengths of EWS. Based on the findings, the methodology for identification of students at risk was revised to fit the needs and strengths of the specific school. The study offers valuable lessons regarding development of EWS through researchers-practitioners collaboration.

  19. THE ACTION MODEL FOR MEASURING INFLUENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kovacic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of different theories there is little agreement on the suitable model that would explain how influence in advertising works. Historically, theoretical models have moved from including solely rational components towards including emotional components and from focusing on sequential processing towards hierarchy free processing models. Based on the existing literature, several most representative models are presented, described and evaluated. In a quest to explain a broader view on advertising influence we introduced the ACTION model (an acronym for Aim, Connection, Techniques, Identity, Opportunity and Numerous. Advantages, suggestions for future research and a critical discussion of using this model are further discussed.

  20. LHCb early measurements at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Spradlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The LHC's sqrt(s) = 13 TeV proton-proton collisions open a new regime in which the predictions of QCD may be precisely tested via production measurements. LHCb undertook an Early 2015 Measurements campaign to coordinate the operational and analysis activities that are required for rapid completion of such production measurements. The Early Measurements campaign is now bearing fruit with the recent publication of J/psi cross-sections and the imminent publication of charm hadron cross-sections. These are the first results to rely on LHCb's new real-time calibration system, in which the sub-detectors are promptly calibrated and the full event reconstruction of the software High Level Trigger has analysis-quality precision. This seminar will discuss the LHCb real-time calibration system and our recent charm and J/psi production measurements at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV.

  1. Measuring deficits in visually guided action post-concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Jason; Bunn, Lindsay; Roy, Eric; Danckert, James

    2010-03-01

    Recent concussion research has led to the development of computerized test batteries designed to measure working memory and psychomotor speed deficits in acute stage post-concussion. These tests lack a measure of motor control deficits, which may linger well after other symptoms have remitted. For athletes, this may mean returning to play while still uncoordinated or neurologically fragile. The present research involved the development of a visuomotor pointing task designed to induce a speed-accuracy trade off to measure motor planning and execution performance in concussed athletes. Data collected using this tool were contrasted with CogSport, a commercially available computerized test battery designed to assess residual cognitive effects of concussion in athletes. Results suggest that a motor task may be able to detect long-term effects of concussion not measurable with CogSport. If future research can confirm these findings, we suggest that a measure of motor control may need to be added to existing batteries to improve their sensitivity to long term effects.

  2. Measuring the Home Environments of Children in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Caldwell, Betty M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Mink, Iris T.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the Early Adolescent version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (EA-HOME) Inventory. Presents information on its usefulness with African Americans, Chinese Americans, European Americans, Mexican Americans, and Dominican Americans. Notes findings indicating high interobserver agreement, with…

  3. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.; Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A

    1998-12-01

    This work was undertaken in order to study the utilisation of decision conferencing and of the RODOS system when considering early phase protective actions in the case of a nuclear accident. Altogether four meetings with various people were organised. The meetings were attended by competent national safety authorities and technical level decision-makers, i.e., those who are responsible for preparing advice or making presentations of matters for decision-makers responsible for practical implementation of actions. In the first set of meetings the aim was to elicit the factors/attributes that have to be considered when making a decision on sheltering, evacuation and iodine tablets. No uncertainties nor a threat phase were considered but everything was assumed to happen as described in the given scenario. The theme in the second set of meetings was to study the implications of probabilities. All information was calculated with the support of the RODOS system. In the early phases of a nuclear accident time is limited. Prestructured generic value trees or a list of possible attributes can help to save time. A possible approach is to present a large generic value tree. Either the decision-makers select the attributes that are suitable for the case in hand or the facilitator offers a choice between more structured value trees. The decision-makers then just examine the suggested value trees, check the generic tree to make sure that no important factors have been omitted and choose the appropriate one. As in previous RODOS exercises, the participants felt that RODOS could be used for providing information but found it more problematic to use decision analysis methods when deciding on countermeasures in the early phase of a nuclear accident. Furthermore, it was noted that understanding the actual meaning of `soft` attributes, such as socio-psychological impacts or political cost, was not a straightforward issue. Consequently, the definition of attributes in advance would be

  4. Altered awareness of action in Parkinson's disease: evaluations by explicit and implicit measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naho; Takahata, Keisuke; Yamakado, Hodaka; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Saito, Satoshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2017-08-14

    Deficits in the integration of motor prediction and its feedback have been reported in Parkinson's disease. Conscious awareness of action is proposed to emerge under the integration of motor prediction and its feedback. Thus, it may lead to changes in the awareness of the authorship of action (in other words, the sense of agency) in Parkinson's disease. We have employed both explicit and implicit measures to assess the awareness of action in Parkinson's disease and matched controls. As an explicit measure, an action recognition task requiring explicit judgments was used. Patients showed less attribution of their movements to non-biased and angular-biased visual feedbacks. As an implicit measure, the temporal attraction between the perceived time of actions and their effects, which is known as intentional binding task, was used. While action-effect association was observed in the control group, actions were not experienced as having shifted towards their subsequent effects in the patient group. These tendencies were consistent regardless of the side of the asymmetrical motor symptoms. These results may reflect an underlying abnormality in the awareness of voluntary action in Parkinson's disease.

  5. Low-cost small action cameras in stereo generates accurate underwater measurements of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Letessier, T. B.; Juhel, Jean-Baptiste; Vigliola, Laurent; Meeuwig, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Small action cameras have received interest for use in underwater videography because of their low-cost, standardised housing, widespread availability and small size. Here, we assess the capacity of GoPro action cameras to provide accurate stereo-measurements of fish in comparison to the Sony handheld cameras that have traditionally been used for this purpose. Standardised stereo-GoPro and Sony systems were employed to capture measurements of known-length targets in a pool to explore the infl...

  6. Rocket Engine Health Management: Early Definition of Critical Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Rick L.; Nelson, Michael A.; Butas, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA led Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program has established key requirements related to safety, reliability, launch availability and operations cost to be met by the next generation of reusable launch vehicles. Key to meeting these requirements will be an integrated vehicle health management ( M) system that includes sensors, harnesses, software, memory, and processors. Such a system must be integrated across all the vehicle subsystems and meet component, subsystem, and system requirements relative to fault detection, fault isolation, and false alarm rate. The purpose of this activity is to evolve techniques for defining critical flight engine system measurements-early within the definition of an engine health management system (EHMS). Two approaches, performance-based and failure mode-based, are integrated to provide a proposed set of measurements to be collected. This integrated approach is applied to MSFC s MC-1 engine. Early identification of measurements supports early identification of candidate sensor systems whose design and impacts to the engine components must be considered in engine design.

  7. Forecast-based Financing, Early Warning and Early Action: : A Cutting-Edge Strategy for the International Humanitarian Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, A.; Fontaine, L.; Coughlan, E.R.; Kampfer, K.; Wyjad, K.; Destrooper, M.; Amuron, I.; Choularton, R.; Burer, M.; Miller, R.; Anderson, R.; de Silva, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Within the Action Plan for Humanitarian Adaptation to Climate Change initiated by the German Federal Foreign Office a new and innovative framework to humanitarian action is developed, the forecast-based financing mechanism. This scientifically based funding system shall enable practitioners and

  8. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  9. The Early Identity Exploration Scale – a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKłym

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering twelve exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.98. Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  10. Intra-individual variability and continuity of action and perception measures in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, Anja; Keitel, Anne; Daum, Moritz M

    2015-01-01

    The development of action and perception, and their relation in infancy is a central research area in socio-cognitive sciences. In this Perspective Article, we focus on the developmental variability and continuity of action and perception. At group level, these skills have been shown to consistently improve with age. We would like to raise awareness for the issue that, at individual level, development might be subject to more variable changes. We present data from a longitudinal study on the perception and production of contralateral reaching skills of infants aged 7, 8, 9, and 12 months. Our findings suggest that individual development does not increase linearly for action or for perception, but instead changes dynamically. These non-continuous changes substantially affect the relation between action and perception at each measuring point and the respective direction of causality. This suggests that research on the development of action and perception and their interrelations needs to take into account individual variability and continuity more progressively.

  11. The Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ): a parental report measure of early motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Landa, Rebecca J

    2013-12-01

    Children's early motor skills are critical for development across language, social, and cognitive domains, and warrant close examination. However, examiner-administered motor assessments are time consuming and expensive. Parent-report questionnaires offer an efficient alternative, but validity of parent report is unclear and only few motor questionnaires exist. In this report, we use cross-sectional and longitudinal data to investigate the validity of parent report in comparison to two examiner-administered measures (Mullen Scales of Early Learning, MSEL; Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, PDMS-2), and introduce a new parent-report measure called the Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ). Results indicate strong correlations between parent report on the EMQ and a child's age, robust concurrent and predictive validity of parent report with both the MSEL and PDMS-2, and good test-retest reliability of parent report on the EMQ. Together, our findings support the conclusion that parents provide dependable accounts of early motor and cognitive development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  13. Phase relationship between alternans of early and late phases of ventricular action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan eJing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alternans of early phase and of duration of action potential (AP critically affect dispersion of refractoriness through their influence on conduction and repolarization. We investigated the phase relationship between the two alternans and its effect on conduction. Methods and Results: Transmembrane potentials recorded from ventricles of 8 swine and 3 canines during paced activation intervals of ≤ 300 ms were used to quantify alternans of maximum rate of depolarization (|dv/dt|max and of APD. Incidence of APD alternans was 62% and 76% in swine and canines. Alternans of APD was frequently accompanied with alternans of |dv/dt|max. Of these, 4 and 26 % were out of phase in swine and canines, i.e. low |dv/dt|max preceded long APD. Computer simulations show that out of phase alternans attenuate variation of wavelength and thus minimize formation of spatially discordant alternans. Conclusions: The spontaneous switching of phase relationship between alternans of depolarization and repolarization suggests that mechanisms underlying these alternans may operate independent of each other. The phase between these alternans can critically impact spatial dispersion of refractoriness and thus stability of conduction, with the in phase relation promoting transition from concord to discord while out of phase preventing formation of discord.

  14. Changing Educational Practice in the Early Years through Practitioner-Led Action Research: An Adult-Child Interaction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Julie; Wood, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the development of the first two years of a three-year project that examines the effectiveness of adult-child interactions in the early years, and tracks the development of teachers' thinking and practice as they engage in practitioner-led action research. The Adult-Child Interaction Project involves practitioners who work…

  15. Measuring the quality of Patients’ goals and action plans: development and validation of a novel tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teal Cayla R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to develop and test reliability, validity, and utility of the Goal-Setting Evaluation Tool for Diabetes (GET-D. The effectiveness of diabetes self-management is predicated on goal-setting and action planning strategies. Evaluation of self-management interventions is hampered by the absence of tools to assess quality of goals and action plans. To address this gap, we developed the GET-D, a criteria-based, observer rating scale that measures the quality of patients’ diabetes goals and action plans. Methods We conducted 3-stage development of GET-D, including identification of criteria for observer ratings of goals and action plans, rater training and pilot testing; and then performed psychometric testing of the GET-D. Results Trained raters could effectively rate the quality of patient-generated goals and action plans using the GET-D. Ratings performed by trained evaluators demonstrated good raw agreement (94.4% and inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.66. Scores on the GET-D correlated well with measures theoretically associated with goal-setting, including patient activation (r=.252, P Conclusions The GET-D can reliably and validly rate the quality of goals and action plans. It holds promise as a measure of intervention fidelity for clinical interventions that promote diabetes self-management behaviors to improve clinical outcomes. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00481286

  16. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  17. Conjugacy, orbit equivalence and classification of measure-preserving group actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    We prove that if G is a countable discrete group with property (T) over an infinite subgroup HG which contains an infinite Abelian subgroup or is normal, then G has continuum-many orbit-inequivalent measure-preserving almost-everywhere-free ergodic actions on a standard Borel probability space....... Further, we obtain that the measure-preserving almost-everywhere-free ergodic actions of such a G cannot be classified up to orbit equivalence by a reasonable assignment of countable structures as complete invariants. We also obtain a strengthening and a new proof of a non-classification result of Foreman...

  18. Measurement Back-Action in Quantum Point-Contact Charge Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Küng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Charge sensing with quantum point-contacts (QPCs is a technique widely used in semiconductor quantum-dot research. Understanding the physics of this measurement process, as well as finding ways of suppressing unwanted measurement back-action, are therefore both desirable. In this article, we present experimental studies targeting these two goals. Firstly, we measure the effect of a QPC on electron tunneling between two InAs quantum dots, and show that a model based on the QPC’s shot-noise can account for it. Secondly, we discuss the possibility of lowering the measurement current (and thus the back-action used for charge sensing by correlating the signals of two independent measurement channels. The performance of this method is tested in a typical experimental setup.

  19. "Someone Had to Have Faith in Them as Professionals": An Evaluation of an Action Research Project to Develop Educational Leadership across the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on an evaluation of three action research projects developed by a group of teachers working across the early years in three independent schools. The article examines the role of action research in developing educational leadership capabilities. Drawing on the educational leadership literature, concepts and ideas of action and…

  20. Belief into Action Scale: A Comprehensive and Sensitive Measure of Religious Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.

  1. Promote racial equality in Florianópolis / SC policies: mapping actions in units of Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Regina de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some experiences that sought to include promotion of racial equality in early childhood education units of Florianopolis/SC. These data were collected from a questionnaire administered to the / the directors / s Day Care Centers and Child Education as well as semi-structured interviews with the management of the Directorate of Early Childhood Education. During production are be exposed data on the performance of actions, introduce the theme in political pedagogical projects, participation in continuing education, purchase of books, materials and assessment.

  2. The early development of object knowledge: A study of infants' visual anticipations during action observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects

  3. Neural mirroring and social interaction : Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H. M.; Meyer, M.; Bekkering, H.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; Hunnius, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is

  4. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Meyer, M.; Bekkering, H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hunnius, S.

    2017-01-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is

  5. Functional Dissociation between Perception and Action Is Evident Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    The functional distinction between vision for perception and vision for action is well documented in the mature visual system. Ganel and colleagues recently provided direct evidence for this dissociation, showing that while visual processing for perception follows Weber's fundamental law of psychophysics, action violates this law. We tracked the…

  6. Reshaping Literacy in a High Poverty Early Childhood Classroom: One Teacher's Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lynnette; Vaughn, Margaret; Taylor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This research explores an action research project conducted by the first author focused on supporting her preschool students' literacy and language development. Using observations, interviews, artifacts, and assessment, this research documents the first author's process of conducting an action research project over the course of one year to…

  7. REST mediates androgen receptor actions on gene repression and predicts early recurrence of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Charlotte; Ceder, Jens; Iglesias Gato, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate tumorgenesis through actions that are not fully understood. We identified the repressor element (RE)-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) as a mediator of AR actions on gene repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that AR binds...

  8. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  9. Tracking of Accelerometer-measured Physical Activity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Khoury, Philip R.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Claytor, Randal P.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining healthy physical activity (PA) levels is important throughout life. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of PA tracking between ages 3 and 7 y. Objective measures of PA (RT3, triaxial accelerometer) were collected every 4 mo from ages 3 to 7; data from 234 children with PA measures available during each year of age were analyzed. Mean PA (total, moderate/vigorous(MV), and inactivity(IA)) was calculated for each year of age and adjusted for wear time. Correlations with age 3 PA were moderate at age 4 (r=0.42–0.45) but declined by age 7 (r=0.19–0.25). After classification into sex-specific tertiles of PA at age 3, boys in the High age 3 MVPA tertile maintained significantly higher PA at all subsequent ages, while girls in the High age 3 MVPA tertile were not significantly higher at age 6 and 7. Boys and girls in the High age 3 IA tertile had significantly higher IA at multiple subsequent years of age (P<0.05 at ages 5 and 6). In conclusion, boys who were relatively more active at age 3 remained more active for several subsequent years. These findings highlight early childhood differences in physical activity patterns between boys and girls. PMID:23877325

  10. [Psychological measurement of tactile-kinesthetic perception in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Höch, J; Liebeck, H

    1998-04-01

    The perception theory of Affolter (1987), the theory of sensory integration of Ayres (1979, 1984) as well as the development theory of Piaget (1973) consider sensorimotor experiences as a basis for the child's cognitive development. Tactile-kinesthetic perception has hereby a central position. In the German-speaking psychology, no standardized tests exist to measure the developmental age of tactile-kinesthetic perception in early childhood. The subtests of neuropsychological batteries have not been primarily constructed for young children, therefore they may not portray the age dependence of tactile-kinesthetic perception exactly. That is why we have collected a pool of items, empirically based descriptors of tactile-kinesthetic behavior, to test this perceptual modality. Then we proved it in a series of pretests. The resulting preliminary developmental test contains 7 functions: Localization of touch, pressure sensibility, two-point-discrimination, finger identification, object stereognosis, stereognosis of object properties, and graphesthesia. It was administered to 111 children aged from 3;2 to 6;5 years in kindergarten. Data of the item analysis demonstrated that many items proved to be to easy. Nevertheless, the instrument is useful and measures reliably. The deficits of the experimental test version will now be corrected by a revision. We will start a detailed analysis again using the revised test.

  11. Improving Cardiac Action Potential Measurements: 2D and 3D Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Neil J; Yin, Yue; Kemanli, Pinar; Ip, Brian; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Progress in the development of assays for measuring cardiac action potential is crucial for the discovery of drugs for treating cardiac disease and assessing cardiotoxicity. Recently, high-throughput methods for assessing action potential using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes in both two-dimensional monolayer cultures and three-dimensional tissues have been developed. We describe an improved method for assessing cardiac action potential using an ultra-fast cost-effective plate reader with commercially available dyes. Our methods improve dramatically the detection of the fluorescence signal from these dyes and make way for the development of more high-throughput methods for cardiac drug discovery and cardiotoxicity.

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) launch, commissioning, and early operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international partnership co-led by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The mission centers on the GPM Core Observatory and consists of an international network, or constellation, of additional satellites that together will provide next-generation global observations of precipitation from space. The GPM constellation will provide measurements of the intensity and variability of precipitation, three-dimensional structure of cloud and storm systems, the microphysics of ice and liquid particles within clouds, and the amount of water falling to Earth's surface. Observations from the GPM constellation, combined with land surface data, will improve weather forecast models; climate models; integrated hydrologic models of watersheds; and forecasts of hurricanes/typhoons/cylcones, landslides, floods and droughts. The GPM Core Observatory carries an advanced radar/radiometer system and serves as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from all satellites that fly within the constellation. The GPM Core Observatory improves upon the capabilities of its predecessor, the NASA-JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), with advanced science instruments and expanded coverage of Earth's surface. The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments, the NASA-supplied GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the JAXA-supplied Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The GMI measures the amount, size, intensity and type of precipitation, from heavy-tomoderate rain to light rain and snowfall. The DPR provides three-dimensional profiles and intensities of liquid and solid precipitation. The French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the U.S. Department of Defense are partners with NASA and

  13. Early Educators as Agents of Social Change for Inclusive Practices: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Alissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new course developed for students in the early childhood education (ECE) graduate and/or licensure in early childhood special education (ECSE)--a Colorado teacher licensure program--in the School of Education and Human Development at CU Denver. The study explored graduate students' learning in a course…

  14. Thalidomide dramatically improves the symptoms of early-onset sarcoidosis/Blau syndrome: its possible action and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kozo; Yashiro, Masato; Tsuge, Mitsuru; Manki, Akira; Takemoto, Kei; Yamamoto, Michiko; Morishima, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS), which occurs in children younger than 5 years of age, is associated with granulomatous lesions and a sporadic genetic mutation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 that causes constitutive NF-kappaB activation. The symptoms of EOS can be uncontrollable, progressive, and associated with profound complications. However, appropriate therapy is still under investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in patients with severe EOS, based on etiology supporting an initial role of NF-kappaB in activation of this disease. Thalidomide was given to 2 patients with EOS (a 16-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy) at an initial dosage of 2 mg/kg/day, and the dosage was increased if necessary. To elucidate the mechanism of the drug, peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from the patients and stimulated with cytokines (macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-4), and their ability to form multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) and osteoclasts was measured. Both patients showed dramatic improvement of their clinical symptoms (alleviation of fever and optic nerve papillitis, achievement of a response according to the American College of Rheumatology Pediatric 50 and Pediatric 70 criteria) and laboratory findings. Monocytes from patients with EOS had a greater ability to survive and induce MGCs and osteoclasts than those from healthy control subjects. The formation of MGCs and osteoclasts was inhibited by the presence of thalidomide. The ability of thalidomide to improve clinical symptoms and laboratory findings in patients with EOS indicates a central role for NF-kappaB activity in this disorder. Inhibition of IKK might be a pharmacologic action by which thalidomide down-regulates NF-kappaB signaling. Thalidomide may be an effective medication in patients with severe complications of EOS, including ocular involvement.

  15. Action Plan to enhance self-management and early detection of exacerbations in COPD patients; a multicenter RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheij Theo JM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of exacerbations by COPD patients initiating prompt interventions has shown to be clinically relevant. Until now, research failed to identify the effectiveness of a written individualized Action Plan (AP to achieve this. Methods/Design The current multicenter, single-blind RCT with a follow-up period of 6 months, evaluates the hypothesis that individualized AP's reduce exacerbation recovery time. Patients are included from regular respiratory nurse clinics and allocated to either usual care or the AP intervention. The AP provides individualized treatment prescriptions (pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical related to a color coded symptom status (reinforcement at 1 and 4 months. Although usually not possible in self-management trials, we ensured blinding of patients, using a modified informed consent procedure in which patients give consent to postponed information. Exacerbations in both study arms are defined using the Anthonisen symptom diary-card algorithm. The Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ is assessed every 3-days. CCQ-recovery time of an exacerbation is the primary study outcome. Additionally, healthcare utilization, anxiety, depression, treatment delay, and self-efficacy are assessed at baseline and 6 months. We aim at including 245 COPD patients from 7 hospitals and 5 general practices to capture the a-priori sample size of at least 73 exacerbations per study arm. Discussion This RCT identifies if an AP is an effective component of self-management in patients with COPD and clearly differentiates from existing studies in its design, outcome measures and generalizability of the results considering that the study is carried out in multiple sites including general practices. Trial Registration NCT00879281

  16. Measuring Early Cortical Visual Processing in the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bowns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a mobile app that measures early cortical visual processing suitable for use in clinics. The app is called Component Extraction and Motion Integration Test (CEMIT. Observers are asked to respond to the direction of translating plaids that move in one of two very different directions. The plaids have been selected so that the plaid components move in one of the directions and the plaid pattern moves in the other direction. In addition to correctly responding to the pattern motion, observers demonstrate their ability to correctly extract the movement (and therefore the orientation of the underlying components at specific spatial frequencies. We wanted to test CEMIT by seeing if we could replicate the broader tuning observed at low spatial frequencies for this type of plaid. Results from CEMIT were robust and successfully replicated this result for 50 typical observers. We envisage that it will be of use to researchers and clinicians by allowing them to investigate specific deficits at this fundamental level of cortical visual processing. CEMIT may also be used for screening purposes where visual information plays an important role, for example, air traffic controllers.

  17. Improving the Quality of Heisenberg Back-Action of Qubit Measurements made with Parametric Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Katrina

    The quantum back-action of the measurement apparatus arising from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is both a fascinating phenomenon and a powerful way to apply operations on quantum systems. Unfortunately, there are other effects which may overwhelm the Heisenberg back-action. This thesis focuses on two effects arising in the dispersive measurement of superconducting qubits made with two ultra-low-noise parametric amplifiers, the Josephson bifurcation amplifier (JBA) and the Josephson parametric converter (JPC). The first effect is qubit dephasing due to excess photons in the cavity coming from rogue radiation emitted by the first amplifier stage toward the system under study. This problem arises primarily in measurements made with the JBA, where a strong resonant pump tone is traditionally used to provide the energy for amplification. Replacing the single strong pump tone with two detuned pump tones minimized this dephasing to the point where the Heisenberg back-action of measurements made with the JBA could be observed. The second effect is reduced measurement efficiency arising from losses between the qubit and the parametric amplifier. Most commonly used parametric amplifiers operate in reflection, requiring additional lossy, magnetic elements known as circulators both to separate input from output, and to protect the qubits from dephasing due to the amplified reflected signal. This work presents two alternative directional elements, the Josephson circulator, which is both theoretically loss-less and does not rely upon the strong magnetic fields needed for traditional circulators, and the Josephson directional amplifier which does not send any amplified signal back toward the qubit. Both of these elements achieve directionality by interfering multiple parametric processes inside a single JPC, allowing for in-situ switching between the two modes of operation. This brings valuable experimental flexibility, and also makes these devices strong candidates for

  18. Knowledge of actions of inhaled corticosteroids in patients who did not persist drug treatment early

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menckeberg, T.T.; Hugtenburg, J.G.; Lammers, J.W.; Raaijmakers, J.A.; Bouvy, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, among new users of inhaled corticosteroids that did not persist treatment, knowledge of inhaled corticosteroids' actions and whether they were instructed on the use of their inhaler. Setting Fifteen community pharmacies in The Netherlands. Methods Patients were interviewed by

  19. Early Error Detection: An Action-Research Experience Teaching Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añino, María Magdalena; Merino, Gabriela; Miyara, Alberto; Perassi, Marisol; Ravera, Emiliano; Pita, Gustavo; Waigandt, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an action-research experience carried out with second year students at the School of Engineering of the National University of Entre Ríos, Argentina. Vector calculus students played an active role in their own learning process. They were required to present weekly reports, in both oral and written forms, on the topics studied,…

  20. A pilot study to validate measures of the theory of reasoned action for organ donation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung; Chow, Amy Yin Man

    2017-05-26

    The present study aimed at taking the first attempt in validating the measures generated based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). A total of 211 university students participated in the study, 95 were included in the exploratory factor analysis and 116 were included in the confirmatory factor analysis. The TRA measurements were established with adequate psychometric properties, internal consistency, and construct validity. Findings also suggested that attitude toward organ donation has both a cognitive and affective nature, while the subjective norm of the family seems to be important to students' views on organ donation.

  1. Measuring reporting verifying. A primer on MRV for nationally appropriate mitigation actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (ed.); Luetken, S.; Holm Olsen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aalders, E.; Pretlove, B.; Peters, N. (Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2012-03-15

    The requirements for measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are one of the crucial topics on the agenda of international negotiations to address climate change mitigation. According to agreements so far, the general guidelines for domestic MRV are to be developed by Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)1. Further, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) will be conducting international consultations and analysis (ICA) of biennial update reports (BUR) to improve transparency of mitigation actions, which should be measured, reported and verified. 2. What is clear from undergoing discussions both at SBSTA and at SBI is that MRV for NAMAs should not be a burden for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions connected to economic activities. Instead, the MRV process should facilitate mitigation actions; encourage the redirection of investments and address concerns regarding carbon content of emission intensive operations of private and public companies and enterprises worldwide. While MRV requirements are being shaped within the Convention, there are a number of initiatives supporting developing countries moving forward with NAMA development and demonstration activities. How these actions shall be measured, reported and verified, however, remain unanswered. MRV is not new. It is present in most existing policies and frameworks related to climate change mitigation. With an aim to contribute to international debate and capacity building on this crucial issue, the UNEP Risoe Centre in cooperation with UNDP, are pleased to present this publication that through the direct collaboration with Det Norske Veritas (DNV) builds on existing MRV practices in current carbon markets; provides insights on how MRV for NAMAs can be performed and identifies elements and drivers to be considered when designing adequate MRV systems for NAMAs in developing countries. This primer is the second

  2. Contributions of modern measurement theory to measuring executive function in early childhood: An empirical demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Wirth, R J; Blair, Clancy B

    2011-03-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from low-income and African American families. IRT models were applied to a select set of tasks to demonstrate empirically (a) a principled method for item evaluation, including the utility of item characteristic curves; (b) how to explicitly test whether the measurement properties of executive function tasks are invariant across mutually exclusive subgroups of youths; (c) how the precision of measurement of a given task can vary according to underlying child ability; and (d) the utility of using IRT-based versus percentage correct scores. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of developing psychometrically sound and scalable instruments that facilitate the measurement of interindividual differences in intraindividual change of executive function across the early childhood period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The early career, gender, and diversity actions at the LHCb Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Rademacker, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous surveys of modern particle physics indicate that the discipline is still largely a male pursuit, and one in which women and other marginalised groups continue to face discriminatory practices. The fraction of female particle physicists reduces with each career stage. Early career particle physicists face precarious employment conditions with serial short term contracts, long working hours, the frequent need to relocate, and little prospect for a permanent academic position. There are indications that these employment conditions add to the gender-imbalance in the field, but clearly, this problem directly affects both male and female early career scientists. The LHCb experiment has, as the first (and so far only) LHC experiment, created a dedicated office for Early Career Gender and Diversity (ECGD) (see http://lhcb.web.cern.ch/lhcb/ECGD_Office/ECGD-intro.html ). The ECGD office’s role is to to advise the management on ECGD matters; provide a point of contact for anybody experiencing any kind discrim...

  4. The early career, gender, and diversity actions within the LHCb Collaboration (poster)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00038235; Rademacker, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous surveys of modern particle physics indicate that the discipline is still largely a male pursuit, and one in which women and other marginalised groups continue to face discriminatory practices. The fraction of female particle physicists reduces with each career stage. Early career particle physicists face precarious employment conditions with serial short term contracts, long working hours, the frequent need to relocate, and little prospect for a permanent academic position. There are indications that these employment conditions add to the gender-imbalance in the field, but clearly, this problem directly affects both male and female early career scientists. The LHCb experiment has, as the first (and so far only) LHC experiment, created a dedicated office for Early Career Gender and Diversity (ECGD) The ECGD office’s role is to to advise the management on ECGD matters; provide a point of contact for anybody experiencing any kind discrimination, bullying or harassment; collate regular statistics and o...

  5. A Pro-Environmental Reasoned Action Model for Measuring Citizens’ Intentions regarding Ecolabel Product Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Nadlifatin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecolabel products are one approach towards environmental sustainability. Ecolabel programs have been socialized by governments all over the world to reduce environmental harm caused by the daily life cycles of the products that citizens use. The present study was aimed at measuring citizens’ behavior intention (BI regarding ecolabel product usage. An extended theory of reasoned action (TRA, namely that of pro-environmental reasoned action (PERA, is used as the predictor model. A total of 213 questionnaire data, collected from citizens of Indonesia, was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The analysis results show that the PERA model is able to describe 68% of citizens’ BI regarding ecolabel product usage. The analysis results also reveal that attitude is a key determinant factor. Several practical suggestions based on the results can be used as input for policy makers and company management to consider in their efforts to increase citizens’ BI to use ecolabel products.

  6. Iridium Oxide Nanotube Electrodes for Highly Sensitive and Prolonged Intracellular Measurement of Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ziliang Carter; Xie, Chong; Osakada, Yasuko; Cui, Yi; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular recording of action potentials is important to understand electrically-excitable cells. Recently, vertical nanoelectrodes have been developed to achieve highly sensitive, minimally invasive, and large scale intracellular recording. It has been demonstrated that the vertical geometry is crucial for the enhanced signal detection. Here we develop nanoelectrodes made up of nanotubes of iridium oxide. When cardiomyocytes are cultured upon those nanotubes, the cell membrane not only wraps around the vertical tubes but also protrudes deep into the hollow center. We show that this geometry enhances cell-electrode coupling and results in measuring much larger intracellular action potentials. The nanotube electrodes afford much longer intracellular access and are minimally invasive, making it possible to achieve stable recording up to an hour in a single session and more than 8 days of consecutive daily recording. This study suggests that the electrode performance can be significantly improved by optimizing the electrode geometry. PMID:24487777

  7. K-3 Policymakers' Guide to Action: Making the Early Years Count. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Bruce; Diffey, Louisa; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    High-quality early elementary years offer a critical opportunity for child development and academic learning for all children, regardless of their race, family-income level, or culture and home language. All students deserve access to high-quality teachers and leaders trained in how to effectively support their learning. They deserve to attend…

  8. Early-life maternal separation and social isolation produce an increase in impulsive action but not impulsive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovic, Vedran; Keen, Darren; Fletcher, Paul J; Fleming, Alison S

    2011-08-01

    Early life environment, events, and context, such as mother-offspring relationship, can have profound effects on future behavior and physiology. We investigated the effects of long-term maternal and social separation, through artificial rearing, on adult impulsivity. Rats were maternally reared (MR) or artificially reared (AR) and half of the AR rats were provided with replacement somatosensory stimulation intended to simulate maternal licking. There are at least 2 forms of impulsivity and we compared rats on 1 test of impulsive action (differential reinforcement of low rates of responding-DRL-20s) and 2 tests of impulsive choice (delay discounting and fixed consecutive number schedule-FCN). We found that AR rats are more action impulsive; however, this effect can be reduced by maternal licking-like stimulation. In contrast, AR rats did not display an increase in impulsive choice. Overall, these experiments show that early life maternal and social separation have different effects on the 2 forms of impulsivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effect of sampling frequency on the measurement of phase-locked action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eAshida

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase-locked spikes in various types of neurons encode temporal information. To quantify the degree of phase-locking, the metric called vector strength (VS has been most widely used. Since VS is derived from spike timing information, error in measurement of spike occurrence should result in errors in VS calculation. In electrophysiological experiments, the timing of an action potential is detected with finite temporal precision, which is determined by the sampling frequency. In order to evaluate the effects of the sampling frequency on the measurement of VS, we derive theoretical upper and lower bounds of VS from spikes collected with finite sampling rates. We next estimate errors in VS assuming random sampling effects, and show that our theoretical calculation agrees with data from electrophysiological recordings in vivo. Our results provide a practical guide for choosing the appropriate sampling frequency in measuring VS.

  10. Linear and nonlinear magnetic error measurements using action and phase jump analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier F. Cardona

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available “Action and phase jump” analysis is presented—a beam based method that uses amplitude and phase knowledge of a particle trajectory to locate and measure magnetic errors in an accelerator lattice. The expected performance of the method is first tested using single-particle simulations in the optical lattice of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC. Such simulations predict that under ideal conditions typical quadrupole errors can be estimated within an uncertainty of 0.04%. Other simulations suggest that sextupole errors can be estimated within a 3% uncertainty. Then the action and phase jump analysis is applied to real RHIC orbits with known quadrupole errors, and to real Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS orbits with known sextupole errors. It is possible to estimate the strength of a skew quadrupole error from measured RHIC orbits within a 1.2% uncertainty, and to estimate the strength of a strong sextupole component from the measured SPS orbits within a 7% uncertainty.

  11. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Actions, Habits, and the Neural Systems Supporting Instrumental Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Factors contributing to the formation of habits, defined as the stimulus-response associations that form the basis of much human and animal behavior, are not well understood, and although habits are believed to underlie many negative health behaviors such as addictions, the extent to which findings from animal research on habits apply in the human is largely unknown. In Study 1 (Chapter 2), we conducted two experiments on appetitive habit formation in adults with a history of early-life stres...

  12. Disentangling behavior in early child development : Interpretability of early child language and its effect on utterance length measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, M.W.G.; Van Geert, P. L. C.

    Early child speech is often difficult to understand and interpret. Usually, these unintelligible units are not included in quantitative measures, such as MLU. In this paper, we claim that these interpretation problems have an unknown effect on utterance length measures (such as MLU), since we have

  13. Public Health Measures: Alerts and Early Warning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews various reactive and proactive alert and early warning systems that can be used for the identification of emerging risks to food safety, both within the European Union and at the global level. Recent developments include the establishment of a unit dedicated to emerging risks at

  14. Measuring prerequisites and effects of preventive intervention in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a

  15. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varsha, M K N; Raman, Thiagarajan; Manikandan, R; Dhanasekaran, G

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K is a potent regulator of vascular dynamics and prevents vascular calcification. Vitamin K is increasingly being recognized for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recently we demonstrated that vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg) protects against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diabetic cataract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could inhibit early-onset diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered with 35 mg/kg STZ and after 3 days were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 3 months. Blood glucose was monitored once a month. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed and kidney was dissected out and analysed for free radicals, antioxidants, aldose reductase, membrane ATPases, histopathology evaluation and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, albumin and insulin levels were also estimated. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitamin K1 resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and prevented microalbuminuria. Vitamin K1 also reduced oxidative stress and protected renal physiology by modulating Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Vitamin K1 inhibited renal inflammation by reducing nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Interleukin-10 levels were increased in renal tissues, suggesting the ability of vitamin K1 to trigger antiinflammatory state. The hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could have an indirect effect by inhibiting early-onset diabetic nephropathy triggered by high blood glucose. Vitamin K1 could be an important nutrient based interventional strategy for early onset diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The early career, gender, and diversity actions within the LHCb Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Rademacker, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has, as the first (and so far only) LHC collaboration, created a dedicated office for Early Career, Gender and Diversity (ECGD). The ECGD office’s role is to advise the management on ECGD matters; provide a point of contact for anybody experiencing any kind discrimination, bullying or harassment; collate regular statistics and other relevant information related to gender and, where appropriate, other ECGD matters; organise regular open meetings where ECGD matters are discussed. We report on the first two years of the LHCb ECGD office.

  17. The linear synchronization measures of uterine EMG signals: Evidence of synchronized action potentials during propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of synchronization between myoelectric signals can give new insights into the functioning of the complex system of porcine myometrium. We propose a model of uterine contractions according to the hypothesis of action potentials similarity which is possible to detect during propagation in the uterine wall. We introduce similarity measures based on the concept of synchronization as used in matching linear signals such as electromyographic (EMG) time series data. The aim was to present linear measures to assess synchronization between contractions in different topographic regions of the uterus. We use the cross-correlation function (ƒx,y[l], ƒy,z[l]) and the cross-coherence function (Cxy[ƒ], Cyz[ƒ]) to assess synchronization between three data series of a diestral uterine EMG bundles in porcine reproductive tract. Spontaneous uterine activity was recorded using telemetry method directly by three-channel transmitter and three silver bipolar needle electrodes sutured on different topographic regions of the reproductive tract in the sow. The results show the usefulness of the cross-coherence function in that synchronization between uterine horn and corpus uteri for multiple action potentials (bundles) could be observed. The EMG bundles synchronization may be used to investigate the direction and velocity of EMG signals propagation in porcine reproductive tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

  19. [Action of regulators of peripheral cholinergic processes on development of early arrhythmia in myocardial ischemic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, N A; Eliseev, V V; Sapronov, N S; Krylova, I B; Evdokimova, N R

    2002-01-01

    Occlusion of the left coronary artery in rats provoked ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) within the first 30 min of ischemia leading to death in 20% animals. Methacin (i.v., 100 micrograms/kg) significantly prolonged VT and VF without effects on the survival. Acetylcholine (i.v., 10 micrograms/kg/min) had no influence on VT frequency and severity but prevented VF. Rats from this group survived. The same effect was observed for neostigmine (i.v., 25 micrograms/kg). Nicotine (i.v., 2.5 micrograms/kg/min) prolonged VT episode duration but did not change frequency and severity of VF and survival. Ganglioblockers hexametony and azametony (i.v., both in a dose 500 micrograms/kg) significantly attenuated VT, prevented VF and death of the animals. Thus, cholinotropic drugs may have both antiarrhythmic and proarrhythmogenic effects in early arrhythmias induced by ischemia.

  20. Ability of Early Literacy Measures to Predict Future State Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utchell, Lynn A.; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; McGoey, Kara E.; Piselli, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early literacy measures administered in kindergarten and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures administered in Grade 1 are related to and predict future state reading assessment performances up to 7 years later. Results indicated that early literacy and ORF performances were…

  1. Early MRI measures independently predict 1-year and 2-year radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Joshua F; Østergaard, Mikkel; Emery, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To determine if early MRI measures predict X-ray progression at 1 and 2 years in a large RA trial cohort.......To determine if early MRI measures predict X-ray progression at 1 and 2 years in a large RA trial cohort....

  2. Estimating minimal clinically important differences of upper extremity measures early after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Catherine E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Dromerick, Alexander W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate minimal clinically important difference values of several upper extremity measures early after stroke. Design Data in this report were collected during the VECTORS trial, an acute, single-blind randomized controlled trial of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy. Subjects were tested at the pre-randomization baseline assessment (average of 9.5 days post stroke), and the first post-treatment assessment (25.9 days post stroke). At each time point, the affected upper extremity was evaluated with a battery of 6 tests. At the second assessment, subjects were also asked to provide a global rating of perceived changes in their affected upper extremity. Anchor-based minimal clinically important difference values were calculated separately for the affected dominant upper extremities and the affected non-dominant upper extremities for each of the 6 tests. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Participants Fifty-two people with hemiparesis post stroke. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Estimated minimal clinically important difference values for grip strength, composite upper extremity strength, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and duration of upper extremity use as measured with accelerometry. Results Minimal clinically important difference values for grip strength were 5.0 and 6.2 kg for the affected dominant and non-dominant sides respectively. Minimal clinically important difference values for the ARAT were 12 and 17 points, for the WMFT Function score were 1.0 and 1.2 points, and for the MAL How well score were 1.0 and 1.1 points for the two sides respectively. Minimal clinically important difference values were indeterminate for the dominant (composite strength), the non-dominant (WMFT Time score) or for both affected sides (duration of use) for the other measures. Conclusions Our data provide some of the first estimates of minimal clinically important difference values

  3. Quantum back-action-evading measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Christoffer B.; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Zeuthen, Emil; Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Balabas, Mikhail; Jensen, Kasper; Schliesser, Albert; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum mechanics dictates that a continuous measurement of the position of an object imposes a random quantum back-action (QBA) perturbation on its momentum. This randomness translates with time into position uncertainty, thus leading to the well known uncertainty on the measurement of motion. As a consequence of this randomness, and in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the QBA puts a limitation—the so-called standard quantum limit—on the precision of sensing of position, velocity and acceleration. Here we show that QBA on a macroscopic mechanical oscillator can be evaded if the measurement of motion is conducted in the reference frame of an atomic spin oscillator. The collective quantum measurement on this hybrid system of two distant and disparate oscillators is performed with light. The mechanical oscillator is a vibrational ‘drum’ mode of a millimetre-sized dielectric membrane, and the spin oscillator is an atomic ensemble in a magnetic field. The spin oriented along the field corresponds to an energetically inverted spin population and realizes a negative-effective-mass oscillator, while the opposite orientation corresponds to an oscillator with positive effective mass. The QBA is suppressed by -1.8 decibels in the negative-mass setting and enhanced by 2.4 decibels in the positive-mass case. This hybrid quantum system paves the way to entanglement generation and distant quantum communication between mechanical and spin systems and to sensing of force, motion and gravity beyond the standard quantum limit.

  4. Actionable knowledge and strategic decision making for bio- and agroterrorism threats: building a collaborative early warning culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Per-Åke; Hedström, Lars; Sundelius, Bengt; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Elbers, Armin; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    Current trends in biosecurity and cybersecurity include (1) the wide availability of technology and specialized knowledge that previously were available only to governments; (2) the global economic recession, which may increase the spread of radical non-state actors; and (3) recent US and EU commission reports that reflect concerns about non-state actors in asymmetric threats. The intersectoral and international nature of bioterrorism and agroterrorism threats requires collaboration across several sectors including intelligence, police, forensics, customs, and other law enforcement organizations who must work together with public and animal health organizations as well as environmental and social science organizations. This requires coordinated decision making among these organizations, based on actionable knowledge and information sharing. The risk of not sharing information among organizations compared to the benefit of sharing information can be considered in an "information sharing risk-benefit analysis" to prevent a terrorism incident from occurring and to build a rapid response capability. In the EU project AniBioThreat, early warning is the main topic in work package 3 (WP 3). A strategy has been generated based on an iterative approach to bring law enforcement agencies and human and animal health institutes together. Workshops and exercises have taken place during the first half of the project, and spin-off activities include new preparedness plans for institutes and the formation of a legal adviser network for decision making. In addition, a seminar on actionable knowledge was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2012, which identified the need to bring various agency cultures together to work on developing a resilient capability to identify early signs of bio- and agroterrorism threats. The seminar concluded that there are a number of challenges in building a collaborative culture, including developing an education program that supports collaboration and shared

  5. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, G.; Barut, E.; Bektaş, E.; Özcan, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature.

  6. Measuring, Reporting, Verifying. A Primer on MRV for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Søren; Aalders, Edwin; Pretlove, Bente

    and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman’s terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA......This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept...... by developing countries to the UNFCCC, and ends by proposing a structure for formal submission of a NAMA. The third chapter specifically addresses the concept of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), and describes the implications for countries implementing the MRV requirements. The last chapter...

  7. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse.

  8. ULTRASTRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY DIRECT ACTION OF CU2+ UPON EARLY CHICK EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Checiu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratological testing of sulphonate phtalocyanine (an alimentary blue dye synthetized by the Center of Chemisty, Timisoara, shown a strong malformative effect of this compound upon early chick embryo (48 hours of incubation, (Sandor, Checiu, Prelipceanu, 1985. Dye administration on day 2 of incubation (44-48 hours revealed a high rate of embryo mortality and abnormal modification of caudal segment or even a total absence of caudal tail bud. Living embryos until day 7 of incubation showed a normal development of the anterior body part (head and trunk in contrast with posterior body part which presented an abnormal position of posterior limbs, tail and trunk aplasia. The dye with the some name produced in Germany did not show (in the some experimental conditions a malformative effect. The only difference between the two dyes was the presence of Cu2+ in our compound. It is well known that chemicals and physics factors (X rayes, insuline, hypoxy, D-Actinomycine, sucrose, etc. are noxious, inducing malformations of caudal segment (tail bud, urogenital and anorectal abnormalities associated with cardiac, facial and SNC malformations (Landauer 1953, Shepard 1973. Abnormalities of esophagus, urogenital and anorectal region associated with those of caudal axial skeleton and posterior limb buds are involved in caudal dysplasia syndrome (Duhamel 1961 cited by Roux and Martinet 1962. This syndrome is frequent (1:1000 in children of diabetic mothers (Warkany 1971. Experimental works on mice suggested implication of genetic factors in pathogenesis of this syndrome (Frye et all.1964 cited by Warkany 1971. Previous investigations (Checiu et all. 1966 revealed a caudal malformative syndrome in chick embryos induced by Cu2+. It is well known capacity of some heavy metal ions to affect the formation and desintegration reaction of free radicals. The aim of this paper is to present a morphological study of caudal malformative syndrome (Checiu et all. 1999 and an

  9. New measuring and evaluation procedures for Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, U.; Lauterjung, J.; Rudloff, A.; Gitews-Project Team

    2009-04-01

    The Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean just recently went into operation in Indonesia. The different sensor stations have, for the most part, been installed and now deliver respective data either online or upon request to the Warning Centre in Jakarta. Before March 2010, however, the interaction between the different component parts must be improved and optimized, personnel needs to be trained and eventual problems in the daily operation have to be dealt with. This current system differs from previous Tsunami Warning Systems through the application of modern scientific methods and technologies. New procedures for the fast and reliable determination of strong earthquakes, the modelling of tsunamis and the assessment of the situation have been implemented in the Warning System. In particular, the direct incorporation of a broad variety of different sensors provides for information from a number of sources thus resulting in a stable system and minimizing breakdowns. The system includes a seismological network, together with GPS stations and a network of GPS buoys additionally equipped with ocean bottom pressure sensors and a tide gauge network. The warning system is designed in an open and modular structure based on the most recent developments and standards of information technology. Therefore, the system can easily integrate additional sensor components to be used in other regions such as the Mediterranean Sea and/or for different purposes e.g. storm tides. Up to now the German Project Group has been cooperating in the Indian Ocean region with Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Yemen, Tanzania and Kenya to build up equipment primarily for seismological monitoring and data evaluation. Close ties have also been established with Australia, South Africa and India for the real-time exchange mainly of seismological, but also of sea level data.

  10. Suprathreshold compound action potential amplitude as a measure of auditory function in cochlear implant users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Scheperle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP amplitudes elicited at suprathreshold levels were assessed as a measure of the effectiveness of cochlear implant (CI stimulation. Twenty-one individuals participated; one was excluded due to facial stimulation during eCAP testing. For each participant, eCAPs were elicited with stimulation from seven electrodes near the upper limit of the individual's electrical dynamic range. A reduced-channel CI program was created using those same seven electrodes, and participants performed a vowel discrimination task. Consistent with previous reports, eCAP amplitudes varied across tested electrodes; the profiles were unique to each individual. In 6 subjects (30%, eCAP amplitude variability was partially explained by the impedance of the recording electrode. The remaining amplitude variability within subjects, and the variability observed across subjects could not be explained by recording electrode impedance. This implies that other underlying factors, such as variations in neural status across the array, are responsible. Across-site mean eCAP amplitude was significantly correlated with vowel discrimination scores (r2 = 0.56. A single eCAP amplitude measured from the middle of the array was also significantly correlated with vowel discrimination, but the correlation was weaker (r2 = 0.37, though not statistically different from the across-site mean. Normalizing each eCAP amplitude by its associated recording electrode impedance did not improve the correlation with vowel discrimination (r2 = 0.52. Further work is needed to assess whether combining eCAP amplitude with other measures of the electrode-neural interface and/or with more central measures of auditory function provides a more complete picture of auditory function in CI recipients.

  11. Method for Measuring the Alignment Between Information Technology Strategic Planning and Actions of Information Technology Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Melre da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance. A survey of IT governance maturity at the High Courts and the Supreme Court was carried out in order to reach this aim. The Attribute Table of the COBIT 4.1 was used both as a model for maturity analysis as for the degree of alignment of IT strategic plans of these bodies with the IT Strategic Planning established by the National Judiciary Council (CNJ. It was assessed the maturity of thirty four processes, according to six attributes, in the four COBIT domains. The proposed method, named COMPLAN-GTI, allows the linking of the guidelines of the strategic planning to the COBIT processes. The field research above mentioned shows that the alignment between the planning established by the CNJ and those established by the High Courts and Supreme Court is around 68%, leading to the conclusion that the policies and actions established by the National Council of Justice for the Judiciary are being followed. The application of the method is also used to confirm whether the management practices and the IT Governance are consistent with the strategic plan established by the organization. It was observed in the research carried out in the Courts that the average convergence between PETIs and management practices and Governance lies around 70%, leading to the conclusion that the strategic plans exerted influence on the action planning of these organizations.

  12. Predictive Validity of Early Literacy Measures for Korean English Language Learners in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…

  13. Period doubling cascades of limit cycles in cardiac action potential models as precursors to chaotic early Afterdepolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Philipp; Bulelzai, M A K; Erhardt, André H

    2017-04-04

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological voltage oscillations during the repolarization phase of cardiac action potentials (APs). EADs are caused by drugs, oxidative stress or ion channel disease, and they are considered as potential precursors to cardiac arrhythmias in recent attempts to redefine the cardiac drug safety paradigm. The irregular behaviour of EADs observed in experiments has been previously attributed to chaotic EAD dynamics under periodic pacing, made possible by a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the deterministic AP system of differential equations. In this article we demonstrate that a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential model is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the genesis of chaotic EADs. We rather argue that a cascade of period doubling (PD) bifurcations of limit cycles in the full AP system paves the way to chaotic EAD dynamics across a variety of models including a) periodically paced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes, b) periodically paced and non-active cardiomyocytes as well as c) unpaced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our bifurcation analysis reveals that chaotic EAD dynamics may coexist in a stable manner with fully regular AP dynamics, where only the initial conditions decide which type of dynamics is displayed. EADs are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias and hence are of relevance both from the viewpoint of drug cardiotoxicity testing and the treatment of cardiomyopathies. The model-independent association of chaotic EADs with period doubling cascades of limit cycles introduced in this article opens novel opportunities to study chaotic EADs by means of bifurcation control theory and inverse bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, our results may shed new light on the synchronization and propagation of chaotic EADs in homogeneous and heterogeneous multicellular and cardiac tissue preparations.

  14. Scenarios of forestry carbon sequestration measures in the Russian Federation and priorities for action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorin, A.O. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of forestry mitigation strategy under Russian transition economy conditions has many difficulties and specific features. The most important factors are: shortage in funds; absence of well defined legislation, rules and standards; absence of adequate control systems; weak transport infrastructure and export problems. Assessment of economic possibilities, potential, short- and middle-term measures show that strategies have to be focused on improvement and promotion of current carbon sequestration activity. Five baseline forestry scenario (No. 1) and four other scenarios (No. 2 - No. 5) for 2000-2040 were developed. Each scenario covers all forested area but provides separate analysis of 30 `forestry ecoregions`. Three types of forestry management were included in scenarios: clear-cut logging and reforestation (by scenarios No. 2 and No. 3); selective logging and thinning (No. 4); measures to prevent and manage fires (No. 5). The baseline scenario results in a constant net-sink of about 150 MtC/yr. An increase in clear-cut logging on the basis of current forestry practice will cause a rapid drop of net-sink. Implementation of a modest increase in clear-cut logging with active forest fire and selective logging measures could provide with a slight increase of net-sink. Consideration of scenarios helps identify regional forestry priorities for Russian Climate Change Action Plan. The priorities by region include: European-Ural: (1) creation of economy mechanism to increase forestry effectiveness on the same cutting areas, (2) assistance to natural reforestation. Central and North-East Siberia: promotion of forest fire protection system. South Siberia and Primorie and Priamurie: limit of clear-cut logging and creation market situation for better forestry efficiency. The proposed Joint Implementation Vologda reforestation project which is being considered now by special bodies of the USA and the Russian Federation is in good agreement with these priorities.

  15. Auditory nerve frequency tuning measured with forward-masked compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Robles, Luis; Kovačić, Damir; Joris, Philip X

    2012-12-01

    Frequency selectivity is a fundamental cochlear property. Recent studies using otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical forward masking suggest that frequency selectivity is sharper in human than in common laboratory species. This has been disputed based on reports using compound action potentials (CAPs), which reflect activity in the auditory nerve and can be measured in humans. Comparative data of CAPs, obtained with a variety of simultaneous masking protocols, have been interpreted to indicate similarity of frequency tuning across mammals and even birds. Unfortunately, there are several issues with the available CAP measurements which hamper a straightforward comparison across species. We investigate sharpness of CAP tuning in cat and chinchilla using a forward masking notched-noise paradigm--which is less confounded by cochlear nonlinearities than simultaneous masking paradigms and similar to what was used in the psychophysical study reporting sharper tuning in humans. Our parametric study, using different probe frequencies and notch widths, shows relationships consistent with those of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). The sharpness of tuning, quantified by Q(10) factors, is negatively correlated with probe level and increases with probe frequency, but the Q(10) values are generally lower than the average trend for ANFs. Like the single fiber data, tuning for CAPs is sharper in cat than in chinchilla, but the two species are similar in the dependence of tuning on probe frequency and in the relationship between tuning in ANFs and CAP. Growth-of-maskability functions show slopes <1 indicating that with increasing probe level the probe is more susceptible to cochlear compression than the masker. The results support the use of forward-masked CAPs as an alternative measure to estimate ANF tuning and to compare frequency tuning across species.

  16. Measures of Global Health Status on Dialysis Signal Early Rehospitalization Risk after Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera N Harhay

    Full Text Available Early rehospitalization (1 pre-KT hospitalizations (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17-1.49 were more likely to be rehospitalized. All three health status metrics and early rehospitalization were independently associated with post-KT mortality in a multivariable Cox model (adjusted hazard ratio for rehospitalization: 1.41, 95% CI 1.28-1.56.Pre-transplant metrics of health status, measured by dialysis providers or administrative data, are independently associated with early rehospitalization and mortality risk after KT. Transplant providers may consider utilizing metrics of pre-KT global health status as early signals of vulnerability when transitioning care after KT.

  17. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  18. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  19. Meta-Analysis of Fish Early Life Stage Tests - Association of Toxic Ratios and Acute-To-Chronic Ratios with Modes of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Stefan; Schreiber, Rene; Armitage, James

    2018-01-01

    Fish early life stage (FELS) tests (OECD test guideline 210) are widely conducted to estimate chronic fish toxicity. In these tests, fish are exposed from the embryonic to the juvenile life stage. In order to analyse whether certain modes of action are related to high toxic ratios (TR, i.e., rati...

  20. Probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty from maximum temperature metric selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, J Tyrell; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-02-22

    Predictions of the projected changes in species distribution models and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30-day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) that is known to limit a species' distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold-water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern U.S. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid-century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as 0.2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation actions

  1. Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

  2. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...

  3. Spectral sampling tools for vegetation biophysical parameters and flux measurements in Europe: the European ES0903 COST Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovo, L.

    2010-12-01

    The estimate of carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems and the prediction of the global change impact on the ecosystem carbon balance are becoming urgent needs required by international agreements. To support the development of this knowledge, a deep insight into processes that regulate carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is fundamental. Flux towers remain a primary tool for understanding ecosystem carbon fluxes within the global flux networks. International initiatives such as SpecNet are developing to fill the temporal and spatial gap between ecosystem measurements and remote sensing by means of scale-appropriate optical measurements. In this framework, a new EU COST Action project has started in Europe. Up to now, 16 countries are participating to the Action. The COST Action project is open to researchers from European Cost Countries, but also from Near-Neighbour and non-COST countries can participate to the Action and, in some cases, can obtain some specific national funding (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina). According to the highlighted scientific questions, the objectives of ES0903 are i) to analyse the state of the art of the optical sampling research in Europe, ii) to standardize tools and methods in the optical sampling measurements, iii) to focus on the fluxes and biomass estimation problems as an input to the technological world for development of new sensors and iv) to involve the scientific instruments industries in designing and testing a common multi-band reflectance sensor for ground optical measurements in the European flux network. Thanks to the Action, the use of standardised protocols will be encouraged within a spectral measurements network, across site comparisons will be enabled and the use of new instruments and sensors will be promoted and tested. Some of the most common issues of the proximal sampling research, performed at ecosystem level, are: i)methods, protocols and

  4. Measuring in action research : four ways of integrating quantitative methods in participatory dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Olivé, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background of INCASI Project H2020-MSCA-RISE-2015 GA 691004. WP1: Compilation Although action research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods, few contributions have addressed the specific role of the latter in this kind of research. This paper focuses on how quantitative methods can be integrated with participatory dynamics in action research designs. Four types of integration are defined and exemplified. The paper concludes with some reflections on how the integration of quantita...

  5. Assessing the Early Literacy Skills of Toddlers: The Development of Four Foundational Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Lowman, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Several challenges arise when researchers or practitioners attempt to assess the literacy skills of toddlers, including a lack of developmentally appropriate measures, toddlers' more limited communication ability, and how literacy is defined in the years before age three. This paper describes four new measures of early literacy development and…

  6. Creative Ideation Meets Relational Support: Measuring Links between These Factors in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross C.; Pitts, Christine; Smolkowski, Keith

    2017-01-01

    This study examines measurement of creative ideational behaviors alongside factors of student engagement that may play a role in the development of students' creative potential during early adolescence in school. Two studies used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, cross-validation, and invariance testing of 2 extant measures with…

  7. Target-Setting, Early-Career Academic Identities and the Measurement Culture of UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Early-career academics are subject to a barrage of formal measurements when they secure a first academic post in a UK university. To support this process, guidance is provided by universities on what is measured, though this can lack disciplinary nuance. This article analyses the perceptions of a sample of social scientists of the process of…

  8. De-escalation: A methodology to reduce coercive measures in clinical psychiatry. A project based on Action Research Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene

    The study investigates whether coercive measures and violence can be reduced in psychiatric wards when staff uses a deescalating approach, as the patient's behaviour is escalating. The study is based on action research principles and the objective is to identify, characterize and test deescalating...

  9. Measurement with multiple indicators and psychophysical scaling in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Saris, W.E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the theory of reasoned action of Fishbein and Ajzen. The measurements were done using two category scales and two psychophysical scales. No consistent difference in results was found between the four modalities. However, if the latter were used as multiple

  10. General Education Courses at the University of Botswana: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Measuring Course Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Deepti; Garg, Ajay K.

    2007-01-01

    This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model to measure outcomes of general education courses (GECs) under the University of Botswana Computer and Information Skills (CIS) program. An exploratory model was validated for responses from 298 students. The results suggest that resources currently committed to…

  11. Single variant bottleneck in the early dynamics of H. influenzae bacteremia in neonatal rats questions the theory of independent action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxian; Levin, Bruce; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-08-01

    There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm S and Sm R ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm S or Sm R . After ruling out other possibilities through years of related experiments, the field seems to have settled on a plausible explanation for this phenomenon: the first bacterium to invade the host activates the host immune response that ‘shuts the door’ on the second invading strain. To explore this hypothesis in a necessarily quantitative way, we modeled this process with a set of mixed stochastic and deterministic differential equations. Our analysis of the properties of this model with realistic parameters suggests that this hypothesis cannot explain the experimental results of Moxon and Murphy, and in particular the observed relationship between the frequency of different types of blood infections (bacteremias) and the inoculum size. We propose modifications to the model that come closer to explaining these data. However, the modified and better fitting model contradicts the common theory of independent action of individual bacteria in establishing infections. We suggest possible experiments that would be able to confirm or reject our proposed modification of the early infection model.

  12. Drawing and Storytelling as Political Action: Difference, Plurality and Coming into Presence in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Kristine E.

    2018-01-01

    This article is an embodied representation of how narrative illustrates Hannah Arendt's ideas of action, natality and plurality. It is, in essence, a story of a story that situates the actions of two young children as an instance where difference came together through the political and public act of drawing. Throughout the unfolding of the event,…

  13. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2011-12-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures.

  14. Measures of Global Health Status on Dialysis Signal Early Rehospitalization Risk after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhay, Meera N.; Hill, Alexander S.; Wang, Wei; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Mussell, Adam S.; Bloom, Roy D.; Feldman, Harold I.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Reese, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early rehospitalization (1 pre-KT hospitalizations (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17–1.49) were more likely to be rehospitalized. All three health status metrics and early rehospitalization were independently associated with post-KT mortality in a multivariable Cox model (adjusted hazard ratio for rehospitalization: 1.41, 95% CI 1.28–1.56) Conclusions Pre-transplant metrics of health status, measured by dialysis providers or administrative data, are independently associated with early rehospitalization and mortality risk after KT. Transplant providers may consider utilizing metrics of pre-KT global health status as early signals of vulnerability when transitioning care after KT. PMID:27257680

  15. [Application value of CT spectrum curve and iodine measurement in the early diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Gao, Jianbo; Liang, Pan

    2015-03-01

    To explore the value of dual-source CT spectrum curve and iodine measurement in the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Imaging materials of 21 cases with early gastric cancer confirmed by gastroscope and pathology, and 38 cases with normal stomach in our department from November 2011 to June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All the cases underwent dual-energy scanning with SOMATOM Definition Flash CT. The iodine concentration of the lesion in arterial phase and venous phase was measured respectively. The iodine concentration of small curvature side and aorta of same level was also measured for the cases with normal stomach. Normalized iodine concentration (NIC) difference was studied between early gastric cancer lesions and normal gastric wall. Spectrum curve characteristics of gastric cancer lesions and normal gastric lesser curvature were analyzed. There were significant differences in NIC between early gastric cancer lesions and normal gastric wall (arterial phase, 0.21 vs. 0.09, P=0.000; venous phase, 0.72 vs. 0.26, P=0.000). Spectrum curves of normal gastric wall and early gastric cancer, both in arterial and venous phase, showed descending tendency. Spectrum curve of early gastric cancer located above that of normal gastric wall, and was more steep. Difference between these two curves became greater during 40 to 70 keV, and became smaller during 80 to 140 keV. NIC and spectrum curve tendency are helpful to identify the early gastric cancer and the normal gastric wall through the dual-energy model scan.

  16. Evaluating the Adequacy of Social-Emotional Measures in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokiert, Rebecca J.; Georgis, Rebecca; Tremblay, Melissa; Krishnan, Vijaya; Vandenberghe, Christine; Lee, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Technical adequacy and usability are important considerations in selecting early childhood social-emotional (SE) screening and assessment measures. As identification of difficulties can be tied to programming, intervention, accountability, and funding, it is imperative that practitioners and decision makers select appropriate and quality measures…

  17. Early Expressive Vocabulary Skills: A Multi-Method Approach to Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of early vocabulary production often employ a single method to measure children's word use. This study examined expressive vocabulary development in children aged 1;0-2;6 years through a combination of picture naming, caregiver report and language sampling. The participants were predominantly exposed to Maltese at home, with…

  18. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  19. Literacy Development in Autism: Predicting Reading Comprehension Using AIMSweb Early Literacy Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erin Marie

    2014-01-01

    The simple view of reading suggests that reading comprehension is the product of decoding skills and oral language comprehension. In line with this view, previous research suggests that there is a relationship between early literacy measures and comprehension measures in typically developing (TD) students; this area is more recently being examined in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, child characteristics, such as oral language skills, problem behaviors, IQ and social...

  20. A comparative analysis of 4 curvature measurement methods in early-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Ho; Hong, Jae-Young; Suh, Seung-Woo; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Jae-Moon

    2012-09-15

    Observational study with 3 examiners. The aim of this study was to enhance the reproducibility and reliability of coronal curvature measurements in early-onset scoliosis. Previous reports show high variability of the Cobb method, especially on the measurement of the immature spine. A total of 115 whole-spine posteroanterior radiographs were collected to compare the reliability of the Cobb, lateral tangent, pedicle, and centroid methods in early-onset scoliosis. Radiographs were measured twice by each of the 3 examiners using the 4 measurement methods. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability. In this study, total inter- and intraobserver inter- and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in 115 radiographs were excellent in all methods (ICCs >0.961). However, mean absolute differences (MADs) in the lateral tangent method were less than 3.78°, which was higher than other methods (MADs 30°), total inter- and intraobserver ICCs gradually increased with increasing the severity of the deformity, whereas MADs of each severity group were similar despite their increased measurement scale. Particularly, interobserver ICCs and MADs of lateral tangent method were more than 0.474 and less than 3.76° with poor reliability, which showed high variability in the less deformed spine group (scoliosis regardless of severity. However, the other 3 methods showed lower ICCs and higher MAD values, which showed lowest reliability in the lateral tangent method. For improved treatment of early-onset scoliosis, we recommend the pedicle method for measuring curvature regardless of severity.

  1. Commissioning of ATLAS and early measurements with leptons in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Plamondon, M

    2008-01-01

    With only a few months until the LHC start-up, the commissioning of ATLAS is in its final stage as the last components of the detector are installed. The understanding of the detector response acquired during the preparation phase is presented as well as the expected performance at start-up. The strategies of both ATLAS and CMS regarding the use of early data involving leptons is then described. Assuming an integrated luminosity of $100 pb^{−1}$ in 2008, examples of calibration procedures and early measurements are given.

  2. In Vivo Measurement in Pigs of Wash-In Kinetics of Xenon at its Site of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeba, Gebhard; Adolph, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Xenon (Xe) in many respects is an ideal anaesthetic agent. Its blood/gas partition coefficient is lower than that of any other anaesthetic, enabling rapid induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. While the whole body kinetics during wash-in of inhalational anaesthesia is well known, data describing the pharmacokinetics of xenon in the cerebral compartment at the site of action are still largely missing. In order to illuminate xenon's cerebral pharmacokinetics, we anaesthetised five pigs and measured arterial, mixed- and sagittal sinus-venous blood, as well as end-expiratory gas concentrations of xenon by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) up to 30 minutes after starting the anaesthetic gas mixture. Despite xenon's fast onset of effect the half-time for equilibration between xenon concentration in arterial blood and at the site of action is measured to be 1.49 ± 0.04 minutes versus 3.91 ± 0.1 minutes. Successful loading of xenon in the brain during inhalational anesthesia was accomplished after approximately 15 minutes although the end-expiratory xenon concentration reached a plateau after 7 minutes. Thus cerebral xenon uptake rate is only moderate, xenon fast onset of action being largely due to its extremely fast alveolar uptake. To ensure safety and precise control during anaesthesia we need a profound knowledge about to what extent the measured end-tidal concentrations reflect the drug concentrations in the target tissue. The results of this study expand our knowledge about the temporal characteristics of xenon´s pharmacokinetics at its site of action and provide the basis for appropriate clinical protocols and experimental designs of future studies.

  3. A clinical action measure to assess glycemic management in the 65-74 year old veteran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Orysya; Tseng, Chin-Ling; Rajan, Mangala; Maney, Miriam; Pogach, Leonard

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of including of clinical actions within 6 months of a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level greater than 8% upon measure adherence (pass rates) and to assess the association between patient factors and the likelihood of not passing. Veterans Health Administration. Retrospective cohort study for FY2002 to FY2004. One hundred fifty-three thousand one hundred thirty-two veterans aged 65-74 with diabetes mellitus not taking insulin; 99% were male and 86% white. The clinical action measure included three categories: (a) initial pass (index HbA1c 9%). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between participant factors and the likelihood of not passing initially. Most (82.6%) or the participants had an index HbA1c of less than 8%, and 10.6% were in the modified pass group. The failure rate (17.4%) fell to 6.8% when actions were weighted equally and to 9.4% using different weights. Veterans who are African American (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.43 and 1.44), unmarried (ORs = 1.19 and 1.24), poor (ORs = 1.36 and 1.17), or taking two or more oral antihyperglycemic agents (ORs = 2.61 and 3.72) were significantly more likely to be in the modified pass and failure groups, respectively. Most veterans with an initial HbA1c of 8% or greater had clinical actions within 6 months. A measure that incorporates multiple treatment options, including education and nutrition, could be of benefit by encouraging dialogue of such options between patients and clinicians. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodera, Ryo, E-mail: kodera@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Shikata, Kenichi [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Usui, Hitomi Kataoka [Department of Primary Care and Medical Education, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Makino, Hirofumi [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose.

  5. Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the field action potential duration in rapid atrial pacing rabbits model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action field action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial field action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical remodeling. Amiodarone alter potassium ion channel activity (Ito, IKur, IK1 and IKs), shortening fAPD.

  6. Iridium oxide nanotube electrodes for sensitive and prolonged intracellular measurement of action potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ziliang Carter; Xie, Chong; Osakada, Yasuko; Cui, Yi; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-02-01

    Intracellular recording of action potentials is important to understand electrically-excitable cells. Recently, vertical nanoelectrodes have been developed to achieve highly sensitive, minimally invasive and large-scale intracellular recording. It has been demonstrated that the vertical geometry is crucial for the enhanced signal detection. Here we develop nanoelectrodes of a new geometry, namely nanotubes of iridium oxide. When cardiomyocytes are cultured upon those nanotubes, the cell membrane not only wraps around the vertical tubes but also protrudes deep into the hollow centre. We show that this nanotube geometry enhances cell-electrode coupling and results in larger signals than solid nanoelectrodes. The nanotube electrodes also afford much longer intracellular access and are minimally invasive, making it possible to achieve stable recording up to an hour in a single session and more than 8 days of consecutive daily recording. This study suggests that the nanoelectrode performance can be significantly improved by optimizing the electrode geometry.

  7. Children's Action Tendency Scale: A Self-Report Measure of Aggressiveness, Assertiveness, and Submissiveness in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, Robert H.

    1979-01-01

    Development and validation of this measure follow the behavioral-analytic method described by Goldfried and D'Zurilla. The measure's three subscales correlate with peer and teacher reports of subjects' interpersonal behavior and have moderate split-half and test-retest reliabilities. (Author)

  8. Theory and measurement of early, late and total sound levels in rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mike

    2015-06-01

    A revised theory of sound level distribution in rooms was proposed in 1988, which responded to the observation that reflected sound level decreases as one moves away from the source. This behavior is ubiquitous in concert spaces and has been shown also to occur in an acoustically diffuse space. This paper presents a more general theoretical derivation and compares measured levels of the early, late, and total sound, as well as the early-to-late index, with theoretical predictions. The scatter of measured sound levels in concert spaces about a linear relationship with source-receiver distance was also compared with a theoretical prediction. Two modifications to the basic theory were investigated, though the original formulation proves best for the general concert space. The revised theory matches average behavior well and represents predicted behavior in a diffuse sound field with the same reverberation time and auditorium volume. Consistent deviations within concert halls were matched with design details.

  9. Differential diagnosis of early human pregnancies: impact of different diagnostic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, J; Bryman, I; Hahlin, M; Lindblom, B

    1992-01-01

    A total of 261 women in early pregnancy, either with mild symptoms of ectopic pregnancy (EP) or being at an increased risk for this condition, were included in a longitudinal study. The effectiveness of different diagnostic measures in obtaining correct final diagnoses was analyzed. In addition to clinical findings and symptoms, the use of serum human chorionic gonadotropin, serum progesterone, endovaginal sonography and a risk score for EP were all proven to be valuable in distinguishing normal intrauterine pregnancies from pathological pregnancies.

  10. Algorithm for multi-curve-fitting with shared parameters and a possible application in evoked compound action potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Philipp; Zierhofer, Clemens; Hochmair, Erwin

    2006-02-22

    Experimental results are commonly fitted by determining parameter values of suitable mathematical expressions. In case a relation exists between different data sets, the accuracy of the parameters obtained can be increased by incorporating this relationship in the fitting process instead of fitting the recordings separately. An algorithm to fit multiple measured curves simultaneously was developed. The method accounts for parameters that are shared by some curves. It can be applied to either linear or nonlinear equations. Simulated noisy "measurement results" were created to compare the introduced method to the "straight forward" way of fitting the curves separately. The analysis of the simulated measurements confirm, that the introduced method yields more accurate parameters compared to the ones gained by fitting the measurements separately. Therefore it needs more computer time. As an example, the new fitting algorithm is applied to the measurements of the evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) of the auditory nerve: This leads to promising ideas to reduce artefacts generated by the measuring process. The introduced fitting algorithm uses the relationship between multiple measurement results to increase the accuracy of the parameters. Its application in the field of ECAP measurements is promising and should be further investigated.

  11. Algorithm for multi-curve-fitting with shared parameters and a possible application in evoked compound action potential measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zierhofer Clemens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental results are commonly fitted by determining parameter values of suitable mathematical expressions. In case a relation exists between different data sets, the accuracy of the parameters obtained can be increased by incorporating this relationship in the fitting process instead of fitting the recordings separately. Methods An algorithm to fit multiple measured curves simultaneously was developed. The method accounts for parameters that are shared by some curves. It can be applied to either linear or nonlinear equations. Simulated noisy "measurement results" were created to compare the introduced method to the "straight forward" way of fitting the curves separately. Results The analysis of the simulated measurements confirm, that the introduced method yields more accurate parameters compared to the ones gained by fitting the measurements separately. Therefore it needs more computer time. As an example, the new fitting algorithm is applied to the measurements of the evoked compound action potentials (ECAP of the auditory nerve: This leads to promising ideas to reduce artefacts generated by the measuring process. Conclusion The introduced fitting algorithm uses the relationship between multiple measurement results to increase the accuracy of the parameters. Its application in the field of ECAP measurements is promising and should be further investigated.

  12. Standardized Symptom Measurement of Individuals with Early Lyme Disease Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Kathleen T; Rebman, Alison W; Crowder, Lauren A; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Aucott, John N

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the Lyme disease (LD) literature is challenging given the lack of consistent methodology and standardized measurement of symptoms and the impact on functioning. This prospective study incorporates well-validated measures to capture the symptom picture of individuals with early LD from time of diagnosis through 6-months post-treatment. One hundred seven patients with confirmed early LD and 26 healthy controls were evaluated using standardized instruments for pain, fatigue, depressive symptoms, functional impact, and cognitive functioning. Prior to antibiotic treatment, patients experience notable symptoms of fatigue and pain statistically higher than controls. After treatment, there are no group differences, suggesting that symptoms resolve and that there are no residual cognitive impairments at the level of group analysis. However, using subgroup analyses, some individuals experience persistent symptoms that lead to functional decline and these individuals can be identified immediately post-completion of standard antibiotic treatment using well-validated symptom measures. Overall, the findings suggest that ideally-treated early LD patients recover well and experience symptom resolution over time, though a small subgroup continue to suffer with symptoms that lead to functional decline. The authors discuss use of standardized instruments for identification of individuals who warrant further clinical follow-up.

  13. Mirror and (absence of) counter-mirror responses to action sounds measured with TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Waszak, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To what extent is the mirror neuron mechanism malleable to experience? The answer to this question can help characterising its ontogeny and its role in social cognition. Some suggest that it develops through sensorimotor associations congruent with our own actions. Others argue for its extreme volatility that will encode any sensorimotor association in the environment. Here, we added to this debate by exploring the effects of short goal-directed ‘mirror’ and ‘counter-mirror’ trainings (a ‘mirror’ training is defined as the first type of training encountered by the participants) on human auditory mirror motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). We recorded MEPs in response to two tones void of previous motor meaning, before and after mirror and counter-mirror trainings in which participants generated two tones of different pitch by performing free-choice button presses. The results showed that mirror MEPs, once established, were protected against an equivalent counter-mirror experience: they became manifest very rapidly and the same number of training trials that lead to the initial association did not suffice to reverse the MEP pattern. This steadiness of the association argues that, by serving direct-matching purposes, the mirror mechanism is a good solution for social cognition. PMID:29036454

  14. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action. © 2013.

  15. Sufis’ Actions Against the Dutch in Aceh in The Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhriati Fakhriati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufis in Aceh, historically, had shown its real action in their daily life in relation to both vertical and horizontal. For vertical relations, the followers performed any Sufi practice leading them to their God. For horizontal relationship, they protected and defended their society and state by performing jihad against the Dutch as colonizers and infidels for them. There are at Ieast three factors influenced Sufis actions to be more attractive. First, the condition of Acehnese sultanate became weak. Second, the Dutch seemed eagerly to expand their colonial territory to Aceh. Third, the Acehnese had already kept in touch with other Muslims in Arabia since the Islam coming to this area. This article elaborates in detail on this matter by using primary sources from manuscripts and archives. Besides, secondary sources are also referred for comperation.

  16. Collaboration in Action: Measuring and Improving Contracting Performance in the University of California Contracting Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam; Bowman-Carpio, LeeAnna; Buscher, Nate; Davidson, Pamela; Ford, Jennifer J.; Jenkins, Erick; Kalay, Hillary Noll; Nakazono, Terry; Orescan, Helene; Sak, Rachael; Shin, Irene

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, the University of California, Biomedical Research, Acceleration, Integration, and Development (UC BRAID) convened a regional network of contracting directors from the five University of California (UC) health campuses to: (i) increase collaboration, (ii) operationalize and measure common metrics as a basis for performance improvement…

  17. Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words? Classroom Attitudes and Behavior in Relation to Bullying in Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, R.H.J.; Sentse, M.; Granic, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent classroom factors (i.e., classroom antibullying attitudes and behavioral norms) contributed to individual bullying, after controlling for individual difference characteristics. Participants were 2,547 early adolescents (M = 13.4 years, SD =

  18. Determinants of objectively measured physical functional performance in early to mid-stage Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Benzi M; Brown, R Preston; Aerts, Shanae; Schenkman, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) may lead to functional limitations through both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although patients with advanced disease have well-documented and profound functional limitations, less is known about the determinants of function in early to mid-stage disease where interventions may be more likely to benefit and preserve function. The objective of the current study was to identify motor, cognitive, and gait determinants of physical functional performance in patients with early to mid-stage PD. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a randomized clinical trial of exercise. The study was performed at a tertiary academic medical center. The study included 121 patients with early to mid-stage PD. Our functional performance outcomes included the following: the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP; primary outcome); the Timed Up and Go test (TUG); and Section 2 (Activities of Daily Living) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Explanatory variables included measures of disease severity, motor function, cognitive function, balance, and gait. Stepwise linear regression models were used to determine correlations between explanatory variables and outcome measures. In our regression models, the CS-PFP significantly correlated with walking endurance (Six-Minute Walk Test; r(2) = 0.12, P activity outcomes may underestimate the impact of both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  20. Getting a peace of the action: measures of post traumatic stress in UK military peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Neil; Iversen, Amy; Hull, Lisa; Bland, Duncan; Wessely, Simon

    2008-02-01

    This study aimed to measure prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of UK Armed Forces peacekeepers. The study also aimed to explore the influence of deploying without an established peer group (deployment status) upon health outcomes using an accepted diagnostic tool for PTSD (PCL-M) and an alternative measure of post-traumatic distress. Using a sub-sample of the King's military cohort we surveyed personnel that deployed on peacekeeping operations between 1991 and 2000 (n=1198). Respondents' mean age was 36 years (min, 23 to max, 60) and 81% (n=964) were serving in the Armed Forces at the time of participation. PTSD prevalence was determined in British military peacekeepers using the PLC-M (cut-offs 44 and 50), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and a composite brief measure of potential post traumatic symptomology, 'PostTraumatic Stress Reaction' (PTSR) for comparison. PTSD prevalence varied from 3.6 to 5.5%. Officers and married personnel were less likely to be cases. Neither gender, age or deployment status influenced PTSD prevalence. PTSD was an uncommon disorder in this sample of British military peacekeepers, with prevalence rates being lower than those reported by other nations. Deploying without an established peer group was not associated with developing PTSD. We postulate that differences in culture and operational practices may account for the lower rates of PTSD.

  1. Neurovascular unit impairment in early Alzheimer's disease measured with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Haar, Harm J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; van Osch, Matthias J P; van Buchem, Mark A; Muller, Majon; Wong, Sau May; Hofman, Paul A M; Burgmans, Saartje; Verhey, Frans R J; Backes, Walter H

    2016-09-01

    The neurovascular unit, which protects neuronal cells and supplies them with essential molecules, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The aim of this study was to noninvasively investigate 2 linked functional elements of the neurovascular unit, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral blood flow (CBF), in patients with early AD and healthy controls. Therefore, both dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging were applied to measure BBB permeability and CBF, respectively. The patients with early AD showed significantly lower CBF and local blood volume in the gray matter, compared with controls. In the patients, we also found that a reduction in CBF is correlated with an increase in leakage rate. This finding supports the hypothesis that neurovascular damage, and in particular impairment of the neurovascular unit constitutes the pathophysiological link between CBF reduction and BBB impairment in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Recommendations for measurement of tumour vascularity with positron emission tomography in early phase clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboagye, Eric O.; Kenny, Laura M.; Myers, Melvyn [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Radiology Department, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fleming, Ian N. [University of Aberdeen, NCRI PET Research Network, Aberdeen Bioimaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Cunningham, Vincent J. [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul K. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM National Institute of Health and Clinical Sciences LaTIM, CHU Morvan, Brest (France); Gee, Antony D. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, KCL Division of Imaging, Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kinahan, Paul E. [University of Washington, 222 Old Fisheries Center (FIS), Box 357987, Seattle, WA (United States); Clarke, Larry [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The evaluation of drug pharmacodynamics and early tumour response are integral to current clinical trials of novel cancer therapeutics to explain or predict long term clinical benefit or to confirm dose selection. Tumour vascularity assessment by positron emission tomography could be viewed as a generic pharmacodynamic endpoint or tool for monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses methods for semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of tumour vascularity. The radioligands and radiotracers range from direct physiological functional tracers like [{sup 15}O]-water to macromolecular probes targeting integrin receptors expressed on neovasculature. Finally we make recommendations on ways to incorporate such measurements of tumour vascularity into early clinical trials of novel therapeutics. (orig.)

  3. Region-specific disturbed iron distribution in early idiopathic Parkinson's disease measured by quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Naying; Ling, Huawei; Ding, Bei; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongping; Liu, Chunlei; Chen, Kemin; Yan, Fuhua

    2015-11-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), iron elevation in specific brain regions as well as selective loss of dopaminergic neurons is a major pathologic feature. A reliable quantitative measure of iron deposition is a potential biomarker for PD and may contribute to the investigation of iron-mediated PD. The primary purpose of this study is to assess iron variations in multiple deep grey matter nuclei in early PD with a novel MRI technique, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). The inter-group differences of susceptibility and R2* value in deep grey matter nuclei, namely head of caudate nucleus (CN), putamen (PUT), global pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), and red nucleus (RN), and the correlations between regional iron deposition and the clinical features were explored in forty-four early PD patients and 35 gender and age-matched healthy controls. Susceptibility values were found to be elevated within bilateral SN and RN contralateral to the most affected limb in early PD compared with healthy controls (HCs). The finding of increased susceptibility in bilateral SN is consistent with work on a subgroup of patients at the earliest clinical detectable state (Hoehn and Yahr [1967]: Neurology 17:427-442; Stage I). However, increased R2* values were only seen within SN contralateral to the most affected limb in the PD group when compared with controls. Furthermore, bilateral SN magnetic susceptibility positively correlated with disease duration and UPDRS-III scores in early PD. This finding supports the potential value of QSM as a non-invasive quantitative biomarker of early PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  5. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...... of serum HIV RNA (p DNA, HIV RNA and CD4 cell counts were all included in a Cox model, only serum HIV RNA had independent prognostic value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p ....05). The interplay between HIV RNA and DNA levels is discussed, together with the possibility that cell-associated HIV DNA load is a marker of the HIV RNA peak seen shortly after primary HIV infection....

  6. The increase in surface EMG could be a misleading measure of neural adaptation during the early gains in strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabadzhiev, Todor I; Dimitrov, Vladimir G; Dimitrov, George V

    2014-08-01

    To test the validity of using the increase in surface EMG as a measure of neural adaptation during the early gains in strength. Simulation of EMG signals detected by surface bipolar electrode with 20-mm inter-pole distance at different radial distances from the muscle and longitudinal distances from the end-plate area. The increases in the root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signal due to possible alteration in the neural drive or elevation of the intracellular negative after-potentials, detected in fast fatigable muscle fibres during post-tetanic potentiation and assumed to accompany post-activation potentiation, were compared. Lengthening of the intracellular action potential (IAP) profile due to elevation of the negative after-potentials could affect amplitude characteristics of surface EMG detected at any axial distance stronger than alteration in the neural drive. This was irrespective of the fact that the elevation of IAP negative after-potential was applied to fast fatigable motor units (MUs) only, while changes in frequency of activation (simulating neural drive changes) were applied to all MUs. In deeper muscles, where the fibre-electrode distance was larger, the peripheral effect was more pronounced. The normalization of EMG amplitude characteristics to an M-wave one could result only in partial elimination of peripheral factor influence The increase in RMS of surface EMG during the early gains in strength should not be directly related to the changes in the neural drive. The relatively small but long-lasting elevated free resting calcium after high-resistance strength training could result in force potentiation and EMG increase.

  7. Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of Beck Depression Inventory-II in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2017-04-01

    This study explored the longitudinal measurement invariance in the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in early adolescents (junior high school students). The participants were 730 early adolescents (330 boys and 400 girls), who were followed up over 3 years (in six waves). To reduce the size of longitudinal model and verify the stability of the findings, the Fall and Spring series data sets were analyzed separately. Each series includes three waves of data with about 1-year apart. It was found that the three-factor model (Negative Attitude, Performance Difficulty, and Somatic Elements) best fitted the data. Results of both data sets provided support for the longitudinal measurement invariance (threshold invariance) of the three-factor model, suggesting that the BDI-II measured the same construct over 3 years. The study also examined the category function of the BDI-II on the basis of the pattern of threshold estimates. Finally, the implications of the findings on the continuing use of the BDI-II are discussed.

  8. Instrumentation considerations for measurement of early arriving photons in diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Niksa; Niedre, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Time-resolved measurement of early-arriving photons has been shown by a number of groups to effectively reduce photon scatter and improve resolution in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and fluorescence mediated tomography (FMT). Recently, we experimentally showed that measurement of early-arriving photons resulted in the reduction of the instrument photon density sensitivity function (PDSF) width by a factor of 2 to 2.5 over a wide range of relevant small-animal imaging conditions using a picosecond pulsed laser and time-resolved photon counting combination. However, we also showed that this experimental improvement was less than predicted from time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations. Specifically, a reduction by a factor of 4 or better was predicted, but this could not be achieved with our system. To better understand this, in this work we have experimentally tested the effect of a series instrumentation (hardware) parameters on the experimentally measured time-dependant PDSFs including, i) source and detector geometry, ii) detector sensitivity, iii) laser illumination intensity, and iv) instrument temporal impulse response function. Our ongoing research indicates that all of these parameters affected the relative PDSF width by as much as 10-25%, particularly at early time points. The results of this work are significant because they show in a number of cases that significant disagreement between experimental PDSFs and theoretical models exist as a result of minor changes in experimental configuration. We also anticipate that these results will be useful in the design of future time-resolved DOT and DFT imaging systems.

  9. Endocrine actions of pesticides measured in the Flemish environment and health studies (FLEHS I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, K; Den Hond, E; Bruckers, L; Govarts, E; Schoeters, G; Covaci, A; Loots, I; Morrens, B; Nelen, V; Sioen, I; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2015-10-01

    Within the Flemish Environment and Health studies (FLEHS I, 2002-2006, and FLEHS II, 2007-2012), pesticide exposure, hormone levels and degree of sexual maturation were measured in 14-15-year-old adolescents residing in Flanders (Belgium). In FLEHS II, geometric mean concentrations (with 95 % confidence interval (CI)) of 307 (277-341) and 36.5 ng L(-1) (34.0-39.2) were found for p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). These values were respectively 26 and 60 % lower than levels in FLEHS I, 5 years earlier. Metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and of para-dichlorobenzene were measured for the first time in FLEHS II, yielding concentrations of 11.4, 3.27 and 1.57 μg L(-1) for the sum of dimethyl- and diethyl phosphate metabolites and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), respectively. Data on internal exposure of HCB showed a positive correlation with sexual maturation, testosterone and the aromatase index for boys and with free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (both boys and girls). For both p,p'-DDE and HCB, a negative association with sexual development in girls was found. The OPP metabolites were negatively associated with sex hormone levels in the blood of boys and with sexual maturation (both boys and girls). The pesticide metabolite 2,5-DCP was negatively correlated with free T4, while a positive association with TSH was reported (boys and girls). These results show that even exposure to relatively low concentrations of pesticides can have significant influences on hormone levels and the degree of sexual maturation in 14-15-year-old adolescents.

  10. Measuring and reporting attrition from obesity treatment programs: A call to action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Beth M L; Brennan, Leah

    2015-01-01

    The high attrition rates in obesity interventions are associated with poorer weight loss and maintenance for the individual and poorer overall treatment effectiveness and cost-effectiveness for the treatment provider. Increased knowledge about factors associated with attrition can facilitate the identification of individuals at risk of drop-out and inform treatment program improvements with the aim of maximising treatment retention. To date, a relatively small body of literature has explored attrition from weight-loss interventions using two methods of attrition assessment: identification of pre-treatment predictors of attrition and eliciting post-treatment reasons for attrition. A range of attrition rates have been reported and no reliable or consistent predictors of attrition have been found. It is unknown whether the lack of consistent findings reflects population or treatment differences, or if the discrepant findings simply reflect differences in definition and measurement of attrition. Further research is required to address these limitations. There is a need for a recognised definition of obesity treatment attrition, the consideration of predictors that are theoretically and empirically associated with attrition, the development of a well-validated and standardised measure of barriers to attendance, and assessment of both treatment completers and drop-outs. Understanding the factors that influence attrition can be used to inform the modification of treatment programs and to target those most at risk of drop-out so as to maximise the success of obesity interventions. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity early after the bypass of the proximal small bowel in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, A D; Herring, R; Vusirikala, A; Shojaee-Moradi, F; Jackson, N C; Chandaria, S; Jackson, S N; Goldstone, A P; Hakim, N; Patel, A G; Umpleby, A M; Le Roux, C W

    2017-03-01

    Unlike gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy procedures, intestinal bypass procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in particular, lead to rapid improvements in glycaemia early after surgery. The bypass of the proximal small bowel may have weight loss and even caloric restriction-independent glucose-lowering properties on hepatic insulin sensitivity. In this first human mechanistic study, we examined this hypothesis by investigating the early effects of the duodeno-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL; GI Dynamics, USA) on the hepatic insulin sensitivity by using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp methodology. Seven patients with obesity underwent measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity at baseline, 1 week after a low-calorie liquid diet and after a further 1 week following insertion of the DJBL whilst on the same diet. Duodeno-jejunal bypass liner did not improve the insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose production beyond the improvements achieved with caloric restriction. Caloric restriction may be the predominant driver of early increases in hepatic insulin sensitivity after the endoscopic bypass of the proximal small bowel. The same mechanism may be at play after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and explain, at least in part, the rapid improvements in glycaemia.

  12. Differences between WHO AND CDC early growth measurements in the assessment of Cystic Fibrosis clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usatin, Danielle; Yen, Elizabeth H; McDonald, Catherine; Asfour, Fadi; Pohl, John; Robson, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    Early childhood growth status has been used to predict long-term clinical outcomes in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. Adulthood CF outcomes based on early weight-for-length (WFL) measurements, using either World Health Organization (WHO) or Centers for Disease Control (CDC) scales, have not been compared. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation registry patients were studied (n=3014). Participants were categorized at age two years as WFL CDC scales, ≥50th percentile on WHO but not CDC, or ≥50th percentile on both. Pulmonary function and overall survival were assessed at age 18years. Stepwise gains in pulmonary function and lung transplant-free survival were noted across the three increasing WFL categories. Children with CF who achieve higher WFL at age two years have improved pulmonary and survival outcomes into adulthood. CF providers should continue to utilize current early growth recommendations, with goal WFL ≥50th percentile on CDC growth charts before age two. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Actionable Knowledge and Strategic Decision Making for Bio- and Agroterrorism Threats: Building a Collaborative Early Warning Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mårtensson, Per-Åke; Hedström, Lars; Sundelius, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    organizations compared to the benefit of sharing information can be considered in an “information sharing risk-benefit analysis” to prevent a terrorism incident from occurring and to build a rapid response capability. In the EU project AniBioThreat, early warning is the main topic in work package 3 (WP 3......). A strategy has been generated based on an iterative approach to bring law enforcement agencies and human and animal health institutes together. Workshops and exercises have taken place during the first half of the project, and spin-off activities include new preparedness plans for institutes...

  14. Intrinsic excitability measures track antiepileptic drug action and uncover increasing/decreasing excitability over the wake/sleep cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Christian; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Freestone, Dean; Cook, Mark James; Achermann, Peter; Plenz, Dietmar

    2015-11-24

    Pathological changes in excitability of cortical tissue commonly underlie the initiation and spread of seizure activity in patients suffering from epilepsy. Accordingly, monitoring excitability and controlling its degree using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is of prime importance for clinical care and treatment. To date, adequate measures of excitability and action of AEDs have been difficult to identify. Recent insights into ongoing cortical activity have identified global levels of phase synchronization as measures that characterize normal levels of excitability and quantify any deviation therefrom. Here, we explore the usefulness of these intrinsic measures to quantify cortical excitability in humans. First, we observe a correlation of such markers with stimulation-evoked responses suggesting them to be viable excitability measures based on ongoing activity. Second, we report a significant covariation with the level of AED load and a wake-dependent modulation. Our results indicate that excitability in epileptic networks is effectively reduced by AEDs and suggest the proposed markers as useful candidates to quantify excitability in routine clinical conditions overcoming the limitations of electrical or magnetic stimulation. The wake-dependent time course of these metrics suggests a homeostatic role of sleep, to rebalance cortical excitability.

  15. Data Security Measures in the IT Service Industry: A Balance between Knowledge & Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mlitwa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available That knowledge is power is fast becoming a cliche within the intelligentsia. Such power however, depends largely on how knowledge itself is exchanged and used, which says a lot about the tools of its transmission, exchange, and storage. Information and communication technology (ICT plays a significant role in this respect. As a networked tool, it enables efficient exchanges of video, audio and text data beyond geographical and time constraints. Since this data is exchanged over the worldwide web (www, it can be accessible by anyone in the world using the internet. The risk of unauthorised access, interception, modification, or even theft of confidential information, leading to financial losses in information dependant competitive institutions is therefore high. Improving efficiencies through ICT therefore, comes with security responsibilities. The problem however is that most organizations tend to focus on task-enhancing efficiencies and neglect security. Possibly due to limited awareness about security, underestimating the problem, concerns about security costs, or through plain negligence. The activity theory of Engestrm and the activity analysis development framework of Mursu et al are used as analytical lenses to the cybercrime challenge in this paper. A practical case study of Company X, an IT service provider in Malawi is then used to understand the extent to which organisations that offer electronic data solutions prioritise security in their operations. It is found that even better informed organisations fall short in taking adequate data security measures. A recommendation for all organisations is that they should not only have a clear policy, but also ensure that it is routinely and consistently implemented throughout the operations if information capital is to be secured. A framework towards a holistic approach to thinking about, and in addressing cybercrime is suggested, and recommended in the paper.

  16. Population-Level Measures to Predict Obesity Burden in Public Schools: Looking Upstream for Midstream Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha P; Lohrmann, David K; Dickinson, Stephanie; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2016-10-05

    To estimate school-level obesity burden, as reflected in prevalence of obesity, based on the characteristics of students' socioeconomic and geographic environments. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Public schools (N = 504) from 43 of 67 counties in Pennsylvania. Kindergarten through grade 12 students (N = 255 949). School-level obesity prevalence for the year 2014 was calculated from state-mandated student body mass index (BMI) measurements. Eighteen aggregate variables, characterizing schools and counties, were retrieved from federal data sources. Three classification variables-excess weight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile), and severe obesity (BMI > 35% or 120% of 95th percentile)-each with 3 groups of schools (low-, average-, and high-prevalence) were created for discriminant function analysis, based on state mean and standard deviation of school distribution. Analysis tested each classification model to reveal school- and county-level dimensions on which school groups differed from each other. Discriminant functions for obesity, which contained school enrollment, percentage of students receiving free/reduced-price lunch, percentage of black/Hispanic students, school location (suburban/other), percentage of county adults with postsecondary education, and percentage of county adults with obesity, yielded 67.86% correct classification (highest accuracy), compared to 34.23% schools classified by chance alone. In the absence of mandated student BMI screenings, the model developed in this study can be used to identify schools most likely to have high obesity burden and, thereafter, determine dissemination of enhanced resources for the implementation of proven prevention policies and programs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Novel experimental results in human cardiac electrophysiology: measurement of the Purkinje fibre action potential from the undiseased human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Norbert; Szél, Tamás; Jost, Norbert; Tóth, András; Gy Papp, Julius; Varró, András

    2015-09-01

    Data obtained from canine cardiac electrophysiology studies are often extrapolated to the human heart. However, it has been previously demonstrated that because of the lower density of its K(+) currents, the human ventricular action potential has a less extensive repolarization reserve. Since the relevance of canine data to the human heart has not yet been fully clarified, the aim of the present study was to determine for the first time the action potentials of undiseased human Purkinje fibres (PFs) and to compare them directly with those of dog PFs. All measurements were performed at 37 °C using the conventional microelectrode technique. At a stimulation rate of 1 Hz, the plateau potential of human PFs is more positive (8.0 ± 1.8 vs 8.6 ± 3.4 mV, n = 7), while the amplitude of the spike is less pronounced. The maximal rate of depolarization is significantly lower in human PKs than in canine PFs (406.7 ± 62 vs 643 ± 36 V/s, respectively, n = 7). We assume that the appreciable difference in the protein expression profiles of the 2 species may underlie these important disparities. Therefore, caution is advised when canine PF data are extrapolated to humans, and further experiments are required to investigate the characteristics of human PF repolarization and its possible role in arrhythmogenesis.

  18. A Case Study of Measuring Process Risk for Early Insights into Software Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Lucas; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Fisher, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we examine software safety risk in three flight hardware systems in NASA's Constellation spaceflight program. We applied our Technical and Process Risk Measurement (TPRM) methodology to the Constellation hazard analysis process to quantify the technical and process risks involving software safety in the early design phase of these projects. We analyzed 154 hazard reports and collected metrics to measure the prevalence of software in hazards and the specificity of descriptions of software causes of hazardous conditions. We found that 49-70% of 154 hazardous conditions could be caused by software or software was involved in the prevention of the hazardous condition. We also found that 12-17% of the 2013 hazard causes involved software, and that 23-29% of all causes had a software control. The application of the TPRM methodology identified process risks in the application of the hazard analysis process itself that may lead to software safety risk.

  19. Predicting early reading skills from pre-reading measures of dorsal stream functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-12-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the commencement of formal reading instruction can predict emerging literacy skills in Grade 1. We demonstrate that over age, IQ and Kindergarten Letter knowledge, pre-reading measures of dorsal stream functioning, as assessed by frequency doubling sensitivity, could predict early literacy skills. These findings suggest that the relationship between dorsal stream functioning and poor reading skills exists before children learn to read, strengthening the claim that dorsal stream deficits may play a contributing role in reading failure.

  20. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale: A screening measure for early identification of depressive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2017-12-01

    Depression is currently considered the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Positive thinking is a cognitive process that helps individuals to deal with problems more effectively, and has been suggested as a useful strategy for coping with adversity, including depression. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS) is a reliable and valid measure that captures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills that can help in the early identification of the possibility of developing depressive thoughts. However, no meaningful cutoff score has been established for the PTSS. To establish a cutoff score for the PTSS for early identification of risk for depression. This study used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a PTSS cutoff score for risk for depression, using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as the gold standard measure. In a sample of 109 caregivers, the ROC showed that the cutoff score of PTSS that best classify the participants is 13.5. With this PTSS score, 77.8% of the subjects with low CES-D are classify correctly, and 69.6% of the subjects with high CES-D are classify correctly. Since the PTSS score should be integer numbers, functionally the cutoff would be 13. The study showed that a cut off score of 13 is a point at which referral, intervention, or treatment would be recommended. Consequently, this can help in the early identification of depressive symptoms that might develop because of the stress of caregiving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Do Early Fetal Measurements and Nuchal Translucency Correlate With Term Birth Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmon, Rinat; Librach, Clifford; Burwick, Richard; Rodrigues, Nicole; Farine, Dan; Berger, Howard

    2017-09-01

    Traditionally, physiological variation in fetal weight is believed to emerge during the latter half of pregnancy. Although recent evidence suggests that crown-rump length (CRL) and nuchal translucency (NT) measured at 11-14 weeks correlate with abnormal fetal growth, findings have been limited by dating accuracy in spontaneous gestations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether CRL or NT measurements correlated with term birth weight (BW) or BW ratio in a cohort of IVF pregnancies, in which the date of conception is precisely known. This retrospective cohort study included 227 term, singleton IVF pregnancies. Subjects were included if they had an early first-trimester ultrasound examination and subsequent nuchal translucency (NT) screening. The difference between the measured and the expected CRL and the biparietal diameter (BPD) and NT measurement were calculated and correlated with the actual term BW or BW ratio. The BW ratio was calculated using the actual BW and the expected BW for GA. The difference between measured and expected mid-first-trimester CRL, and the BPD at NT assessment, correlated with BW ratio at delivery (rSpearman = 0.15, P = 0.023 and rSpearman = 0.27, P < 0.001, respectively). Absolute NT measurements and NT percentiles (adjusted for CRL) correlated with BW ratio at delivery (rSpearman = 0.18, r = 0.14, and P = 0.005 and 0.038, respectively). In this well-dated IVF population, we report a significant correlation between BW ratio and first-trimester CRL, BPD, and NT measurements. These findings support the hypothesis that physiological variation in BW can be reflected by variation in first-trimester fetal measurements. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using the theory of reasoned action to determine physicians' intention to measure body mass index in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Kavookjian, Jan; Scott, Virginia Ginger; Kamal, Khalid M; Miller, Lesley-Ann N; Neal, William A

    2009-06-01

    Over the past few decades, childhood obesity has become a major public health issue in the United States. Numerous public and professional organizations recommend that physicians periodically screen for obesity in children and adolescents using the body mass index (BMI). However, studies have shown that physicians infrequently measure BMI in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to use the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to explain physicians' intentions to measure BMI in children and adolescents. The study objectives were to (1) determine if attitude and subjective norm predict physicians' intention to measure BMI in children and adolescents; (2) determine if family physicians and pediatricians differ in terms of theoretical factors; and (3) assess differences in behavioral beliefs, outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply among physicians based on their level of intention to measure BMI. A cross-sectional mailed survey of 2590 physicians (family physicians and pediatricians) practicing in 4 states was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was designed that included items related to the TRA constructs. The association between the theoretical constructs was examined using correlation and regression analyses. Student's t test was used to determine differences between family physicians and pediatricians on theoretical constructs and to compare the underlying beliefs of nonintenders with intenders. The usable response rate was 22.8%. Less than half (44%) of the physicians strongly intended to measure BMI in children and adolescents. Together, the TRA constructs attitude and subjective norm explained up to 49.9% of the variance in intention. Pediatricians had a significantly (Pmeasure BMI as compared to family physicians. There were significant (Pmeasure BMI. The TRA is a useful model in identifying the factors that are associated with physicians' intentions to measure BMI.

  3. Reflecting on non-reflective action: an exploratory think-aloud study of self-report habit measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Tang, Vinca

    2014-05-01

    Within health psychology, habit - the tendency to enact action automatically as a learned response to contextual cues - is most commonly quantified using the 'Self-Report Habit Index', which assesses behavioural automaticity, or measures combining self-reported behaviour frequency and context stability. Yet, the use of self-report to capture habit has proven controversial. This study used 'think-aloud' methods to investigate problems experienced when completing these two measures. Cross-sectional survey with think-aloud study. Twenty student participants narrated their thoughts while completing habit measures applied to four health-related behaviours (active commuting, unhealthy snacking, and one context-free and one context-specific variant of alcohol consumption). Data were coded using thematic analysis procedures. Problems were found in 10% of responses. Notable findings included participants lacking confidence in reporting automaticity, struggling to recall behaviour or cues, differing in interpretations of 'commuting', and misinterpreting items. While most responses were unproblematic, and further work is needed to investigate habit self-reports among larger and more diverse samples, findings nonetheless question the sensitivity of the measures, and the conceptualization of habit underpinning common applications of them. We offer suggestions to minimize these problems. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Habit is most commonly measured within health psychology via the Self-Report Habit Index, or a combination of self-reported behaviour frequency and contextual stability. The suitability of self-report for capturing automatic processes has been questioned. What does this study add? This is the first study of how people interpret and respond to self-report habit measures. Results show the potential for errors in recalling automaticity, cues, and behaviours. We discuss practical and theoretical challenges to assessing habit in health

  4. Measurement back action and spin noise spectroscopy in a charged cavity QED device in the strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D. S.; Reznychenko, B.; Auffèves, A.; Lanco, L.

    2017-10-01

    We study theoretically the spin-induced and photon-induced fluctuations of optical signals from a singly-charged quantum dot-microcavity structure. We identify the respective contributions of the photon-polariton interactions, in the strong light-matter coupling regime, and of the quantum back action induced by photon detection on the spin system. Strong spin projection by a single photon is shown to be achievable, allowing the initialization and measurement of a fully-polarized Larmor precession. The spectrum of second-order correlations is deduced, displaying information on both spin and quantum dot-cavity dynamics. The presented theory thus bridges the gap between the fields of spin noise spectroscopy and quantum optics.

  5. Identification of the optimal donor quality scoring system and measure of early renal function in kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    The early identification of kidney allografts at risk of later dysfunction has implications for clinical practice. Donor quality scoring systems (preoperative) and measures of early allograft function (first week postoperative) have previously shown practical utility. This study aimed to determine the optimal parameter(s) (preoperative and postoperative) with greatest predictive power for the development of subsequent allograft dysfunction.

  6. The indolic compound hypaphorine produced by ectomycorrhizal fungus interferes with auxin action and evokes early responses in nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboutier, David; Bianchi, Michele; Brault, Mathias; Roux, Camille; Dauphin, Aurélien; Rona, Jean-Pierre; Legué, Valérie; Lapeyrie, Frédéric; Bouteau, François

    2002-09-01

    Signals leading to mycorrhizal differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the sensitivity of the root system from plant model Arabidopsis thaliana to hypaphorine, the major indolic compound isolated from the basidiomycetous fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. This fungi establishes ectomycorrhizas with Eucalyptus globulus. Hypaphorine controls root hair elongation and counteracts the activity of indole-3-acetic acid on root elongation on A. thaliana, as previously reported for the host plant. In addition, we show that hypaphorine counteracts the rapid upregulation by indole-3-acetic acid and 1-naphthalenic-acetic acid of the primary auxin-responsive gene IAA1 and induces a rapid, transient membrane depolarization in root hairs and suspension cells, due to the modulation of anion and K+ currents. These early responses indicate that components necessary for symbiosis-related differentiation events are present in the nonhost plant A. thaliana and provide tools for the dissection of the hypaphorine-auxin interaction.

  7. Odontometric sex estimation in humans using measurements on permanent canines. A comparison of an early Neolithic and an early medieval assemblage from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Stefan; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst

    This study analyzed whether cervical canine dimensions measured at the enamel-cement junction can provide a basis for sex estimation in human skeletal remains and whether discriminant functions developed for one assemblage can be successfully applied also to others. Cervical canine dimensions were recorded for an Early Neolithic (Linear Pottery Culture) and an early medieval skeletal assemblage from Germany. Only individuals in whom sex estimation based on standard diagnostic criteria could be performed with a high degree of certainty were included. Sexual dimorphism in cervical canine dimensions was higher in the early medieval assemblage. Values in females of the Early Neolithic assemblage exceeded those of the early medieval assemblage, while there were no significant differences in males. Discriminant analysis led to a maximum correct classification of sex (cross validation results) of 94.0% in the early medieval and of 79.2% in the Early Neolithic assemblage. Applying the discriminant functions developed on one assemblage to the other led to poor classification results. Cervical canine dimensions are highly correlated with sexually dimorphic skeletal traits and may provide a good basis for sexing archaeological individuals. It is suggested that due to population differences in canine dimensions, either assemblage specific discriminant functions should be developed or the applicability of existing formulae obtained on other assemblages to the assemblage under study should be carefully checked.

  8. An acousto-optically steered laser scanning system for measurement of action potential spread in intact heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M; Dillon, S; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    An optical scanning device that combines a voltage-sensitive dye and an acousto-optically steered He-Ne laser beam is described. This device is capable of scanning 128 sites every 4 ms and recording and storing the fluorescence signals for a duration of up to 1 s (several beats). Comparison of an activation map constructed from laser scanning to those obtained from multiple extracellular electrodes suggests that this technique is highly reliable. Although motion-induced light scattering appears to alter the shape of the action potential, the upstroke can be distinguished quite reliably even in a vigorously contracting muscle. This technique provides high resolution (up to 50 micron) and high flexibility (i.e., the scanned sites can be concentrated over a small or very large area) in measuring the spread of activation in heart muscle. By having only one excitation and one measurement element, the approach offers simplicity and high flexibility to the user. We have shown that this system can be readily applied to the task for which it was intended--probing the mechanisms of arrhythmias in the mammalian myocardium. It has been demonstrated, for example, that arrhythmias due to automaticity can be readily distinguished from those due to reentry through the mapping capability of the laser scanner. In addition, the ability of laser scanner to measure membrane depolarization directly during arrhythmias may make this technique superior to conventional electrocardiographic mapping techniques.

  9. EEG synchronization measures are early outcome predictors in comatose patients after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubler, Frédéric; Steimer, Andreas; Kurmann, Rebekka; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Novy, Jan; Gast, Heidemarie; Oddo, Mauro; Schindler, Kaspar; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2017-04-01

    Outcome prognostication in comatose patients after cardiac arrest (CA) remains a major challenge. Here we investigated the prognostic value of combinations of linear and non-linear bivariate EEG synchronization measures. 94 comatose patients with EEG within 24h after CA were included. Clinical outcome was assessed at 3months using the Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC). EEG synchronization between the left and right parasagittal, and between the frontal and parietal brain regions was assessed with 4 different quantitative measures (delta power asymmetry, cross-correlation, mutual information, and transfer entropy). 2/3 of patients were used to assess the predictive power of all possible combinations of these eight features (4 measures×2 directions) using cross-validation. The predictive power of the best combination was tested on the remaining 1/3 of patients. The best combination for prognostication consisted of 4 of the 8 features, and contained linear and non-linear measures. Predictive power for poor outcome (CPC 3-5), measured with the area under the ROC curve, was 0.84 during cross-validation, and 0.81 on the test set. At specificity of 1.0 the sensitivity was 0.54, and the accuracy 0.81. Combinations of EEG synchronization measures can contribute to early prognostication after CA. In particular, combining linear and non-linear measures is important for good predictive power. Quantitative methods might increase the prognostic yield of currently used multi-modal approaches. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Water Stress Detection Using Leaf-Level Measurements of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Ni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the early water stress in maize using leaf-level measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and temperature. In this study, a series of diurnal measurements, such as leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs, leaf spectrum, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, were conducted for maize during gradient watering and filled watering experiments. Fraunhofer Line Discriminator methods (FLD and 3FLD were used to obtain fluorescence from leaves spectrum. This simulated work using the SCOPE model demonstrated the variations in fluorescence and temperature in stress levels expressed by different stress factors. In the field measurement, the gradient experiment revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence decreased for plants with water stress relative to well-water plants and Tleaf-Tair increased; the filled watering experiment stated that chlorophyll fluorescence of maize under water stress were similar to those of maize under well-watering condition. In addition, the relationships between the Fs, retrieved fluorescence, Tleaf-Tair and water content were analyzed. The Fs determination resulted to the best coefficients of determination for the normalized retrieved fluorescence FLD/PAR (R2 = 0.54, Tleaf-Tair (R2 = 0.48 and water content (R2 = 0.71. The normalized retrieved fluorescence yielded a good coefficient of determination for Tleaf-Tair (R2 = 0.48. This study demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence could reflect variations in the physiological states of plants during early water stress, and leaf temperature confirmed the chlorophyll fluorescence analysis results and improved the accuracy of the water stress detection.

  11. Measuring Early Communication in Spanish Speaking Children: The Communication Complexity Scale in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Erin; Brady, Nancy C.; Esplund, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a great need in the United States to develop presymbolic evaluation tools that are widely available and accurate for individuals that come from a bilingual and/or multicultural setting. The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) is a measure that evaluates expressive presymbolic communication including gestures, vocalizations and eye gaze. Studying the effectiveness of this tool in a Spanish speaking environment was undertaken to determine the applicability of the CCS with Spanish speaking children. Methods & Procedures: In 2011–2012, researchers from the University of Kansas and Centro Ann Sullivan del Perú (CASP) investigated communication in a cohort of 71 young Spanish speaking children with developmental disabilities and a documented history of self-injurious, stereotyped and aggressive behaviors. Communication was assessed first by parental report with translated versions of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS), a well-known assessment of early communication, and then eleven months later with the CCS. Hypothesis We hypothesized that the CCS and the CSBS measures would be significantly correlated in this population of Spanish speaking children. Outcomes & Results The CSBS scores from time 1 with a mean participant age of 41 months were determined to have a strong positive relationship to the CCS scores obtained at time 2 with a mean participant age of 52 months. Conclusions & Implications The CCS is strongly correlated to a widely accepted measure of early communication. These findings support the validity of the Spanish version of the CCS and demonstrate its usefulness for children from another culture and for children in a Spanish speaking environment. PMID:26636094

  12. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and aerosol formation: implications from atmospheric measurements for nucleation and early growth mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-L. Sihto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the formation and early growth of atmospheric secondary aerosol particles building on atmospheric measurements. The measurements were part of the QUEST 2 campaign which took place in spring 2003 in Hyytiälä (Finland. During the campaign numerous aerosol particle formation events occurred of which 15 were accompanied by gaseous sulphuric acid measurements. Our detailed analysis of these 15 events is focussed on nucleation and early growth (to a diameter of 3 nm of fresh particles. It revealed that new particle formation seems to be a function of the gaseous sulphuric acid concentration to the power from one to two when the time delay between the sulphuric acid and particle number concentration is taken into account. From the time delay the growth rates of freshly nucleated particles from 1 nm to 3 nm were determined. The mean growth rate was 1.2 nm/h and it was clearly correlated with the gaseous sulphuric acid concentration. We tested two nucleation mechanisms – recently proposed cluster activation and kinetic type nucleation – as possible candidates to explain the observed dependences, and determined experimental nucleation coefficients. We found that some events are dominated by the activation mechanism and some by the kinetic mechanism. Inferred coefficients for the two nucleation mechanisms are the same order of magnitude as chemical reaction coefficients in the gas phase and they correlate with the product of gaseous sulphuric acid and ammonia concentrations. This indicates that besides gaseous sulphuric acid also ammonia has a role in nucleation.

  13. Efficacy of fungicides with various modes of action in controlling the early stages of an Erysiphe necator-induced epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliere, Laurent; Miclot, Anne Sophie; Sauris, Pierre; Rey, Patrice; Calonnec, Agnès

    2010-12-01

    Limiting the use of fungicides is due to become an important issue in managing Erysiphe necator (Schwein) Burrill infections in vineyards. The authors determined how three fungicides currently used by vine growers could be managed to control the early stages of an E. necator-induced epidemic. Leaf-disc bioassays and field experiments suggested that the protectant quinoxyfen induced minor disruption in E. necator development, but compounds with protectant and curative properties (tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin) caused significant, although different, disruption during E. necator-induced epidemics. Bioassays showed that each of the antifungals were most effective at different stages of fungal development, tebuconazole before sporulation and trifloxystrobin after sporulation of the colonies. Results from the bioassay also highlighted likely occurrences in the field, where several stages of fungal development are encountered simultaneously. The present findings were complementary: leaf-disc tests showed when the fungicides were most effective at inhibiting E. necator infection cycles; the field trial provided results in terms of incidence and severity of disease on bunches without reference to the pathogenic cycle development. A protection strategy combining the different types of fungicide under study is suggested. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis measures and cognitive abilities in early psychosis: Are there sex differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labad, Javier; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Montalvo, Itziar; Cabezas, Ángel; Solé, Montse; Ortega, Laura; Algora, Maria José; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Vilella, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    Measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity such as increased diurnal cortisol levels or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR) have been associated with cognitive impairments in people with psychotic disorders. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the relationship between HPA axis measures and cognition in early psychosis (EP). 60 EP outpatients and 50 healthy subjects (HS) were assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Saliva cortisol levels were determined at the neuropsychological assessment and on another day at 6 sampling times: awakening; 30' and 60' post-awakening; and 10:00h, 23:00h and 10:00h the day after the administration of 0.25mg of dexamethasone, which occurred at 23:00h. Three HPA axis measures were calculated: CAR, cortisol diurnal slope and cortisol suppression ratio of the dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between HPA axis measures and cognitive tasks while adjusting for covariates (education level, smoking, cannabis use, and cortisol levels at the cognitive assessment). Interactions between female sex, EP diagnosis and HPA axis measures were examined. An increased CAR was associated with a poorer cognitive performance in EP women in processing speed and verbal memory. In contrast, a more flattened diurnal cortisol slope was associated with poorer functioning in the spatial working memory of EP women. DST suppression ratio was associated with better visual memory, without sex differences. Our study suggests that there are sex differences in the relationship between HPA axis measures and cognitive abilities in EP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Early Postoperative Recovery Following Lower Limb Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Louise H; Hamilton, Thomas W; Jenkinson, Crispin C; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant G

    2016-12-01

    Lower limb arthroplasty is an effective surgical treatment option for patients with moderate to severe arthritis who have not responded to medical management. However, surgical interventions can lead to postoperative consequences such as limited mobility, pain, and infection. Consequently, improving postoperative recovery holds significant benefits for patients, health care professionals, and health care payers. The purpose of this review is to determine if any recovery tools exist that can effectively measure early postoperative recovery after hip or knee arthroplasty. The following databases were searched; PubMed (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), Web of Science (ISI Web of Knowledge), PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cochrane library, and SCOPUS. We restricted our search to English language articles and adult respondents. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers using a proforma spreadsheet, and existing quality criteria were applied. Our literature search identified 23 articles relating to development, assessment, and validation of 15 tools. Not all instruments demonstrated the same levels of quality. None of the tools found were specific to both the orthopedic arthroplasty population and early recovery periods. At the present time, there are no fully validated tools to assess early postoperative recovery during the first week following lower limb arthroplasty. A brief, easy-to-complete, reliable patient-reported tool could be of great use. It could not only aid in assessment of recovery but could also evaluate the efficacy of perioperative interventions such as drugs or surgical technique and provide a foundation for evidence-based care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ages and Metallicities of Early-Type Void Galaxies from Line Strength Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gary; Grogin, Norman A.

    2008-07-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of 26 galaxies of type E and S0, based on their blue morphologies, located in voids by the study of Grogin & Geller in 1999. Measurements of redshift, velocity dispersion, and four Lick line indices, Mg b , Fe5270, Fe5335, and Hβ with their errors are given for all of these galaxies, along with Hβ, [O III], Hα, and [N II] emission line strengths for a subset of these objects. These sources are brighter than M* for low-density regions and tend to be bluer than their counterpart early-type objects in high-density regions. Using the models of Thomas et al., developed in 2003, gives metal abundances and ages with a median α enhancement, [α/Fe] = +0.13, and median metal abundance, [Z/H] = +0.22, values comparable to those found for E and S0 galaxies in clusters, but with a wider spread in [Z/H] toward low values. If the emission line subsample is interpreted as younger, the proportion of young objects is higher than for early types in higher-density regions. There is a significant incidence of sources in the sample with emission lines in their spectra (46% with Hβ and [O III] and 69% with Hα or [N II]) as well as shells and rings in their morphologies (19%). The diagnostic log [{N\\,\\mathsc{ii}}]/ H\\alpha, log [{O\\,\\mathsc{iii}}]/ H\\beta diagram places 10 of 12 emission line galaxies in or near the star-forming and liner region and two among the Seyferts. The Hα fluxes indicate star-formation rates of 0.2-1.0 M sun yr-1. The percentage of these early-type void galaxies undergoing star formation appears to be higher compared to their cluster counterparts and the range of ages wider.

  17. Hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation in early brain development measured using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hama; Shitara, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Yoshinori; Inoue, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoto; Taga, Gentaro

    2017-02-28

    A crucial issue in neonatal medicine is the impact of preterm birth on the developmental trajectory of the brain. Although a growing number of studies have shown alterations in the structure and function of the brain in preterm-born infants, we propose a method to detect subtle differences in neurovascular and metabolic functions in neonates and infants. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to obtain time-averaged phase differences between spontaneous low-frequency (less than 0.1 Hz) oscillatory changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and those in deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb). This phase difference was referred to as hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation (hPod) in the cerebral tissue of sleeping neonates and infants. We examined hPod in term, late preterm, and early preterm infants with no evidence of clinical issues and found that all groups of infants showed developmental changes in the values of hPod from an in-phase to an antiphase pattern. Comparison of hPod among the groups revealed that developmental changes in hPod in early preterm infants precede those in late preterm and term infants at term equivalent age but then, progress at a slower pace. This study suggests that hPod measured using fNIRS is sensitive to the developmental stage of the integration of circular, neurovascular, and metabolic functions in the brains of neonates and infants.

  18. Functional connectivity measures after psilocybin inform a novel hypothesis of early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Leech, Robert; Erritzoe, David; Williams, Tim M; Stone, James M; Evans, John; Sharp, David J; Feilding, Amanda; Wise, Richard G; Nutt, David J

    2013-11-01

    Psilocybin is a classic psychedelic and a candidate drug model of psychosis. This study measured the effects of psilocybin on resting-state network and thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy volunteers received intravenous infusions of psilocybin and placebo in 2 task-free resting-state scans. Primary analyses focused on changes in FC between the default-mode- (DMN) and task-positive network (TPN). Spontaneous activity in the DMN is orthogonal to spontaneous activity in the TPN, and it is well known that these networks support very different functions (ie, the DMN supports introspection, whereas the TPN supports externally focused attention). Here, independent components and seed-based FC analyses revealed increased DMN-TPN FC and so decreased DMN-TPN orthogonality after psilocybin. Increased DMN-TPN FC has been found in psychosis and meditatory states, which share some phenomenological similarities with the psychedelic state. Increased DMN-TPN FC has also been observed in sedation, as has decreased thalamocortical FC, but here we found preserved thalamocortical FC after psilocybin. Thus, we propose that thalamocortical FC may be related to arousal, whereas DMN-TPN FC is related to the separateness of internally and externally focused states. We suggest that this orthogonality is compromised in early psychosis, explaining similarities between its phenomenology and that of the psychedelic state and supporting the utility of psilocybin as a model of early psychosis.

  19. BMI, RQ, Diabetes, and Sex Affect the Relationships Between Amino Acids and Clamp Measures of Insulin Action in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Ingram, Katherine H.; Guo, Fangjian; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B.; Garvey, W. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e., hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), we examined the relationships between the metabolomic amino acid profile and insulin action (i.e., glucose disposal rate [GDR]). Relationships between GDR and serum amino acids were determined among insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) individuals. In all subjects, glycine (Gly) had the strongest correlation with GDR (positive association), followed by leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) (negative association). These relationships were dramatically influenced by BMI, the resting respiratory quotient (RQ), T2DM, and sex. Gly had a strong positive correlation with GDR regardless of BMI, RQ, or sex but became nonsignificant in T2DM. In contrast, Leu/Ile was negatively associated with GDR in nonobese and T2DM subjects. Increased resting fat metabolism (i.e., low RQ) and obesity were observed to independently promote and negate the association between Leu/Ile and insulin resistance, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between Leu/Ile and GDR was magnified in T2DM males. Future studies are needed to determine whether Gly has a mechanistic role in glucose homeostasis and whether dietary Gly enrichment may be an effective intervention in diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:24130332

  20. The perception of second language sounds in early bilinguals: new evidence from an implicit measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Jordi; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that nonnative (L2) linguistic sounds are accommodated to native language (L1) phonemic categories. However, this conclusion may be compromised by the use of explicit discrimination tests. The present study provides an implicit measure of L2 phoneme discrimination in early bilinguals (Catalan and Spanish). Participants classified the 1st syllable of disyllabic stimuli embedded in lists where the 2nd, task-irrelevant, syllable could contain a Catalan contrastive variation (/epsilon/-/e/) or no variation. Catalan dominants responded more slowly in lists where the 2nd syllable could vary from trial to trial, suggesting an indirect effect of the /epsilon/-/e/ discrimination. Spanish dominants did not suffer this interference, performing indistinguishably from Spanish monolinguals. The present findings provide implicit evidence that even proficient bilinguals categorize L2 sounds according to their L1 representations. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI): Instrument Overview and Early On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David W.; Newell, David A.; Wentz, Frank J.; Krimchansky, Sergey; Jackson, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission that uses measurements from an advanced radar/radiometer system on a core observatory as reference standards to unify and advance precipitation estimates made by a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM core observatory was launched on February 27, 2014 at 18:37 UT in a 65? inclination nonsun-synchronous orbit. GPM focuses on precipitation as a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle, and has the capability to provide near-real-time observations for tracking severe weather events, monitoring freshwater resources, and other societal applications. The GPM microwave imager (GMI) on the core observatory provides the direct link to the constellation radiometer sensors, which fly mainly in polar orbits. The GMI sensitivity, accuracy, and stability play a crucial role in unifying the measurements from the GPM constellation of satellites. The instrument has exhibited highly stable operations through the duration of the calibration/validation period. This paper provides an overview of the GMI instrument and a report of early on-orbit commissioning activities. It discusses the on-orbit radiometric sensitivity, absolute calibration accuracy, and stability for each radiometric channel. Index Terms-Calibration accuracy, passive microwave remote sensing, radiometric sensitivity.

  2. Differential precision of corneal Pentacam HR measurements in early and advanced keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Tom H; Sharma, Daya P; Bunce, Catey; Wilkins, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Serial Scheimpflug corneal tomography to monitor the progression of keratoconus has become standard practice in most countries where corneal cross-linking is available. The tomographic definitions of progression are, however, poorly defined. The aims of this study were: (a) to estimate the 95% limits of intraobserver and interobserver agreement of corneal shape parameters on Pentacam in patients with keratoconus and (b) to investigate whether these limits of agreement varied according to disease severity. 96 adult patients with keratoconus and no corneal scarring or history of previous surgery were recruited from a corneal clinic in a tertiary ophthalmology hospital. One eye of each subject was scanned twice by each of the two observers with the Pentacam HR. 95% limits of intraobserver and interobserver agreement for K1, K2, Kmax and corneal thickness at the thinnest corneal location (TCT) were calculated. Reproducibility of keratometry measures was better for early keratoconus than advanced keratoconus. In patients of Pentacam-derived Krumeich stage 1 or 2, the 95% limits of interobserver agreement for Kmax were from -0.90 to 1.01. In patients of Pentacam-derived Krumeich stage >2, the 95% limits of interobserver agreement for Kmax were from -3.71 to 3.86. Keratometric measurements on Pentacam HR are less reproducible in advanced keratoconus than in early keratoconus. In patients of Pentacam-derived Krumeich stage 1 or 2, an increase in K1, K2 or Kmax of more than 1 dioptre is likely to represent the real change in the corneal shape. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. An automated approach to measuring child movement and location in the early childhood classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W; Crutchfield, Stephen A; Greenwood, Charles R; Kearns, William D; Buzhardt, Jay

    2017-06-08

    Children's movement is an important issue in child development and outcome in early childhood research, intervention, and practice. Digital sensor technologies offer improvements in naturalistic movement measurement and analysis. We conducted validity and feasibility testing of a real-time, indoor mapping and location system (Ubisense, Inc.) within a preschool classroom. Real-time indoor mapping has several implications with respect to efficiently and conveniently: (a) determining the activity areas where children are spending the most and least time per day (e.g., music); and (b) mapping a focal child's atypical real-time movements (e.g., lapping behavior). We calibrated the accuracy of Ubisense point-by-point location estimates (i.e., X and Y coordinates) against laser rangefinder measurements using several stationary points and atypical movement patterns as reference standards. Our results indicate that activity areas occupied and atypical movement patterns could be plotted with an accuracy of 30.48 cm (1 ft) using a Ubisense transponder tag attached to the participating child's shirt. The accuracy parallels findings of other researchers employing Ubisense to study atypical movement patterns in individuals at risk for dementia in an assisted living facility. The feasibility of Ubisense was tested in an approximately 90-min assessment of two children, one typically developing and one with Down syndrome, during natural classroom activities, and the results proved positive. Implications for employing Ubisense in early childhood classrooms as a data-based decision-making tool to support children's development and its potential integration with other wearable sensor technologies are discussed.

  4. Action perception predicts action performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Normative findings of electrically evoked compound action potential measurements using the neural response telemetry of the Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarelli-Dees, D.; Dillier, N.; Lai, W.K.; Wallenberg, E. von; Dijk, B. van; Akdas, F.; Aksit, M.; Batman, C.; Beynon, A.J.; Burdo, S.; Chanal, J.M.; Collet, L.; Conway, M.; Coudert, C.; Craddock, L.; Cullington, H.; Deggouj, N.; Fraysse, B.; Grabel, S.; Kiefer, J.; Kiss, J.G.; Lenarz, T.; Mair, A.; Maune, S.; Muller-Deile, J.; Piron, J.P.; Razza, S.; Tasche, C.; Thai-Van, H.; Toth, F.; Truy, E.; Uziel, A.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty-seven adult recipients of the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system, from 13 different European countries, were tested using neural response telemetry to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), according to a standardised postoperative measurement

  6. Development of Early Measures of Comprehension: Innovation in Individual Growth and Development Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Rodriguez, Megan I.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Early comprehension is an important, but not well-understood, contribution to early literacy and language development. Specifically, research regarding the nature of skills representative of early comprehension, including how they contribute to later reading success, is needed to support best practices to adequately prepare students. This article…

  7. Trismus in head and neck cancer patients treated by telecobalt and effect of early rehabilitation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Sindhu; Kadam, S Amrut; Selvaraj, Karthikeyan; Ahmed, Iqbal; Javarappa, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Trismus is one of the common late side effects of radiotherapy (RT) of head and neck cancers. It occurs in about 30% of patients treated by telecobalt. It, in turn, leads to significant morbidity, including malnutrition, difficulty in speaking, and compromised oral hygiene with severe psychosocial, and economic impacts. To determine the prevalence of trismus and its progression in patients who have received radical concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck cancer by telecobalt at our institution. To note the effect of early rehabilitative measures on the severity of trismus and to assess its impact on the quality of life (QOL). A total of 47 evaluable patients of head and neck cancer patients treated by telecobalt with radical intent between January 2012 and December 2013 were analyzed and baseline maximal inter-incisal opening (MIO) and MIO at the completion of RT, after 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, after completion of RT were noted. Grading of trismus was done using Modified Common Toxicity Criteria (CTCAE Version 3.0). QOL assessment was done using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-HN35. The time when the rehabilitative measures were started were also noted. Chi-square test with Fisher exact probability test and Students t-test. Radiation-induced trismus (RIT) was seen in 31.9%, 34.04%, and 38.39% of cases at 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of RT. Grade II and III trismus accounted for 17.02% and 6.38% at the end of 1 year. Patients who started regular rehabilitative exercises soon, after completion of RT had a better mean MIO as compared to those who were not compliant (32 mm vs. 24 mm at 1 year), and there was a trend toward delayed progression in them. Trismus was also seen to adversely affect QOL of the patients. RIT is a major cause for late morbidity in patients treated with conventional RT leading to poor QOL. Early rehabilitative measures are useful in preventing progression of trismus.

  8. Measurement of the pH value in pork meat early postmortem by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, R.; Schmidt, H.

    2013-05-01

    The pH of a muscle is an accepted parameter to identify normal and deviating meat qualities. In this work, Raman spectroscopy is shown to be suitable for the non-invasive measurement of the early postmortem pH of meat. Raman spectra of ten pork semimembranosus muscles were recorded with a portable handheld device 0.5-24 h postmortem. The spectra were correlated with pH and lactate kinetics measured in parallel. Seven of the muscles were normal, two exhibited accelerated glycolysis and one showed absence of acidification. The pH decline with time could be calculated from the Raman spectra with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation using only two signals of phosphate vibrations at 980 and 1,080 cm-1 with a close correlation for each muscle, but larger variations between animals. More robust and better correlations for all muscles were obtained with a linear model based on 11 signals from lactate, lactic acid, phosphate, a carbonyl band and nucleotides resulting in R 2 = 0.78 and RMSECV = 0.2 or a partial least-square model using the complete spectrum ( R 2 = 0.94 and RMSECV = 0.2). These results show the potential of Raman spectroscopy for an online detection of the pH and thus meat qualities during meat processing.

  9. Optics measurements and corrections at the early commissioning of SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnishi, Y; Morita, A; Koiso, H; Oide, K; Ohmi, K; Zhou, D; Funakoshi, Y; Carmignani, N; Liuzzo, S M; Biagini, M E; Boscolo, M; Guiducci, S

    2017-01-01

    We present experimental results of measurements and corrections for the optics at the early Phase-1 commissioning of SuperKEKB. The aim of SuperKEKB is a positron-electron collider built to achieve the target luminosity of 8x10^35 cm^−2s^−1. We have three stages; Phase-1 is the commissioning of the machine without the final focus magnets and detector solenoid(no collision); the collision with the final focus system and the Belle II detector will be performed at Phase-2 and Phase-3. The strategy for the luminosity upgrade is a novel "nano-beam” scheme found elsewhere[1]. In order to achieve the target luminosity, the vertical emittance has to be reduced by corrections of machine error measured with an orbit response. The vertical emittance should be achieved to be less than 10pm(∼0.2% coupling) during Phase-1 by fully utilizing correction tools of skew quadrupole-likecoils wound on sextupole magnets and power supplies for each correction coil in quadrupole magnets.

  10. Comparing Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships in Early Adolescence: Measurement Invariance of Perceived Attachment-Related Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Goossens, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Through an examination of measurement invariance, this study investigated whether attachment-related dimensions (i.e., secure base, safe haven, and negative interactions as measured with the Network of Relationships Inventory-Behavioral Systems Version) have the same psychological meaning for early adolescents in their relationships with parents…

  11. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  12. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  14. Time-efficient myocardial contrast partition coefficient measurement from early enhancement with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to validate an early enhancement time point for accurately measuring the myocardial contrast partition coefficient (lambda using dynamic-equilibrium magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pre- and post-contrast longitudinal relaxation rates (reciprocal of T1 of the interventricular septum (R1(m and blood pool (R1(b were obtained from fifteen healthy volunteers and three diabetic patients with hypertension using two optimized T1 mapping sequences (modified Look-Locker inversion recovery on a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. Reference lambda values were calculated as the slope of the regression line of R1(m versus R1(b at dynamic equilibrium (multi-point regression method. The simplified pre-/post-enhancement two-acquisition method (two-point method was used to calculate lambda by relating the change in R1(m and R1(b using different protocols according to the acquisition stage of the post-enhancement data point. The agreement with the referential method was tested by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient and the intra-class correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The lambda values measured by the two-point method increased (from 0.479 ± 0.041 to 0.534 ± 0.043 over time from 6 to 45 minutes after contrast and exhibited good correlation with the reference at each time point (r ≥ 0.875, p<0.05. The intra-class correlation coefficient on absolute agreement with the reference lambda was 0.946, 0.929 and 0.922 at the 6th, 7th and 8th minutes and dropped from 0.878 to 0.403 from the 9th minute on. CONCLUSIONS: The time-efficient two-point method at 6-8 minutes after the Gd-DTPA bolus injection exhibited good agreement with the multi-point regression method and can be applied for accurate lambda measurement in normal myocardium.

  15. Real-Time In-Situ Measurements for Earthquake Early Warning and Space-Borne Deformation Measurement Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Bock, Y.; Webb, F.; Clayton, R. W.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Yu, E.; Dong, D.; Fang, P.; Jamason, P.; Squibb, M. B.; Crowell, B. W.

    2010-12-01

    In situ geodetic networks for observing crustal motion have proliferated over the last two decades and are now recognized as indispensable tools in geophysical research, along side more traditional seismic networks. The 2007 National Research Council’s Decadal Survey recognizes that space-borne and in situ observations, such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and ground-based continuous GPS (CGPS) are complementary in forecasting, in assessing, and in mitigating natural hazards. However, the information content and timeliness of in situ geodetic observations have not been fully exploited, particularly at higher frequencies than traditional daily CGPS position time series. Nor have scientists taken full advantage of the complementary natures of geodetic and seismic data, as well as those of space-based and in situ observations. To address these deficits we are developing real-time CGPS data products for earthquake early warning and for space-borne deformation measurement mission support. Our primary mission objective is in situ verification and validation for DESDynI, but our work is also applicable to other international missions (Sentinel 1a/1b, SAOCOM, ALOS 2). Our project is developing new capabilities to continuously observe and mitigate earthquake-related hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes) in near real-time with high spatial-temporal resolution, to improve the planning and accuracy of space-borne observations. We also are using GPS estimates of tropospheric zenith delay combined with water vapor data from weather models to generate tropospheric calibration maps for mitigating the largest source of error, atmospheric artifacts, in InSAR interferograms. These functions will be fully integrated into a Geophysical Resource Web Services and interactive GPS Explorer data portal environment being developed as part of an ongoing MEaSUREs project and NASA’s contribution to the EarthScope project. GPS Explorer

  16. A Protocolised Once a Day Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) Measurement Is an Appropriate Screening Tool for Major Adverse Events in a General Hospital Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Louise S; Dijkstra, Casper C; Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Kramer, Mark H H; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) was developed to timely recognise clinically deteriorating hospitalised patients. However, the ability of the MEWS in predicting serious adverse events (SAEs) in a general hospital population has not been examined prospectively. The aims were to (1) analyse protocol adherence to a MEWS protocol in a real-life setting and (2) to determine the predictive value of protocolised daily MEWS measurement on SAEs: death, cardiac arrests, ICU-admissions and readmissions. All adult patients admitted to 6 hospital wards in October and November 2015 were included. MEWS were checked each morning by the research team. For each critical score (MEWS ≥ 3), the clinical staff was inquired about the actions performed. 30-day follow-up for SAEs was performed to compare between patients with and without a critical score. 1053 patients with 3673 vital parameter measurements were included, 200 (19.0%) had a critical score. The protocol adherence was 89.0%. 18.2% of MEWS were calculated wrongly. Patients with critical scores had significant higher rates of unplanned ICU admissions [7.0% vs 1.3%, p scores were calculated wrongly. Patients with a MEWS ≥ 3 experienced significantly more adverse events. The negative predictive value of early morning MEWS score as a screening tool.

  17. Strontium isotope measurements in Greenland ice from the last glacial maximum to the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. R.; Boutron, C. F.; Hong, S.; Candelone, J.-P.; Rosman, K. J. R.

    2003-05-01

    Strontium isotopic composition and concentration have been measured by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry on a suite of samples from the GRIP ice core drilled at Summit, Greenland. The sample ages range from 24 to 7.3 ky BP extending from the last glacial maximum into the early Holocene. Less than 10 g of sample was used for each analysis. No attempt was made to separate soluble/insoluble species in the samples. Sr concentrations are between 950 and 1,550 pg.g^{-1} over the period 24 ky to 14 ky BP but fall dramatically to generally less than 150 pg.g^{-1} between 14 to 7.3 ky BP. The ^{87}Sr/^{86}Sr ratio shows a general rising trend from 0.712 to 0.715 over the entire period however there are a number of significant deviations from this trend which are most likely due to changing source regions for aerosol dust input to Greenland. Sr isotopic composition shows a strong correlation with δ^{80}O suggesting that climate plays a strong role in determining regions for dust release.

  18. Neuropsychological Profile in Early-Onset Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders: Measured With the MATRICS Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Aina; Juuhl-Langseth, Monica; Thormodsen, Rune; Melle, Ingrid; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairments have been documented in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). There is still inconsistency regarding an average profile, which could be due to the fact that each study uses different tests. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the “Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia” (MATRICS) battery is useful in detecting differences between the patient group and the healthy controls, and to describe the neuropsychological pattern in the EOS group. Method: Neuropsychological functioning was examined in 31 adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 67 healthy controls, using the MATRICS battery. Results: There were significant differences between the patients and the controls on every domain except for social cognition. Patients showed a generalized neurocognitive deficit of 0.8–1.8 SDs compared with controls, with verbal learning, working memory, and visual learning being the most affected areas. Conclusions: The MATRICS battery is sensitive in detecting differences between patients and controls in the adolescent population. However, we question the use of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test in this age group. Results document a significant generalized deficit in adolescents with EOS. PMID:19223656

  19. Left Renal Cortical Thickness Measured by Ultrasound Can Predict Early Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Tomoaki; Koda, Masahiko; Sugihara, Takaaki; Sugihara, Shinobu; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Hodotsuka, Masanori; Fujise, Yuki; Matono, Tomomitsu; Okano, Junichi; Hosho, Keiko; Iyama, Takuji; Fukui, Takeaki; Fukuda, Satoko; Munemura, Chishio; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The kidney becomes atrophic in advanced chronic kidney disease, and renal size and parenchymal volume correlate with renal function. However, alterations in renal parenchymal volume have not been adequately studied in terms of the renal cortex and medulla. We investigated the relationship between the changes in the renal cortex and medulla and renal function. Renal ultrasound (US) parameters including renal length, parenchymal thickness, cortical thickness and medullary thickness were assessed in 176 subjects, who were categorized into 4 groups based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2): group 1, ≥ 90; group 2, ≥ 60 but < 90; group 3, ≥ 30 but < 60; and group 4, < 30. Renal US parameters in both kidneys were compared among the 4 groups. We found stepwise associations in renal length, cortical thickness and parenchymal thickness with decreased renal function. Medullary thickness showed no changes among groups 1-3. Multiple linear regression analysis including sex, age and renal US parameters showed that only renal length was an independent predictor of renal function. When analyzed in groups 1-3, cortical thickness was the strongest associated parameter. Lower cortical left/right ratio (left cortical thickness/right cortical thickness) showed a stepwise association with a decrease in renal function. Renal length and cortical thickness measured by US were correlated with renal function. In particular, left cortical thickness could help to detect early changes in renal function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Fully automated joint space width measurement and digital X-ray radiogrammetry in early RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platten, Michael; Kisten, Yogan; Kälvesten, Johan; Arnaud, Laurent; Forslind, Kristina; van Vollenhoven, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    To study fully automated digital joint space width (JSW) and bone mineral density (BMD) in relation to a conventional radiographic scoring method in early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA). Radiographs scored by the modified Sharp van der Heijde score (SHS) in patients with eRA were acquired from the SWEdish FarmacOTherapy study. Fully automated JSW measurements of bilateral metacarpals 2, 3 and 4 were compared with the joint space narrowing (JSN) score in SHS. Multilevel mixed model statistics were applied to calculate the significance of the association between ΔJSW and ΔBMD over 1 year, and the JSW differences between damaged and undamaged joints as evaluated by the JSN. Based on 576 joints of 96 patients with eRA, a significant reduction from baseline to 1 year was observed in the JSW from 1.69 (±0.19) mm to 1.66 (±0.19) mm (p0) joints: 1.68 mm (95% CI 1.70 to 1.67) vs 1.54 mm (95% CI 1.63 to 1.46). Similarly the unadjusted multilevel model showed significant differences in JSW between undamaged (1.68 mm (95% CI 1.72 to 1.64)) and damaged joints (1.63 mm (95% CI 1.68 to 1.58)) (p=0.0048). This difference remained significant in the adjusted model: 1.66 mm (95% CI 1.70 to 1.61) vs 1.62 mm (95% CI 1.68 to 1.56) (p=0.042). To measure the JSW with this fully automated digital tool may be useful as a quick and observer-independent application for evaluating cartilage damage in eRA. NCT00764725.

  1. Circumnuclear Molecular Disks in Early-type Galaxies: Physical Properties and Precision Black Hole Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boizelle, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    ALMA is now capable of providing the most precise determinations of the masses of supermassive black holes in early-type galaxies (ETGs). In ALMA Cycle 2 we began a program to map the molecular gas kinematics in nearby ETGs that host central dust disks as seen in Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These initial observations targeted CO(2-1) emission at ~0.3" resolution, corresponding roughly to the projected radii of influence of the central black holes. In all cases we detect significant (~108 M⊙) molecular gas reservoirs that are in dynamically cold rotation, providing the most sensitive probes of the inner gravitational potentials of luminous ETGs. Using these gas kinematics, we verify that these molecular disks are formally stable against gravitational fragmentation and collapse. In several galaxies we detect central high-velocity gas rotation that provides direct kinematic evidence for a black hole. For two of these targets, NGC 1332 and NGC 3258, we have obtained higher-resolution observations (0.044" and 0.09") in Cycles 3 and 4 that more fully map out the gas rotation within the gravitational sphere of influence. We present dynamical modeling results for these targets, demonstrating that ALMA observations can enable black hole mass measurements at a precision of 10% or better, with minimal susceptibility to the systematic uncertainties that affect other methods of black hole mass measurement in ETGs. We discuss the impact of future high-resolution ALMA observations on black hole demographics and their potential to refine the high-mass end of the black hole-host galaxy scaling relationships.

  2. Measuring outcome in an early intervention program for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: use of a curriculum-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Elizabeth C; Dufek, Sarah; Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Measuring progress of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during intervention programs is a challenge faced by researchers and clinicians. Typically, standardized assessments of child development are used within research settings to measure the effects of early intervention programs. However, the use of standardized assessments is not without limitations, including lack of sensitivity of some assessments to measure small or slow progress, testing constraints that may affect the child's performance, and the lack of information provided by the assessments that can be used to guide treatment planning. The utility of a curriculum-based assessment is discussed in comparison to the use of standardized assessments to measure child functioning and progress throughout an early intervention program for toddlers with risk for ASD. Scores derived from the curriculum-based assessment were positively correlated with standardized assessments, captured progress masked by standardized assessments, and early scores were predictive of later outcomes. These results support the use of a curriculum-based assessment as an additional and appropriate method for measuring child progress in an early intervention program. Further benefits of the use of curriculum-based measures for use within community settings are discussed.

  3. Measuring Outcome in an Early Intervention Program for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Use of a Curriculum-Based Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Bacon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring progress of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD during intervention programs is a challenge faced by researchers and clinicians. Typically, standardized assessments of child development are used within research settings to measure the effects of early intervention programs. However, the use of standardized assessments is not without limitations, including lack of sensitivity of some assessments to measure small or slow progress, testing constraints that may affect the child’s performance, and the lack of information provided by the assessments that can be used to guide treatment planning. The utility of a curriculum-based assessment is discussed in comparison to the use of standardized assessments to measure child functioning and progress throughout an early intervention program for toddlers with risk for ASD. Scores derived from the curriculum-based assessment were positively correlated with standardized assessments, captured progress masked by standardized assessments, and early scores were predictive of later outcomes. These results support the use of a curriculum-based assessment as an additional and appropriate method for measuring child progress in an early intervention program. Further benefits of the use of curriculum-based measures for use within community settings are discussed.

  4. Conflict-resolution mechanisms maintaining an agricultural system. Early modern local courts as an arena for solving collective-action problems within Scandinavian Civil Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Larsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid access to low-cost local arenas to resolve conflicts among appropriators is one of the principles that characterise robust common-pool resource (CPR institutions. In spite of this insight, we have little knowledge about how such institutions solved collective-action problems in early modern Scandinavia, when CPRs were an important part of production. Arenas to resolve conflicts among appropriators range from informal meetings among users to formal court cases. This paper focuses on local courts, rather than laws and by-laws, within the Scandinavian legal origin and how these courts developed as arenas for CPR conflict resolution. Court rulings from Leksand Parish in central Sweden were the backbone for this study. The results indicate that access to a low-cost arena was more important to the peasants than rapid access to the courts. Successful conflict resolution could take years to accomplish and it was more important for the court to embed their decisions in people’s minds than to come to a quick resolution. Further, I demonstrate that the court laid the foundation for disputing parties to solve conflicts among themselves. Lay judges – peasants from the region – came to play an important role in conflict resolution. Thus, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the court played a central role in maintaining agricultural CPRs.

  5. Evaluation of a fast single-photon avalanche photodiode for measurement of early transmitted photons through diffusive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ying; Valim, Niksa; Niedre, Mark

    2013-06-15

    We tested the performance of a fast single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) in measurement of early transmitted photons through diffusive media. In combination with a femtosecond titanium:sapphire laser, the overall instrument temporal response time was 59 ps. Using two experimental models, we showed that the SPAD allowed measurement of photon-density sensitivity functions that were approximately 65% narrower than the ungated continuous wave case at very early times. This exceeds the performance that we have previously achieved with photomultiplier-tube-based systems and approaches the theoretical maximum predicted by time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=postural instability and the need to include quadriceps muscle strengthening, especially by eccentric contractions. The relationship between the self-reported symptoms and a lower and slower COP displacement suggest that the postural control strategy during tasks with a semi-flexed knee

  7. Savinase action on bovine serum albumin (BSA) monolayers demonstrated with measurements at the air-water interface and liquid Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balashev, Konstantin; Callisen, Thomas H; Svendsen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    We studied the enzymatic action of Savinase on bovine serum albumin (BSA) organized in a monolayer spread at the air/water interface or adsorbed at the mica surface. We carried out two types of experiments. In the first one we followed the degradation of the protein monolayer by measuring...

  8. Assessing the use of speech and language measures in relation to parental perceptions of development after early cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frank R; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Fink, Nancy E; Quittner, Alexander L; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Tobey, Emily A; Niparko, John K

    2008-02-01

    Clinicians and investigators use multiple outcome measures after early cochlear implantation (CI) to assess auditory skills, speech, and language effects. Are certain outcome measures better associated with optimal childhood development from the perspective of parents? We studied the association between several commonly used outcome instruments and a measure of parental perceptions of development to gain insight into how our clinical tests reflect parental perceptions of a child's developmental status. Cross-sectional analysis. Six academic centers. One hundred eighty-eight deaf children (Development after CI study. Measures of auditory skills, speech, and language. Parental perceptions of development quantified with a visual analogue scale (visual analogue scale-development). Nonparametric and parametric regression methods were used to model the relationship between outcome measures and visual analogue scale-development scores. All outcome measures were positively associated with parental perceptions of development, but more robust associations were observed with language measures and a parent-report scale of auditory skills than with a selected measure of closed-set speech. For speech and language data, differences were observed in the trajectories of associations among younger (2-3 yr) versus older (4-5 yr) children. Our results demonstrate the importance of measuring multiple outcome measures after early pediatric CI. The degree to which an outcome measure reflects childhood development as perceived by parents may be affected by the child's age. Measures that are based on parental report and broader outcome measures focused on verbal language offer the potential for a fuller understanding of the true effectiveness of early implantation.

  9. Measuring, Reporting and Verifying Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. Reflecting experiences under the Mitigation Momentum Project. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vit, C.; Roeser, F.; Fekete, H.; Hoehne, N.; Wartmann, S.; Van Tilburg, X.; Larkin, J.; Escalante, D.; Haensel, G.; Veum, K.; Cameron, L.; Halcomb, J.

    2013-06-15

    The Mitigation Momentum project aims to support the development of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). It contributes to the concrete design of NAMA proposals in five countries (Peru, Chile, Indonesia, Tunisia and Kenya). A further aim is to foster cooperation and knowledge exchange within the NAMA community while advancing the international climate policy debate on mitigation and related issues, including approaches for the Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of NAMAs. MRV enables the assessment of the effectiveness of both internationally supported NAMAs (supported NAMAs) and domestically supported NAMAs (unilateral NAMAs) by tracking NAMA impacts including greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and non-GHG related impacts such as sustainable development benefits. MRV also supports improved policy design and decision making through systematic progress reporting and is a key tool to ensure accountability of NAMA stakeholders. Both host countries and funders share the common interest of having strong, implementable MRV systems in place. From both perspectives, this raises a number of questions, as well as potential challenges, on how to adapt the MRV approach to the specific circumstances of each NAMA. The objective of this paper is to identify open issues for the MRV of impacts of NAMAs, understood here as implementable actions, i.e. a project, a policy, a programme or a strategy. It pays particular attention to NAMAs with a supported component and reflects relevant initial experiences with developing NAMA proposals in the five Mitigation Momentum countries (i.e. using country examples where appropriate). As MRV systems for these NAMAs are still under development or at their preliminary stage, we hope to share further lessons learned in a subsequent discussion paper. Key challenges analysed in this paper include: How to design a MRV system that satisfies both the host country's and funder's expectations while complying with

  10. Microstructure Evolution from X-CT Measurements for Concrete/mortar under Multi-actions of Composite Salts Dry-wet Cycles and Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanjuan; Gao, Jianming; Shen, Daman

    2017-08-01

    Inthis research, microstructure evolution forconcrete/mortar under multi-actions of composite salts dry-wet cycles and loading was investigated through X-CT measurements. The evolution process of pores and micro-cracking with the erosion time were tracked. Compared the different erosion actions, it was found that dry-wet cycles promoted the pores become connected gradually. Besides, the dry-wet cycles accelerated the damage seriously on interface area between concrete and aggregate, whistle, loading contributes to the cracking propagation toward the internal. Moreover, fly ash played a positive role in the increasing of the number of harmless holes again and contributed to the durability of concrete.

  11. Measuring unconscious actions in action-blindsight: exploring the kinematics of pointing movements to targets in the blind field of two patients with cortical hemianopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Revol, Patrice; Pisella, Laure; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Vighetto, Alain; Goodale, Melvyn A; Rossetti, Yves

    2003-01-01

    We tested two patients with posterior cerebral lesions on two pointing tasks. In the first task, the patients pointed to targets presented on a touch screen monitor and pointing accuracy was recorded. One patient (JR) demonstrated good localisation of targets presented to her blind field while the other patient (YP) did not. Movement kinematics were measured in the second task to compare the kinematics of movements made to sighted field targets with those made to blind field targets. For this version of the task both patients demonstrated above chance localisation of blind field targets although the slope of the relationship between the end of pointing movements and the target locations was significantly steeper for JR than for YP. Furthermore, JR showed a kinematic profile for movements made to blind field targets that mirrored the profile of kinematics to sighted field targets. That is, both peak velocity and time to peak velocity increased with increasing target eccentricity for movements made to blind and sighted field targets alike. Although patient YP now showed more reliable spatial localisation on this pointing task when compared with the touch screen task, his kinematics for movements made to targets in his blind field were quite different from those made to targets in his sighted field. Based on the patients' CT scans, we suggest that the superior performance of patient JR is a consequence of greater sparing of her parietal cortex in the damaged hemisphere.

  12. Impulsivity in abstinent early- and late-onset alcoholics : differences in self-report measures and a discounting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dom, G.; D'Haene, P.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. Design and measurements: A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison

  13. The Methodological Challenges of Measuring Student Learning, Degree Attainment, and Early Labor Market Outcomes in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Zamarro, Gema; Velasco, Tatiana; Sanchez, Fabio J.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to empirically test a number of theory-based models (i.e., fixed effects [FE], random effects [RE], and aggregated residuals [AR]) to measure the generic knowledge as well as the degree attainment rates and early labor outcomes gained by students in different programs and institutions in higher education. Our…

  14. Concurrent and Longitudinal Patterns and Trends in Performance on Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures in Kindergarten through Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, Kristen N.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Casebeer, Dian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement" (TEN-CBM) tools by examining concurrent and predictive relations from kindergarten through third grade. Using a longitudinal sample of 535 students, this study included logistic regression, latent cluster, and latent…

  15. A quantitative measure of restricted and repetitive behaviors for early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Jason J.; Boyd, Brian A.; Elison, Jed T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Restricted and repetitive behaviors are characteristic phenotypic features of many neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological conditions. During early childhood, such behaviors are considered normative. More research is needed to delineate the dimensions of restricted and repetitive behavior across typical and atypical development during this period. Methods We developed the 34-item parent-rated Repetitive Behavior Scale for Early Childhood (RBS-EC) to capture quantitative, ...

  16. Comparison of electrochemical skin conductance and vibration perception threshold measurement in the detection of early diabetic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goel

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN is challenging. Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in DPN. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC test in detecting early DPN, compared with the vibration perception threshold (VPT test and diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS score, using the modified neuropathy disability score (NDS as the reference standard. Five hundred and twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an NDS-based clinical assessment for neuropathy. Participants were classified into the DPN and non-DPN groups based on the NDS (≥ 6. Both groups were evaluated further using the DNS, and VPT and ESC testing. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ESC measurements with those of DNS and VPT testing in detecting DPN. The DPN group (n = 110, 21% had significantly higher HbA1c levels and longer diabetes durations compared with the non-DPN group (n = 413. The sensitivity of feet ESC 15 V, and DNS ≥ 1, were 16.4, 10.9 and 1.8, respectively. ESC measurement is an objective and sensitive technique for the early detection of DPN. Feet ESC measurement was superior to VPT testing for identifying patients with early DPN.

  17. Comparison of electrochemical skin conductance and vibration perception threshold measurement in the detection of early diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Amit; Shivaprasad, Channabasappa; Kolly, Anish; Sarathi H A, Vijaya; Atluri, Sridevi

    2017-01-01

    The early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is challenging. Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in DPN. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) test in detecting early DPN, compared with the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test and diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS) score, using the modified neuropathy disability score (NDS) as the reference standard. Five hundred and twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an NDS-based clinical assessment for neuropathy. Participants were classified into the DPN and non-DPN groups based on the NDS (≥ 6). Both groups were evaluated further using the DNS, and VPT and ESC testing. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ESC measurements with those of DNS and VPT testing in detecting DPN. The DPN group (n = 110, 21%) had significantly higher HbA1c levels and longer diabetes durations compared with the non-DPN group (n = 413). The sensitivity of feet ESC 15 V, and DNS ≥ 1, were 16.4, 10.9 and 1.8, respectively. ESC measurement is an objective and sensitive technique for the early detection of DPN. Feet ESC measurement was superior to VPT testing for identifying patients with early DPN.

  18. Modeling the Early Language Trajectory of Language Development When the Measures Change and Its Relation to Poor Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M; Hogan, Tiffany

    2017-07-05

    This study examined change in early language comprehension from 15 to 54 months for fifth-grade typical readers (n = 35), poor decoders (n = 11), or poor comprehenders (n = 16) from a nationally representative study of early child-care experiences. Changing measures of language comprehension were captured across early childhood for the 62 children. Multiple-group quasi-simplex and latent growth models were used on rank-transformed outcomes to examine children's relative rank change. Results showed that future poor comprehenders significantly declined in language comprehension over time relative to others who gradually improved. Efforts to improve language skills as a means to improve reading comprehension hinge upon the perspective that language weaknesses are a causal contributor to reading difficulties. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Early Identification Using Self-Assessment in Measuring Management Potential in Young Scientists and Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, Thomas M.; Jawetz, Karen A.

    The demand for managers with strong technical skills has led to increased interest in the selection and development of persons who have the potential to be successful managers. To learn more about early identification of persons possessing aptitude to manage, 82 engineering and science students completed a questionnaire describing behaviors they…

  20. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These…

  1. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  2. Developing a Framework of Scientific Enquiry in Early Childhood: An Action Research Project to Support Staff Development and Improve Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Karen; Hall, Nichola

    2017-01-01

    Research in science in early childhood is an area that has not received much attention (Fleer, M., & Robbins, J. (2003). "Hit and run research" with "hit and miss" results in early childhood science education. "Research in Science Education," 33, 405-431.) and it has been reported that early children teachers lack…

  3. THE ROLE AND INVOLVEMENT OF BUSINESS AND INSTITUTIONAL OPERATORS IN PROMOTING LOCAL INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH BY ACCESSING AND USING GRANTS. MEASURES AND COURSES OF ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Mirela Gabroveanu (Vladoi

    2017-03-01

    We emphasize the need to know the socio-economic and investment context by all stakeholders and initiate concrete measures of action to ensure real and sustainable economic growth by identifying feasible and lasting solutions; what is the role of business or institutional operators at local and regional level and how it could ensure good governance at local and regional level by applying for grants.

  4. Cognitive therapy as an early treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial addressing preliminary efficacy and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; McKinnon, Anna; Dixon, Clare; Trickey, David; Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M; Boyle, Adrian; Watson, Peter; Goodyer, Ian; Dalgleish, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Few efficacious early treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents exist. Previous trials have intervened within the first month post-trauma and focused on secondary prevention of later post-traumatic stress; however, considerable natural recovery may still occur up to 6-months post-trauma. No trials have addressed the early treatment of established PTSD (i.e. 2- to 6-months post-trauma). Twenty-nine youth (8-17 years) with PTSD (according to age-appropriate DSM-IV or ICD-10 diagnostic criteria) after a single-event trauma in the previous 2-6 months were randomly allocated to Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD; n = 14) or waiting list (WL; n = 15) for 10 weeks. Significantly more participants were free of PTSD after CT-PTSD (71%) than WL (27%) at posttreatment (intent-to-treat, 95% CI for difference .04-.71). CT-PTSD yielded greater improvement on child-report questionnaire measures of PTSD, depression and anxiety; clinician-rated functioning; and parent-reported outcomes. Recovery after CT-PTSD was maintained at 6- and 12-month posttreatment. Beneficial effects of CT-PTSD were mediated through changes in appraisals and safety-seeking behaviours, as predicted by cognitive models of PTSD. CT-PTSD was considered acceptable on the basis of low dropout and high treatment credibility and therapist alliance ratings. This trial provides preliminary support for the efficacy and acceptability of CT-PTSD as an early treatment for PTSD in youth. Moreover, the trial did not support the extension of 'watchful waiting' into the 2- to 6-month post-trauma window, as significant improvements in the WL arm (particularly in terms of functioning and depression) were not observed. Replication in larger samples is needed, but attention to recruitment issues will be required. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Confirmatory Trials in the Evaluation of Anticancer Medicinal Products in Man—PFS2: A Measure of Therapeutic Action-At-A-Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Oronsky

    2015-09-01

    In long-term maintenance strategies, patients receive treatment in temporally separated but mutually interdependent and causally linked sequences that exert a “field of influence” akin to action-at-a-distance forces like gravity, electricity, and magnetism on both the tumor and each other. Hence, in this setting, a new end point, PFS2, is required to measure this field of influence. This article reviews the definition and use in clinical trials of PFS2 and makes the case for its potential applicability as a preferred end point to measure the mutual influence of individual regimens in long-term maintenance strategies with resensitizing agents in particular.

  6. Tsunami Early Warning System: Deep Sea Measurements in the Source Area.

    OpenAIRE

    Pignagnoli, Luca; Chierici, Francesco; Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Embriaco, D.; Monna, S.; D'Oriano, Filippo; Zitellini, Nevio

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project NEAREST, a new Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS), able to operate in tsunami generation areas, was developed and installed in the Gulf of Cadiz. The TEWS is based on the abyssal station GEOSTAR, placed above a major tsunamigenic structure, and on three seismic centres of Portugal, Spain and Morocco. The core of the system is a tsunami detector installed onboard of GEOSTAR. The tsunami detector communicates with a surface buoy through a dual acoustic lin...

  7. Accurate radiocarbon age estimation using "early" measurements: a new approach to reconstructing the Paleolithic absolute chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Takayuki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents new correction approaches for "early" radiocarbon ages to reconstruct the Paleolithic absolute chronology. In order to discuss time-space distribution about the replacement of archaic humans, including Neanderthals in Europe, by the modern humans, a massive data, which covers a wide-area, would be needed. Today, some radiocarbon databases focused on the Paleolithic have been published and used for chronological studies. From a viewpoint of current analytical technology, however, the any database have unreliable results that make interpretation of radiocarbon dates difficult. Most of these unreliable ages had been published in the early days of radiocarbon analysis. In recent years, new analytical methods to determine highly-accurate dates have been developed. Ultrafiltration and ABOx-SC methods, as new sample pretreatments for bone and charcoal respectively, have attracted attention because they could remove imperceptible contaminates and derive reliable accurately ages. In order to evaluate the reliability of "early" data, we investigated the differences and variabilities of radiocarbon ages on different pretreatments, and attempted to develop correction functions for the assessment of the reliability. It can be expected that reliability of the corrected age is increased and the age applied to chronological research together with recent ages. Here, we introduce the methodological frameworks and archaeological applications.

  8. Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78, while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36. The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4% acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4% respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3% claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2% of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health

  9. Early response-to-intervention measures and criteria as predictors of reading disability in the beginning of third grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D; O'Connor, Rollanda E

    2015-01-01

    We explored the usefulness of first and second grade reading measures and responsiveness criteria collected within a response-to-intervention (RtI) framework for predicting reading disability (RD) in third grade. We used existing data from 387 linguistically diverse students who had participated in a longitudinal RtI study. Model-based predictors of RD were analyzed using logistic regression; isolated measure/criteria combinations for predicting RD were analyzed using classification analysis. Models yielded superior classification rates compared to single measure approaches and did not systematically misclassify English learners. However, particular first and second grade measure/criteria combinations also showed promise as isolated predictors of RD in word reading/text fluency. Model-based approaches were required for acceptable classification of students with RD in comprehension. Although the former finding is promising for early identification of students in need of more intensive instruction in lexical or fluency-based skills, the latter finding reaffirms literature attesting to the complexity of RD in comprehension and difficulty of predicting deficits using early measures of reading, which primarily assess word reading skill. Results replicated well with an independent sample, thus enhancing confidence in study conclusions. Implications regarding the use of RtI for predicting RD are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  10. Towards a measurement of the half-life of {sup 60}Fe for stellar and early Solar System models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostdiek, K.; Anderson, T. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bauder, W. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Bowers, M.; Collon, P. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dressler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute – Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Greene, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kutschera, W. [Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lu, W. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Robertson, D. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Schumann, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute – Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Skulski, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wallner, A. [The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected into the Interstellar Medium, are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. In particular, the half-life of the radioisotope, {sup 60}Fe, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby Supernovae, and the brightness of individual, non-steady-state {sup 60}Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. A half-life measurement has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame and measurements of the {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe concentration of our samples using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has begun. This result will be coupled with an activity measurement of the isomeric decay in {sup 60}Co, which is the decay product of {sup 60}Fe. Preliminary half-life estimates of (2.53 ± 0.24) × 10{sup 6} years seem to confirm the recent measurement by Rugel et al. (2009).

  11. Ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements to identify early glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarannum Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT parameters to distinguish normal eyes from those with early glaucoma in Asian Indian eyes. Design : Observational cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : One hundred and seventy eight eyes (83 glaucoma patients and 95 age matched healthy subjects of subjects more than 40 years of age were included in the study. All subjects underwent RNFLT measurement with spectral OCT/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO after dilatation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for various OCT peripapillary RNFL parameters. Results: The mean RNFLT in healthy subjects and patients with early glaucoma were 105.7 ± 5.1 μm and 90.7 ± 7.5 μm, respectively. The largest AROC was found for 12 o′clock- hour (0.98, average (0.96 and superior quadrant RNFLT (0.9. When target specificity was set at ≥ 90% and ≥ 80%, the parameters with highest sensitivity were 12 o′clock -hour (91.6%, average RNFLT (85.3% and 12 o′ clock- hour (96.8 %, average RNFLT (94.7% respectively. Conclusion : Our study showed good ability of spectral OCT/ SLO to differentiate normal eyes from patients with early glaucoma and hence it may serve as an useful adjunct for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  12. Spine and Thoracic Height Measurements have Excellent Interrater and Intrarater Reliability in Patients with Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Nicole; Carry, Patrick; Erickson, Mark; Bloch, Nikki; Gibbons, Steven; O'Donnell, Courtney; Garg, Sumeet

    2017-06-29

    Reproducibility of measurements OBJECTIVE.: This study investigates the reliability and standard error of measurement of spine and thoracic height radiographic measurements in patients with early onset scoliosis (EOS). Spine and thoracic height radiographic measurements are often used as a surrogate for pulmonary development in patients with EOS. There is limited literature validating the reliability of spine and thoracic height measurements in the EOS population. Using pilot data, we determined measuring 49 unique radiographs would provide 80% power to obtain a 95% confidence interval width of 0.05 for the interclass correlation coefficients (ICC). A random sampling strategy, stratified by underlying diagnosis from the Classification of Early Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS), was used to distribute the diagnoses in the study sample. Two attending pediatric spine surgeons, two pediatric orthopaedic fellows, and two research assistants measured coronal spine (T1-S1) and thoracic (T1-T12) height on digital radiographs using imaging software (Surgimap®; Nemaris, Inc; New York) on two separate occasions at least three weeks apart. Order of images was randomized for the second iteration. Linear mixed model regression analyses were used to estimate interrater and intrarater reliability. The study sample included subjects (N = 48) with idiopathic (N = 17, 35%), congenital (N = 16, 33%, 1 patient excluded), neuromuscular (N = 11, 23%), and syndromic (N = 4, 8%) scoliosis. Overall interrater reliability estimates for spine height [ICC: 0.894, 95% CI: 0.847-0.932] and thoracic height [ICC: 0.890, 95% CI: 0.844-0.929] were excellent. Intrarater reliability estimates for spine height [ICC: 0.906, 95% CI: 0.830-0.943] and thoracic height [ICC: 0.898, 95% CI: 0.817-0.938] were also excellent. There is excellent interrater and intrarater reliability for radiographic measurements of spine and thoracic height in the EOS population at our institution. 2.

  13. Application of OCT measurement of macular GCC and RNFL thickness around optic disc in the diagnosis of early glaucoma

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    Jun Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the application of macular ganglion cell complex(mGCCand peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(pRNFLmeasured by optical coherence tomography(OCTin the early diagnosis of glaucoma. METHODS: Case-control study. Eighty-six subjects, including 30 eyes in normal subjects, 27 eyes in suspected primary open angle glaucoma, 29 eyes in primary open angle glaucoma were enrolled in this study. The thickness of mGCC and pRNFL were measured by OCT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic(AROCcurve at fixed specificities were calculated for each parameter. RESULTS: There were significant differences in mean pRNFL thickness, superior pRNFL thickness and inferior pRNFL thickness between normal group, suspected glaucoma group and early glaucoma group(P=0.001, 0.004, 0.011. The mean mGCC thickness, the thickness of the top mGCC, the thickness of the lower mGCC were statistically significant(P=0.008, 0.002, 0.003; the difference of general loss of volume(GLVand focal loss of volume(FLVbetween the three groups was statistically significant(P=0.002. Compared with the normal group, all the pRNFL and the mGCC parameters were higher in the suspected glaucoma group, and the FLV had the highest AROC(0.801, all the remaining AROC was >0.700 except above Prnlf(0.688. Compared with the normal group and the early glaucoma group, all the pRNFL and the mGCC had higher AROC, average mGCC was hightest(0.804, all parameters AROC were >0.700 except mean pRNFL(0.683. In suspected glaucoma group, 58% patients had abnormal mGCC thickness and 23% had abnormal pRNFL thickness; in early glaucoma group, 98%patients had abnormal mGCC thickness and 90% had abnormal pRNFL thickness; in normal group, 93%patients had abnormal mGCC thickness and 93%had abnormal pRNFL thickness, the correlation between the three groups was statistically significant(χ2=12.11, PCONCLUSION: OCT measurement of mGCC thickness and pRNFL thickness in early glaucoma have good

  14. Exploring the neural basis of real-life joint action: measuring brain activation during joint table setting with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eEgetemeir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many everyday life situations require two or more individuals to execute actions together. Assessing brain activation during naturalistic tasks to uncover relevant processes underlying such real-life joint action situations has remained a methodological challenge. In the present study, we introduce a novel joint action paradigm that enables the assessment of brain activation during real-life joint action tasks using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. We monitored brain activation of participants who coordinated complex actions with a partner sitting opposite them. Participants performed table-setting tasks, either alone (solo action or in cooperation with a partner (joint action, or they observed the partner performing the task (action observation. Comparing joint action and solo action revealed stronger activation (higher [oxy-Hb]-concentration during joint action in a number of areas. Among these were areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL that additionally showed an overlap of activation during action observation and solo action. Areas with such a close link between action observation and action execution have been associated with action simulation processes. The magnitude of activation in these IPL areas also varied according to joint action type and its respective demand on action simulation. The results validate fNIRS as an imaging technique for exploring the functional correlates of interindividual action coordination in real-life settings and suggest that coordinating actions in real-life situations requires simulating the actions of the partner.

  15. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2 or sulphuric acid (H2SO4 aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3° angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the

  16. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  17. Measurement with corrugated tubes of early-age autogenous shrinkage of cement-based material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    The use of a special corrugated mould enables transformation of volume strain into horizontal, linear strain measurement in the fluid stage. This allows continuous measurement of the autogenous shrinkage of cement-based materials since casting, and also effectively eliminates unwanted influence...

  18. Ethanol, not detectably metabolized in brain, significantly reduces brain metabolism, probably via action at specific GABA(A) receptors and has measureable metabolic effects at very low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Caroline D; Davidson, Joanne E; Maher, Anthony D; Rowlands, Benjamin D; Kashem, Mohammed A; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Cook, James M; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol is a known neuromodulatory agent with reported actions at a range of neurotransmitter receptors. Here, we measured the effect of alcohol on metabolism of [3-¹³C]pyruvate in the adult Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice and compared the outcomes to those from a library of ligands active in the GABAergic system as well as studying the metabolic fate of [1,2-¹³C]ethanol. Analyses of metabolic profile clusters suggest that the significant reductions in metabolism induced by ethanol (10, 30 and 60 mM) are via action at neurotransmitter receptors, particularly α4β3δ receptors, whereas very low concentrations of ethanol may produce metabolic responses owing to release of GABA via GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) and the subsequent interaction of this GABA with local α5- or α1-containing GABA(A)R. There was no measureable metabolism of [1,2-¹³C]ethanol with no significant incorporation of ¹³C from [1,2-¹³C]ethanol into any measured metabolite above natural abundance, although there were measurable effects on total metabolite sizes similar to those seen with unlabelled ethanol. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. A quantitative measure of restricted and repetitive behaviors for early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J; Boyd, Brian A; Elison, Jed T

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are characteristic phenotypic features of many neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological conditions. During early childhood, such behaviors are considered normative. More research is needed to delineate the dimensions of restricted and repetitive behavior across typical and atypical development during this period. We developed the 34-item parent-rated Repetitive Behavior Scale for Early Childhood (RBS-EC) to capture quantitative, dimensional features across a broad range of behaviors contributing to this domain. We evaluated its psychometric properties and factor structure in a community sample of 914 toddlers. The RBS-EC showed excellent overall internal consistency (α = 0.90), strong test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87 for topographies and 0.90 for frequency) and evidence of convergent and discriminative validity. Using a split-half approach to factor analysis, we identified that a three- or four-factor structure best fit the data and confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fit for both models. The empirically derived four-factor model was consistent with our conceptual model and included repetitive motor, restricted interests and behavior, ritual and routine, and self-directed behavior. This initial study indicates that the RBS-EC is a reliable and valid instrument for characterizing quantitative, dimensional aspects of restricted and repetitive behaviors in young children.

  20. Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

  1. Reminiscence Spike in Reading Recall between the Ages of 8-11: The Influence of Early Memories on Attitudes and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Margaret; O'Toole, J. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into the recalled reading of 31 environmental educators has uncovered a potential link between early reading and pro-environmental attitudes. The recalled books are not only from the recognised "reminiscence bump" of adolescence and early adulthood, but there also appears to be a spike in recall of books within the…

  2. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  3. Implementation of a landslide early warning system based on near-real-time monitoring, multisensor mapping and geophysical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teza, Giordano; Galgaro, Antonio; Francese, Roberto; Ninfo, Andrea; Mariani, Rocco

    2017-04-01

    An early warning system has been implemented to monitor the Perarolo di Cadore landslide (North-Eastern Italian Alps), which is a slump whose induced risk is fairly high because a slope collapse could form a temporary dam on the underlying torrent and, therefore, could directly threaten the close village. A robotic total station (RTS) measures, with 6h returning time, the positions of 23 retro-reflectors placed on the landslide upper and middle sectors. The landslide's kinematical behavior derived from these near-real-time (NRT) surface displacements is interpreted on the basis of available geomorphological and geological information, geometrical data provided by some laser scanning and photogrammetric surveys, and a landslide model obtained by means of 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (3D ERT) measurements. In this way, an analysis of the time series provided by RTS and a pluviometer, which cover several years, allows the definition of some pre-alert and alert kinematical and rainfall thresholds. These thresholds, as well as the corresponding operational recommendations, are currently used for early warning purposes by Authorities involved in risk management for the Perarolo landslide. It should be noted the fact that, as new RTS and pluviometric data are available, the thresholds can be updated and, therefore, a fine tuning of the early warning system can be carried out in order to improve its performance. Although the proposed approach has been implemented in a particular case, it can be used to develop an early warning system based on NRT data in each site where a landslide threatens infrastructures and/or villages that cannot be relocated.

  4. Does the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change help moving forward in measuring change in early autism intervention studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Mirjam Kj; Rommelse, Nanda Nj; Hendriks, Monica; De Korte, Manon Wp; Buitelaar, Jan K; Oosterling, Iris J

    2016-12-01

    The field of early autism research is in dire need of outcome measures that adequately reflect subtle changes in core autistic behaviors. This article compares the ability of a newly developed measure, the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to detect changes in core symptoms of autism in 44 toddlers. The results provide encouraging evidence for the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change as a candidate outcome measure, as reflected in sufficient inter- and intra-rater reliability, independency from other child characteristics, and sensitivity to capture change. Although the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change did not evidently outperform the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule on any of these quality criteria, the instrument may be better able to capture subtle, individual changes in core autistic symptoms. The promising findings warrant further study of this new instrument.

  5. Effects of the rate of insulin infusion during isoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp procedures on measures of insulin action in healthy, mature thoroughbred mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, K L; Escobar, J; McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the rate of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedures affected measures of insulin action, including glucose disposal and plasma non-esterified fatty acid, endothelin-1, and nitric oxide concentrations, in mature, healthy horses. Eight thoroughbred mares were studied during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure, conducted at each of 4 rates of insulin infusion: 0 (CON), 1.2 (LOWINS), 3 (MEDINS), and 6 (HIGHINS) mU · kg(-1) · min(-1). The infusion rate of a dextrose solution was adjusted throughout the clamp procedures to maintain blood glucose levels within 10% of baseline glucose concentrations. Plasma insulin concentrations were measured throughout the clamp procedures, and used with the rate of glucose infusion to calculate the plasma insulin concentration-to-rate of glucose infusion ratio, a measure of insulin action on glucose disposal. The rate of glucose infusion increased with rate of insulin infusion (P clamp procedures in the LOWINS, MEDINS, and HIGHINS treatments (P 0.05). The data indicate that it is important to standardize insulin infusion rate if data are to be compared between hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Measurement Framework for Team Level Assessment of Innovation Capability in Early Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnell, Björn; Höst, Martin; Nilsson, Fredrik; Bengtsson, Henrik

    When developing software-intensive products for a market-place it is important for a development organisation to create innovative features for coming releases in order to achieve advantage over competitors. This paper focuses on assessment of innovation capability at team level in relation to the requirements engineering that is taking place before the actual product development projects are decided, when new business models, technology opportunities and intellectual property rights are created and investigated through e.g. prototyping and concept development. The result is a measurement framework focusing on four areas: innovation elicitation, selection, impact and ways-of-working. For each area, candidate measurements were derived from interviews to be used as inspiration in the development of a tailored measurement program. The framework is based on interviews with participants of a software team with specific innovation responsibilities and validated through cross-case analysis and feedback from practitioners.

  7. Measuring Callous Unemotional Behaviors in Early Childhood: Factor Structure and the Prediction of Stable Aggression in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Wagner, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to replicate the results of our earlier study, which were published in this Journal (Willoughby et. al 2011), that used mother-reported items from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop a screening measure of callous unemotional (CU) behaviors for use with preschool-aged children. We further sought to extend those results by exploring the predictive validity of the CU measure with aggression trajectories in early-/mid-childhood. The current study involved secondary data analysis of the NICHD Study of Early Childhood and Youth Development (NICHD-SECCYD) dataset. Factor analyses included N = 1176 children who participated in the age 3 year assessment of the NICHD-SECCYD. Predictive models included N = 1081 children for whom four of the six possible teacher ratings of aggressive behavior were available from annual assessments spanning 1 st -6 th grades. Consistent with prior work, a three-factor confirmatory factor model, which differentiated CU from oppositional defiant (ODD) and attention deficit/hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD) behaviors, provided the best fit to the data. Among children with disorganized attachment status, the combination of high levels of mother-rated ODD behaviors and CU behaviors, was predictive of stable elevated levels of teacher-rated aggression from 1 st -6 th grade (predicted probability = .38, compared with a base rate of .07). These results demonstrate that CU behaviors can be reliably measured by parent report in young children and are dissociable from more commonly assessed dimensions of disruptive behavior. Three-year-old children who exhibit elevated levels of ODD and CU behaviors, and who have disorganized attachments, are at increased risk for exhibiting elevated levels of aggression across middle childhood. Results are discussed from the perspective of early assessment and intervention.

  8. Real-time measurement of kidney tubule fluid nitric oxide concentrations in early diabetes: disparate changes in different rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David Z; Iacovitti, Michelle

    2006-08-01

    There are several reports indicating that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the kidney hyperfiltration seen in the early stages of diabetes mellitus (DM). Whole kidney GFR and single nephron GFR (SNGFR) have been reported to decrease after nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition. To date, no direct, in vivo, quantitative NO measurements have been made within the kidney in any models of early diabetes. To assess the possible association of changes in tubular fluid nitric oxide concentrations (TF [NO]) with early diabetes, a specially modified NO electrode with a tip diameter of about 7 microm was used to measure NO in single tubules in seven rodent groups. In the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model, TF [NO] increased by 50% after streptozotocin (STZ) induced DM1. In the B6129G2/J mouse, control TF [NO] was more than twice the rat control value and fell by 50% after STZ treatment. In three other groups of mice-db/db (B6.Cg-m+/+Lepr(db)/J) Type II diabetic (DM2) mouse, db/m (its heterozygote), and the corresponding wild type (WT)-TF [NO] was also much higher than in the rat, and unlike the B6129G2/J STZ diabetic mouse, did not change after the onset of diabetes. Blood glucose concentrations were similar in the three diabetic groups. Accordingly, in different rodent models of diabetes, in vivo TF [NO], measured in real time, varies significantly in control animals and directionally in different models of DM1 and DM2.

  9. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henzing, J.S.; Leeuw, G. de; Piters, A.J.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J.C.; Roozendael, M. van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M.A.F.; Apituley, A.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Friess, U.; Gast, L.F.L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Grossmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; Hoff, G.R. van der; Irie, H.; Johnston, P.V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M.M.; Monks, P.S.; Mount, G.H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Piesanie, A. du; Pinardi, G.; Puentadura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H.K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A.P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D.P.J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K.M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2011-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI’s 5 Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric

  10. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, execution, and early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piters, A.J.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J.C.; Roozendael, M. van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M.A.F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L.F.L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; Hoff, G.R. van der; Irie, H.; Johnston, P.V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; Leeuw, G. de; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M.M.; Monks, P.S.; Mount, G.H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentedura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H.K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A.P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D.P.J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K.M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research

  11. A Measure of Engagement for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Early Childhood Settings: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Yuriko; Kemp, Coral

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of engagement that could be used in practice with children with disabilities, including children with severe intellectual disabilities. Method: The "Individual Child Engagement Record" (ICER) was designed to observe and record the engagement of individual children in order to identify…

  12. Baseline cortisol measures and developmental pathways of anxiety in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves-Lord, K.; Huizink, A. C.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ferdinand, R. F.

    Objective: This study investigated whether baseline cortisol measures predicted future anxiety, and compared cortisol values of groups with different developmental pathways of anxiety. Method: Cortisol levels were assessed in 1768 individuals (10-12 years). Anxiety levels were assessed at the same

  13. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  14. A Chernobyl lesson for aerial monitoring: integration of passive measurements with active sampling in the emergency early phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelluccio, D.; Cisbani, E.; Fratoni, R.; Frullani, S.; Giuliani, F.; Mostarda, A.; Pierangeli, L.; Veneroni, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technologies and Health Dept., Rome (Italy); Chiavarini, S. [Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, ENEA, Rome (Italy); Delprato, U. [IES Solutions srl, Rome (Italy); Fragasso, G.; Siciliano, G. [Galileo Avionica S.p.A., Campidi Bisenzio FI (Italy); Gaddini, M.; Pianese, E. [Central Direction for Emergency and Technical Rescue, Ministry of Interior, Rome (Italy); Marchiori, C.; Paoloni, G. [Roma Univ. La Sapienza, Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica, Facolta di Ingegneria (Italy); Sbuelz, A. [Iniziative Industriali Italiane S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In our experience, the first quantitative measurement of a contamination parameter has been only possible after many days from the beginning of the accident. Indeed with aerial monitoring systems in use, the quantification of the source activity, or the ground contamination, through the analysis of the gamma ray spectra measured, is only possible with the assumption of a source pattern (localized for a point-like source, diffused for ground surface contamination). In case of a more complex situation, there is not a suitable knowledge to model the radiation source; therefore the measurements can only supply qualitative information. This is the case, both in near and far field, when the radioactive plume released by an accident is passing over the country. The lack of quantitative measurements and the derived uncertainty in forecasting the propagation of the radioactive contamination, does not help the emergency management in the most critical phase, i.e. when countermeasures have to be decided in a preventive way and some risk of negative effects is inevitably linked to their enforcement. A different tool for the emergency management should be provided. An aerial platform instrumented for in-plume measurements, aiming to characterize the extension, composition and concentration of the radioactive mixture in the plume, as well as to measure in situ meteorological parameters could be of invaluable help in the emergency early phase. During last years research and manufacturing activities have been developed to reach these goals. (authors)

  15. Thermodynamic equilibrium solubility measurements in simulated fluids by 96-well plate method in early drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharate, Sonali S; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2015-04-01

    An early prediction of solubility in physiological media (PBS, SGF and SIF) is useful to predict qualitatively bioavailability and absorption of lead candidates. Despite of the availability of multiple solubility estimation methods, none of the reported method involves simplified fixed protocol for diverse set of compounds. Therefore, a simple and medium-throughput solubility estimation protocol is highly desirable during lead optimization stage. The present work introduces a rapid method for assessment of thermodynamic equilibrium solubility of compounds in aqueous media using 96-well microplate. The developed protocol is straightforward to set up and takes advantage of the sensitivity of UV spectroscopy. The compound, in stock solution in methanol, is introduced in microgram quantities into microplate wells followed by drying at an ambient temperature. Microplates were shaken upon addition of test media and the supernatant was analyzed by UV method. A plot of absorbance versus concentration of a sample provides saturation point, which is thermodynamic equilibrium solubility of a sample. The established protocol was validated using a large panel of commercially available drugs and with conventional miniaturized shake flask method (r(2)>0.84). Additionally, the statistically significant QSPR models were established using experimental solubility values of 52 compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental opportunities questionnaire: development of a measure of the environment supporting early motor development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2013-09-01

    The development and testing of a measure evaluating the quality and variability in the home environment as it relates to the motor development of infants during the first year of life. A sample of 112 boys and 95 girls with a mean age of 7.1 months (SD 1.8) and GA of 39.6 weeks (SD 1.5) participated in the study. The measurement development process was divided into three phases: measurement development (item generation or selection of items from existing measurement tools), pilot testing to determine acceptability and feasibility to parents, and exploratory factor analysis to organize items into meaningful concepts. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also determined. The environmental opportunities questionnaire (EOQ) is a feasible 21-item measure comprised of three factors including opportunities in the play space, sensory variety and parental encouragement. Overall, test-retest reliability was 0.92 (CI 0.84-0.96) and the internal consistency is 0.79. The EOQ emphasizes quality of the environment and access to equipment and toys that have the potential to facilitate early motor development. The preliminary analyses reported here suggest more work could be done on the EOQ to strengthen its use for research or clinical purposes; however, it is adequate for use in its current form. Implications for Rehabilitation New and feasible 21-item questionnaire that enables identification of malleable environmental factors that serve as potential points of intervention for children that are not developing typically. Therapeutic tool for use by therapists to inform and guide discussions with caregivers about potential influences of environmental, social and attitudinal factors in their child's early development.

  17. SEE Action Guide for States: Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Frameworks$-$Guidance for Energy Efficiency Portfolios Funded by Utility Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Dietsch, Niko [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This guide describes frameworks for evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) of utility customer–funded energy efficiency programs. The authors reviewed multiple frameworks across the United States and gathered input from experts to prepare this guide. This guide provides the reader with both the contents of an EM&V framework, along with the processes used to develop and update these frameworks.

  18. SEE Action Guide for States: Guidance on Establishing and Maintaining Technical Reference Manuals for Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this guide is to support the development, maintenance, and use of accurate and reliable Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs). TRMs provide information primarily used for estimating the energy and demand savings of end-use energy efficiency measures associated with utility customer-funded efficiency programs.

  19. [Simulation of quantitative characters by genes with biochemically definable action : V. Investigations of the methods of measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, G; Seyffert, W

    1972-01-01

    At measuring the anthocyanin content of the flowers of defined genotypes of the stock, Matthiola incana, in preceding investigations a comparatively high variability of the measured values within the lines was observed. The investigations on the genetics of the quantitative character "anthocyanin content" are based on these measurements. Therefore it is important to examine whether or not an insufficient isogenisation of the genetic background of the parental lines or errors in the measuring technique are partly responsible for the high variability. The elimination of recognizable sources of error should lead back the variation within a line mainly to the interaction between genotype and environment.The results show that differences in the genetic background are unlikely. On the contrary there are the following sources of error in the hitherto applied technique: 1. Unequal sampling with respect to the developmental stage of the flowers and of the single petals within double flowers. 2. Unequal patterns of extraction dependent on the quantity and quality of the anthocyanins. 3. Errors in pipetting in connection with the dilution of extracts. An improved technique of sampling and processing is proposed.

  20. Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal,Fetal, and Early Neonatal Thyroxine: Dynamic and Kinetic Data Support for a Mode-of-Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work tests the mode-of-action (MOA) hypothesis that perinatal triclosan (TCS) exposure decreases circulating thyroxine (T4) concentrations via activation of pregnane X and/or constitutive androstane receptors (PXR, CAR), resulting in up-regulation of hepatic catabolism and e...

  1. Single point biochemical measurement algorithm for early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen A; Abban, Thomas K A; Borrelli, Paola T A; Luttoo, Jameel M; Kemp, Bryn; Iles, Ray K

    2013-09-01

    Tubal rupture as a result of an ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of first trimester maternal mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy depends on transvaginal ultrasound and serial serum measurements of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), which requires follow up. The objective of this study was to examine whether single point measurements at presentation could distinguish between women with ectopic pregnancy, viable pregnancy, and spontaneous miscarriage. Serum total hCG (hCGt), hyperglycosylated hCG (hCGh), free beta subunit of hCG (hCGβ), progesterone (P), and CA-125 were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay over a 3 month period in 441 women presenting at the emergency room with abdominal pain and a positive pregnancy test. Patient outcomes were followed and confirmed by histology. 65 samples were excluded due to poor sample storage, or lost to follow up. The pregnancy outcomes were 175 viable pregnancies, 175 spontaneous miscarriages, and 26 ectopic pregnancies. A serum hCGt ectopic pregnancy from viable pregnancy; but did not differentiate spontaneous miscarriage. Serum CA125 ectopic pregnancy from spontaneous miscarriage. Sequential application of hCGt and CA-125 cut off followed by ultrasound could detect 100% of ectopic pregnancies with 87% specificity for all intrauterine pregnancies. The combination of serum hCGt ectopic pregnancy at initial presentation. © 2013.

  2. Melatonin influence on clinical and endocrine measures in early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Pogozeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess melatonin (ML efficacy for correction of sleep disturbances, its influence on clinical symptoms and laboratory activity measures as well as cortisol level in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA Material and methods. Blind randomized placebo controlled study was performed. 38 women with RA fulfilling ACR criteria and disease duration not exceeding a year were included. Pts of the main group (n=19 received melatonin (Melaxen, Unifarm, USA 3 mg I hour before sleep, control group pts (n= 19 received placebo. All pts received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Clinico-laboratory measures of inflammatory activity, sleepless symptoms score, plasma cortisol and urine 6-sulphotoximelanotonin (6-STM levels with immuno-enzyme assay were evaluated. Results. To the end of study sleep quality improved and morning stiffness significantly decreased in the main group pts in comparison with placebo group. 20% decrease of morning stiffness was achieved in 90% of ML group and 44% of placebo group pts. Other clinical features of RA including DAS28 changes did not significantly differ between groups. Treatment with ML also induced endocrine status changes in RA pts: decrease of plasma cortisol and significant increase of urine 6-STM levels. Endocrine measures did not change in placebo group. Conclusion. ML efficacy in the treatment of sleep disturbances in pts with RA was confirmed. Decrease of cortisol blood level in such pts probably connected with shift of its peak to earlier hours providing decrease of morning stiffness.

  3. Measurement of the ttbar Cross Section with Early LHC Collision Data at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bostock, Francis John Douglas; Hill, C S

    The Standard Model of particle physics is one of the most well tested theories in physics but is not believed to be a complete theory of everything. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator will create the most energetic environment ever achieved in a laboratory producing proton-proton collisions which will allow physicists to study physics in a new energy regime. This work presents a study of the decay channel t tbar e nu + jets, carried out on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector experiment. A study assessing the feasibility to measure the production cross section of tt events through this channel has been carried out at a centre-of-mass energy of 10TeV. Detailed studies of the background processes will be presented with particular attention to the background arising from converting photons. Techniques to measure the backgrounds in a data-driven manner have been investigated and the study predicts a measurement with a 27% statistical uncertainty and 20% systematic uncertainty, with an additi...

  4. Bone density, ultrasound measurements and body composition in early ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, E; Michel, F; Wendling, D

    2001-08-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated bone density using both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques and examined the changes in body composition in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Seventy-one patients were compared with seventy-one sex- and age-matched controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at the lumbar spine and femoral neck with a Lunar device. Total body measurements were also performed, giving BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body, and fat and lean masses. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound and stiffness were measured at the calcaneus using an Achilles ultrasound device. The patients had significantly lower lumbar spine, femoral neck and total body BMD as compared with controls (all P talalgia in AS did not influence the QUS values. These results confirm that AS patients have decreased BMD values at both the spine and femur, and also in total body measurements, reflecting a generalized bone loss. On the contrary, soft tissue composition does not seem to be influenced by the disease. QUS parameters were found to be similar between patients and controls, suggesting that the QUS method did not provide additive information to DEXA. As it is thought that QUS provides information about qualitative properties of bone, the normal results of QUS values in our patient series argue against modifications in AS bone micro-architecture.

  5. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering

    2016-05-30

    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  6. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; van Roozendael, M.; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Irie, H.; Johnston, P. V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; de Leeuw, G.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M. M.; Monks, P. S.; Mount, G. H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentedura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H. K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A. P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D. P. J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K. M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-02-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  7. The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, Execution, and Early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piters, Ankie; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; Roozendael, M. Van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; hide

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-ofthe- art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  8. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI: design, execution, and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Piters

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI. The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing, and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent

  9. Measures for the Diffusion of Solar PV are Aligned in Technology Action Plans for Six Countries in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2014-01-01

    Recently, development projects have provided support to governments to facilitate technology transfer for climate change adaptation and mitigation. These include the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). In the TNA project, which was implemented in t...... in these six countries are used as the basis for comparing how solar PV is perceived in these countries and how policy measures enabling environmental adjustments and investment programmes are being planned to promote diffusion of the technology in these different contexts....

  10. Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Robert J; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (Grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2 years post-high school, self-reported serious crimes through 2 years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records through 1 year post-high school, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms and diagnosis at 2 years post-high school. CU traits measured in 7th grade were highly predictive of 5 of the 6 antisocial outcomes-general delinquency, juvenile and adult arrests, and early adult antisocial personality disorder criterion count and diagnosis-over and above prior and concurrent conduct problem behavior (i.e., criterion counts of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (criterion count). Incorporating a CU traits specifier for those with a diagnosis of conduct disorder improved the positive prediction of antisocial outcomes, with a very low false-positive rate. There was minimal evidence of moderation by sex, race, or urban/rural status. Urban/rural status moderated one finding, with being from an urban area associated with stronger relations between CU traits and adult arrests. Findings clearly support the inclusion of CU traits as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, at least with respect to predictive validity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: a dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early

  12. Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harra, Louise K.; Hara, Hirohisa; Doschek, George A.; Matthews, Sarah; Warren, Harry; Culhane, J. Leonard; Woods, Magnus M.

    2017-06-01

    In order to understand the onset phase of a solar eruption, plasma parameter measurements in the early phases are key to constraining models. There are two current instrument types that allow us to make such measurements: narrow-band imagers and spectrometers. In the former case, even narrow-band filters contain multiple emission lines, creating some temperature confusion. With imagers, however, rapid cadences are achievable and the field of view can be large. Velocities of the erupting structures can be measured by feature tracking. In the spectrometer case, slit spectrometers can provide spectrally pure images by “rastering” the slit to build up an image. This method provides limited temporal resolution, but the plasma parameters can be accurately measured, including velocities along the line of sight. Both methods have benefits and are often used in tandem. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that data from the wide slot on the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, along with imaging data from AIA, can be used to deconvolve velocity information at the start of an eruption, providing line-of-sight velocities across an extended field of view. Using He II 256 Å slot data at flare onset, we observe broadening or shift(s) of the emission line of up to ±280 km s-1. These are seen at different locations—the redshifted plasma is seen where the hard X-ray source is later seen (energy deposition site). In addition, blueshifted plasma shows the very early onset of the fast rise of the filament.

  13. Early identification of small airways disease on lung cancer screening CT: comparison of current air trapping measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, Onno M; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Isgum, Ivana; Gietema, Hester A; van Ginneken, Bram; Prokop, Mathias; de Jong, Pim A

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancer screening CT scans might provide valuable information about air trapping as an early indicator of smoking-related lung disease. We studied which of the currently suggested measures is most suitable for detecting functionally relevant air trapping on low-dose computed tomography (CT) in a population of subjects with early-stage disease. This study was ethically approved and informed consent was obtained. Three quantitative CT air trapping measures were compared against a functional reference standard in 427 male lung cancer screening participants. This reference standard for air trapping was derived from the residual volume over total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) beyond the 95th percentile of predicted. The following CT air trapping measures were compared: expiratory to inspiratory relative volume change of voxels with attenuation values between -860 and -950 Hounsfield Units (RVC(-860 to -950)), expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio(MLD)) and percentage of voxels below -856 HU in expiration (EXP(-856)). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and area under the ROC curve compared. Functionally relevant air trapping was present in 38 (8.9 %) participants. E/I-ratio(MLD) showed the largest area under the curve (0.85, 95 % CI 0.813-0.883), which was significantly larger than RVC(-860 to -950) (0.703, 0.657-0.746; p lung density (E/I-ratio(MLD)) is most suitable for detecting air trapping on low-dose screening CT and performs significantly better than other suggested quantitative measures.

  14. Optical metabolic imaging measures early drug response in an allograft murine breast cancer model (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    Previous work has shown that cellular-level Optical Metabolic Imaging (OMI) of organoids derived from human breast cancer cell-line xenografts accurately and rapidly predicts in vivo response to therapy. To validate OMI as a predictive measure of treatment response in an immune-competent model, we used the polyomavirus middle-T (PyVmT) transgenic mouse breast cancer model. The PyVmT model includes intra-tumoral heterogeneity and a complex tumor microenvironment that can influence treatment responses. Three-dimensional organoids generated from primary PyVmT tumor tissue were treated with a chemotherapy (paclitaxel) and a PI3K inhibitor (XL147), each alone or in combination. Cellular subpopulations of response were measured using the OMI Index, a composite endpoint of metabolic response comprised of the optical redox ratio (ratio of the fluorescence intensities of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H to FAD) as well as the fluorescence lifetimes of NAD(P)H and FAD. Combination treatment significantly decreased the OMI Index of PyVmT tumor organoids (padaptive immunity. Thus, this method is promising for use in humans to predict long-term treatment responses accurately and rapidly, and could aid in clinical treatment planning.

  15. [Using medical compulsory measures in the treatment of patients with traumatic epilepsy, who committed social dangerous actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V G

    2008-01-01

    There were examined 120 patients with traumatic epilepsy which had done SDA and hadn't been found guilty apropos of this. Depending on dynamics of epilepsy, all patients were divided into two groups--with favourable passing and unfavourable passing of the disease. There were found out clinical and social factors that influence the level of social danger of recognized deranged patients, that being taken into consideration allows to make differential choice of specific types of compulsory measures to definite category of patients.

  16. Risk factors and preventative measures of early and persistent dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Hai, Yong; Kang, Nan; Chen, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yangpu

    2017-10-07

    To conduct a systematic review of literature to determine risk factors and preventative measures of early and persistent dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). On March 2017, we searched the database PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, Clinical key, Springer link and Wiley Online Library without time restriction using the term 'dysphagia', 'swallowing disorders', and 'anterior cervical spine surgery'. Selected papers were examined for the level of evidence by published guidelines as level I, level II, level III, level IV studies. We investigated risk factors and preventative measures of early or persistent dysphagia after ACSS from these papers. The initial search yielded 515 citations. Fifty-nine of these studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three of them were level I evidence studies, 29 were level II evidence studies, 22 were level III evidence studies, and 3 were level IV evidence studies. Preventable risk factors included prolonged operative time, use of rhBMP, endotracheal tube cuff pressure, cervical plate type and position, dC2-C7 angle, psychiatric factors, tobacco usage, prevertebral soft tissue swelling, SLN or RLN palsy or injury of branches. Preventative measures included preoperative tracheal traction exercise, maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure at 20 mm Hg, avoiding routine use of rhBMP-2, use of zero-profile implant, use of Zephir plate, use of new cervical retractor, steroid application, avoiding prolonged operating time, avoiding overenlargement of cervical lordosis, decreasing surgical levels, ensuring knowledge of anatomy of superior laryngeal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve, to comfort always, patients quitting smoking and doctors ensuring improved skills. Unpreventable risk factors included age, gender, multilevel surgery, revision surgery, duration of preexisting pain, BMI, blood loss, upper levels, preoperative comorbidities and surgical type. Adequate preoperative preparation of the

  17. Pupil to limbus ratio: Introducing a simple objective measure using two-box method for measuring early anisocoria and progress of pupillary change in the ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kumar Mojumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measurement of static pupillary size in the ICU is of importance in cases of acutely expanding intracranial mass lesions. The inaccuracies with subjective assessment of pupillary size by medical personnel preclude its use in emergent neurological situations. Objective: To determine if the ratio of pupil to limbus diameter (PLD ratio measured by a two-box method is a reliable measure of pupil size for detecting early anisocoria and measuring pupillary changes. Materials and Methods: The PLD ratio was defined as the ratio of the pupillary diameter measured at a para-horizontal axial plane with the limbus diameter measured at the same or parallel axial plane. A two-box method was used to estimate the diameters of imaged pupils. Eyes were imaged using an iPhone 4S cellphone camera. Background illumination was measured and kept constant. The pupils of a 78-year-old woman, who presented with a large intra-axial parenchymal hemorrhage, were imaged. The patient had left pupillary miosis in dark but not in bright light. After presenting this case along with the images of the pupillary examination, a group of 21 medical staff were asked several questions on the pupillary examination. Reliability of PLD ratio were assessed via standard error of mean (S.E.M of PLD ratios for 3 different subjects each imaged under constant illumination and fixation but from different angles to the optical axis. Results: Analysis of questionnaire data together with PLD ratios revealed that ~ 14% and 10% of participants could estimate the pupillary size in darkness and bright light respectively but none were simultaneously accurate indicating that subjective assessment of pupillary size was unreliable. The approach towards a systematic pupillary examination was inconsistent among the participants. The PLD ratio was found to be a reliable measure of pupillary size with standard error of mean below 0.1 mm for the three subjects tested. Conclusion: Static pupillary

  18. Thymus vulgaris essential oil and thymol against Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler: effects on growth, viability, early infection and cellular mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Fabiano J; Amaral, Douglas C; Fernandes, Rafael S; Labory, Claudia Rg; Teixeira, Glauco A; Alves, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    In initial assays, Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) has demonstrated activity against several plant-pathogenic fungi and has reduced the fungal diseases to levels comparable with commercial fungicides. Thus, the goal of this work was to identify the mode of action in fungi of TEO and its major compound thymol (TOH) at the cellular level using an ultrastructure approach. TEO from leaves and TOH had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 500 and 250 µg mL(-1) respectively against A. alternata; under the same conditions, MIC for a commercial fungicide was 1250 µg mL(-1) . Ultrastructure analysis showed that TOH phenolic substance prevented fungal growth, reduced fungal viability and prevented the penetration in fruits by a cell wall/plasma membrane interference mode of action with organelles targeted for destruction in the cytoplasm. Such mode of action differs from protective and preventive-curative commercial fungicides used as pattern control. These findings suggest that TOH was responsible for the antifungal activity of TEO. Therefore, both the essential oil and its major substance have potential for use in the development of new phenolic structures and analogues to control Alternaria brown spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  20. Main corrective measures in an early phase of nuclear power plants’ preparation for safe long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Operational Safety Section, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Fiedler, Jan, E-mail: fiedler@fme.vutbr.cz [University of Technology Brno, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Institute, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Results of SALTO missions provide the most important issues for safe long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants. • The most important technical corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO are described. • Their satisfactory resolution creates a basis for further activities to demonstrate preparedness for safe LTO. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of main technical deficiencies of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in preparedness for safe long term operation (LTO) and the main corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO of NPPs. It focuses on technical aspects connected with management of physical ageing of NPP structures, systems and components (SSCs). It uses as a basis results of IAEA SALTO missions performed between 2005 and 2016 (see also paper NED8805 in Nuclear Engineering and Design in May 2016) and the personal experiences of the authors with preparation of NPPs for safe LTO. This paper does not discuss other important aspects of safe LTO of NPPs, e.g. national nuclear energy policies, compliance of NPPs with the latest international requirements on design, obsolescence, environmental impact and economic aspects of LTO. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction of the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO. Chapter 2 provides an overview of SALTO peer review service results with a focus on deficiencies related to physical ageing of safety SSCs and a demonstration that SSCs will perform their safety function during the intended period of LTO. Chapter 3 discusses the main corrective measures which NPPs typically face during the preparation for demonstration of safe LTO. Chapter 4 summarizes the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO and outlines further steps needed in preparation for safe LTO.

  1. Radiogenomics Monitoring in Breast Cancer Identifies Metabolism and Immune Checkpoints as Early Actionable Mechanisms of Resistance to Anti-angiogenic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaveta Mehta

    2016-08-01

    These findings support that anti-angiogenesis trials should incorporate initial enrichment of patients with high Ktrans, and a range of targeted therapeutic options to meet potential early resistance pathways. Multi-arm adaptive trials are ongoing using molecular markers for targeted agents, but our results suggest this needs to be further modified by much earlier adaptation when using drugs affecting the tumor microenvironment.

  2. Challenges involved in measuring intake in early life: focus on methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Adamson, Ashley

    2014-05-01

    Assessing dietary intake in people of any age is challenging but measuring the diet of infants and children can be particularly problematic. Young children may lack the cognitive skills, writing skills and food knowledge to record their own food intake. Multiple people may be responsible for the care of the child and to collect an accurate picture of intake it may be necessary to combine parental reports with observation in school or nursery. Where interviews are conducted with the child themselves questions may need to focus on aspects of the diet which children are likely to attend to. For example, children may not be familiar with food names or brands but may be able to describe their texture, colour and images on packaging. Adolescents are likely to be more aware of the foods they consume and have the cognitive and writing skills to record their own food intake but may lack the interest or motivation. Research has focused on reducing the burden of recording intake on the participant. Developments include food photographs for assessment of portion size which remove the need for weighing each food item, and, in recent years, computer-based methods have been developed for self-completion by young people with the aim of motivating them to participate in studies by making dietary reporting more engaging. The present paper discusses methods and challenges in assessing food intake in children followed by details of two such tools developed at Newcastle University, UK, the Young Person's Food Atlas and INTAKE24.

  3. Between peace and chaos. Subversive action and pacification measures on the urban elites. Toledo, 1441-1495

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Lop Otín

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the fifteenth century peace, public order and justice depended in Castile on the kings, but these were forced to operate in a consensual manner, seeking the maximum possible support. In this search the cities will erect as the pillars on which to build the frame of a Crown energetic and authoritarian. Local elites, who had in their hands the governments of the cities, eventually became a factor basic in the stability or instability of the kingdom. One of the Castilian cities in which the influence of elites was more visible was Toledo, whose insurgent activity in the fifteenth century could be compared to other famous by factional attitude european cities, such as Ghent and Florence. The social elite of Toledo projections during the reigns of John II, Henry IV and Elisabeth I come from a model in two ways: in their ability to shock people, causing riots and deaths, but also relating to pacification measures in times of calm, in order to promote their own domain, submission of the city to the kings and prosperity of the region.

  4. The efficacy of neuroprosthesis in young hemiplegic patients, measured by three different gait indices: early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Barry; Khamis, Sam; Hemo, Yoram; Batt, Reuven; Snir, Erel; Wientroub, Shlomo; Hayek, Shlomo

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate functional electrical stimulation (FES) neuroprothesis as a method to improve gait in hemiplegic patients, using three different gait scoring methods as measures. Five hemiplegic patients (four with cerebral palsy at GMFCS I, one with diffuse pontine glioma) with a mean age of 16.5 years were given a FES neuroprosthesis (NESS(®) L300™) that was applied and calibrated individually. After an adaptation period during which the participants increased their daily use of the neuroprosthesis, gait was assessed with the stimulation off and with the FES on. Kinematic, kinetic, and temporal spatial data were determined using motion analysis and summarized by three scoring methods: Gait Profile Score (GPS), Gait Deviation Index (GDI), and Gillette Gait Index (GGI). Indices were calculated using the Gaitabase program available online. Patients were followed for a minimum of 1 year. When comparing gait with and without stimulation, all scoring methods showed improvement. GPS and GDI of the affected leg were significantly improved: 12.23-10.23° (p = 0.017) and 72.36-78.08 (p = 0.002), respectively. By applying the movement analysis profile, the decomposed GPS score, we found that only the ankle dorsiflexion and the foot progression angle were significantly changed. GGI of the affected leg showed improvement, but without statistical significance: 168.88-131.64 (p = 0.221). Total GPS of legs and the GPS, GDI, and GGI of the nonaffected leg showed improvement without statistical significance. At the 1-year follow-up, all patients expressed high satisfaction and continued to use the device. Dorsiflexion functional electrical stimulation improves gait in hemiplegic patients, as reflected by GPS, GDI, and GGI.

  5. Baseline comparison of three health utility measures and the feeling thermometer among participants in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial

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    Raisch Dennis W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health utility (HU measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D, and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3 and the feeling thermometer (FT among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables. Methods ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU’s and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT. Results The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P P P  Conclusions The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620

  6. Identification of water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat from shoot phenotyping and physiological measurements.

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    ALIREZA NAKHFOROOSH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. 12 durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well watered (75 % plant available water, PAW and drought (25 % PAW conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration and physiological (stomata conductance factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types. All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types. Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments.

  7. Development of the Sri Lankan Early Teenagers’ Violence Inventory: An Instrument to Measure Peer Violence in Schools

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    Monika Wijeratne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an inventory to measure peer violence among early teens (13–15 years of age in schools in Sri Lanka. Development of SLETVI was carried out in two phases. In phase I, development of an operational definition for peer violence, identification, and finalizing violent acts for inventory was done by a combination of qualitative methods: a comprehensive literature review, focus group discussions among 13–15-year-old adolescents, their teachers and parents, and consultative meetings with experts in the field. Inventory was then pretested. In phase II, elaboration of SLETVI was carried out by administering it to a sample of 1700 adolescents (13–15 years old. Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis was performed separately for experiences of victimization and perpetration. Test-retest reliability of SLETVI was assessed. SLETVI included 37 items in three factors: “less severe violence,” “severe physical,” and “severe relational” violence. Combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods enabled development of a culturally valid and reliable operational inventory to assess early teenagers’ peer violence in Sri Lankan and other South Asian schools.

  8. Reminiscence spike in reading recall between the ages of 8–11: The influence of early memories on attitudes and actions

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    Margaret Freestone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the recalled reading of 31 environmental educators has uncovered a potential link between early reading and pro-environmental attitudes. The recalled books are not only from the recognised “reminiscence bump” of adolescence and early adulthood, but there also appears to be a spike in recall of books within the 8–11-year reading age group. This 8–11-year age group, also known as middle childhood is recognised within other disciplines as being an influential or significant time for learning. The discovery of these earlier memories from stories and their ongoing influence highlights the potential of incidental learning and pre-adolescent attitude formation.

  9. Estimated SAGE II ozone mixing ratios in early 1993 and comparisons with Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamic Expedition measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.

  10. Validation of a culture-contextualized measure of family engagement in the early learning of low-income Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWayne, Christine M; Melzi, Gigliana

    2014-04-01

    Given the increased numbers of Latino children entering the U.S. educational system, there is a need to develop culturally contextualized models to understand the ways Latino parents participate in and support their children's school experiences. Current tools used to measure family engagement have been developed primarily with monolingual English-speaking European American families and thus might not accurately capture the engagement behaviors unique to other ethnic and linguistic groups. The present study builds upon prior mixed-methods research, involving a total of 763 Latino parents, which employed an emic approach to understand family engagement conceptualizations for a pan-Latino population and to develop a new measure for use with this heterogeneous group. In this follow-up study, we examined, with an additional 463 Latino caregivers, the construct validity of a revised 43-item measure across 2 language versions: Parental Engagement of Families from Latino Backgrounds (PEFL-English) and Participación Educativa de Familias Latinas (PEFL-Spanish). The 4 dimensions of family engagement empirically identified in the prior development study were confirmed with this multicity, independent sample of low-income Latino families. Family engagement dimensions demonstrated relations with recency of immigration, home language, employment, education, and caregiver age, as well as caregiver-reported levels of social support. Findings are discussed with respect to future directions for early childhood research and practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Verbal and action-based measures of kindergartners' SFON and their associations with number-related utterances during picture book reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathé, Sanne; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna M; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2017-11-20

    Young children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as measured by experimental tasks is related to their mathematics achievement. This association is hypothetically explained by children's self-initiated practice in number recognition during everyday activities. As such, experimentally measured SFON should be associated with SFON exhibited during everyday activities and play. However, prior studies investigating this assumed association provided inconsistent findings. We aimed to address this issue by investigating the association between kindergartners' SFON as measured by two different experimental tasks and the frequency of their number-related utterances during a typical picture book reading activity. Participants were 65 4- to 6-year-olds in kindergarten (before the start of formal education). Kindergartners individually participated in two sessions. First, they completed an action-based SFON Imitation task and a verbal SFON Picture task, with a short visuo-motor task in between. Next, children were invited to spontaneously comment on the pictures of a picture book during a typical picture book reading activity. Results revealed a positive association between children's SFON as measured by the Picture task and the frequency of their number-related utterances during typical picture book reading, but no such association for the Imitation task. Our findings indicate that children with higher SFON as measured by a verbal experimental task also tend to focus more frequently on number during verbal everyday activities, such as picture book reading. In view of the divergent associations between our SFON measures under study with everyday number activities, the current data suggest that SFON may not be a unitary construct and/or might be task-dependent. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Remote Monitoring of the Heart Condition of Athletes by Measuring the Cardiac Action Potential Propagation Time Using a Wireless Sensor Network

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    Amang Sudarsono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly performing athletes are susceptible to cardiac damage of several kinds which may be irreversible. The monitoring of heart rate and ECG waveforms from such subjects by wireless sensor networks has been reported in health and sports care documents. However, a more decisive parameter for instant to instant changes would be the time of Cardiac Action Potential Propagation. This time, which can be between 15-20 ms would shoot suddenly in acute stress in highly performing athletes for short durations. Repeated incidents of such rising values will tend to cause irreversible damage to the heart. We developed the technique of measuring this time and reporting it through a wireless sensor network to monitoring station.

  13. Social media and online attention as an early measure of the impact of research in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon R

    2014-09-15

    Traditional measures of the impact of published research, such as citation counts, are limited to measuring academic impact. The use of social media and other online tools as alternative measures of research impact is gaining popularity and used by leading medical journals. MEDLINE was searched for articles published with subject headings relating to solid organ transplantation between August 1, 2011, and July 31, 2012. Citation data were retrieved from SCOPUS, and statistics regarding mentions in social media, social bookmarking sites, news outlets, and expert recommendation sites were retrieved from the data at www.altmetric.com. Data were analyzed for associations between alternative metric data and citation rates. The search retrieved 6,981 publications. Sixty-six percent of the articles had at least one citation. Mentions in social media were 19.3%, 13.1% had social bookmarks, 0.9% had expert recommendations, and online news outlets picked up eight articles. Significantly higher citation rates were associated with mention in social media, expert recommendation, social bookmarking, and for articles identified as meta-analyses, multicenter studies, randomized controlled trials, and reviews (all P<0.001). The odds of an article being highly cited were significantly increased by a mention in social media (odds ratio, 2.58; P<0.001). Qualitative analysis suggests that article topics discussed on social media are more likely to relate to the more controversial and emotive areas of transplantation. Social media and online attention act as early predictors of the impact of transplant research as measured by later citation rate. Blogging and expert recommendation, in particular, are associated with higher citation rates.

  14. Length of Utterance, in Morphemes or in Words?: MLU3-w, a Reliable Measure of Language Development in Early Basque

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    Maria-José Ezeizabarrena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean length of utterace (MLU, which was proposed by Brown (1973 as a better index for language development in children than age, has been regularly reported in case studies as well as in cross-sectional studies on early spontaneous language production. Despite the reliability of MLU as a measure of (morpho-syntactic development having been called into question, its extensive use in language acquisition studies highlights its utility not only for intra- and inter-individual comparison in monolingual language acquisition, but also for cross-linguistic assessment and comparison of bilinguals' early language development (Müller, 1993; Yip and Matthews, 2006; Meisel, 2011. An additional issue concerns whether MLU should be measured in words (MLU-w or morphemes (MLU-m, the latter option being the most difficult to gauge, since new challenges have arisen regarding how to count zero morphemes, suppletive and fused morphemes. The different criteria have consequences, especially when comparing development in languages with diverging morphological complexity. A variant of MLU, the MLU3, which is calculated out of the three longest sentences produced (MLU3-w and MLU3-m, is included among the subscales of expressive language development in CDI parental reports (Fenson et al., 1993, 2007. The aim of the study is to investigate the consistency and utility of MLU3-w and MLU3-m as a measure for (morpho-syntactic development in Basque, an agglutinative language. To that end, cross-sectional data were obtained using either the Basque CDI-2 instrument (16- to 30-month-olds or the Basque CDI-3 (30- to 50-month-olds. The results of analyzing reports on over 1,200 children show three main findings. First, MLU3-w and MLU3-m can report equally well on very young children's development. Second, the strong correlations found between MLU3 and expressive vocabulary in the Basque CDI-2 and CDI-3 instruments, as well as between MLU3 and both nominal and verbal morphology

  15. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ:Development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring early relational trauma

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    Carola eMaggiora Vergano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ, in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect as well as other traumatic experiences, such rejection, role reversal, witnessing domestic violence, separations, and losses. The four-point Likert scale allows to specifically indicate with which caregiver the traumatic experience has occurred. A total of 229 participants, a sample of 79 nonclinical and that of 150 high-risk and clinical participants, were assessed with the ComplexTQ clinician version applied to Adult Attachment Interview (AAI transcripts. Initial analyses indicate acceptable inter-rater reliability. A good fit to a 6-factor model regarding the experience with the mother and to a 5-factor model with the experience with the father was obtained; the internal consistency of factors derived was good. Convergent validity was provided with the AAI scales. ComplexTQ factors discriminated normative from high-risk and clinical samples. The findings suggest a promising, reliable, and valid measurement of early relational trauma that is reported; furthermore, it is easy to complete and is useful for both research and clinical practice.

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and measures of early brain health in middle-aged adults: The CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Lisa B; Terry, James G; Chow, Lisa S; Alman, Amy C; Kang, Hakmook; Ingram, Katherine H; Shay, Christina; Lewis, Cora E; Bryan, R Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Jeffrey Carr, J

    2017-03-01

    To assess associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and measures of brain health in a population-based sample of adults. Participants from the CARDIA study (Y25 exam; age 43-55 years) with concurrent computed tomography quantification of liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images were included (n = 505). NAFLD was identified after exclusion of other causes of liver fat. Total tissue volume (TTV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow (GM-CBF) were estimated using 3T brain MR images. NAFLD prevalence was 18%. NAFLD was associated with lower TTV and GM-CBF after adjusting for intracranial volume, demographics, and health behaviors (P VAT (P = 0.06) and eliminated with BMI (P = 0.20). NAFLD was not associated with TTV after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.10) or additional adjustment for VAT (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.05). NAFLD is negatively associated with early brain health as assessed by MR measures of structure (TTV) and perfusion (GM-CBF). BMI and VAT attenuated this relationship, providing insight into the potential metabolic role of liver fat in brain health and disease. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Measures of Early Brain Health in Middle Aged Adults: The CARDIA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Lisa B.; Terry, James G.; Chow, Lisa S.; Alman, Amy C.; Kang, Hakmook; Ingram, Katherine H.; Shay, Christina; Lewis, Cora E.; Bryan, R. Nick; Launer, Lenore J.; Carr, J. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and measures of brain health in a population-based sample of adults. Methods Participants from the CARDIA study (Y25 exam; age 43–55 years) with concurrent CT quantification of liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images were included (n=505). NAFLD was identified after exclusion of other causes of liver fat. Total tissue volume (TTV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow (GM-CBF) were estimated using 3T brain MR images. Results NAFLD prevalence was 18%. NAFLD was associated with lower TTV and GM-CBF after adjusting for intracranial volume, demographics, and health behaviors (pVAT (p=0.06), and eliminated with BMI (p=0.20). NAFLD was not associated with TTV after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (p=0.10), or additional adjustment for VAT (p=0.14) or BMI (p=0.05). Conclusions NAFLD is negatively associated with early brain health as assessed by MR measures of structure (TTV) and perfusion (GM-CBF). BMI and VAT attenuated this relationship providing insight into the potential metabolic role of liver fat in brain health and disease. PMID:28169509

  18. Standardized measurement of the Modified Early Warning Score results in enhanced implementation of a Rapid Response System: a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Borgert, Marjon; Binnekade, Jan; Subbe, Christian; Dongelmans, Dave; Goossens, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of protocolized measurement (three times daily) of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) versus measurement on indication on the degree of implementation of the Rapid Response System (RRS). A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a University Hospital in Amsterdam between

  19. Characterization of Early Stage Marcellus Shale Development Atmospheric Emissions and Regional Air Quality Impacts using Fast Mobile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. D.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.; Knighton, W. B.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    at night. Median background mixing ratios of methane in Pennsylvania were observed to be 19.7 ppmv in the Southwestern part of the state and 20.5 ppmv in Northeast. The atmospheric background measurements provide information about the temporal and spatial characteristics of the Marcellus basin during the early stages of shale gas development.

  20. Parent-delivered early intervention in infants at risk for ASD: Effects on electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J H; Dawson, Geraldine; Kelly, Jean; Estes, Annette; Jane Webb, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infants with older siblings with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated that differences in the neurocognitive systems underlying social attention may emerge prior to the child meeting ASD diagnostic criteria. Thus, targeting social attention with early intervention might have the potential to alter developmental trajectories for infants at high risk for ASD. Electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention were collected at 6, 12, and 18 months in a group of high-risk infant siblings of children with ASD (N = 33). Between 9 and 11 months of age, infant siblings received a parent-delivered intervention, promoting first relationships (PFR), (n = 19) or on-going assessment without intervention (n = 14). PFR has been previously shown to increase parental responsivity to infant social communicative cues and infant contingent responding. Compared to infants who only received assessment and monitoring, infants who received the intervention showed improvements in neurocognitive metrics of social attention, as reflected in a greater reduction in habituation times to face versus object stimuli between 6 and 12 months, maintained at 18 months; a greater increase in frontal EEG theta power between 6 and 12 months; and a more comparable P400 response to faces and objects at 12 months. The high-risk infants who received the intervention showed a pattern of responses that appeared closer to the normative responses of two groups of age-matched low-risk control participants. Though replication is necessary, these results suggest that early parent-mediated intervention has the potential to impact the brain systems underpinning social attention in infants at familial risk for ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 961-972. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risedronate preserves bone architecture in early postmenopausal women in 1 year as measured by three-dimensional microcomputed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, T E; Chmielewski, P A; Manhart, M D; Johnson, T D; Borah, B

    2003-11-01

    Risedronate reduces the risk of vertebral fractures by up to 70% within the first year of treatment. Increases in bone mineral density or decreases in bone turnover markers explain only a portion of the anti-fracture effect, suggesting that other factors, such as changes in trabecular bone architecture, also play a role. Our objective was to determine the effects of risedronate on bone architecture by analyzing iliac crest bone biopsy specimens using three-dimensional microcomputed tomography (3-D micro CT). Biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline and after 1 year of treatment from women enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risedronate 5 mg daily for the prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss. Trabecular architecture deteriorated in the placebo group (n = 12), as indicated by a 20.3% decrease in bone volume (25.1% vs. 20.0%, P = 0.034), a 13.5% decrease in trabecular number (1.649 vs. 1.426 mm(-1), P = 0.052), a 13.1% increase in trabecular separation (605 vs. 684 microm, P = 0.056), and an 86.2% increase in marrow star volume (3.251 vs. 6.053 mm(3), P = 0.040) compared with baseline values. These changes in architectural parameters occurred in the presence of a concomitant decrease from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (-3.3%, P = 0.002), as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant ( P architecture deteriorated significantly in this cohort of early postmenopausal women, and that this deterioration was prevented by risedronate. Although there is no direct link in this study between fracture and preservation of architecture, it is reasonable to infer that the preservation of bone architecture may play a role in risedronate's anti-fracture efficacy.

  2. Time for action-Improving the design and reporting of behaviour change interventions for antimicrobial stewardship in hospitals: Early findings from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Peter; Peden, Claire; Charani, Esmita; Marwick, Charis; Michie, Susan

    2015-03-01

    There is strong evidence that self-monitoring and feedback are effective behaviour change techniques (BCTs) across a range of healthcare interventions and that their effectiveness is enhanced by goal setting and action planning. Here we report a summary of the update of a systematic review assessing the application of these BCTs to improving hospital antibiotic prescribing. This paper includes studies with valid prescribing outcomes published before the end of December 2012. We used a structured method for reporting these BCTs in terms of specific characteristics and contacted study authors to request additional intervention information. We identified 116 studies reporting 123 interventions. Reporting of BCTs was poor, with little detail of BCT characteristics. Feedback was only reported for 17 (13.8%) of the interventions, and self-monitoring was used in only 1 intervention. Goals were reported for all interventions but were poorly specified, with only three of the nine characteristics reported for ≥50% of interventions. A goal threshold and timescale were specified for just 1 of the 123 interventions. Only 29 authors (25.0%) responded to the request for additional information. In conclusion, both the content and reporting of interventions for antimicrobial stewardship fell short of scientific principles and practices. There is a strong evidence base regarding BCTs in other contexts that should be applied to antimicrobial stewardship now if we are to further our understanding of what works, for whom, why and in what contexts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Patient- and family-centered performance measures focused on actionable processes of care for persistent and chronic critical illness: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Istanboulian, Laura; Allum, Laura; Burry, Lisa; Dale, Craig; Hart, Nicholas; Kydonaki, Claire; Ramsay, Pam; Pattison, Natalie; Connolly, Bronwen

    2017-04-17

    Approximately 5 to 10% of critically ill patients transition from acute critical illness to a state of persistent and in some cases chronic critical illness. These patients have unique and complex needs that require a change in the clinical management plan and overall goals of care to a focus on rehabilitation, symptom relief, discharge planning, and in some cases, end-of-life care. However, existing indicators and measures of care quality, and tools such as checklists, that foster implementation of best practices, may not be sufficiently inclusive in terms of actionable processes of care relevant to these patients. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to identify the processes of care, performance measures, quality indicators, and outcomes including reports of patient/family experience described in the current evidence base relevant to patients with persistent or chronic critical illness and their family members. Two authors will independently search from inception to November 2016: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, the Joanna Briggs Institute and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We will include all study designs except case series/reports of quality indicators considered relevant to our population of interest and (2) themes related to patient and family experience. We will use our systematic review findings, with data from patient, family member and clinician interviews, and a subsequent consensus building process to inform the development of quality metrics and tools to measure processes of care, outcomes and experience for patients experiencing persistent or chronic critical illness and their family members. PROSPERO CRD42016052715.

  4. Measuring the modified early warning score and the Rothman index: advantages of utilizing the electronic medical record in an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, G Duncan; Rothman, Michael J; Smith, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Early detection of an impending cardiac or pulmonary arrest is an important focus for hospitals trying to improve quality of care. Unfortunately, all current early warning systems suffer from high false-alarm rates. Most systems are based on the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS); 4 of its 5 inputs are vital signs. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of MEWS against the Rothman Index (RI), a patient acuity score based upon summation of excess risk functions that utilize additional data from the electronic medical record (EMR). MEWS and RI scores were computed retrospectively for 32,472 patient visits. Nursing assessments, a category of EMR inputs only used by the RI, showed sharp differences 24 hours before death. Receiver operating characteristic curves for 24-hour mortality demonstrated superior RI performance with c-statistics, 0.82 and 0.93, respectively. At the point where MEWS triggers an alarm, we identified the RI point corresponding to equal sensitivity and found the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) for MEWS was 7.8, and for the RI was 16.9 with false alarms reduced by 53%. At the RI point corresponding to equal LR+, the sensitivity for MEWS was 49% and 77% for RI, capturing 54% more of those patients who will die within 24 hours. Published 2013. The Authors Journal of Hospital Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Hospital Medicine.

  5. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  6. Regulation of the Action of Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 on the Anaphase-promoting Complex/Cyclosome by Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshe, Yakir; Bar-On, Ortal; Ganoth, Dvora; Hershko, Avram

    2011-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation is characterized by alternating activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). During S-phase APC/C is inhibited by early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) to allow the accumulation of cyclins A and B and to prevent re-replication. Emi1 is degraded at prophase by a Plk1-dependent pathway. Recent studies in which the degradation pathway of Emi1 was disrupted have shown that APC/C is activated at mitotic entry despite stabilization of Emi1. These results suggested the possibility of additional mechanisms other than degradation of Emi1, which release APC/C from inhibition by Emi1 upon entry into mitosis. In this study we report one such mechanism, by which the ability of Emi1 to inhibit APC/C is negatively regulated by CDKs. We show that in Plk1-inhibited cells Emi1 is stabilized and phosphorylated, that Emi1 is phosphorylated by CDKs in mitotic but not S-phase cell extracts, and that Emi1 phosphorylation by mitotic cell extracts or purified CDKs markedly reduces the ability of Emi1 to bind and to inhibit APC/C. Finally, we show that the addition of extracts from S-phase cells to extracts from mitotic cells protects Emi1 from CDK-mediated inactivation. PMID:21454540

  7. The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)

    CERN Document Server

    Antón, M; Aparicio, A J P

    2014-01-01

    A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest dataset during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affect...

  8. Artificial neural networks allow the use of simultaneous measurements of Alzheimer Disease markers for early detection of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardoni Fabrizio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that in platelets of mild Alzheimer Disease (AD patients there are alterations of specific APP forms, paralleled by alteration in expression level of both ADAM 10 and BACE when compared to control subjects. Due to the poor linear relation among each key-element of beta-amyloid cascade and the target diagnosis, the use of systems able to afford non linear tasks, like artificial neural networks (ANNs, should allow a better discriminating capacity in comparison with classical statistics. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of ANNs in AD diagnosis. Methods 37 mild-AD patients and 25 control subjects were enrolled, and APP, ADM10 and BACE measures were performed. Fifteen different models of feed-forward and complex-recurrent ANNs (provided by Semeion Research Centre, based on different learning laws (back propagation, sine-net, bi-modal were compared with the linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Results The best ANN model correctly identified mild AD patients in the 94% of cases and the control subjects in the 92%. The corresponding diagnostic performance obtained with LDA was 90% and 73%. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that the processing of biochemical tests related to beta-amyloid cascade with ANNs allows a very good discrimination of AD in early stages, higher than that obtainable with classical statistics methods.

  9. Beyond the N400: complementary access to early neural correlates of novel metaphor comprehension using combined electrophysiological and haemodynamic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sabrina; Rapp, Alexander M; Haeußinger, Florian B; Ernst, Lena H; Hamm, Friedrich; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2014-04-01

    The simultaneous application of different neuroimaging methods combining high temporal and spatial resolution can uniquely contribute to current issues and open questions in the field of pragmatic language perception. In the present study, comprehension of novel metaphors was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with the simultaneous acquisition of electroencephalography (EEG)/event-related potentials (ERPs). For the first time, we investigated the effects of figurative language on early electrophysiological markers (P200, N400) and their functional relationship to cortical haemodynamic responses within the language network (Broca's area, Wernicke's area). To this end, 20 healthy subjects judged 120 sentences with respect to their meaningfulness, whereby phrases were either literal, metaphoric, or meaningless. Our results indicated a metaphor-specific P200 reduction and a linear increase of N400 amplitudes from literal over metaphoric to meaningless sentences. Moreover, there were metaphor related effects on haemodynamic responses accessed with NIRS, especially within the left lateral frontal cortex (Broca's area). Significant correlations between electrophysiological and haemodynamic responses indicated that P200 reductions during metaphor comprehension were associated with an increased recruitment of neural activity within left Wernicke's area, indicating a link between variations in neural activity and haemodynamic changes within Wernicke's area. This link may reflect processes related to interindividual differences regarding the ability to classify novel metaphors. The present study underlines the usefulness of simultaneous NIRS measurements in language paradigms - especially for investigating the functional significance of neurophysiological markers that have so far been rarely examined - as these measurements are easily and efficiently realizable and allow for a complementary examination of neural activity and associated metabolic

  10. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of radiation therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Shang, Yu; Li, Xingzhe; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-03-01

    Radiation therapy is a principal modality for head and neck cancers and its efficacy depends on tumor hemodynamics. Our laboratory developed a hybrid diffuse optical instrument allowing for simultaneous measurements of tumor blood flow and oxygenation. In this study, the clinically involved cervical lymph node was monitored by the hybrid instrument once a week over the treatment period of seven weeks. Based on treatment outcomes within one year, patients were classified into a complete response group (CR) and an incomplete response group (IR) with remote metastasis and/or local recurrence. A linear mixed models was used to compare tumor hemodynamic responses to the treatment between the two groups. Interestingly, we found that human papilloma virus (HPV-16) status largely affected tumor hemodynamic responses. For HPV-16 negative tumors, significant differences in blood flow index (BFI, p = 0.007) and reduced scattering coefficient (μs', p = 0.0005) were observed between the two groups; IR tumors exhibited higher μs' values and a continuous increase in BFI over the treatment period. For HPV-16 positive tumors, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) were significant different (p = 0.003 and 0.01, respectively); IR group showed lower [HbO2] and StO2. Our results imply HPV-16 negative tumors with higher density of vasculature (μs') and higher blood flow show poor responses to radiotherapy and HPV-16 positive tumors with lower tissue oxygenation level (lower StO2 and [HbO2]) exhibit poor treatment outcomes. Our diffuse optical measurements show the great potential for early prediction of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers.

  11. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  12. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  13. Classroom Assessment in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then…

  14. 'Soft' Measures - soft option or smarter choice for early energy savings in the transport sector?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anable, Jillian; Cairns, Sally; Sloman, Lynn; Goodwin, Phil; Kirkbride, Alistair; Newson, Carey [The Robert Gordon Univ., Aberdeen (United Kingdom). The UK Energy Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    was a strongly emphasised conclusion in the analysis. This paper asks whether soft measures are an effective way of bringing about early energy savings in the transport sector and a means of preparing the way for 'harder' policies in the medium and longer term.

  15. Measurement of volume change in cementitious materials at early ages - Review of testing protocols and interpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lura, Pietro; Weiss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks, pavements, and superstructure elements has served as the impetus for substantial research on early-age shrinkage in cementitious materials. Much of this research has indicated how mixture proportions, constituent materials, and construction operations...

  16. The Use of Ratiometric Fluorescence Measurements of the Voltage Sensitive Dye Di-4-ANEPPS to Examine Action Potential Characteristics and Drug Effects on Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigon-Vinagre, M P; Zamora, V; Burton, F L; Green, J; Gintant, G A; Smith, G L

    2016-12-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) and higher throughput platforms have emerged as potential tools to advance cardiac drug safety screening. This study evaluated the use of high bandwidth photometry applied to voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes (VSDs) to assess drug-induced changes in action potential characteristics of spontaneously active hiPSC-CM. Human iPSC-CM from 2 commercial sources (Cor.4U and iCell Cardiomyocytes) were stained with the VSD di-4-ANEPPS and placed in a specialized photometry system that simultaneously monitors 2 wavebands of emitted fluorescence, allowing ratiometric measurement of membrane voltage. Signals were acquired at 10 kHz and analyzed using custom software. Action potential duration (APD) values were normally distributed in cardiomyocytes (CMC) from both sources though the mean and variance differed significantly (APD 90 : 229 ± 15 ms vs 427 ± 49 ms [mean ± SD, P < 0.01]; average spontaneous cycle length: 0.99 ± 0.02 s vs 1.47 ± 0.35 s [mean ± SD, P < 0.01], Cor.4U vs iCell CMC, respectively). The 10-90% rise time of the AP (T rise ) was ∼6 ms and was normally distributed when expressed as 1/[Formula: see text] in both cell preparations. Both cell types showed a rate dependence analogous to that of adult human cardiac cells. Furthermore, nifedipine, ranolazine, and E4031 had similar effects on cardiomyocyte electrophysiology in both cell types. However, ranolazine and E4031 induced early after depolarization-like events and high intrinsic firing rates at lower concentrations in iCell CMC. These data show that VSDs provide a minimally invasive, quantitative, and accurate method to assess hiPSC-CM electrophysiology and detect subtle drug-induced effects for drug safety screening while highlighting a need to standardize experimental protocols across preparations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  17. Maternal consumption of a DHA-containing functional food benefits infant sleep patterning: an early neurodevelopmental measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Michelle P; Cong, Xiaomei; Harel, Ofer; Courville, Amber B; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is highly important during pregnancy for optimal development and functioning of fetal neural tissue. Infant ability to organize sleep and wake states following parturition is highly associated with later developmental outcomes. The impact of maternal DHA intake on sleep organization has not been previously investigated. To examine the effect of a DHA-containing functional food consumed during pregnancy on early neurobehavioral development as assessed by infant sleep patterning in the first 48 postnatal hours. A longitudinal, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design was used. Women (18-35 y) with no pregnancy complications consumed a cereal-based functional food (92 kcal) containing 300 mg DHA an average of 5 d/week or placebo bars (n=27 DHA, n=21 Placebo). The intervention began at 24 weeks gestation and continued until delivery (38-40 weeks). Infant sleep/wake states were measured on postnatal days 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) using a pressure sensitive mattress recording respiration and body movements. Using ANCOVA and controlling for ethnic variation, there were significant group differences in arousals in quiet sleep on D1 (P=0.006) and D2 (P=0.011) with fewer arousals in the DHA intervention group compared to the placebo group. Similarly, arousals in active sleep on D1 were significantly lower in the DHA-intervention group (P=0.012) compared to the placebo group. We conclude that increased prenatal supply of dietary DHA has a beneficial impact on infant sleep organization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Development of Early Literacy Measures for Use in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System: Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phoneme Segmenting. Technical Report # 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    In this technical report, the authors describe the development alternate forms of three types of early literacy measures as part of a comprehensive progress monitoring literacy assessment system developed in 2006 for use with students in Kindergarten through fourth grade. They begin with a brief overview of the two conceptual frameworks underlying…

  19. Is breast compression associated with breast cancer detection and other early performance measures in a population-based breast cancer screening program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate early performance measures in a population-based breast cancer screening program stratified by compression force and pressure at the time of mammographic screening examination. Early performance measures included recall rate, rates of screen-detected and interval breast cancers, positive predictive value of recall (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, and histopathologic characteristics of screen-detected and interval breast cancers. Information on 261,641 mammographic examinations from 93,444 subsequently screened women was used for analyses. The study period was 2007-2015. Compression force and pressure were categorized using tertiles as low, medium, or high. χ 2 test, t tests, and test for trend were used to examine differences between early performance measures across categories of compression force and pressure. We applied generalized estimating equations to identify the odds ratios (OR) of screen-detected or interval breast cancer associated with compression force and pressure, adjusting for fibroglandular and/or breast volume and age. The recall rate decreased, while PPV and specificity increased with increasing compression force (p for trend cancer, PPV, sensitivity, and specificity decreased with increasing compression pressure (p for trend breast cancer compared with low compression pressure (1.89; 95% CI 1.43-2.48). High compression force and low compression pressure were associated with more favorable early performance measures in the screening program.

  20. Early exposure to storybooks in the home: Validation of title/author checklist measures in a sample of children at elevated risk of reading difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Title/author checklists are a reliable and valid method of measuring young children's exposure to storybooks. Early storybook exposure is robustly associated with concurrent oral language; a correlation between storybook exposure and concurrent pre-literacy skills was observed for typically developing children, but not for children at elevated risk of reading difficulty.

  1. Measuring adherence among nurses one year after training in applying the Modified Early Warning Score and Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; de Jonge, Evert; Goossens, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Patients with a cardiac arrest or unplanned intensive care admission show gradual decline in clinical condition preceding the event. This can be objectified by measuring the vital parameters and subsequently determining the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS). Contact with the physician by nurses

  2. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  3. Re-evaluation of the action potential upstroke velocity as a measure of the Na+ current in cardiac myocytes at physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Berecki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SCN5A encoded sodium current (I(Na generates the action potential (AP upstroke and is a major determinant of AP characteristics and AP propagation in cardiac myocytes. Unfortunately, in cardiac myocytes, investigation of kinetic properties of I(Na with near-physiological ion concentrations and temperature is technically challenging due to the large amplitude and rapidly activating nature of I(Na, which may seriously hamper the quality of voltage control over the membrane. We hypothesized that the alternating voltage clamp-current clamp (VC/CC technique might provide an alternative to traditional voltage clamp (VC technique for the determination of I(Na properties under physiological conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied I(Na under close-to-physiological conditions by VC technique in SCN5A cDNA-transfected HEK cells or by alternating VC/CC technique in both SCN5A cDNA-transfected HEK cells and rabbit left ventricular myocytes. In these experiments, peak I(Na during a depolarizing VC step or maximal upstroke velocity, dV/dt(max, during VC/CC served as an indicator of available I(Na. In HEK cells, biophysical properties of I(Na, including current density, voltage dependent (inactivation, development of inactivation, and recovery from inactivation, were highly similar in VC and VC/CC experiments. As an application of the VC/CC technique we studied I(Na in left ventricular myocytes isolated from control or failing rabbit hearts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the alternating VC/CC technique is a valuable experimental tool for I(Na measurements under close-to-physiological conditions in cardiac myocytes.

  4. Re-evaluation of the action potential upstroke velocity as a measure of the Na+ current in cardiac myocytes at physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki, Géza; Wilders, Ronald; de Jonge, Berend; van Ginneken, Antoni C G; Verkerk, Arie O

    2010-12-31

    The SCN5A encoded sodium current (I(Na)) generates the action potential (AP) upstroke and is a major determinant of AP characteristics and AP propagation in cardiac myocytes. Unfortunately, in cardiac myocytes, investigation of kinetic properties of I(Na) with near-physiological ion concentrations and temperature is technically challenging due to the large amplitude and rapidly activating nature of I(Na), which may seriously hamper the quality of voltage control over the membrane. We hypothesized that the alternating voltage clamp-current clamp (VC/CC) technique might provide an alternative to traditional voltage clamp (VC) technique for the determination of I(Na) properties under physiological conditions. We studied I(Na) under close-to-physiological conditions by VC technique in SCN5A cDNA-transfected HEK cells or by alternating VC/CC technique in both SCN5A cDNA-transfected HEK cells and rabbit left ventricular myocytes. In these experiments, peak I(Na) during a depolarizing VC step or maximal upstroke velocity, dV/dt(max), during VC/CC served as an indicator of available I(Na). In HEK cells, biophysical properties of I(Na), including current density, voltage dependent (in)activation, development of inactivation, and recovery from inactivation, were highly similar in VC and VC/CC experiments. As an application of the VC/CC technique we studied I(Na) in left ventricular myocytes isolated from control or failing rabbit hearts. Our results demonstrate that the alternating VC/CC technique is a valuable experimental tool for I(Na) measurements under close-to-physiological conditions in cardiac myocytes.

  5. Measurement of macular pigment optical density among healthy Chinese people and patients with early-stage age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Tao Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To measure the macular pigment optical density (MPOD in healthy Chinese people and patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Cross-sectional population based study. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were ascertained by questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire was completed for all participants. Participants underwent general physical and ophthalmic examinations and MPOD was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Foveal architecture was measured by optical coherence tomography. MPOD of 225 participants (122 healthy and 103 early AMD was 0.48±0.18. Patients with early AMD (0.52±0.19 tended to have higher MPOD levels than healthy people (0.47±0.17, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.06. Participants with carrot or corn oil intake every week tended to have higher levels of MPOD (P=0.002 and 0.008 respectively while those with corn intake had relatively lower level of MPOD (P=0.01. MPOD increased with the center foveal thickness (P=0.01. Our findings show that there is no statistically significant association between MPOD and early AMD in the studied population. MPOD is related to center foveal thickness and diets would influence MPOD levels.

  6. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rubio-Codina

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs, measuring early childhood development (ECD with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests' are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3, Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II, Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2 and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII, WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor in 1,311 children 6-42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III, taken as the 'gold standard'. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests' cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales' concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence

  7. Dynamic properties of the action potential encoder in an insect mechanosensory neuron.

    OpenAIRE

    French, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of sensory receptors show adaptation to dynamic stimuli that can be well characterized as fractional differentiation of the input signal. The cause of this behavior is unknown, but because it can be represented by linear systems theory, it has been assumed to arise during early linear processes of transduction or adaptation, rather than during the nonlinear process of action potential encoding. I measured the action potential encoding properties of an insect mechanoreceptor by direc...

  8. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  9. Actionable Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  10. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of public..., is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and development, families..., researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and development for young children...

  11. Networks and Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, I.D.; Flores, R.; Koster, M.; Molina, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new measure for a group's ability to lead society to adopt their standard of behavior, which in particular takes account of the time the group takes to convince the whole society to adopt their position. This notion of a group's power to initiate action is computed as the

  12. Networks and collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, R.; Koster, M.; Lindner, I.; Molina, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new measure for a group's ability to lead society to adopt their standard of behavior, which in particular takes account of the time the group takes to convince the whole society to adopt their position. This notion of a group's power to initiate action is computed as the

  13. Values in Action with Early School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digney, Alison; Digney, John

    2013-01-01

    At a conference where he received the Circle of Courage Award, psychologist Christopher Peterson (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008) noted that there is something about the architecture of the human mind that causes it to overlook strengths. He suggested three reasons the focus needs to shift to strengths: (1) competence makes life most worth living;…

  14. Early Response-to-Intervention Measures and Criteria as Predictors of Reading Disability in 3rd Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Reading is the most valuable skill children must master early in schooling. Unfortunately, many students struggle to read and may be identified as having a Reading Disability (RD). In this dissertation, I explored the usefulness of the Response-to-Intervention (RtI) framework for identifying children with RD by examining the use of 1st and 2nd…

  15. Adapting the Mullen Scales of Early Learning for a Standardized Measure of Development in Children with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Tessa; LeBlanc, Jocelyn; DeGregorio, Geneva; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Barnes, Katherine; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is characterized by severe impairment in fine motor (FM) and expressive language (EL) function, making accurate evaluations of development difficult with standardized assessments. In this study, the administration and scoring of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) were adapted to eliminate the confounding effects of FM…

  16. Urinary Klotho measured by ELISA as an early biomarker of acute kidney injury in patients after cardiac surgery or coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Isidro; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Tomás, Patricia; Solís, Miguel Ángel; Ramos, Carmen; Juan, Isabel; Puchades, María Jesús; Saez, Guillermo; Blasco, María Luisa; Miguel, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after cardiac surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions which markedly worsens prognosis. In recent years, new early biomarkers of AKI have been identified, but many important aspects still remain to be solved. Klotho is a pleiotropic protein that acts as a paracrine and endocrine factor in multiple organs. Reduced renal Klotho levels have been show in several animal models of AKI. No study has been published in which Klotho was tested in humans as an early marker of AKI. The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of measuring urinary Klotho for the early diagnosis of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure undergoing cardiac surgery or coronary angiography. Urinary Klotho was measured 12 hours after intervention in 60 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure secondary to coronary or valvular conditions, who underwent coronary angiography (30 patients) or cardiac bypass surgery or heart valve replacement (30 patients). The primary endpoint used was the onset of AKI according to the RIFLE classification system. Human Klotho levels were measured using an ELISA assay. We found no differences in urinary Klotho levels between AKI patients and those who did not develop AKI. Moreover, there was not significant correlation between urinary Klotho levels and the presence of AKI. Urinary Klotho measured by ELISA does not seem to be a good candidate to be used as an early biomarker of AKI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Finger Stiffness Measured by Goniometry Method—A Simple Useful Tool for Early Diagnosis of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy After Colles' Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Rajesh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We assess the finger joint stiffness by measuring the active range of motion of all metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the involved hand with a hand goniometer. It is then compared with the normal hand for the effective range of total motion and thereby using it as a quantitative, qualitative, and reproducible method for early diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy after Colles' fracture. It is sensitive and specific.

  18. Simplicial Palatini action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the piecewise flat spacetime and a simplicial analog of the Palatini form of the general relativity (GR) action where the discrete Christoffel symbols are given on the tetrahedra as variables that are independent of the metric. Excluding these variables with the help of the equations of motion gives exactly the Regge action. This paper continues our previous work. Now, we include the parity violation term and the analog of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter introduced in the orthogonal connection form of GR. We consider the path integral and the functional integration over the connection. The result of the latter (for certain limiting cases of some parameters) is compared with the earlier found result of the functional integration over the connection for the analogous orthogonal connection representation of Regge action. These results, mainly as some measures on the lengths/areas, are discussed for the possibility of the diagram technique where the perturbative diagrams for the Regge action calculated using the measure obtained are finite. This finiteness is due to these measures providing elementary lengths being mostly bounded and separated from zero, just as the finiteness of a theory on a lattice with an analogous probability distribution of spacings.

  19. Comparison of two educational environments in early clinical exposure program based on Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH EBRAHIMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The undergraduate curriculum of Shiraz medical school underwent a major reform during the recent years. It comprised of integrated education, supplemented with an early clinical experience program. This study was carried out to find out how early experience in clinical experience affects medical students’ perception and identify strengths and limitations of the available methods and the environment of its delivery. Methods: During the academic year 2011-2012, this descriptive study was undertaken and the subjects were first year students studying medicine at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences using a DREEM questionnaire. Results: The DREEM questionnaire showed evidence of desirable educational climate during the program. Overall, 98 percent of the students were satisfied with the course and believed that the program helped them to become more familiar with the clinical environment and reduce their fear. Conclusion: The students’ satisfaction and their positive attitudes toward early clinical exposure suggested that this program improve the quality of basic science courses and implementation of personal and professional identity and also reduce students’ stress of hospital practice.

  20. Utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation" (CORE)-index in predicting obesity in childhood and adolescence in Greece from early life: the "National Action Plan for Public Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Moschonis, George; Karachaliou, Feneli; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Bogdanis, Gregory; Carayanni, Vilelmine; Hatzakis, Angelos; Michalacos, Stefanos

    2016-12-01

    CORE-index, a screening tool that estimates obesity risk in 9-13 year-old children. What is new? • The utility and applicability of the CORE-index as screening tool can be extended to the age range of 6-15 years. • The CORE-index is a cost-effective screening tool that can assist health professionals in initiating obesity preventive measures from early life.

  1. Comparison of handheld video camera and GAITRite® measurement of gait impairment in people with early stage Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Tim R; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A D

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated the validity and reliability of low-cost handheld video camera recordings for measuring gait in people with early stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Five participants with PD, Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II, mean age 66.2 years and five healthy age-matched controls were recruited. Participants walked across a GAITRite® electronic walkway at self-selected pace while video was simultaneously recorded. Data from both systems were analyzed and compared. Step time variability, measured from handheld video recordings, revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between the gait of early stage PD and controls. Concurrent validity between video analyses and GAITRite were good (ICC(2,1) ≥ 0.86) for mean step time and mean dual support duration. However, the inter-assessor reliability for the video analysis was poor for step time variability (ICC(2,1) = 0.18). More reliable measurement of step time variability may require a system to measure extended periods of walking. Further research involving longer walks and more participants with higher stages of PD is required to investigate if step time variability can be measured with acceptable reliability using video recordings. If this could be demonstrated, this simple technology could be adapted to run on a tablet or smart phone, providing low cost gait assessments without the need for specialized equipment and expensive infrastructure.

  2. What makes men leak? An investigation of objective and self-report measures of urinary incontinence early after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungovan, Sean F; Huijbers, Bregtje P; Hirschhorn, Andrew D; Patel, Manish I

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training for patients having radical prostatectomy promotes contraction of these muscles in anticipation of activities that may provoke urine leakage. The aims of this study were: to determine the contribution of the individual activities comprising a standardised 1-hour pad test (1HPT) to overall urine leakage early after radical prostatectomy; and to investigate relationships between the 1HPT, 24-hour pad test (24HPT) and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) early after radical prostatectomy. A prospective analysis of patients having radical prostatectomy and receiving pelvic floor muscle training (n = 33). Participants completed the 1HPT, 24HPT and ICIQ-SF at 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Participants wore a separate, pre-weighed continence pad for each of the seven activities comprising the 1HPT; pads were weighed separately and together to calculate activity-related and overall urine leakage. Walking at a comfortable speed and drinking while sitting were the two activities contributing most to overall urine leakage, albeit these activities also comprised 75% of 1HPT time. All component activities contributed a minimum 7 ± 5% of overall urine leakage. There were significant and strong to very strong correlations between all of the 1HPT, 24HPT, and ICIQ-SF at 3 weeks postoperatively. There were significant decreases in 24HPT (P = 0.032) and ICIQ-SF (P = 0.001) but no significant change in 1HPT from 3 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Pelvic floor muscle training should include contraction of these muscles in sedentary and walking postures. The 1HPT correlates well with the 24HPT, but may not be sensitive to early postoperative improvements in urinary leakage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Van Wijk, Eduard; Koval, Slavik; Van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be suitable for identifying patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Here, a panel of three physicians trained in TCM classified 44 pre-diabetic subjects into three syndrome subtypes using TCM-based diagnostics. In addition, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was measured at four anatomical sites in each subject. Ten properties encompassing 40 parameters were then extracted from the UPE time series. Statistical analyses, including multinomial logistic regression, were performed using the results of each parameter measured at the four sites. Sixteen UPE parameters were then selected and used to discriminate between the three subtypes of pre-diabetic subjects. Next, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between the 16 UPE parameters and the TCM-based diagnoses. The resulting correlation networks accurately reflected the differences between the three syndrome subtypes. These results suggest that UPE is a suitable tool for detecting subtypes in early-stage type 2 diabetes. In addition, our results provide evidence that TCM may represent an important step toward personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of psychological, social and contextual factors on the expression and measurement of awareness in early-stage dementia: testing a biopsychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Roberts, Judith; Whitaker, Christopher J; Markova, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-02-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to the influence of psychological and social factors on discrepancy-based measures of awareness. The present study tested a biopsychosocial model of awareness in early-stage dementia by gathering evidence regarding the relative contributions of neuropsychological, individual psychological and social factors to the level of scoring on measures used to index awareness. Awareness was assessed in relation to memory, activities of daily living and social functioning in 101 individuals with early-stage dementia participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness (MIDAS) Study. People with dementia (PwD) and carers also completed measures of individual psychological and social variables, and PwD completed measures of neuropsychological functioning. Scores on discrepancy-based indices of awareness and on the self-ratings and informant ratings contributing to these indices were associated with a range of factors including neuropsychological functioning of PwD, individual traits and dispositions and current affective functioning of PwD, socio-demographic characteristics of PwD and carers, carer well-being and carer perceptions of PwD and of quality of relationship with PwD. Patterns of association varied across domains of functioning. The findings support the relevance of a biopsychosocial approach to understanding the factors that influence unawareness of impairment in dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Singhal

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC, a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, primary motor cortex (M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA, showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1 ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2 early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  6. Distracted shareholders and corporate actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth; Manconi, Alberto; Spalt, Oliver

    Investor attention matters for corporate actions. Our new identification approach constructs firm-level shareholder "distraction" measures, by exploiting exogenous shocks to unrelated parts of institutional shareholders' portfolios. Firms with "distracted" shareholders are more likely to announce

  7. Coactivator Requirements for Serm Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeton, Erika K

    2005-01-01

    .... To determine if these corepressors are required for tamoxifen- mediated repression, their expression levels were reduced by RNA interference and the effects on tamoxifen action in breast cancer cells were measured...

  8. The dynamics of response as measured by multiple composite outcome tools in the TIght COntrol of inflammation in early Psoriatic Arthritis (TICOPA) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Laura C; Mahmood, Farrouq; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Helliwell, Philip S

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the dynamics of treatment response with different composite measures in the TIght COntrol of inflammation in early Psoriatic Arthritis (TICOPA) trial. Participants with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naïve psoriatic arthritis (PsA) were randomised 1:1 to either tight control (TC; 4 weekly review with therapy escalation if criteria not met) or standard care (SC; 12 weekly review). We calculated modified versions of the Psoriatic ArthritiS Disease Activity Score (PASDAS), Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) Composite scorE (GRACE) and Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index (CPDAI) at baseline and 12 weekly to 48 weeks by blinded assessor. For missing data, we used the last observation carried forward. Comparison between groups was made by analysis of covariance and comparison of area under the curve (AUC). 206 people were randomised to TC (n=101) or SC (n=105). Significant differences between treatment groups were seen (pcomposite measures). AUC analysis demonstrated a significant difference between groups for the PASDAS but not GRACE and CPDAI. For participants with oligoarthritis, a significant difference between groups was seen for each measure, although the significance levels were greatly diminished (PASDAS, p=0.04; GRACE p=0.01; CPDAI p=0.04). For oligoarthritis using AUC analysis, none of the measures could distinguish between groups. Composite measures of disease activity were able to distinguish between TICOPA treatment arms, although differences were diminished for those with oligoarthritis. Further data are needed to inform the preferred composite measure for use as the primary outcome in PsA trials. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01106079) and ISCRCTN registry (ISCRCTN30147736). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-06-01

    To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cortical activation to action perception is associated with action production abilities in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Wu, Rachel; Richards, John E; Elwell, Clare E; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which perception and action share common neural processes is much debated in cognitive neuroscience. Taking a developmental approach to this issue allows us to assess whether perceptual processing develops in close association with the emergence of related action skills within the same individual. The current study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the perception of human action in 4- to 6-month-old human infants. In addition, the infants' manual dexterity was assessed using the fine motor component of The Mullen Scales of Early Learning and an in-house developed Manual Dexterity task. Results show that the degree of cortical activation, within the posterior superior temporal sulcus--temporoparietal junction (pSTS-TPJ) region, to the perception of manual actions in individual infants correlates with their own level of fine motor skills. This association was not fully explained by either measures of global attention (i.e., looking time) or general developmental stage. This striking concordance between the emergence of motor skills and related perceptual processing within individuals is consistent with experience-related cortical specialization in the developing brain. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Contrast-Enhanced CMR Overestimates Early Myocardial Infarct Size: Mechanistic Insights Using ECV Measurements on Day 1 and Day 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Robert; Engblom, Henrik; Kanski, Mikael; Nordlund, David; Koul, Sasha; van der Pals, Jesper; Englund, Elisabet; Heiberg, Einar; Erlinge, David; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether an overestimation of infarct size on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) versus triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) exists acutely and whether it remains after 7 days in an experimental pig model and to elucidate possible mechanisms. Overestimation of infarct size (IS) on late gadolinium enhancement CMR early after acute myocardial infarction has been debated. Pigs were subjected to 40 min of left anterior descending artery occlusion and 6 h (n = 9) or 7 days (n = 9) reperfusion. IS by in vivo and ex vivo CMR was compared with TTC staining. Extracellular volume (ECV) was obtained from biopsies using technetium 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) and light microscopy. TTC slices were rescanned on CMR enabling slice-by-slice comparison. IS did not differ between in vivo and ex vivo CMR (p = 0.77). IS was overestimated by 27.3% with ex vivo CMR compared with TTC (p = 0.008) acutely with no significant difference at 7 days (p = 0.39). Slice-by-slice comparison showed similar results. A significant decrease in ECV was seen in biopsies of myocardium at risk (MaR) close to the infarct (sometimes referred to as the peri-infarction zone) over 7 days (48.3 ± 4.4% vs. 29.2 ± 2.4%; p = 0.0025). The ECV differed between biopsies of MaR close to the infarct and the rest of the salvaged MaR acutely (48.3 ± 4.4% vs. 32.4 ± 3.2%; p = 0.013) but not at 7 days (29.2 ± 2.4% vs 25.7 ± 1.4%; p = 0.23). CMR overestimates IS compared with TTC acutely but not at 7 days. This difference may be explained by higher ECV in MaR closest to the infarct acutely that decreases during 7 days to the same level as the rest of the salvaged MaR. The increased ECV in the MaR closest to the infarct day 1 could be due to severe edema or an admixture of infarcted and salvaged myocardium (partial volume) or both. Nonetheless, this could not be reproduced at 7 days. These results have implications for timing of magnetic resonance infarct imaging

  12. Infants Generate Goal-Based Action Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the actions of others is critical to smooth social interactions. Prior work suggests that both understanding and anticipation of goal-directed actions appears early in development. In this study, on-line goal prediction was tested explicitly using an adaptation of Woodward's (1998) paradigm for an eye-tracking task. Twenty 11-month-olds…

  13. Early-age acoustic emission measurements in hydrating cement paste: Evidence for cavitation during solidification due to self-desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Couch, J.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    . According to these experimental results, the acoustic emission measured around setting time was attributed to cavitation events occurring in the pores of the cement paste due to self-desiccation. This paper shows how acoustic emission might be used to indicate the time when the fluid–solid transition occurs...

  14. The Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors and Evidence of Measurement Equivalence in Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…

  15. Measuring Students' Emotions in the Early Years: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School (AEQ-ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Reiss, Kristina; Murayama, Kou

    2012-01-01

    This article reports about the development and validation of a measurement instrument assessing elementary school students' achievement emotions (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School, AEQ-ES). Specifically, the instrument assesses students' enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom pertaining to three types of academic settings (i.e.,…

  16. A Factor-Analytic Comparison of Two Measures of Masculinity-Femininity in Post and Early Adolescent Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carol J.

    Many researchers have questioned the validity of the underlying assumptions, the psychometric properties, and conceptualizations for both the older and new measures that generate two independent scores for masculinity and femininity. The assumptions of bipolarity and unidimensionality and the construct validity of existing masculinity/femininity…

  17. Imposed-Etic and Emic Measures of Intelligence as Predictors of Early School Performance of Rural Philippine Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1988-01-01

    Emic (culture-specific) and Western-type (imposed-etic) strategies were applied to the assessment of intelligence in 67 rural Filipino children. Imposed-etic tests measured a concept of intelligence that only partially overlaps emic conceptions, and were better predictors of school performance, which was not predicted by indigenous (emic)…

  18. Effectiveness of in-office blood pressure measurement by eye care practitioners in early detection and management of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. AlAnazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the number of hypertensive patients, the optometrist is able to identify by routinely taking blood pressure (BP measurements for patients in “at-risk” groups, and to sample patients’ opinions regarding in-office BP measurement. Many of the optometrists in Saudi Arabia practice in optical stores. These stores are wide spread, easily accessible and seldom need appointments. The expanding role of the optometrist as a primary health care provider (PHCP and the increasing global prevalence of hypertension, highlight the need for an integrated approach towards detecting and monitoring hypertension.METHODS:Automated BP measurements were made twice (during the same session at five selected optometry practices using a validated BP monitor (Omron M6 to assess the number of patients with high BP (HBP -in at-risk groups-visiting the eye clinic routinely. Prior to data collection, practitioners underwent a two-day training workshop by a cardiologist on hypertension and how to obtain accurate BP readings. A protocol for BP measurement was distributed and retained in all participating clinics. The general attitude towards cardiovascular health of 480 patients aged 37.2 (±12.4y and their opinion towards in-office BP measurement was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire.RESULTS: A response rate of 83.6% was obtained for the survey. Ninety-three of the 443 patients (21.0% tested for BP in this study had HBP. Of these, (62 subjects 66.7% were unaware of their HBP status. Thirty of the 105 subjects (28.6% who had previously been diagnosed with HBP, still had HBP at the time of this study, and only 22 (73.3% of these patients were on medication. Also, only 25% of the diagnosed hypertensive patients owned a BP monitor.CONCLUSION: Taking BP measurements in optometry practices, we were able to identify one previously undiagnosed patient with HBP for every 8 adults tested. We also identified 30 of 105 previously diagnosed patients

  19. Effectiveness of in-office blood pressure measurement by eye care practitioners in early detection and management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAnazi, Saud A; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; AlMubrad, Turki M; Ahmed, Hany K; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the number of hypertensive patients, the optometrist is able to identify by routinely taking blood pressure (BP) measurements for patients in "at-risk" groups, and to sample patients' opinions regarding in-office BP measurement. Many of the optometrists in Saudi Arabia practice in optical stores. These stores are wide spread, easily accessible and seldom need appointments. The expanding role of the optometrist as a primary health care provider (PHCP) and the increasing global prevalence of hypertension, highlight the need for an integrated approach towards detecting and monitoring hypertension. Automated BP measurements were made twice (during the same session) at five selected optometry practices using a validated BP monitor (Omron M6) to assess the number of patients with high BP (HBP) -in at-risk groups-visiting the eye clinic routinely. Prior to data collection, practitioners underwent a two-day training workshop by a cardiologist on hypertension and how to obtain accurate BP readings. A protocol for BP measurement was distributed and retained in all participating clinics. The general attitude towards cardiovascular health of 480 patients aged 37.2 (±12.4)y and their opinion towards in-office BP measurement was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. A response rate of 83.6% was obtained for the survey. Ninety-three of the 443 patients (21.0%) tested for BP in this study had HBP. Of these, (62 subjects) 66.7% were unaware of their HBP status. Thirty of the 105 subjects (28.6%) who had previously been diagnosed with HBP, still had HBP at the time of this study, and only 22 (73.3%) of these patients were on medication. Also, only 25% of the diagnosed hypertensive patients owned a BP monitor. Taking BP measurements in optometry practices, we were able to identify one previously undiagnosed patient with HBP for every 8 adults tested. We also identified 30 of 105 previously diagnosed patients whose BP was poorly controlled, twenty-two of

  20. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  1. Study of the early stages of clustering in Al-Mg-Si alloys using the electrical resistivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedrezai, Hossein, E-mail: seyedrh@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University,1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Grebennikov, Dmitrij; Mascher, Peter [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University,1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zurob, Hatem S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University,1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    The natural ageing of Al-0.5%Mg-1%Si alloy at low temperatures, namely, -20, 0, RT and 50 deg. C, is investigated through the use of the electrical resistivity measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. It was found that over extended periods of time, the resistivity increases linearly with the logarithm of time. More importantly, three clear stages of clustering were observed during natural ageing. The possible origin of these three distinct stages was briefly discussed. As well, the activation energy of clustering during the second stage was calculated using the cross-cut technique. The measured value was relatively close to the migration energies of vacancies and solute atoms (Mg/Si) which suggested an important role of them in the clustering process. Finally it was found that the solution treatment temperature does not have a significant effect on the mechanism of clustering.

  2. Joint storybook reading measured with children's book title checklist and the children's language development in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Bajc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the relationship between parental educational level, joint storybook reading and children's language competence. Our sample included 123 5-year-old children attending one of the Slovenian preschools. Frequency of parent-child joint storybook reading was measured indirectly with the children's book title checklist, which was used in the Slovenian language environment for the first time, and which, in comparison with the parents' report about how often they read to their children, represents a more objective measure of storybook exposure. By using checklist we avoid socially desirable responses, which parents give because they think that reading is important for children's language development. We found out that parental education is positively related to the parental familiarity with the titles of books for children. Furthermore, the results show that storybook exposure is, regardless of parental educational level, a factor of home environment which makes an important contribution to the development of children's language competence.

  3. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ): development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring early relational trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Maggiora Vergano, Carola; Lauriola, Marco; Speranza, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: ...

  4. Frequency-domain inverse Monte Carlo simulation for the diagnosis of the early cervical cancer based on NIR diffuse measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Shunqi; Wang, Zhaoxia; Miao, Hui; Du, Zhen; Jiang, Jingying

    2008-02-01

    This article aims at the optical parameter reconstruction technology for the frequency- domain measurement of near-infrared diffused light. For mimicking the cervix, a cylindrical model with hole in the middle is used in the simulation and experiments. Concerning the structure of the cervix, Monte-Carlo simulation is adopted for describing the photon migration in tissue and Perturbation Monte-Carlo is used for the reconstruction of the optical properties of cervix. The difficulties in the reconstruction of cervical optical properties with frequency domain measurement are the description of the tissue boundary, expression of the frequency-domain signal, and development of rapid reconstruction method for clinical use. To get the frequency domain signal in Monte Carlos simulation, discrete Fourier transformation of the photon migration history in time-domain is employed. By combining the perturbation Monte-Carlo simulation and the LM optimization technology, a rapid reconstruction algorithm is constructed, by which only one Monte-Carlo simulation is needed. The reconstruction method is validated by simulation and experiments on solid phantom. Simulation results show that the inaccuracy in reconstruction of absorption coefficient is less than 3% for a certain range of optical properties. The algorithm is also proved to be robust to the initial guess of optical properties and noise. Experimental results showed that the absorption coefficient can be reconstructed with inaccuracy of less than 10%. The absorption coefficient reconstruction for one set of measurement data can be fulfilled within one minute.

  5. Physiotherapy treatment for atraumatic recurrent shoulder instability: early results of a specific exercise protocol using pathology-specific outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Marcus; Smith, Benjamin E; Osborne, Sally E; Wilkes, Sally R

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability is usually caused by a traumatic event resulting in structural pathology, although a small subgroup of patients experience symptomatic recurrent shoulder instability without trauma. These patients are usually treated non-operatively but limited evidence exists regarding effective conservative management. In particular, there is a lack of reproducible exercise regimes and none that have been tested with condition-specific outcome measures. A service evaluation was conducted over a 15-month period to assess our current treatment protocol used in the management of patients with atraumatic recurrent shoulder instability. The regime is reproducible with target-led progression milestones. Oxford Instability Shoulder Scores (OISS) and Western Ontario Shoulder Index (WOSI) scores were compared between baseline and final follow-up. Eighteen consecutive patients were included with mean follow-up of 4.5 months (range 1.35 months to 11.77 months). A statistically significant improvement was seen in both outcome measures. Mean OISS improved by 16.67 points (confidence interval: 12.34 to 20.99; p shoulder instability, the Derby Shoulder Instability Programme produced significant improvements over the short term, with a high level of patient compliance. This is the first study to include pathology-specific patient-reported outcome measures to assess outcomes from a specific and reproducible exercise regime in this group of patients. The findings support further research to evaluate the exercise protocol in a larger group of patients over the longer term.

  6. A novel approach with "skeletonised MTR" measures tract-specific microstructural changes in early primary-progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Benedetta; Cercignani, Mara; Toosy, Ahmed; De Stefano, Nicola; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2014-02-01

    We combined tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to assess white matter (WM) tract-specific short-term changes in early primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and their relationships with clinical progression. Twenty-one PPMS patients within 5 years from onset underwent MT and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at baseline and after 12 months. Patients' disability was assessed. DTI data were processed to compute fractional anisotropy (FA) and to generate a common WM "skeleton," which represents the tracts that are "common" to all subjects using TBSS. The MT ratio (MTR) was computed from MT data and co-registered with the DTI. The skeletonization procedure derived for FA was applied to each subject's MTR image to obtain a "skeletonised" MTR map for every subject. Permutation tests were used to assess (i) changes in FA, principal diffusivities, and MTR over the follow-up, and (ii) associations between changes in imaging parameters and changes in disability. Patients showed significant decreases in MTR over one year in the corpus callosum (CC), bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), thalamic radiations, and superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. These changes were located both within lesions and the normal-appearing WM. No significant longitudinal change in skeletonised FA was found, but radial diffusivity (RD) significantly increased in several regions, including the CST bilaterally and the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. MTR decreases, RD increases, and axial diffusivity decreases in the CC and CST correlated with a deterioration in the upper limb function. We detected tract-specific multimodal imaging changes that reflect the accrual of microstructural damage and possibly contribute to clinical impairment in PPMS. We propose a novel methodology that can be extended to other diseases to map cross-subject and tract-specific changes in MTR. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measuring disease progression in early Parkinson disease: the National Institutes of Health Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashos, Sotirios A; Luo, Sheng; Biglan, Kevin M; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan; He, Bo; Liang, Grace S; Ross, G Webster; Tilley, Barbara C; Shulman, Lisa M

    2014-06-01

    Optimizing assessments of rate of progression in Parkinson disease (PD) is important in designing clinical trials, especially of potential disease-modifying agents. To examine the value of measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life in assessing progression in early PD. Inception cohort analysis of data from 413 patients with early, untreated PD who were enrolled in 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (67 received creatine, 66 received minocycline, 71 received coenzyme Q10, 71 received GPI-1485, and 138 received placebo). We assessed the association between the rates of change in measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life and time to initiation of symptomatic treatment. Time between baseline assessment and need for the initiation of symptomatic pharmaceutical treatment for PD was the primary indicator of disease progression. After adjusting for baseline confounding variables with regard to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part II score, the UPDRS Part III score, the modified Rankin Scale score, level of education, and treatment group, we assessed the rate of change for the following measurements: the UPDRS Part II score; the UPDRS Part III score; the Schwab and England Independence Scale score (which measures activities of daily living); the Total Functional Capacity scale; the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, summary index, and activities of daily living subscale; and version 2 of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey Physical Summary and Mental Summary. Variables reaching the statistical threshold in univariate analysis were entered into a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model using time to symptomatic treatment as the dependent variable. More rapid change (ie, worsening) in the UPDRS Part II score (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.22] for 1 scale unit change per 6 months), the UPDRS Part III score (hazard ratio, 1.09 [95

  8. Early Predictors of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in 8–10 Year Old Children: The Gateshead Millennium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S.; Basterfield, Laura; Mann, Kay D.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2012-01-01

    Background With a number of studies suggesting associations between early life influences and later chronic disease risk, it is suggested that associations between early growth and later physical activity (PA) may be a mediator. However, conflicting evidence exists for association between birth weight and childhood PA. In addition, it is important to know what other, potentially modifiable, factors may influence PA in children given its’ association with childhood and later adiposity. We used the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS) to identify predictors of childhood PA levels. Methods The GMS is a cohort of 1029 infants born in 1999–2000 in Gateshead in northern England. Throughout infancy and early childhood, detailed information was collected. Assessments at age 9 years included body composition, objective measures of habitual PA and a range of lifestyle factors. Mean total volumes of PA (accelerometer count per minute, cpm) and moderate-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), and the percentage of time spent in sedentary behaviour (%SB) were quantified and related to potential predictors using linear regression and path analysis. Results Children aged 8–10 years were included. Significant differences were seen in all three outcome variables between sexes and season of measurement (psports clubs was significantly associated with decreased %SB (p = 0.02). No significant associations were seen with birth weight. Conclusion A range of factors, directly or indirectly, influenced PA and sedentary behaviour. However, associations differed between the different constructs of PA and %SB. Exploring further the sex differences in PA would appear to be useful, as would encouraging children to join out of school sports clubs. PMID:22745660

  9. Early predictors of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 8-10 year old children: the Gateshead Millennium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Basterfield, Laura; Mann, Kay D; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Adamson, Ashley J; Reilly, John J

    2012-01-01

    With a number of studies suggesting associations between early life influences and later chronic disease risk, it is suggested that associations between early growth and later physical activity (PA) may be a mediator. However, conflicting evidence exists for association between birth weight and childhood PA. In addition, it is important to know what other, potentially modifiable, factors may influence PA in children given its' association with childhood and later adiposity. We used the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS) to identify predictors of childhood PA levels. The GMS is a cohort of 1029 infants born in 1999-2000 in Gateshead in northern England. Throughout infancy and early childhood, detailed information was collected. Assessments at age 9 years included body composition, objective measures of habitual PA and a range of lifestyle factors. Mean total volumes of PA (accelerometer count per minute, cpm) and moderate-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), and the percentage of time spent in sedentary behaviour (%SB) were quantified and related to potential predictors using linear regression and path analysis. Children aged 8-10 years were included. Significant differences were seen in all three outcome variables between sexes and season of measurement (psports clubs was significantly associated with decreased %SB (p = 0.02). No significant associations were seen with birth weight. A range of factors, directly or indirectly, influenced PA and sedentary behaviour. However, associations differed between the different constructs of PA and %SB. Exploring further the sex differences in PA would appear to be useful, as would encouraging children to join out of school sports clubs.

  10. Early predictors of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 8-10 year old children: the Gateshead Millennium Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearce

    Full Text Available With a number of studies suggesting associations between early life influences and later chronic disease risk, it is suggested that associations between early growth and later physical activity (PA may be a mediator. However, conflicting evidence exists for association between birth weight and childhood PA. In addition, it is important to know what other, potentially modifiable, factors may influence PA in children given its' association with childhood and later adiposity. We used the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS to identify predictors of childhood PA levels.The GMS is a cohort of 1029 infants born in 1999-2000 in Gateshead in northern England. Throughout infancy and early childhood, detailed information was collected. Assessments at age 9 years included body composition, objective measures of habitual PA and a range of lifestyle factors. Mean total volumes of PA (accelerometer count per minute, cpm and moderate-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA, and the percentage of time spent in sedentary behaviour (%SB were quantified and related to potential predictors using linear regression and path analysis.Children aged 8-10 years were included. Significant differences were seen in all three outcome variables between sexes and season of measurement (p<0.001. Restricting children's access to television was associated with decreased MVPA. Increased paternal age was associated with significant increases in %SB (p = 0.02, but not MVPA or total PA. Increased time spent in out of school sports clubs was significantly associated with decreased %SB (p = 0.02. No significant associations were seen with birth weight.A range of factors, directly or indirectly, influenced PA and sedentary behaviour. However, associations differed between the different constructs of PA and %SB. Exploring further the sex differences in PA would appear to be useful, as would encouraging children to join out of school sports clubs.

  11. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  12. Measurement of TLR-induced macrophage spreading by automated image analysis: differential role of Myd88 and MAPK in early and late responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eWenzel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensing of infectious danger by Toll-like receptors (TLR on macrophages causes not only a reprogramming of the transcriptome but also changes in the cytoskeleton important for cell spreading and motility. Since manual determination of cell contact areas from fluorescence microscopy pictures is very time consuming and prone to bias, we have developed and tested algorithms for automated measurement of macrophage spreading. The two-step method combines identification of cells by nuclear staining with DAPI and cell surface staining of the integrin CD11b. Automated image analysis correlated very well with manual annotation in resting macrophages and early after stimulation, whereas at later time points the automated cell segmentation algorithm and manual annotation showed slightly larger variation. The method was applied to investigate the impact of genetic or pharmacological inhibition of known TLR signaling components. Deificiency in the adapter protein Myd88 strongly reduced spreading activity at the late time points, but had no impact early after LPS stimulation. A similar effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of MEK1, the kinase activating the MAPK ERK1/2, indicating that ERK1/2 mediates Myd88-dependent macrophages spreading. In contrast, macrophages lacking the MAPK p38 were impaired in the initial spreading response but responded normally 8 – 24 h after stimulation. The dichotomy of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK effects on early and late macrophage spreading raises the question which of the respective substrate proteins mediate(s cytoskeletal remodeling and spreading. The automated measurement of cell spreading described here increases the objectivity and greatly reduces the time required for such investigations and is therefore expected to facilitate larger through-put analysis of macrophage spreading, e.g. in siRNA knockdown screens.

  13. Measurement of TLR-Induced Macrophage Spreading by Automated Image Analysis: Differential Role of Myd88 and MAPK in Early and Late Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Jens; Held, Christian; Palmisano, Ralf; Teufel, Stefan; David, Jean-Pierre; Wittenberg, Thomas; Lang, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Sensing of infectious danger by toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages causes not only a reprogramming of the transcriptome but also changes in the cytoskeleton important for cell spreading and motility. Since manual determination of cell contact areas from fluorescence micrographs is very time-consuming and prone to bias, we have developed and tested algorithms for automated measurement of macrophage spreading. The two-step method combines identification of cells by nuclear staining with DAPI and cell surface staining of the integrin CD11b. Automated image analysis correlated very well with manual annotation in resting macrophages and early after stimulation, whereas at later time points the automated cell segmentation algorithm and manual annotation showed slightly larger variation. The method was applied to investigate the impact of genetic or pharmacological inhibition of known TLR signaling components. Deficiency in the adapter protein Myd88 strongly reduced spreading activity at the late time points, but had no impact early after LPS-stimulation. A similar effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of MEK1, the kinase activating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2, indicating that ERK1/2 mediates Myd88-dependent macrophages spreading. In contrast, macrophages lacking the MAPK p38 were impaired in the initial spreading response but responded normally 8–24 h after stimulation. The dichotomy of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK effects on early and late macrophage spreading raises the question which of the respective substrate proteins mediate(s) cytoskeletal remodeling and spreading. The automated measurement of cell spreading described here increases the objectivity and greatly reduces the time required for such investigations and is therefore expected to facilitate larger throughput analysis of macrophage spreading, e.g., in siRNA knockdown screens. PMID:22028692

  14. Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between baseline brain metabolism measured using [¹⁸F]FDG PET and memory and executive function in prodromal and early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, Christian; Risacher, Shannon; Lee, Grace J; Glymour, M Maria; Mormino, Elizabeth; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; DeCarli, Charles; Saykin, Andrew J; Crane, Paul K

    2012-12-01

    Differences in brain metabolism as measured by FDG-PET in prodromal and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been consistently observed, with a characteristic parietotemporal hypometabolic pattern. However, exploration of brain metabolic correlates of more nuanced measures of cognitive function has been rare, particularly in larger samples. We analyzed the relationship between resting brain metabolism and memory and executive functioning within diagnostic group on a voxel-wise basis in 86 people with AD, 185 people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 86 healthy controls (HC) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We found positive associations within AD and MCI but not in HC. For MCI and AD, impaired executive functioning was associated with reduced parietotemporal metabolism, suggesting a pattern consistent with known AD-related hypometabolism. These associations suggest that decreased metabolic activity in the parietal and temporal lobes may underlie the executive function deficits in AD and MCI. For memory, hypometabolism in similar regions of the parietal and temporal lobes were significantly associated with reduced performance in the MCI group. However, for the AD group, memory performance was significantly associated with metabolism in frontal and orbitofrontal areas, suggesting the possibility of compensatory metabolic activity in these areas. Overall, the associations between brain metabolism and cognition in this study suggest the importance of parietal and temporal lobar regions in memory and executive function in the early stages of disease and an increased importance of frontal regions for memory with increasing impairment.

  16. [Post-operative cardiac rehabilitation programs for early returning to daily life activities: self-measurement of heart rate and blood pressure during staying at home trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashio, Mami; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Onishi, Yumiko; Tomatsu, Ayumi; Shimada, Yoko; Okamura, Shizuko; Shirai, Midori

    2003-02-01

    Recently, early mobilization and discharge after cardiac surgery have been recommended. However, many patients are anxious about returning to daily life soon after undergoing heart operations. To resolve this problem, an individualized rehabilitation plan for each patient is important. Rehabilitation programs must estimate the level of cardiac function in daily life. This study evaluated self-measurements of heart rate and blood pressure during home-based exercise training. Thirty-six patients, 28 men and 8 women (mean age 58 +/- 19 years) who underwent cardiac operations were enrolled in this study. None of the patients experienced postoperative complications. Changes in heart rate and blood pressure during daily activities at home were measured by the patients. This data was then used to plan individual rehabilitation programs. The blood pressure rose from 114 +/- 17 to 139 +/- 21 mmHg (mean increase of 25 +/- 15 mmHg) when the patients were asked to walk up and down a set of stairs. Thirteen patients (36%) exhibited an increase in blood pressure of 30 mmHg or more while ascending the stairs. The patients' blood pressure returned to its pre-exercise level after 5 min. The heart rate rose from 84 +/- 15 to 113 +/- 14 beats/min (mean increase of 29 +/- 8 beats/min) during the exercise. During the home-based training period, the maximum blood pressure was 133 +/- 22 mmHg, and the maximum heart rate was 97 +/- 13 beats/min. The patients were very careful during their trial outpatient period, as this was their first post-cardiac surgery experience. Consequently, the degree of exercise at home was even more mild than in hospital. Self-measurement of heart rate and blood pressure was feasible. By referring to these measurements, the patients were able to monitor and increase their level of exercise. This post-cardiac surgery rehabilitation program is helpful for early returning to daily life activities.

  17. Early osteoarthritis and microdialysis: a novel in vivo approach for measurements of biochemical markers in the perisynovium and intraarticularly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, Ida Carøe; Mikkelsen, U R; Krogsgaard, M R

    2010-01-01

    The microdialysis technique was evaluated as a possible method to obtain local measurements of biochemical markers from knee joints with degenerative changes. Seven patients scheduled for arthroscopy of the knee due to minor to moderate degenerative changes had microdialysis catheters inserted...... under ultrasonographic guidance, intraarticularly and in the synovium-close tissue. Catheters were perfused at a rate of 2 μl/min for approximately 100 min with a Ringer solution containing radioactively labeled glucose, and the positions of the catheters were later visualized during arthroscopy. All...

  18. Serum Leptin Measured in Early Pregnancy Is Higher in Women With Preeclampsia Compared With Normotensive Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Brandie; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in reproduction and angiogenesis. Studies examining leptin in preeclampsia are inconsistent, possibly because of small sample sizes and variability in sampling and outcome. We conducted a nested case-control study to examine associations...... between serum leptin (measured: 9-26 weeks gestation) and preeclampsia among 430 primiparous preeclamptic women and 316 primiparous normotensive controls from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Median (interquartile range) leptin concentrations were calculated. Associations between leptin and preeclampsia...... (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg), term preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery ≥37 weeks gestation), or preterm preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery

  19. Restraint-free wearable sensing clothes using a hetero-core optic fiber for measurements of arm motion and walking action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Michiko; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, unrestrained monitoring human posture and action is a field of increasing interest in the welfare of the elderly and the sport-biomechanics. The scope is this study is that we develop a wearable sensing clothes, which can detect entire body posture and motion using a hetero-core optic fiber sensor. This newly developed sensor can offers several advantages such as the simplicity of structure and fabrication, the stable single mode based operation, the temperature independent property, and the precise loss controllability on given macro bending. These properties are suitable for implementing unrestrained wearable clothes. In this paper, for monitoring flexion of joint without the disturbance of the rucks in the clothes, we proposed and fabricated the improved module structured in the joint ranging 0-90 degree. Additionally, in order to reduce the number of transmission line to be added due to monitoring the whole body posture and motion, we tested that two hetero-core sensors which are tandem placed in a single transmission line have been discriminated by the temporal differential of the optical loss. As a result, we have successfully demonstrated that the wearable sensing clothes could monitor arm motion and human walking without restraint to human daily behavior.

  20. Type Ia Supernova Rate Measurements to Redshift 2.5 from Candles: Searching for Prompt Explosions in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Strogler, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Graur, Or; Casertano, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Garnavich, Peter; Cenko, Stephen Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) that surveyed a total area of approx. 0.25 deg(sup 2) with approx.900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z approx. 2.5. We classify approx. 24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only approx. 3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction isfP0.530.09stat0.100.10sys0.26, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simplet1power law for all timest40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20 of all SN Ia explosions though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  1. Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne B; Arseneault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-01-01

    Both prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports may be used to measure childhood maltreatment, though both methods entail potential limitations such as underestimation and memory biases. The validity and utility of standard measures of childhood maltreatment requires clarification in order to inform the design of future studies investigating the mental health consequences of maltreatment. The present study assessed agreement between prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment, as well as the comparative utility of both reports for predicting a range of psychiatric problems at age 18. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative birth cohort of 2232 children followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). Childhood maltreatment was assessed in two ways: (i) prospective informant-reports from caregivers, researchers, and clinicians when children were aged 5, 7, 10 and 12; and (ii) retrospective self-reports of maltreatment experiences occurring up to age 12, obtained at age 18 using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants were privately interviewed at age 18 concerning several psychiatric problems including depression, anxiety, self-injury, alcohol/cannabis dependence, and conduct disorder. There was only slight to fair agreement between prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment (all Kappa's ≤ 0.31). Both prospective and retrospective reports of maltreatment were associated with age-18 psychiatric problems, though the strongest associations were found when maltreatment was retrospectively self-reported. These findings indicate that prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment capture largely non-overlapping groups of individuals. Young adults who recall being maltreated have a particularly elevated risk for psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  2. A Short and Distinct Time Window for Recovery of Arm Motor Control Early After Stroke Revealed With a Global Measure of Trajectory Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Juan C; Goldsmith, Jeff; Harran, Michelle D; Xu, Jing; Kim, Nathan; Schambra, Heidi M; Luft, Andreas R; Celnik, Pablo; Krakauer, John W; Kitago, Tomoko

    2017-06-01

    Studies demonstrate that most arm motor recovery occurs within three months after stroke, when measured with standard clinical scales. Improvements on these measures, however, reflect a combination of recovery in motor control, increases in strength, and acquisition of compensatory strategies. To isolate and characterize the time course of recovery of arm motor control over the first year poststroke. Longitudinal study of 18 participants with acute ischemic stroke. Motor control was evaluated using a global kinematic measure derived from a 2-dimensional reaching task designed to minimize the need for antigravity strength and prevent compensation. Arm impairment was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE), activity limitation with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and strength with biceps dynamometry. Assessments were conducted at: 1.5, 5, 14, 27, and 54 weeks poststroke. Motor control in the paretic arm improved up to week 5, with no further improvement beyond this time point. In contrast, improvements in the FMA-UE, ARAT, and biceps dynamometry continued beyond 5 weeks, with a similar magnitude of improvement between weeks 5 and 54 as the one observed between weeks 1.5 and 5. Recovery after stroke plateaued much earlier for arm motor control, isolated with a global kinematic measure, compared to motor function assessed with clinical scales. This dissociation between the time courses of kinematic and clinical measures of recovery may be due to the contribution of strength improvement to the latter. Novel interventions, focused on the first month poststroke, will be required to exploit the narrower window of spontaneous recovery for motor control.

  3. EMC measurements on site and precautionary action to reduce electrosmog; EMVU-Messungen vor Ort und Massnahmen zur Verringerung von ''Elektrosmog''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuschek, M. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft fuer Geowissenschaften und Umwelttechnik (IGU), Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The paper contains information and recommendations relating to procedures and criteria for recruiting personnel with the required know-how in electromagnetic compatibility measurements, to perform the functions of an EMC monitoring and measuring officer. The typical functions and activities of an EMC expert are described by two different examples. (orig./CB) [German] Es werden einige Hinweise gegeben, wie ein geeigneter Fachmann fuer die Bearbeitung einer Aufgabenstellung auf dem Gebiet der EMVU aus einer Anzahl von potenziellen Kandidaten ausgewaehlt werden kann. Ausserdem werden an Hand von zwei gegensaetzlichen Beispielen die typischen Taetigkeitsfelder von EMVU-Fachleuten dargestellt. (orig.)

  4. Airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties related to early spring transport of mid-latitude sources into the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. de Villiers

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne lidar and in-situ measurements of the aerosol properties were conducted between Svalbard Island and Scandinavia in April 2008. Evidence of aerosol transport from Europe and Asia is given. The analysis of the aerosol optical properties based on a multiwavelength lidar (355, 532, 1064 nm including volume depolarization at 355 nm aims at distinguishing the role of the different aerosol sources (Siberian wild fires, Eastern Asia and European anthropogenic emissions. Combining, first aircraft measurements, second FLEXPART simulations with a calculation of the PBL air fraction originating from the three different mid-latitude source regions, and third level-2 CALIPSO data products (i.e. backscatter coefficient 532 nm,volume depolarization and color ratio between 1064 and 532 nm in aerosol layers along the transport pathways, appears a valuable approach to identify the role of the different aerosol sources even after a transport time larger than 4 days. Optical depth of the aerosol layers are always rather small (<4% while transported over the Arctic and ratio of the total attenuated backscatter (i.e. including molecular contribution provide more stable result than conventional aerosol backscatter ratio. Above Asia, CALIPSO data indicate more depolarization (up to 15% and largest color ratio (>0.5 for the northeastern Asia emissions (i.e. an expected mixture of Asian pollution and dust, while low depolarization together with smaller and quasi constant color ratio (≈0.3 are observed for the Siberian biomass burning emissions. A similar difference is visible between two layers observed by the aircraft above Scandinavia. The analysis of the time evolution of the aerosol optical properties revealed by CALIPSO between Asia and Scandinavia shows a gradual decrease of the aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio and color ratio which suggests the removal of the largest particles in the accumulation mode. A similar study conducted for a European

  5. Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Graur, Or; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Hayden, Brian [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W.; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ∼0.25 deg{sup 2} with ∼900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z ∼ 2.5. We classify ∼24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only ∼3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction is f{sub P} = 0.53{sub stat0.10}{sup ±0.09}{sub sys0.26}{sup ±0.10}, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t {sup –1} power law for all times t > 40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20% of all SN Ia explosions—though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  6. Givental action and trivialisation of circle action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the Givental group action on genus zero cohomological field theories, also known as formal Frobenius manifolds or hypercommutative algebras, naturally arises in the deformation theory of Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras. We prove that the Givental action is equal to an action

  7. Early quantitative method for measuring germination in non-green spores of Dryopteris paleacea using an epifluorescence-microscope technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerlein, R.; Wayne, R.; Roux, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described to determine germination by blue-light excited red fluorescence in the positively photoblastic spores of Dryopteris paleacea Sw. This fluorescence is due to chlorophyll as evidenced from 1) a fluorescence-emission spectrum in vivo, where a bright fluorescence around 675 nm is obtained only in red light (R)-irradiated spores and 2) in vitro measurements with acetone extracts prepared from homogenized spores. Significant amounts of chlorophyll can be found only in R-treated spores; this chlorophyll exhibits an emission band around 668 nm, when irradiated with 430 nm light at 21 degrees C. Compared to other criteria for germination, such as swelling of the cell, coat splitting, greening, and rhizoid formation, which require longer periods after induction for their expression, chlorophyll fluorescence can be used to quantify germination after two days. This result is confirmed by fluence-response curves for R-induced spore germination; the same relationship between applied R and germination is obtained by the evaluation with the epifluorescence method 2 days after the light treatment as compared with the evaluation with bright-field microscopy 5 days after the inducing R. Using this technique we show for the first time that Ca2+ contributes to the signal-transduction chain in phytochrome-mediated chlorophyll synthesis in spores of Dryopteris paleacea.

  8. Early responses measured in the brachyuran crab Carcinus maenas exposed to carbamazepine and novobiocin: application of a 2-tier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Martínez, G V; Del Valls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2013-11-01

    One of the main consequences of the constant input of pharmaceuticals to the aquatic environment is that biota might develop unknown chronic effects, thus affecting their health even at low concentrations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health status of Carcinus maenas employing a 2-tier approach, after 28 days of exposure to carbamazepine (CBZ) and novobiocin (NOV) at 0.1, 1, 10 and 50µgL(-1). Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) is employed in tier 1. In tier 2 was applied a battery of biomarkers of exposure and effect (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), dibenzyl flourescein dealkylase (DBF), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA adducts) measured in gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and gonad tissues. Results show a dose-dependent effect. LMS in crabs exposed to environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals was significantly lower compared to controls (ptier approach applied might be a suitable tool for the assessment of sublethal responses in crabs exposed to pharmaceuticals in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum leptin measured in early pregnancy is higher in women with preeclampsia compared with normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brandie D; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn; Hougaard, David M; Skogstrand, Kristin; Roberts, James M; Haggerty, Catherine L

    2015-03-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in reproduction and angiogenesis. Studies examining leptin in preeclampsia are inconsistent, possibly because of small sample sizes and variability in sampling and outcome. We conducted a nested case-control study to examine associations between serum leptin (measured: 9-26 weeks gestation) and preeclampsia among 430 primiparous preeclamptic women and 316 primiparous normotensive controls from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Median (interquartile range) leptin concentrations were calculated. Associations between leptin and preeclampsia (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg), term preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery ≥37 weeks gestation), or preterm preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery preeclampsia increases with body mass index, we used the Sobel test to examine whether leptin is a mediator of this relationship. After adjustments, leptin concentrations were significantly higher in women with preeclampsia (30.5 [24.6]; P=0.0117) and term preeclampsia (30.4 [24.9]; P=0.0228) compared with controls (20.9 [28.3]). There was no significant difference between preterm preeclampsia (30.6 [23.4]; P=0.2210) and controls. Leptin is a possible mediator of the association between body mass index and preeclampsia (P=0.0276). Leptin concentrations are higher in women with preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls and may mediate some of the relationship between body mass index and preeclampsia. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  11. Measuring values and committed action with the Engaged Living Scale (ELS): Psychometric evaluation in a nonclinical sample and a chronic pain sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Fledderus, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of the Engaged Living Scale (ELS) as a new self-report, process-specific measure to assess an engaged response style as conceptualized in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The psychometric properties of the ELS test scores were evaluated

  12. Local Control in Action: Learning from the CORE Districts' Focus on Measurement, Capacity Building, and Shared Accountability. Policy Brief 16-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie; Bush-Mecenas, Susan; Hough, Heather

    2016-01-01

    California and the nation are at the crossroads of a major shift in school accountability policy. At the state level, California's Local Control and Accountability Plan (LCAP) encourages the use of multiple measures of school performance used locally to support continuous improvement and strategic resource allocation. Similarly, the federal Every…

  13. Sustainability Actions in Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    This brochure details common sustainability actions taken by universities to reduce their energy consumption. Some of the most common actions include energy efficiency (existing building commissioning; lighting; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning upgrades; plug loads) and renewable energy (RE) (on-site or off-site solar deployment, RE procurement). We focus on the costs and benefits of energy efficiency measures and RE through the brochure while highlighting resources where readers can find more information.

  14. Standard and Strain Measurements by Echocardiography Detect Early Overloaded Right Ventricular Dysfunction: Validation against Hemodynamic and Myocyte Contractility Changes in a Large Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, Amir; Bobin, Pierre; Mika, Delphine; Ly, Mohamed; Lefebvre, Florence; Lechêne, Patrick; Le Bret, Emmanuel; Gouadon, Elodie; Coblence, Mathieu; Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Capderou, André; Leroy, Jérôme; Rucker-Martin, Catherine; Lambert, Virginie

    2017-11-01

    Early detection of right ventricular (RV) failure is required to improve the management of patients with congenital heart diseases. The aim of this study was to validate echocardiography for the early detection of overloaded RV dysfunction, compared with hemodynamic and myocyte contractility assessment. Using a porcine model reproducing repaired tetralogy of Fallot, RV function was evaluated over 4 months using standard echocardiography and speckle-tracking compared with hemodynamic parameters (conductance catheter). Sarcomere shortening and calcium transients were recorded in RV isolated myocytes. Contractile reserve (ΔEmax) was assessed by β-adrenergic stimulation in vivo (dobutamine 5 μg/kg) and ex vivo (isoproterenol 100 nM). Six operated animals were compared with four age- and sex-matched controls. In the operated group, hemodynamic RV efficient ejection fraction was significantly decreased (29.7% [26.2%-34%] vs 42.9% [40.7%-48.6%], P < .01), and inotropic responses to dobutamine were attenuated (ΔEmax was 51% vs 193%, P < .05). Echocardiographic measurements of fraction of area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (S') and RV free wall longitudinal systolic strain and strain rate were significantly decreased. Strain rate, S', and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were correlated with ΔEmax (r = 0.75, r = 0.78, and r = 0.65, respectively, P < .05). These alterations were associated in RV isolated myocytes with the decrease of sarcomere shortening in response to isoproterenol and perturbations of calcium homeostasis assessed by the increase of spontaneous calcium waves. In this porcine model, both standard and strain echocardiographic parameters detected early impairments of RV function and cardiac reserve, which were associated with cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling alterations. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. Trends in brain oxygenation during mental and physical exercise measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): potential for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica S.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Mikkilineni, Shweta; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    Motivation: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because symptoms respond best to available treatments in the initial stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown that marked changes in brain oxygenation during mental and physical tasks can be used for noninvasive functional brain imaging to detect Alzheimer"s disease. The goal of our study is to explore the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mapping (NIRM) as a diagnostic tool for AD before the onset of significant morphological changes in the brain. Methods: A 16-channel NIRS brain imager was used to noninvasively measure spatial and temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced during verbal fluency task and physical activity. The experiments involved healthy subjects (n = 10) in the age range of 25+/-5 years. The NIRS signals were taken from the subjects' prefrontal cortex during the activities. Results and Conclusion: Trends of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the brain were observed. During the mental stimulation, the subjects showed significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin [HbO2] with a simultaneous decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin [Hb]. However, physical exercise caused a rise in levels of HbO2 with small variations in Hb. This study basically demonstrates that NIRM taken from the prefrontal cortex of the human brain is sensitive to both mental and physical tasks and holds potential to serve as a diagnostic means for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Early perfusion changes within 1 week of systemic treatment measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may predict survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bang-Bin; Yu, Chih-Wei; Liang, Po-Chin [National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Taipei City (China); Hsu, Chao-Yu [National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Taipei City (China); Taipei Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Department of Radiology, New Taipei City (China); Hsu, Chiun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii [National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei City (China); Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang [National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Taipei City (China); Taipei City Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei City (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China)

    2017-07-15

    To correlate early changes in the parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) within 1 week of systemic therapy with overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eighty-nine patients with advanced HCC underwent DCE-MRI before and within 1 week following systemic therapy. The relative changes of six DCE-MRI parameters (Peak, Slope, AUC, Ktrans, Kep and Ve) of the tumours were correlated with OS using the Kaplan-Meier model and the double-sided log-rank test. All patients died and the median survival was 174 days. Among the six DCE-MRI parameters, reductions in Peak, AUC, and Ktrans, were significantly correlated with one another. In addition, patients with a high Peak reduction following treatment had longer OS (P = 0.023) compared with those with a low Peak reduction. In multivariate analysis, a high Peak reduction was an independent favourable prognostic factor in all patients [hazard ratio (HR), 0.622; P = 0.038] after controlling for age, sex, treatment methods, tumour size and stage, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. Early perfusion changes within 1 week following systemic therapy measured by DCE-MRI may aid in the prediction of the clinical outcome in patients with advanced HCC. (orig.)

  17. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  18. Early social instability affects plasma testosterone during adolescence but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegeler, Katja; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2013-08-15

    The social environment plays an important role in modulating processes of the hormonal and behavioural profile of an animal in a variety of group-living species. In wild cavies for instance, unstable social environmental conditions during pregnancy and lactation lead to an infantilised biobehavioural profile of the male offspring. In the present study, the influence of the social environment during pregnancy and lactation on the male wild cavy offsprings' plasma testosterone development, reproductive capacity and stress system activity was investigated. To this purpose, 12 sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation were compared with 12 sons whose mothers had lived in a stable social environment during the same time. Plasma testosterone (T) and plasma cortisol (C) concentrations were determined from days 20 to 107 of age. Adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and different parameters of reproductive capacity (weights of testes, epididymides and accessory sex glands, cellular composition of the testes, DNA fragmentation indices and sperm motility parameters) were analysed at day 107 of age. TH activity and plasma C were unaffected by different social environmental conditions early in life. The developmental time course of T concentrations, however, was significantly different: Sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation showed a delayed increase in T concentrations around adolescence compared to controls. In contrast, no reproduction-related parameters measured within this study differed significantly between the two groups. Thus, early social instability affects plasma testosterone development during adolescence in a significant way but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life. © 2013.

  19. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations against S. aureus via measurement of particle size and zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Patricia Perez; Jenkins, A Toby A; Arnot, Tom C

    2016-03-01

    In earlier work we have demonstrated the effect that nano-emulsions have on bacterial growth, and most importantly the enhanced bacteriophage infectivity against Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic culture when phage are carried in nano-emulsions. However, the mechanisms of enhancement of the bacteriophage killing effect are not specifically understood. This work focuses on the investigation of the possible interactions between emulsion droplets and bacterial cells, between emulsion droplets and bacteriophages, and finally interactions between all three components: nano-emulsion droplets, bacteria, and bacteriophages. The first approach consists of simple calculations to determine the spatial distribution of the components, based on measurements of particle size. It was found that nano-emulsion droplets are much more numerous than bacteria or bacteriophage, and due to their size and surface area they must be covering the surface of both cells and bacteriophage particles. Stabilisation of bacteriophages due to electrostatic forces and interaction with nano-emulsion droplets is suspected, since bacteriophages may be protected against inactivation due to 'charge shielding'. Zeta potential was measured for the individual components in the system, and for all of them combined. It was concluded that the presence of nano-emulsions could be reducing electrostatic repulsion between bacterial cells and bacteriophage, both of which are very negatively 'charged'. Moreover, nano-emulsions lead to more favourable interaction between bacteriophages and bacteria, enhancing the anti-microbial or killing effect. These findings are relevant since the physicochemical properties of nano-emulsions (i.e. particle size distribution and zeta potential) are key in determining the efficacy of the formulation against infection in the context of responsive burn wound dressings-which is the main target for this work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On possibilities for action: The past, present and future of affordance research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a historical overview of the development of almost 50 years of empirical research on the affordances in the past and in the present. Defined by James Jerome Gibson in the early development of the Ecological Approach to Perception and Action as the prime of perception and action, affordances have become a rich topic of investigation in the fields of human movement science and experimental psychology. The methodological origins of the empirical research performed on affordances can be traced back to the mid 1980’s and the works of Warren (1984, 1988 and Michaels (1988. Most of the research in Ecological Psychology performed since has focused on the actualization of discretely defined actions, the perception of action boundaries, the calculation of pi-numbers, and the measurement of response times. The research efforts have resulted in advancements in the understanding of the dynamic nature of affordances, affordances in a social context and the importance of calibration for perception of affordances. Although affordances are seen as an instrumental part of the control of action most studies investigating affordances do not pay attention to the control of the action. We conclude that affordances are still primarily treated as a utility to select behaviour, which creates a conceptual barrier that hinders deeper understanding of affordances. A focus on action-boundaries has largely prevented advancement in other aspects of affordances, most notably an integrative understanding of the role of affordances in the control of action.

  1. Protecting the Rights of Young Children Affected and Infected by HIV/AIDS in Africa: Updating Strategies and Reinforcing Existing Networks. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    This monograph summarizes the issues discussed at an international workshop convened to identify strategies, lines of action, and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the African HIV/AIDS pandemic. The monograph provides background information on the HIV/AIDS pandemic; describes current initiatives and results…

  2. Inhibitory action of relaxin on human cervical smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Wiqvist, N; Sahni, S; Lindblom, B

    1984-09-01

    The influence of purified porcine relaxin on contractility of human cervical smooth muscle was investigated in vitro. Strips of cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy from pregnant and nonpregnant women and were mounted in a superfused organ chamber for isometric measurement of contractile activity. Relaxin (0.005-25 micrograms/ml) inhibited the spontaneous contractions in cervical strips from 18% of nonpregnant, 68% of early pregnant, and in 100% of term pregnant women. These results indicate that relaxin has an inhibitory action on cervical smooth muscle and that this effect is more constantly detected as pregnancy proceeds.

  3. Breast cancer epidemic in the early twenty-first century: evaluation of risk factors, cumulative questionnaires and recommendations for preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Debald, Manuel; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Kuhn, Walther; Pešta, Martin; Costigliola, Vincenzo; Grech, Godfrey

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly increasing incidence of breast cancer is a new social challenge resulting from a spectrum of internal and external risk factors which appear to be well accepted as an attribute of the early twenty-first century, being, however, new for female sub-populations compared to the past. These include altered socio-economical conditions such as occupational exposure, rotating shift work, specific environmental factors (increased pollution and environmental toxicity, altered dietary habits, quality and composition of meal) as well as consequently shifted and/or adapted physiologic factors such as lower age at menarche, late age of first full-term pregnancy, if any, shorter periods of breastfeeding and later menopause. Consolidated expert statements suggest that over 50 % of all breast cancer cases may be potentially prevented by risk reduction strategy such as regulation of modifiable risk factors. Currently available risk assessment models may estimate potential breast cancer predisposition, in general; however, they are not able to predict the disease manifestation individually. Further, current deficits in risk assessment and effective breast cancer prevention have been recently investigated and summarised as follows: gaps in risk estimation, preventive therapy, lifestyle prevention, understanding of the biology of breast cancer risk and implementation of known preventive measures. This paper overviews the most relevant risk factors, provides recommendations for improved risk assessment and proposes an extended questionnaire for effective preventive measures.

  4. Medição e pré-controle do desempenho de um plano de ações estratégicas em manufatura Performance measurement and precontrol of a strategic manufacturing action plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um método para a medição e o pré-controle de um plano de ações estratégicas em manufatura. Uma premissa de pesquisa é que o método possa modificar as medições com a mesma rapidez com que o ambiente competitivo se modifica, permitindo que a execução do plano estratégico se mantenha alinhada com os objetivos estratégicos de manufatura. Para testar e refinar o método, foi desenvolvido um estudo de caso em uma manufatura de ferramentas mecânicas. Foi recuperada a estratégia incremental de manufatura, composta por seis objetivos e um plano formado por quinze cursos de ação, e aplicado um método multicriterial para a definição de indicadores e de sua importância relativa. Partindo do desempenho atual medido pelos indicadores, o método mensura o potencial de cada ação em contribuir para o atingimento dos objetivos. Segue-se uma avaliação das lacunas entre o objetivo de desempenho, o desempenho atual e o desempenho esperado das ações. Avalia-se finalmente, em função dos potenciais de melhoria de desempenho de cada ação e das restrições de investimento, a priorização das ações. Resultam possibilidades de alterações na estratégia, que aumentam o valor pré-alimentado de desempenho, caracterizando a ação de pré-controle da estratégia. Uma parte dos resultados foi discutida, chegando-se a alternativas de continuidade.This paper discusses a methodology to measure and precontrol the performance of a strategic manufacturing action plan. A research premise is that the methodology can change measurements as rapidly as modifications in the competitive environment occur, thus keeping the strategy aligned with strategic manufacturing goals. A case study was conducted at a mechanical tools manufacturer to test and refine the method. The company's incremental manufacturing strategy, consisting of six goals and fifteen courses of action, was revamped and a multicriterial approach

  5. Oxygen deprivation affects the antimicrobial action of LL-37 as determined by microplate real-time kinetic measurements under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini, Amir; Sol, Asaf; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Skvirsky, Yaniv; Zini, Avi; Bachrach, Gilad

    2013-08-01

    Some agents, including Escherichia coli and group A Streptococcus pyogenes cause infections in oxygen depleted sites. LL-37 is a human host defence peptide shown previously to play an important role in controlling infections caused by these bacteria. However, the effect of oxygen levels on the antimicrobial activity of LL-37 remains obscure. In order to test the effect of oxygen (or lack thereof) on LL-37's activity against E. coli and S. pyogenes, a method for adapting commonly used microtiter plates for real-time growth-kinetic (and growth-inhibition) measurements under anaerobic conditions was developed. Using the proposed method, anaerobic conditions were attained in the microplate within 30 min and were maintained for at least five days. Anaerobiosis was further confirmed by comparing the growth of two anaerobic oral species (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum) in anaerobic compartments of microtiter plates versus aerobic ones. Both species grew only in the anaerobic compartments of the plates as indicated by the growth curves generated. The sensitivities of E. coli and S. pyogenes to LL-37 were tested under anaerobic conditions and compared to those in aerobic ones. The oxygen facultative E. coli grew to a higher density under aerobic conditions and its sensitivity to LL-37 was increased under anaerobiosis. The microaerophilic pathogen S. pyogenes grew faster and to a higher density under anaerobic conditions and was much more resistant to LL-37 under oxygen deprivation. Our results suggest that resistance to antimicrobial agents of microbes infecting anaerobic-microaerophilic sites should be tested under oxygen-restricted conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation; Measurement of bone mineral density in lumbar vertebra by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Hori, Reiko; Shigekawa, Koji; Matsubara, Keiichi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Shunpei; Kataoka, Masaaki; Kawamura, Masashi (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis and compression fracture are commonly observed several years after radiation. Since lumbago usually occurs several months after radiation, the possibility that bone mineral metabolism is disturbed during and immediately after radiation cannot be ruled out. However, there have been no reports concerning early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density was measured by QCT (Quantitative Computed Tomography) in 30 normal non-radiated cases and 14 radiated cases to investigate the changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density (QCT-Value: QCT-V) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) of normal non-radiated subjects decreased linearly with age (Y=291.114447-3.01473X). The QCT-V of the 5th lumbar vertebra (L5) of normal cases also decreased linearly with age (Y=309.641397-3.03986X), resembling that of L3. The ratio of the QCT-V of L5 to L3 (L5/L3, expressed as a parcentage) definitely increased with age (Y=86.5657441+0.58885064X). In radiated cases, the QCT-V of L3 in the non-radiated field did not change appreciably. The QCT-V of L5 in the radiated field was decreased from 20 Gy and reached 53.08+-17.37% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. The L5/L3 ratio was also decreased from 20 Gy and reached 55.47+-15.32% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. It becomes apparent that the QCT-V of the radiated lumbar vertebra is decreased during radiation. It is suggested that bone mineral metabolism may be disturbed in the early phase of radiation. (author).

  7. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  8. "Until people start dying in droves, no actions will be taken": perception and experience of HIV-preventive measures among people who inject drugs in northwestern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylakhs, Peter; Aasland, Aadne; Grønningsæter, Arne

    2017-06-05

    The HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia continues to spread. This exploratory study examines how HIV-prevention measures are perceived and experienced by PWID in the northwestern region of Russia. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a variety of cases that could reflect possible differences in perception and experience of HIV-prevention efforts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with PWID residing in the Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg regions. The main sources of prevention information on HIV for PWID were media campaigns directed to the general population. These campaigns were effective with regard to communicating general knowledge on HIV but were ineffective in terms of risk behavior change. The subjects generally had trust in medical professionals and their advice but did not follow prevention recommendations. Most informants had no or very little prior contact with harm reduction services. On the level of attitudes towards HIV prevention efforts, we discovered three types of fatalism among PWID: "personal fatalism" - uselessness of HIV prevention efforts, if one uses drugs; "prevention-related fatalism" - prevention programs are low effective, because people do not pay attention to them before they get infected; "state-related fatalism" - the lack of belief that the state is concerned with HIV prevention issues. Despite this fatalism the participants opined that NGOs would do a better job than the state as they are "really working" with risk groups. As HIV prevention campaigns targeted at the general population and prevention advice received from medical professionals are not sufficiently effective for PWID in terms of risk behavior change, prevention programs, such as community-based and peer-based interventions specifically tailored to the needs of PWID are needed, which can be achieved by a large expansion of harm reduction services in the region. Personal communication should be a crucial element in such interventions in

  9. The detection of early myocardial changes in asymptomatic diabetic individuals by 99mTc - Myoview gated-SPET and heart rate variability measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migra, M; Knazeje, M; Ochodnicky, M; Kovar, F; Lacko, A; Mokan, M

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of early myocardial changes in asymptomatic diabetic individuals is not clearly documented. In the present study, we examined diabetic patients without a history of cardiovascular disease with negative treadmill test and no signs of systolic dysfunction for presence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy established by measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) and (99m)Tc - Myoview gated-SPET. 47 type I and type II diabetic patients were subjected to prospective study including echocardiography and HRV measurement using the combination of Ewing´s testing and spectral analysis. Subsequently, patients underwent treadmill test and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Additionally, vascular and metabolic parameters were collected. Treadmill test was negative in all patients. Diastolic dysfunction was found in 10 % of T1DM and 11 % of T2DM patients by echocardiography, whereas none of the patients had systolic dysfunction. SPET confirmed hypoperfusion in 35 % T1DM (p=0.01) and in 60 % T2DM (p=0.001). Diagnosis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy based on Ewing´s testing and HRV examination was established in 60 % of T1DM patients (p=0.001) and 77 % of T2DM patients (p=0.001). In T1DM group, significant association was found between cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and frequency of hypoglycaemia (p=0.04). No such correlations were found in patients with T2DM. The results of the present study show high incidence of myocardial hypoperfusion and cardiac autonomic neuropathy among asymptomatic diabetic patients, whereas the standard diagnostic approaches including treadmill test and echocardiography failed to show any changes. Therefore, we conclude that diabetic heart disease remains underdiagnosed by standard approaches, but could be detected in asymptomatic patients by more sensitive methods, such as HRV measurement and myocardial scintigraphy (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 26).

  10. The Federal Basis for Weights and Measures: A Historical Review of Federal Legislative Effort, Statutes, and Administrative Action in the Field of Weights and Measures in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-06-05

    adoption as State standards 1 steel end meter bar. of the standards so received from the Federal Gov. I set of brass capacity measures, I liter and 1... steel end meter bar and directly behind It Is the brass line meter bar. At the left rear are the 1liHte and 1-dekhtiter eapeclty measures. At right...Title 15, Ch. 6.] cubic inches, and standard grades, for applies shipped 1921. The "Packers and Stockyards Act of in interstate commerce. (The standard

  11. COAXIAL DISK SHUNT FOR MEASURING IN THE HEAVY-CURRENT CHAIN OF HIGH-VOLTAGE GENERATOR OF STORM DISCHARGES OF IMPULSES OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING WITH THE INTEGRAL OF ACTION TO 15•106 J/OHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Description of construction and basic technical descriptions developed and created in Research & Design Institute «Molniya» National Technical University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute» high-voltage heavy-current coaxial disk shunt of type of SC-300M2, allowing reliably to measure the peak-temporal parameters (PTP of impulses of current of artificial lightning in wide peak and temporal ranges with the integral of their action to 15·106 J/Ohm. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of high-voltage impulsive technique, scientific and technical bases of development and creation of high-voltage heavy-current impulsive electrical equipment, including the powerful generators of current of lightning (GCL, and also measuring methods in bit chains powerful high-voltage GCL AVP large impulsive currents of micro- and millisecond temporal ranges. Results. Offered and described new construction of measuring high-voltage heavy-current shunt, containing a measuring round disk from stainless steel easily soiled a 12Х18Н10Т thickness 2 mm and external diameter 80 mm. Experimental a way impulsive active resistance of RS≈0,08 mOhm of the indicated measuring disk and on his basis a calculation coefficient transformation is found of SS of coaxial disk shunt of type of SC-300M2, numeral equal in the concerted mode of operations of his coaxial cable line (CCL SS≈2/RS≈25·103 A/V. It is rotined that it is expedient to use this value SS for measuring in the heavy-current bit chain of GCL ATP impulsive A- and repeated impulsive D- component of current of artificial lightning, and also ATP of aperiodic impulse of current of artificial lightning of temporal form 10 μc/350 μc. It is set that taking into account application in the end CCL of shunt of a co-ordinate divizor of voltage with two output coaxial sockets 1:1 (for SSA≈25·103 A/V and 1:2 (SSC≈12,5·103 A/V at measuring of ATP intermediate B-, protracted C- and shortened protracted C

  12. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  13. Assessing Children's Play: Reality or Illusion? The Case of Early Years Foundation Stage in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in England in 2008, assessment of children has taken a formal and standardized measurable approach. Such an approach goes against most findings of play-oriented research. Thus, the project reported here employed participatory action research with practitioners in order to identify…

  14. Orbit equivalence and actions of F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions.......In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions....

  15. Global quality imaging: improvement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Lawrence S; Pérez, Maria R; Applegate, Kimberly E; Rehani, Madan M; Ringertz, Hans G; George, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Workforce shortage, workload increase, workplace changes, and budget challenges are emerging issues around the world, which could place quality imaging at risk. It is important for imaging stakeholders to collaborate, ensure patient safety, improve the quality of care, and address these issues. There is no single panacea. A range of improvement measures, strategies, and actions are required. Examples of improvement actions supporting the 3 quality measures are described under 5 strategies: conducting research, promoting awareness, providing education and training, strengthening infrastructure, and implementing policies. The challenge is to develop long-term, cost-effective, system-based improvement actions that will bring better outcomes and underpin a sustainable future for quality imaging. In an imaging practice, these actions will result in selecting the right procedure (justification), using the right dose (optimization), and preventing errors along the patient journey. To realize this vision and implement these improvement actions, a range of expertise and adequate resources are required. Stakeholders should collaborate and work together. In today's globalized environment, collaboration is strength and provides synergy to achieve better outcomes and greater success. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rowing sportswomen motor actions formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bogush

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the formation of motor action sportswomen different ages depending on the level of sportsmanship. Material and Methods: girls which are specialized in a boat-racing in age groups 13–14 years inspected, 15–16 years, 17–18 years, in every group was for 20–25 persons, in all 72 sportswomen. Motive actions were probed on the method of measuring of training effect developed by us an action, and also the functional state was determined by methods: measuring of sensorimotor reaction is on sound and light irritants, speed of current of air, exactness of implementation of the set muscular effort. Results: testing showed the dynamics of forming motive, namely technique of mastering of receptions and actions, reliability, presence of errors, efficiency of active voice of consciousness in correct implementation of motion in a biomechanics relation. Conclusions: application of this method in the process of sporting preparation will allow to define quality of mastering of technique of the proper motive actions, forming of abilities, subsequent learning and becoming of more difficult motive skills

  17. Laser speckle contrast imaging for measurement of hepatic microcirculation during the sepsis: a novel tool for early detection of microcirculation dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a fatal systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by severe infection. The aim of this study was to measure hepatic microcirculation during the sepsis with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), as well as investigating the underlying mechanisms. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Rats were divided into the sham group and sepsis group. The hepatic microcirculation was monitored with LSCI. In addition, hepatic endothelial function (expression of cell adhesion molecules, coagulation and vascular permeability) and neutrophils accumulation in the liver were compared between the two groups. During the sepsis, hepatic microcirculation decreased dramatically (290.3±70.1 LSPU (laser speckle perfusion units) at baseline vs. 230.4±60.7 LSPU at 12h vs. 125.2±25.4 LSPU at 48h, Psepsis, the accumulation of neutrophils and formation of microthrombus increased rapidly. In the late phase, hepatic neutrophils accumulation was already at its maximum level. Meanwhile, the endothelial coagulation status shifted from procoagulation to anticoagulation. The vascular leakage was involved in the microcirculation dysfunction since 12h after sepsis. Hepatic microcirculation dysfunction occurs early during the sepsis and is associated with liver injury. This microcirculation dysfunction is due to neutrophil-endothelium interactions, microthrombus formation and vascular leakage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying high-frequency surrogate measurements and a wavelet-ANN model to provide early warnings of rapid surface water quality anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Wang, Peng; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao

    2018-01-01

    It is critical for surface water management systems to provide early warnings of abrupt, large variations in water quality, which likely indicate the occurrence of spill incidents. In this study, a combined approach integrating a wavelet artificial neural network (wavelet-ANN) model and high-frequency surrogate measurements is proposed as a method of water quality anomaly detection and warning provision. High-frequency time series of major water quality indexes (TN, TP, COD, etc.) were produced via a regression-based surrogate model. After wavelet decomposition and denoising, a low-frequency signal was imported into a back-propagation neural network for one-step prediction to identify the major features of water quality variations. The precisely trained site-specific wavelet-ANN outputs the time series of residual errors. A warning is triggered when the actual residual error exceeds a given threshold, i.e., baseline pattern, estimated based on long-term water quality variations. A case study based on the monitoring program applied to the Potomac River Basin in Virginia, USA, was conducted. The integrated approach successfully identified two anomaly events of TP variations at a 15-minute scale from high-frequency online sensors. A storm event and point source inputs likely accounted for these events. The results show that the wavelet-ANN model is slightly more accurate than the ANN for high-frequency surface water quality prediction, and it meets the requirements of anomaly detection. Analyses of the performance at different stations and over different periods illustrated the stability of the proposed method. By combining monitoring instruments and surrogate measures, the presented approach can support timely anomaly identification and be applied to urban aquatic environments for watershed management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women.

  20. Early results from combined historic chlorofluorocarbon and first sulphur hexafluoride measurements in the Weddell Sea - variability of ventilation rates and anthropogenic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, O.; Rhein, M.; Bulsiewicz, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Weddell Sea is a key area for the formation of deep and bottom water and, hence, a major driver of the deep part of the global ocean's conveyor belt. Furthermore, it provides an important sink for atmospheric gases like anthropogenic carbon. Its sensitivity to changing atmospheric conditions is under discussion. During the last three decades time series of anthropogenic transient tracer measurements (chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs) were obtained on a section crossing the Weddell Basin from the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula to Cape Norwegia and along the Prime Meridian from the Antarctic Continent to the Mid Atlantic Ridge (1984-2008). On our most recent RV POLARSTERN expedition from November 2010 to February 2011 we obtained for the first time sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements in addition to CFCs in that area. The onset of the atmospheric SF6 history starts some decades after the CFCs, and the increase of SF6 in the atmosphere is steeper. The combination of CFC and SF6 may, hence, provide a better constraint for the quantification of very recently ventilated deep and bottom water and for the estimate of transport time scales or transit time distributions (TTDs). We discuss that new CFC and SF6 data set in comparison to the historic CFC data and show early results from our analysis. We use the extended CFC time series combined with the additional tracer SF6 to determine TTDs, from which we assess the ventilation rates of deep and bottom water and estimate the related content of anthropogenic carbon and their temporal variability in the Weddell Sea during the last three decades.

  1. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  2. Action learning in undergraduate engineering thesis supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Stappenbelt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present action learning implementation, twelve action learning sets were conducted over eight years. The action learning sets consisted of students involved in undergraduate engineering research thesis work. The concurrent study accompanying this initiative, investigated the influence of the action learning environment on student approaches to learning and any accompanying academic, learning and personal benefits realised. The influence of preferred learning styles on set function and student adoption of the action learning process were also examined. The action learning environment implemented had a measurable significant positive effect on student academic performance, their ability to cope with the stresses associated with conducting a research thesis, the depth of learning, the development of autonomous learners and student perception of the research thesis experience. The present study acts as an addendum to a smaller scale implementation of this action learning approach, applied to supervision of third and fourth year research projects and theses, published in 2010.

  3. Reactions Toward Affirmative Action Measures for Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Moscoso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina si existen diferencias entre mujeres y hombres en sus reacciones hacia diferentes tipos de medidas de acción afirmativa (MAAs para mujeres, para lo que 192 mujeres y 128 hombres ocupantes de diferentes puestos respondieron a un cuestionario. Los resultados muestran que las mujeres reaccionan de manera más positiva que los hombres hacia las MAAs, aunque las reacciones de ambos varían en función del tipo de medida de acción afirmativa. Las reacciones son más positivas cuando las decisiones de personal se basan en el mérito y se vuelven más negativas cuando las decisiones están basadas principalmente en el género. También encontramos que las reacciones hacia las MAAs se relacionan con las variables "percepción de injusticia" y "percepción de amenaza para los hombres", y especialmente con la primera. Otro resultado es que las reacciones hacia el concepto genérico de acción afirmativa son más positivas que hacia medidas específicas de AA. Por último, comentamos las implicaciones de estos resultados para la investigación y la práctica.

  4. Reconstruction of action potential of repolarization in patients with congenital long-QT syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandori, Akihiko [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd, 1-280 Higashi-koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan); Shimizu, Wataru [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan); Yokokawa, Miki [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan); Kamakura, Shiro [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan); Miyatake, Kunio [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan); Murakami, Masahiro [Hitachi High-technologies, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyashita, Tsuyoshi [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd, 1-280 Higashi-koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan); Ogata, Kuniomi [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd, 1-280 Higashi-koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan); Tsukada, Keiji [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2004-05-21

    A method for reconstructing an action potential during the repolarization period was developed. This method uses a current distribution-plotted as a current-arrow map (CAM)-calculated using magnetocardiogram (MCG) signals. The current arrows are summarized during the QRS complex period and subtracted during the ST-T wave period in order to reconstruct the action-potential waveform. To ensure the similarity between a real action potential and the reconstructed action potential using CAM, a monophasic action potential (MAP) and an MCG of the same patient with type-I long-QT syndrome were measured. Although the MAP had one notch that was associated with early afterdepolarization (EAD), the reconstructed action potential had two large and small notches. The small notch timing agreed with the occurrence of the EAD in the MAP. On the other hand, the initiation time of an abnormal current distribution coincides with the appearance timing of the first large notch, and its end time coincides with that of the second small notch. These results suggest that a simple reconstruction method using a CAM based on MCG data can provide a similar action-potential waveform to a MAP waveform without having to introduce a catheter.

  5. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  6. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  7. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  8. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Mújica-Rosales, Ricardo; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor; Lee, Evan; Waugh, Craig; Guajardo, Lucía; Torres-Beltrán, Braulio; Quijano-González, Úrsula; López-Mendez, Mauricio; Atkinson, Elena Rose

    2017-02-20

    Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM), or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals-about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL), and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL). However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should consider the need for

  9. Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Taliantzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergios Taliantzis, Dimitris Papaconstantinou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michalis Moschos, Michalis Apostolopoulos, Gerasimos GeorgopoulosAthens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: To compare the functional changes in visual fields with optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and suspected glaucoma. In addition, our purpose is to evaluate the correlation of global indices with the structural glaucomatous defect, to assess their statistical importance in all the groups of our study, and to estimate their validity to the clinical practice.Methods: One hundred sixty nine eyes (140 patients were enrolled. The patients were classified in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 54 eyes with ocular hypertension, group 2 of 42 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, and group 3 of 73 eyes with chronic open angle glaucoma. All of them underwent ophthalmic examination according to a prefixed protocol, OCT exam (Stratus 3000 for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurement with fast RNFL thickness protocol and visual fields (VF examination with Octopus perimeter (G2 program, central 30–2 threshold strategy. Pearson correlation was calculated between RNFL thickness and global index of VF.Results: A moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and indices mean sensitivity (MS, mean defect (MD and loss variance (LV of VF (0.547, -0.582, -0.527, respectively; P < 0.001 was observed for all patients. Correlations of the ocular hypertension and preperimetric groups are weak. Correlation of RNFL thickness with global indices becomes stronger as the structural alterations become deeper in OCT exam. Correlation of RNFL thickness with the global index of VF, in respective segments around optic disk was also calculated and was found significant in the nasal, inferior, superior, and temporal segments.Conclusion: RNFL average thickness is not a reliable index for early

  10. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tapia-Conyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM, or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals—about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL, and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL. However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should

  11. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this "language-to-action" link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance ("action-to-language" link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an "embodied or not" focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the link between

  12. Derivative actions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was rarely exercised. This raises a question about the role of derivative actions in China; namely, should a derivative action system play a key role in protecting shareholder interests? If the answer is positive, the next question is how such a system could be improved...

  13. Action research: Scandinavian Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article focus on paradigms, methods and ethics of action research in the Scandinavian countries. The special features of the action research paradigm is identified. A historical overview follows of some main action research projects in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The tendency towards upsclae...

  14. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  15. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  16. Measuring the Foundations of School Readiness: Introducing a New Questionnaire for Teachers--The Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Daly, Irenee; Foley, Sarah; White, Naomi; Devine, Rory T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early work on school readiness focused on academic skills. Recent research highlights the value of also including both children's social and behavioural competencies and family support. Aims: Reflecting this broader approach, this study aimed to develop a new and brief questionnaire for teachers: The Brief Early Skills and Support…

  17. Examining the Definition and Measurement of Quality in Early Childhood Education: A Review of Studies Using the ECERS-R from 2003 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Paro, Karen M.; Thomason, Amy C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of early childhood education continues to grapple with the issue of understanding quality in classrooms. The lack of clarity in definition (or conceptualization) and related ability to assess (or operationalize) quality has contributed to a reliance on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-R), which is often interpreted to…

  18. Vitamin B-12 Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Lactation Increases Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Measures of Vitamin B-12 Status12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12–supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12–supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12–supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

  19. Acciones gubernamentales para la detección temprana del cáncer de mama en América Latina: Retos a futuro Government actions for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America: Future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María González-Robledo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta investigación documental realizada en 2009 que pretende documentar el marco normativo y los programas vigentes para la detección temprana del cáncer mamario en América Latina y establecer los retos más importantes para contener la epidemia en la región. Se identificaron diversas iniciativas emprendidas por las autoridades gubernamentales de salud para contrarrestar el crecimiento de la morbi-mortalidad por esta causa mediante estrategias de detección temprana, atención e investigación. A pesar de los avances en el diseño de políticas, programas, protocolos y guías de manejo clínico, persisten importantes retos para lograr los objetivos propuestos y la contención de este problema.Documentary research carried out in 2009 aims to document the regulatory framework and existing programs for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean in order to establish the most important challenges for the containment of the epidemic in the region. The governments of the region have developed diverse efforts and initiatives to confront the rise in mortality due to said cause, including early detection, treatment and research strategies. Despite advances in the early detection of breast cancer, the challenge remains to link efforts to ensure continuity of care (diagnostic confirmation, treatment and monitoring in order to achieve higher efficiency, effectiveness and benefits for women with this disease.

  20. Small intestinal growth measures are correlated with feed efficiency in market weight cattle, despite minimal effects of maternal nutrition during early to midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A M; Hess, B W; Paisley, S I; Du, M; Caton, J S

    2014-09-01

    efficiency during finishing as well as most measures of small intestinal growth were not affected by maternal nutrient restriction during early and midgestation. Results indicate that offspring small intestinal gene expression may be affected by gestational nutrition even when apparent tissue growth is unchanged. Furthermore, small intestinal size and growth may explain some variation in efficiency of nutrient utilization in feedlot cattle.

  1. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal-dependent outcome measures is influenced by prenatal and early-life rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kevin K; Goggin, Samantha L; Labrecque, Matthew T; Allan, Andrea M

    2015-04-01

    The clinical course of individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is influenced by multiple factors, including the social environments of the gravid female and offspring. In the present studies we focused on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the prenatal and early-life social environments on the hippocampal formation, as impaired development and functioning of this brain region have been implicated in several of the adverse cognitive outcomes associated with PAE. We combined our PAE mouse model with 2 conditions of housing pregnant dams and their preweanling offspring: the standard nest (SN), in which a dam is individually housed prior to parturition and then remains isolated with her offspring, and the communal nest (CN), in which multiple dams are housed together prior to parturition and then following delivery the moms and their litters share a nest. Mouse dams consumed either 10% (w/v) ethanol in 0.066% (w/v) saccharin (SAC) or 0.066% (w/v) SAC alone using a limited (4-hour) access, drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Immunoblotting techniques were used to measure levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, the FK506-binding proteins 51 and 52, and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 in the hippocampal formation isolated from male adolescent offspring. We also determined the effect of PAE and rearing conditions on context discrimination, a hippocampal-dependent learning/memory task. SN PAE offspring displayed impaired context discrimination and neurochemical changes in the hippocampal formation consistent with increased GR nuclear localization. These effects of PAE were, in general, ameliorated in mice reared in a CN. The CN also altered neurochemical measures and improved learning/memory in SAC control animals. These studies demonstrate a complex interplay between the effects of PAE and social environments. The findings have important translational implications, as well as highlight the importance of

  2. Universal HbA1c Measurement in Early Pregnancy to Detect Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Diabetes Screening: A Population-Based Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C E Hughes

    Full Text Available In response to the type 2 diabetes epidemic, measuring HbA1c with the first-antenatal blood screen was recently recommended in NZ. This would enable prompt treatment of women with unrecognised type 2 diabetes, who may otherwise go undetected until the gestational diabetes (GDM screen. We compare inter-ethnic antenatal screening practices to examine whether the HbA1c test would be accessed by ethnicities most at risk of diabetes, and we determined the prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in our pregnant population. This is an observational study of pregnancies in Christchurch NZ during 2008-2010. Utilising electronic databases, we matched maternal characteristics to first-antenatal bloods, HbA1c, and GDM screens (glucose challenge tests and oral glucose tolerance tests. Overall uptake of the first-antenatal bloods versus GDM screening was 83.1% and 53.8% respectively in 11,580 pregnancies. GDM screening was lowest in Māori 39.3%, incidence proportion ratio (IPR 0.77 (0.71, 0.84 compared with Europeans. By including HbA1c with the first-antenatal bloods, the number screened for diabetes increases by 28.5% in Europeans, 40.0% in Māori, 28.1% in Pacific People, and 26.7% in 'Others' (majority of Asian descent. The combined prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes by NZ criteria, HbA1c ≥5.9% (41mmol/mol, was 2.1% in Europeans, Māori 4.7% IPR 2.59 (1.71, 3.93, Pacific People 9.5% IPR 4.76 (3.10, 7.30, and 'Others' 6.2% IPR 2.99 (2.19, 4.07. Applying these prevalence data to 2013 NZ national births data, routine antenatal HbA1c testing could have identified type 2 diabetes in 0.44% and prediabetes in 3.96% of women. Routine HbA1c measurement in early pregnancy is an ideal screening opportunity, particularly benefitting vulnerable groups, reducing ethnic disparities in antenatal diabetes screening. This approach is likely to have world-wide relevance and applicability. Further research is underway to

  3. Perception-Action in children with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes eVon Hofsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available How do disturbances to perception and action relate to the deficiencies expressed by children with autism? The ability to predict what is going to happen next is crucial for the construction of all actions and children develop these predictive abilities early in development. Children with autism, however, are deficient in the ability to foresee future events and to plan movements and movement sequences. They are also deficient in the understanding of other people’s actions. This includes communicative actions as they are ultimately based on movements. Today there are two promising neurobiological interpretation of ASD. First, there is strong evidence that the Mirror Neuron System (MNS is impaired. As stated by this hypothesis, action production and action understanding are intimately related. Both these functions rely on predictive models of the sensory consequences of actions and depend on connectivity between the parietal and pre-motor areas. Secondly, action prediction is accomplished through a system that includes a loop from the posterior parietal cortex through the cerebellum and back to the premotor and motor areas of the brain. Impairment of this loop is probably also part of the explanation of the prediction problems in children with ASD. Both the cortico-cerebellar loop and the MNS rely on distant neural connections. There are multiple evidence that such connections are weak in children with autism.

  4. SITUACIONES SOCIALES DE DESARROLLO-APRENDIZAJE: DIÁLOGOS Y CONFIRMACIONES DESDE LA INVESTIGACIÓN-ACCIÓN EN UN CINAI COSTARRICENSE SOCIAL (SITUATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT: DIALOGUES FROM ACTION-RESEARCH IN A COSTARICAN EARLY CHILDHOOD CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Castro Cynthia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Desde un paradigma de acción orientada al entendimiento y ciencia comprometida y emancipatoria, se presenta un análisis de categorías que dan seguimiento al concepto de Vygotsky de situación social de desarrollo, con niños y niñas del Centro Infantil de Nutrición y Atención Integral (CINAI de Cristo Rey, del Ministerio de Salud, en San José, Costa Rica, entre 1996 y 1998. Se sugiere una re-conceptualización de categorías para que queden subsumidas en dicho concepto, como categoría abarcadora, como argumenta Fariñas León (2002; con un análisis descriptivo para una aproximación a la complejidad de dichas situaciones acercándonos a la exploración de situaciones sociales de desarrollo. Además, se discute la evolución de las docentes, de la consciencia y participación plena de la niñez y del currículo de desvalorización y sumisión. Se concluye con una reflexión sobre desafíos que lanza Rodríguez Arocho para la investigación educativa en LatinoaméricaAbstract:A paradigm oriented to communicative action and science-as-compromise from an emancipation perspective guided an action-research endeavor in a Ministery of Health Centro Infantil de Nutrición y Atención Integral (CINAI de Cristo Rey in a marginal area of San José, between 1996-1998. A re-conceptualization of categories is suggested, towards the more encompassing construct of social situations of development, as Fariñas León (2002 deftly arguments. The heuristic value of relying upon Vygotskian categories that are both holistic and complex is highlighted, especially in terms of their intertwined, embedded nature. Transformations in teacher attitudes and in a curriculum of devaluation and submission are discussed, as well as the role of children’s awareness and participation in processes of transformation. Issues regarding educational research in Latin America, brought to the fore by Rodríguez Arocho (2007a, 2007b are discussed.

  5. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contemporary society encounters profound economical, socio-ecological and political crises challenging the democratic foundation of our societies. This book addresses the potentials and challenges for Action Research supporting democratic alternatives. It offers a broad spectrum of examples from...... Scandinavian Action Research showing different openings towards democratic development. The book’s first part contributes with a wide range of examples such as Action Research in relation to the Triple Helix/Mode II contexts, to design as a democratic process, to renewal of welfare work and public institutions......, to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific...

  6. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  7. Comparison of a qualitative measurement of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein with other cardiac markers as an early diagnostic marker in the diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerede, Demet Menekşe; Güleç, Sadi; Kiliçkap, Mustafa; Kaya, Cansin Tulunay; Vurgun, Veysel Kutay; Özcan, Özgür Ulaş; Göksülük, Hüseyin; Erol, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel cardiac marker used in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which shows myocyte injury. Our study aimed to compare bedside H-FABP measurements with routine creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I (TnI) tests for the early diagnosis of non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI), as well as for determining its exclusion capacity. A total of 48 patients admitted to the emergency room within the first 12 hours of onset of ischaemic-type chest pain lasting more than 30 minutes and who did not have ST-segment elevation on electrocardiography (ECG) were included in the study. Definite diagnoses of NSTEMI were made in 24 patients as a result of 24-hour follow up, and the remaining 24 patients did not develop MI. When various subgroups were analysed according to admission times, H-FABP was found to be a better diagnostic marker compared to CK-MB and TnI (accuracy index 85%), with a high sensitivity (79%) and specificity (93%) for early diagnosis ( ≤ six hours). The respective sensitivities of bedside H-FABP and TnI tests were 89 vs 33% (p < 0.05) for patients presenting within three hours of onset of symptoms. Bedside H-FABP measurements may contribute to correct early diagnoses, as its levels are elevated soon following MI, and measurement is easy, with a rapid result.

  8. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  9. Global action networks: agents for collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Global action networks (GANs) are civil society initiated multi-stakeholder arrangements that aim to fulfill a leadership role for systemic change in global governance for sustainable development. The paper develops a network approach to study some of these GANs as motivators of global collective

  10. ICAO action plan on emissions reduction: Republic of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kantareva, Mariya; Angelova, Anna; Iliev, Lazar; Efthymiou, Marina; General Directorate of Civil Aviation Administration Republic of Bulgaria

    2015-01-01

    ICAO environmental action plans present States' measures to reduce emissions from international aviation. Action plans are a practical means for States to communicate to ICAO information on their activities to address CO2 emissions from international civil aviation. The level of detail of the information contained in an action plan demonstrates the effectiveness of actions and will ultimately enable ICAO to measure global progress towards meeting the goals set by Assembly Resolution A37-19.

  11. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this “language-to-action” link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance (“action-to-language” link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an “embodied or not” focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the

  12. Probiotic mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gómez-Llorente, Carolina; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to the host when ingested in adequate amounts. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Probiotics have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated yet. Several important mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects of probiotics on various microorganisms include the following: modification of the gut microbiota, competitive adherence to the mucosa and epithelium, strengthening of the gut epithelial barrier and modulation of the immune system to convey an advantage to the host. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that probiotics communicate with the host by pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-like receptors, which modulate key signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-ĸB and mitogen-activated protein kinase, to enhance or suppress activation and influence downstream pathways. This recognition is crucial for eliciting measured antimicrobial responses with minimal inflammatory tissue damage. A clear understanding of these mechanisms will allow for appropriate probiotic strain selection for specific applications and may uncover novel probiotic functions. The goal of this systematic review was to explore probiotic modes of action focusing on how gut microbes influence the host. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Joint action aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicary, Staci; Sperling, Matthias; von Zimmermann, Jorina; Richardson, Daniel C; Orgs, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running. The choreography was performed live to four audiences, as we continuously tracked the performers' movements, and the spectators' affective responses. We computed dynamic synchrony among performers using cross recurrence analysis of data from wrist accelerometers, and implicit measures of arousal from spectators' heart rates. Additionally, a subset of spectators provided continuous ratings of enjoyment and perceived synchrony using tablet computers. Granger causality analyses demonstrate predictive relationships between synchrony, enjoyment ratings and spectator arousal, if audiences form a collectively consistent positive or negative aesthetic evaluation. Controlling for the influence of overall movement acceleration and visual change, we show that dance communicates group coordination via coupled movement dynamics among a group of performers. Our findings are in line with an evolutionary function of dance-and perhaps all performing arts-in transmitting social signals between groups of people. Human movement is the common denominator of dance, music and theatre. Acknowledging the time-sensitive and immediate nature of the performer-spectator relationship, our study makes a significant step towards an aesthetics of joint actions in the performing arts.

  14. Lewinian Lessons for Action Researches: Traveling the Second Path

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuck, Richard

    2008-01-01

    I explain how the early American Lewinians (1939-1947) took one of two overlapping intellectual paths. Those, on the first path, were theory-centred, hypothesis testing experimental social psychologists. Those, on the second path, used action research in fostering planned change to build healthy communities. I summarize the profound lessons for action research taught by the second group. Adhering to Lewin’s maxim, “No action without research, no research without action”, second path Lewinians...

  15. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  16. Action Learning and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  17. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  18. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...

  19. Action and Interactiv research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...

  20. Staying mindful in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    this tendency by sharing a study looking into what hinders and promotes mindful awareness on the process, while dealing with a business challenge in an Action Lab®. Drawing on the findings, the account of practice will share some recommendations for the Action Learning facilitator to take up the challenge...

  1. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...

  2. Teaching for Action Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Hedefalk; Jonas Almqvist; Malena Lidar

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explore preschool children’s possibilities to learn to act for sustainable development. The purpose is to describe and analyze which actions are privileged when children participate in preschool activities. Analyses of video recordings of everyday preschool activities show how children experience activities where they critically discuss and make value judgments about actions. The results...

  3. Visions, Actions and Partnerships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    Evaluation Association (AFREA). Comments on this document can be sent to ccaa@idrc.ca. Introduction. “Visions, actions, partnerships” (VAP) is presented as a participatory tool that can be used ... The tool embraces the philosophy of the Visions actions requests approach (Beaulieu et al,. 2002) based on the formulation of ...

  4. Freedom in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, N. van

    2015-01-01

    Free will is the capacity to select and execute one really possible action alternative. In recent years this simple libertarian picture of our capacity to freely act has drawn much criticism. Many neuroscientists claim that we do not have a capacity to select alternative courses of action since our

  5. Online Action Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Geest, R.; Gavves, E.; Ghodrati, A.; Li, Z.; Snoek, C.; Tuytelaars, T.; Leibe, B.; Matas, J.; Sebe, N.; Welling, M.

    2016-01-01

    In online action detection, the goal is to detect the start of an action in a video stream as soon as it happens. For instance, if a child is chasing a ball, an autonomous car should recognize what is going on and respond immediately. This is a very challenging problem for four reasons. First, only

  6. Critical Utopian Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....

  7. Social Action Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  8. Creativity as action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter......-subjective phenomenon. This framework, drawing extensively from the work of Dewey (1934) on art as experience, is used to derive a coding frame for the analysis of interview material. The article reports findings from the analysis of 60 interviews with recognized French creators in five creative domains: art, design......, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not “inside” individual creators but “in...

  9. Occupational Well-Being and Stress among Early Childhood Professionals: The Use of an Innovative Strategy to Measure Stress Reactivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislin, M.; Sajaniemi, N.; Sims, M.; Suhonen, E.; Maldonado, E. F.; Hyttinen, S.; Hirvonen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine early childhood professionals' (ECPs) work engagement, burnout and stress regulation in integrated special day-care groups. The participants consisted of 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care groups in Helsinki, Finland. ECPs' work-related well-being was assessed using self-report questionnaires that…

  10. Overt and Relational Victimization in Latinos and European Americans: Measurement Equivalence across Ethnicity, Gender, and Grade Level in Early Adolescent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Eric S.; McGinley, Meredith; Toland, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and construct validity equivalence of a self-report of victimization and exclusion (SVEX) for Latino and European American early adolescent participants (fifth and sixth grades; mean age 11.3).The instrument included an expanded set of relational victimization items that more thoroughly tapped exclusion…

  11. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Koval, S.; Wijk, R. van; He, M.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  13. Insulin action in adipose tissue in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Arrieta-Blanco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available F Arrieta-Blanco1, JI Botella-Carretero1, P Iglesias1, JA Balsa1, I Zamarrón1, C De la Puerta1, JJ Arrieta2, F Ramos3, C Vázquez1, A Rovira21Unit of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Ramóny, Cajal, Madrid, Spain, Irycis, Ciberobn; 2Fundación Jimenez Díaz. Madrid, Spain; 3Hospital Sureste de ArgandaBackground: Insulin action has been reported to be normal in type 1 diabetic patients. However, some studies have reported an insulin resistance state in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate insulin resistance in a group of type 1 diabetic patients. We studied the insulin action in adipose tissue and analyzed the effects of duration of disease, body mass index (BMI, and glycosylated hemoglobin on insulin action at the receptor and postreceptor levels in adipocytes.Methods: Nine female type 1 diabetic patients with different durations of disease and eight nondiabetic female patients of comparable age and BMI were studied. 125I-insulin binding and U-[14C]-D-glucose transport was measured in a sample of subcutaneous gluteus adipose tissue obtained by open surgical biopsy from each subject.Results: The duration of disease was negatively correlated with both 125I-insulin binding capacity (r = -0.70, P < 0.05 and basal and maximum insulin-stimulated glucose transport (r = -0.87, P < 0.01, and r = -0.88, P < 0.01, respectively. Maximum specific 125I-insulin binding to the receptors in adipocytes was higher in the group of patients with a shorter duration of disease (P < 0.01. Basal and maximum insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly higher in the group with less than 5 years of disease (P < 0.01. No correlation was found between BMI and insulin action.Conclusion: Female type 1 diabetic patients have normal insulin action. There is a high glucose uptake in the early phase of the disease, although a longer duration of disease appears to be a contributing factor to a

  14. Early bronchodilator action of glycopyrronium versus tiotropium in moderate-to-severe COPD patients: a cross-over blinded randomized study (Symptoms and Pulmonary function in the moRnING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin JM

    2016-06-01

    analysis of the FEV1 AUC0-4h by time point on Day 1 showed significant improvements in patients receiving GLY versus TIO at 5 minutes (Δ=0.029 L, P=0.015, 15 minutes (Δ=0.033 L, P=0.026, and 1 hour (Δ=0.044 L, P=0.014. Safety results were comparable between both treatments.Conclusion: The SPRING study demonstrates the superiority of GLY versus TIO in terms of superior bronchodilation in the first 4 hours after administration, thus extending the clinical data that support a faster onset of action of GLY versus TIO. Keywords: LAMA, glycopyrronium, tiotropium, lung function, fast onset, rapid onset, patient reported outcome, COPD

  15. Effects of Security actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  16. Spacelike brane actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  17. Solidarity, synchronization and collective action

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    For people to act collectively in actual situations -- in contrast to public goods experiments -- goal ambiguity, diversity of interests, and uncertain costs and benefits stand in their way. Under such conditions, people seem to have few reasons to cooperate, yet the Arab revolutions, as conspicuous examples, show that collective action can take place despite the odds. I use the Kuramoto model to show how people in a cohesive network topology can synchronize their salient traits (emotions, interests, or other), and that synchronization happens in a phase transition, when group solidarity passes a critical threshold. This yields more precise predictions of outbursts of collective action under adverse conditions, and casts a new light on different measures of social cohesion.

  18. Academic and non-academic career options for marine scientists. - Support measures for early career scientists offered at MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, Dierk; Klose, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Early career scientists at MARUM cover a wide range of research topics and disciplines including geosciences, biology, chemistry, social sciences and law. Just as colourful as the disciplinary background of the people, are their ideas for their personal careers. With our services and programmes, we aim to address some important career planning needs of PhD students and early career Postdocs, both, for careers in science and for careers outside academia. For PhD students aiming to stay in science, MARUM provides funding opportunities for a research stay abroad for a duration of up to 6 months. A range of courses is offered to prepare for the first Postdoc position. These include trainings in applying for research funding, proposal writing and interview skills. Following MARUM lectures which are held once a month, early career scientists are offered the opportunity to talk to senior scientists from all over the world in an informal Meet&Greet. Mentoring and coaching programmes for women in science are offered in cooperation with the office for equal opportunities at the University of Bremen. These programmes offer an additional opportunity to train interpersonal skills and to develop personal career strategies including a focus on special challenges that especially women might (have to) face in the scientific community. Early career scientists aiming for a non-academic career find support on different levels. MARUM provides funding opportunities for placements in industry, administration, consulting or similar. We offer trainings in e.g. job hunting strategies or interview skills. For a deeper insight into jobs outside the academic world, we regularly invite professionals for informal fireside chats and career days. These events are organised in cooperation with other graduate programmes in the region to broaden the focus of both, the lecturers and the participants. A fundamental component of our career programmes is the active involvement of alumni of MARUM and our

  19. NSP Action Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP Action Plans, also known as Substantial Amendments, contain a description of a grantee’s intended use for NSP funds. The plans contain information on the...

  20. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social/organizational ......This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....../organizational research, the futures perspective implies that knowledge of the social/organizational world must be based upon images of desirable futures, so-called "futures theories", not causal descriptions of a problematic present. Futures theories identify ends and means for individual and organizational development...