WorldWideScience

Sample records for early 20th centuries

  1. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2017-12-01

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Commercial Banks and Capital Regulation in the Early 20th Century US

    OpenAIRE

    Gou, Michael

    2017-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effect of capital requirements on commercial banks and the impact of commercial bank suspensions on the United States economy during the early 20th century. The first chapter examines the effect of capital requirements on bank stability. The early 20th century United States provides an opportunity to determine whether imposing capital requirements on commercial banks promotes banking stability in the long run. The structure of the national banking system fac...

  3. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19thEarly 20th Centuries

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    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19thearly 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19thearly 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  4. Premature Infant Care in the Early 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C

    The complex early history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the early 20th century. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19thEarly 20th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tulebaev Turganzhan; Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-01-01

    The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of th...

  6. Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to Protestant Christianity. The essay explores how a substantial archival collection reveals a particular public role ministers played in a popular culture venue in early 20th century America.

  7. Hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and indigestion in London and New York in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J H; Sonnenberg, A

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of peptic ulcer increased rapidly in all Western countries from the 19th to the 20th century, attributed to a possible epidemic of Helicobacter pylori, a new pathogenic strain, or a change in host susceptibility. The early trends in hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and dyspepsia in London and New York during the 19th century are reviewed to test these hypotheses. PMID:11889081

  8. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

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    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  9. The Investigation in Terms of Design Component of Ottoman Women Entari in 19th Century and Early 20th Century

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    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.

  10. Confessional Ethical Base of Muslim Entrepreneurship in Russian Empire in Late 19th - Early 20th Centuries

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    Гадиля Гизатуллаевна Корноухова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the confessional and ethical base of the Muslim entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The author analyzes the differentiation of the value-institutional system of the broad public on the one hand, and that of entrepreneurs - on the other hand. Whereas the former adhered to the national and ethical values of the traditional culture, the latter - to religious and moral values based on Islam and developed by the Russian Empire reformers of that period.

  11. Immigration and crime in early 20th century America

    OpenAIRE

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  12. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  13. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  14. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

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    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  15. Early 20th century untrained nursing staff in the Rockhampton district: a necessary evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2005-08-01

    This paper explores the role of untrained nursing staff within the nursing services of the Rockhampton region, Queensland, Australia, throughout the early 20th century. It details who these nurses were, where they worked and how their work was affected by factors such as legislation and social changes. Despite the increasing prevalence of trained nurses from the late 19th century, nurses who had never undergone any formal training continued to gain work in hospitals, institutions and their local communities. This paper is an historical analysis of a wide range of primary source material relating to untrained nursing staff. The primary source material used related specifically to a limited geographical region in Australia. Untrained nursing staff primarily worked as private duty nurses at the beginning of the 20th century. However, as the century progressed, their opportunities to work as untrained nursing staff tended towards institutions dealing with the chronically ill and the aged. As a result of this transition, their profile altered from that of a married/widowed woman living at home with dependents to one who could live on-site at the institution with no dependents. Furthermore, the level of autonomy of the untrained nurse decreased dramatically throughout this period from being relatively independent to being under the control of a trained nurse within the institution. Consideration of the historical evolution of untrained nursing staff challenges some of the assumptions made about this category of nurse, assumptions that can affect current relationships between professional nurses and others who undertake nursing work.

  16. Iterative solution of linear systems in the 20­th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saad, Y.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2000-01-01

    This paper sketches the main research developments in the area of iterative methods for solving linear systems during the 20th century. Although iterative methods for solving linear systems find their origin in the early nineteenth century (work by Gauss), the field has seen an explosion of

  17. [German-Japanese scientific exchange in urology in the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, T; Umehara, H; Moll, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of the German language and German culture and institutional development of urology in Japan in the early 20th century, starting from the development of the medical school for Japanese in Germany and their function in the process of modernization of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Examples of bi-directional German-Japanese relations in medicine, which also included an integrated knowledge transfer, are shown. The study is based mainly on Japanese and German sources about Japanese physicians in Germany as well as contemporary publications in German and international medical journals. Methodologically, the article combines quantitative analysis with individual biographical aspects.

  18. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  19. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  20. Barter Trade in North Western Siberia in the Late of 19th - Early 20th Centuries

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    Valery V. Tsys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of barter trade in the North Western Siberia by the local peoples who used different fishing and hunting products such as fish and animal fur by way of cash equivalent up to the end of 19th century. Particularly, squirrel fur was a most popular hunting product used as money equivalent in trade in the 19th century. The author notes that due to the spread of the Russian population and development of railways in the second half of the 19th century the situation gradually changed. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century natural barter was completely replaced by monetized trade with the use of bills and coins. The article describes a system of notes used by the local indigenous population to record the sums of money in trade, such as solar signs (hundreds, squares (tens, x-shaped crosses (units, vertical lines (hundredth parts of the main value. The article also indicates that during the Civil War and the transition to the NEP (New Economic Policy an abrupt rise in prices for fishing products occurred, with the following revival of barter, when squirrel fur and fish regained their roles as cost units and universal money equivalents.

  1. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19thearly 20th century

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    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19thearly 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  2. The burgeoning presbyopic population: an emerging 20th century phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, J S

    1998-07-01

    Improved social welfare in the wake of the 'industrial revolution' set in train in mid-18th century Britain an escalation in population numbers which has been sustained through to the end of the 20th century--and is projected to continue into the 21st century. However, within the total population envelope the percentage-contribution of certain age groupings shows a striking pattern when viewed across nearly five centuries. For 350 years, up to the end of the 19th century, the over--40 year old section of the population comprised a steady 25% of the total population count of England (latterly England and Wales): over the same period the 60-plus section contributed nearly 10% of the total. Throughout the ten decades of the 20th century these proportions have both increased, such that with the arrival of the next millennium a two-fold increase in the percentage-contribution of both age groups will have occurred: nearly one-half (over 24 million) of the population of England and Wales will be aged over 40, or more than one-fifth (around 11 million) will be aged over 60 years. This 'ageing' of the general population will have economic and socio-medical implications both at home and abroad, since this is a demographic trend which is present/projected in all countries of the European Union (as presently constituted). The future practise of optometry will certainly be touched by these changes. Naturally a potential increase in demand for presbyopic refractive corrections from the growing volume of aged 40-plus individuals is possible. However of greater significance is the certain increase in age-related oculo-visual problems arising from within the growing aged 60-plus population. Greater acknowledgement and utilisation of the optometrist's skills, currently being reappraised through the profession's participation in 'collaborative care' schemes, may indicate the direction in which optometry should move in the early 21st century to remain a valuable--and valued

  3. Adult Learning Development in Poland in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarska-Khomenko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective analysis of adult learning development in Poland in the 20th century. Based on the study and analysis of historical and pedagogical literature, normative documents of the official bodies of Polish government, the periodical press of the 20th century, several stages of adult learning development, in the…

  4. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  5. Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower in 2014 and activity of comet 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji; Uehara, Satoshi; Sagayama, Toru; Toda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower were made in North Carolina, USA, with seven video cameras and two digital cameras over a period of about 5 hr between 22:30 UT on 2014 December 1 and 04:00 UT on December 2. Activity of the Phoenicids was confirmed during this period, including the predicted maximum around 00 h UT on December 2. The activity level was not high, considering that 29 Phoenicid meteors and 109 non-Phoenicid meteors were detected. A gentle peak in the activity was recognized between 01:00 UT and 03:00 UT on December 2. The compact radiant of the Phoenicids agreed well with what was predicted. A comparison of the observed and predicted peak times, radiant position, bright meteors' dominance, and radiants' spread revealed that the observed meteors originated from the dust trails formed by comet 289P/Blanpain at the perihelion passage in the early 20th century. This indicates that the parent body of the Phoenicids, comet 289P/Blanpain, was still active as a comet in the early 20th century and provided meteoroids, although its activity level was significantly weaker than that at the beginning of the 19th century.

  6. Missionary Activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in Chukotka (17th - early 20th cc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurganova Inna Igorevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Chukotka Peninsula in the context of civilizational component integration into the Russian imperial areas in the 17th - early 20th centuries, including a brief historiography of the problem, the history of the construction of churches and chapels, the creation of the Orthodox mission, its structure and the territorial boundaries of the missionary activities. The author defines milestones for the Christianization of the Chukchi, introduces into science unpublished archival sources, assesses the activities of missionaries, determines the outcome of the spread of Orthodoxy in the beginning of the 20th century. It has been established that the state and church authorities, taking into consideration the difficulties of serving on the outskirts of the empire, developed a system of privileges and rewards for missionaries: increased salaries, payments ration and others, but missionary (marching service was difficult and dangerous. It is noted that despite the actual transfer of the Chukotka mission Aleutian diocese (headed by future Russian Patriarch Tikhon (Belavin in the beginning of the 20th century, statements of mission and purpose of the missionaries remained the prerogative of the Yakutian bishops. The study found that the spread of Orthodoxy in the Chukotka region in the 17thearly 20th centuries did not become a significant factor in the imperial policy on including the peninsula in the Russian state, which is associated with objective (harsh climate, a nomadic way of life of the population, lack of railways and subjective (long armed resistance, the small number of missionaries and the lack of material software, the lack of permanent control reasons. In order to achieve significant results Chukotka needed constant (regular missionary work, requiring both tangible investments (travel missionaries, food, labor, interpreters, creating living conditions for missionaries

  7. Spanish nurses' credentialing in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Conesa, J M; Cayuela Fuentes, P S; Beneit Montesinos, J V; González Jurado, M

    2012-06-01

    Nurses credentialing as healthcare professionals commenced in Western Europe and in the USA by the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, boosted by the protestant reform movement. In Spain, it started in 1915, during the kingdom of Alfonso XIII (1902-1931). This historical period was marked by great political instability and big flaws in the healthcare delivery system. To describe the regulatory pathway that gave rise to the nursing profession in Spain, through official credentialing and regulation during the first third of the 20th century. Documental, historical and regulatory documental research describing and analysing the national legislative sources used to regulate the professional development, as well as the education, training and competencies of the nursing practice in Spain, as compared with the developments in the European and American context. Professional development of the nursing profession in Western Europe and in the USA is consolidated during the 20th century as resulting in educational and training enhancement and the establishment of national and international professional bodies. In Spain, the regulatory and legal recognition of the nursing profession come into being in 1915 in response to a request from a female religious congregation. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  8. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  9. Historical documents on epilepsy: From antiquity through the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Vassilyadi, Photios; Fehlert, Julia; Hagel, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Historical documents dating back almost 4500years have alluded to the condition of epilepsy, describing signs and symptoms that are well-known today. Epilepsy was thought to be a mystical disorder by almost all Ancient cultures, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Indians, Iranians and Chinese. Hippocrates was the first to de-mystify the condition of epilepsy, providing a more scientific approach to the condition. As the signs and symptoms of epilepsy occurred without an obvious cause, the idea stood that it was a mystical phenomenon of divine punishment. This portrayal persisted through the early centuries of the common era, including the Middle Ages. It was not until the 16th and 17th century that Paracelsus, le Pois and Sylvius started to investigate internal causes for epilepsy. By the beginning of the 18th century, the general opinion on epilepsy was that it was an idiopathic disease residing in the brain and other inner organs. This resulted in Tissot writing the first modern book on epilepsy. Research continued in the 19th century with Jackson describing different types of seizures and many researchers showing interest in electroencephalography (EEG). The 20th century saw more detailed research being done on epilepsy and EEG, in addition to the establishment of many epilepsy-associated medical societies. The goal of this historical documentation is to provide an overview of the most important milestones in the history of epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  11. Center or periphery? The system of public administration in Tuva in the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Салимаа Сергеевна Ховалыг

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with formation and development of the government power system and the management in Tuva in the 19-20th centuries. The state apparatus, the hierarchy of ranks and degrees of distinction of the state posts of Tuva are examined. The creation problems of the organization of the power of Russia in the region are analyzed in this article. In connection with it, in the beginning of the 20th century Tuva was accepted as a protectorate of Russia.

  12. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the entire...

  13. Koeberg: SA's only 20th century nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the question of Koeberg being South Africa's only 20th century nuclear power station. According to Escom's chairman, Koeberg must be seen as a forerunner of a programme which will begin to mature in the next century. The cost of Koeberg is compared to the cost attached to a coal-fired power station

  14. Influence of high-latitude warming and land-use changes in the early 20th century northern Eurasian CO2 sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Peregon, Anna; Gani, Érico A.; Khudyaev, Sergey; Yue, Chao; Li, Wei; Gouveia, Célia M.; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    While the global carbon budget (GCB) is relatively well constrained over the last decades of the 20th century [1], observations and reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 growth rate present large discrepancies during the earlier periods [2]. The large uncertainty in GCB has been attributed to the land biosphere, although it is not clear whether the gaps between observations and reconstructions are mainly because land-surface models (LSMs) underestimate inter-annual to decadal variability in natural ecosystems, or due to inaccuracies in land-use change reconstructions. As Eurasia encompasses about 15% of the terrestrial surface, 20% of the global soil organic carbon pool and constitutes a large CO2 sink, we evaluate the potential contribution of natural and human-driven processes to induce large anomalies in the biospheric CO2 fluxes in the early 20th century. We use an LSM specifically developed for high-latitudes, that correctly simulates Eurasian C-stocks and fluxes from observational records [3], in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the Eurasian sink to the strong high-latitude warming occurring between 1930 and 1950. We show that the LSM with improved high-latitude phenology, hydrology and soil processes, contrary to the group of LSMs in [2], is able to represent enhanced vegetation growth linked to boreal spring warming, consistent with tree-ring time-series [4]. By compiling a dataset of annual agricultural area in the Former Soviet Union that better reflects changes in cropland area linked with socio-economic fluctuations during the early 20th century, we show that land-abadonment during periods of crisis and war may result in reduced CO2 emissions from land-use change (44%–78% lower) detectable at decadal time-scales. Our study points to key processes that may need to be improved in LSMs and LUC datasets in order to better represent decadal variability in the land CO2 sink, and to better constrain the GCB during the pre-observational record.

  15. Politics and naturalism in the 20th century psychology of Alfred Binet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-11-01

    Alfred Binet is internationally recognized as the "father" of the first intelligence test as well as the most faithful French representative of laboratory experimentalism. A historical analysis of his work is therefore necessary to get to a thorough comprehension of 20th century psychology. The present article, starting from Binet's intellectual path and from the suggestions of the previous historical literature, aims at providing fresh insights into Binet's work by trying to capture the intersections between Binet, his naturalistic culture and the political context in which he worked in the early 20th century, when he actively tried to apply experimental psychology to the pedagogical area. In fact, it is possible to underline, with reference to those years, an evident turn towards applications in Binet's psychological production. The article reconstructs the political and institutional background of Binet's research and shows how the naturalism and experimentalism he promoted were complementary to the solidarist conceptions that were particularly prevalent among those who supported his work during the Third Republic.

  16. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  17. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  18. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Kloster, Silvia [Cornell University; Engelstaedter, S. [Cornell University; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Harvard University; McConnell, J. R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Albani, S. [Cornell University; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Bhattacharya, A. [Harvard University; Curran, M. A. J. [Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre; Flanner, Mark G. [University of Michigan; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mayewski, P. A. [University of Maine; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Boulder; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Thomas, E. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Zender, Charlie S. [University of California, Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  19. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World War,…

  20. Historiography of mathematics in the 19th and 20th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Martina; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the historiography of mathematics as it was practiced during the 19th and 20th centuries by paying special attention to the cultural contexts in which the history of mathematics was written. In the 19th century, the history of mathematics was recorded by a diverse range of people trained in various fields and driven by different motivations and aims. These backgrounds often shaped not only their writing on the history of mathematics, but, in some instances, were also influential in their subsequent reception. During the period from roughly 1880-1940, mathematics modernized in important ways, with regard to its content, its conditions for cultivation, and its identity; and the writing of the history of mathematics played into the last part in particular. Parallel to the modernization of mathematics, the history of mathematics gradually evolved into a field of research with its own journals, societies and academic positions. Reflecting both a new professional identity and changes in its prim...

  1. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  2. Role Model Effects of Female STEM Teachers and Doctors on Early 20th Century University Enrollment in California. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleemer, Zach

    2016-01-01

    What was the role of imperfect local information in the growth, gender gap, and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) major selection of early 20th century American universities? In order to examine pre-1950 American higher education, this study constructs four rich panel datasets covering most students, high school teachers, and…

  3. MOSCOW PRINTERS-FOREIGNERS IN THE LAST THIRD OF THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г В Аксенова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of foreigners in the publishing business of Moscow in the last third of the 19th - early 20th century on the example of Moscow printers E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson, whose ancestors came to Russia from Austria and Germany. The historio-graphical review showed that the history of Moscow publishing houses and foreign printers who arrived in Russia remains beyond the scope of the current scientifi c interest. There are analyzed the stages of the development of the publishing business, it features, printing fi ndings, the specifi cs of the book market.E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson are the brightest fi gures in Russia in the fi eld of publishing. Starting from scratch, they were able to create unique typography, in which it was possible to produce multicolour hard products, phototype table, to improve engraving, chromolithography and colour photozincography. To perform these works, they attracted specialists who were able to develop and implement new ways of printing. E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson collaborated with the best artists of Russia helping to implement the ideas of publishing quality printed products that contributed to the aesthetic education of readers. The article reveals the importance of the activities of the two publishers of German origin E.-C. A. Lissner and A. Levenson in the development of the Russian culture (literature and art and the popularization of scientifi c knowledge. They laid new principles of publishing and printing of illustrations, created a new trend in book production. Their activities contributed to the opening of new names in literature and art, promotion of Russian printing technology and book production to both domestic and foreign markets, development of book art and improve-ment of printing.

  4. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed...... and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...... the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace...

  5. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and

  6. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  7. 19th-century and early 20th-century jaundice outbreaks, the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, C G

    2018-01-01

    Historical enquiry into diseases with morbidity or mortality predilections for particular demographic groups can permit clarification of their emergence, endemicity, and epidemicity. During community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in the pre-vaccine era, clinical attack rates were higher among juveniles rather than adults. In community-wide hepatitis E outbreaks, past and present, mortality rates have been most pronounced among pregnant women. Examination for these characteristic predilections in reports of jaundice outbreaks in the USA traces the emergence of hepatitis A and also of hepatitis E to the closing three decades of the 19th century. Thereafter, outbreaks of hepatitis A burgeoned, whereas those of hepatitis E abated. There were, in addition, community-wide outbreaks that bore features of neither hepatitis A nor E; they occurred before the 1870s. The American Civil War antedated that period. If hepatitis A had yet to establish endemicity, then it would not underlie the jaundice epidemic that was widespread during the war. Such an assessment may be revised, however, with the discovery of more extant outbreak reports.

  8. Students Life in the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the First Years of Its Existence (Late 19thEarly 20th Ct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Bilyavska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the various pages of the life of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the first years of its existence — educational, scientific, casual and students participated in the revolutionary-democratic movement of Kyiv late 19th—early 20th centuries. Study of student life Kyiv Polytechnic Institute late 19th and early 20th centuries is a separate page in the history of this institution. In conditions of autocracy, strict control of the Government, of the Ministry of Finance, which was subject to institute systematic interference in its activities of the Kyiv authorities and police, students themselves organized and find different ways to influence the improvement of educational and methodical process, improve their daily lives. Analysis of historical sources provides an answer to the causes of the growth of public and revolutionary activity of a large number of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute that time. General political crisis of the Russian Empire, autocratic way, national and social oppression, lack of political rights and freedoms have caused strong protests from students. One of the main requirements of students was the recognition of the autonomy of higher education institutions, police interference in their activities. Unfair considered sexual, national and class limit admission to the KPI. Object of study was chosen by the author as Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, its work in the late 19th and early 20th century, as the oldest and reputable higher engineering school at that time. Experience of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute is of great importance for the modern transformation of higher education in Ukraine.

  9. Economic Development of Sarepta District of the Tsaritsyn County at the Turn of the 19th-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfenov Aleksandr E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of the industrial development of Sarepta district (now the southern part of Volgograd at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. By the end of the 19th century the Sarepta district comprised 17 production entities. The majority of them were small workshops that manufactured various household goods and had from 5 to 10 workers. Besides, Sarepta had a larger industrial enterprise – the Mustard Factory of the Glitsch – which was known throughout Russia for the high quality of its produce. Agriculture played a minor role in Sarepta district. The population of Sarepta district amounted to about 1800 people in 1894. It comprised landowners, small industrialists, and their hired workers. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a rapid industrial development of the area. The first stage of the process was the building of the Tsaritsyn- Tikhoretskaya railway line. It connected the Kuban wheat-growing region with central areas of Russia. A 13-kilometres long section of the railway line passed through Sarepta district. Near Sarepta a station, a locomotive depot, and repair workshops were built in 1895-98. In 1901 the railway line and station were supplemented with a large cargo port on the Volga near Sarepta. The creation of the large transport hub sharply raised the economic significance of Sarepta district. Social and demographic characteristics of the area also changed dramatically. Due to the inflow of workers to the station and port, the district population nearly doubled and the ratio of proletariat raised sharply.

  10. The Use of Monograms on Byzantine Seals in the Early Middle-Ages (6th to 9th Centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Seibt

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals especially with monograms on Byzantine lead seals. The early form was the block monogram, a type used already in Classical times, which came into fashion in the Byzantine world in the 6th or already in the 5th century and remained important till the early 7th century. Such monograms hide normally a name, a title or an office, the Greek ones in genitive, the Latin ones in nominative or genitive. Many of them can be read in different ways. For the double using of parts of letter...

  11. Melancholia before the 20th century: Fear and Sorrow or Partial Insanity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo eTelles-Correia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Psychopathology, several meanings have been assigned to the term melancholia. The main ones were related to affective (fear and sadness and thought disorders (a type of mental disorder characterised mainly by the presence of abnormal believes. At the time of Hippocrates melancholia was regarded mainly in its affective component. Since that time, and until the 18th century, authors and opinions have been divided, with both aspects (affective and thought disorders, being valued. Finally, in the 18th-19th centuries, with Pinel at its peak, melancholia becomes exclusively a synonym of thought disorders (abnormal believes: delusions/overvalued ideas.At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, the affective component returns as the main aspect characterising melancholia.

  12. The white of the 20th century : an explorative survey into Dutch modern art collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Gerretzen, J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    White pigments were abundantly used in 20th century paintings, and relate to several degradation risks such as titanium white mediated photocatalytic binder degradation or zinc soap formation. Knowledge about the white pigments that were used is essential for risk assessments of 20th century

  13. Rise and fall of hypofractionation in clinical radiotherapy in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, S.; Ruden, B. I.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review of the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy during the last two centuries. We define hypofractionation as any treatment where the individual fraction exceeds 2.0 Gray (Gy). The number of fractions is disregarded. The struggle of the early radiotherapists, the slow acceptance of fractionation, and the battle between the German and the French schools are reviewed. The early mathematical formulae of biological effects radiation are described and commented on. The paramount contribution in radiotherapy by British scientists gave rise to a new science: radiobiology. This branch had now matured into an exact discipline, separate from, and yet utterly depending on, its 100 years old sibling: Diagnostic Radiology. The come-back and fall of hypofractionation during two centuries is described, and set in relation to the treatment philosophy of the corresponding period. Injuries are described, and the long latency period for late reactions pointed out. Some of the legal aspects of the injuries are discussed. The come-back of hypofractionation - twice declared dead and buried the 20 th century - in the late 1990's is explained. The brilliant incorporation variability (α andβ) into mathematical exactness (the LQ-formula) has had, and will have a profound impact on clinical radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Two hegemonies – two technological regimes : American and Norwegian whaling in the 19th and 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2006-01-01

    The 19th century whaling industry was dominated by the United States while the 20th century industry had its origins in Norway and was dominated for years by that nation. The focus of the paper, is to explore the relationship between the two so-called hegemonic whaling nations. Specifically, we are looking for encounters between the two industries that in one way or another may explain why the Norwegians did not enter into traditional pelagic whaling in the mid 19th century, an...

  15. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19thEarly 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulebaev Turganzhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of the industry of Turkestan Krai during that period is a vivid example of the process of the making and development of capitalist relations. This proves once again the relevance and timeliness of the study of the characteristics of the evolution of the region’s industry and determination of its prevalent forms. The author examines the initial forms of the region’s industry. Only the penetration of commodity production on the capitalist basis and the resettlement of peasants, the settling down of Kazakhs on the land, the development of old and emergence of new towns and villages, and the construction of railroads would lay the foundation for social division of labor. This spurred the development of old and emergence of new sectors in the industry of Turkestan Krai. During the period under examination, the prevalent form of industry was petty commodity capitalist production. But the transition from craft production and its workshop form to capitalist petty commodity production in Turkestan Krai was a long and not always straightforward process. The author investigates the issue of the making of the factory/plant form of industry. The emergence of particular factories and plants was a consequence of the wide development of Russian capitalism, a result of adopting Central Russia’s accumulated experience in the way of applying production techniques and technology in Turkestan Krai. Based on the author’s study of facts relating to industrial production in

  16. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  17. Reconstructing the early 19th-century Waal River by means of a 2D physics-based numerical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes Arboleda, A.; Crosato, A.; Middelkoop, H.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data are a missing link in reconstructions of the River Waal in the early 1800s. These reconstructions serve as a basis for assessing the long-term effects of major interventions carried out between 1850 AD and the early 20th century. We used a 2D physics-based

  18. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration Missions in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Moroz, V. I.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2003-07-01

    The prospect of traveling to the planets was science fiction at the beginning of the 20th Century and science fact at its end. The space age was born of the Cold War in the 1950s and throughout most of the remainder of the century it provided not just an adventure in the exploration of space but a suspenseful drama as the US and USSR competed to be first and best. It is a tale of patience to overcome obstacles, courage to try the previously impossible and persistence to overcome failure, a tale of both fantastic accomplishment and debilitating loss. We briefly describe the history of robotic lunar and planetary exploration in the 20th Century, the missions attempted, their goals and their fate. We describe how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation.

  20. Football in England of first half 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Dohnal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    (English) This disetation describes progress of football as a sport in the first half of the 20th century, including his position in society during both World Wars Keywords: football competition, number of fans and their culture, football in World Wars, women football, football clubs, organisation of football, football and the media

  1. Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

  2. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  3. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  4. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

  5. International Musicological Conference Young Musicology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century, Kabinet hudební historie Etnologického ústavu AV ČR, Praha 5.–8. září 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2017), s. 236-237 ISSN 0018-7003. [International Music ological Conference Young Music ology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century. Prague, 05.10.2016-08.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : 20th Century * Young Music ology * Conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  6. How the law is perceived in the 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Chovancová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay the author reflects connection between iusnaturalism and positivism. Dominant discussion is understanding law and morality which represents neverending story. The article analyzes positive law in  20th century represented by H.L. A Hart and natural law development by L.L. Fuller and R. Alexy. Twentieth century can be called a period during which natural law has been shifted towards more positivism within the natural law. Jural positivism can be understood as a doctrine based on the Bentham´s utilitarism which didn´t accept other normative systems to be involved into concept of law. Prominent representatives of this theory have completely excluded moral content of the legal standards and they consider these to be irrelevant for the validity of the law. According to them evaluating standards through moral criteria is not appropriate because this brings chaos into the jural thinking. Methodology: This essay using from methodology methods of comparation, especially positive law represented by H.L.A. Hart and natural law represented by LL.Fuller, R. Alexy in the20th century and also analyzing connection between law and morality.

  7. Nuclear tracks: A success story of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Starting with the observation of a few feeble trails of damage in a sheet of mica exposed to fission fragments some 40 years ago, the discipline based on their correct interpretation has emblazoned a resounding success story in the second half of the 20th century. The spectrum of information revealed by the technique extends from delineating the history of the cosmos over billions of years to observing exotic decays lasting from a minute to a fraction of a second. More, directly useful researches have included medical and biological uses as well as industrial applications. A topic of great current interest is the study of the environmental and health effects of the naturally occurring radon gas. These and other highlights of the track work over the past 40 odd years of the 20th century - with some tentative glimpses of things to come in the 21st - are presented and examined in this review paper

  8. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this time period, thus creating a record of the technological evolution in the phonographic industry in the 20th century. It is a fact that many of the resources currently used were already available in the second half of the last century, however to a small extent and with a high cost of production. This article targets the present-day reconfiguration of the means of production and distribution of music, as well as its means of consumption and some of its effects on the industry, the artists and users.

  9. Governmentality and the good offices of translation in 20th-century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmentality and the good offices of translation in 20th-century South Africa. ... An account is also given of the modes of governmentality embodied by the South African Translators' Association. Southern ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Bad habits and bad genes: early 20th-century eugenic attempts to eliminate syphilis and associated "defects" from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip K

    2003-01-01

    American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.

  11. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  12. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  13. A very British affair six Britons and the development of time series analysis during the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, T

    2012-01-01

    This book develops the major themes of time series analysis from its formal beginnings in the early part of the 20th century to the present day through the research of six distinguished British statisticians, all of whose work is characterised by the British traits of pragmatism and the desire to solve practical problems of importance.

  14. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  15. State Reforms in the Field of Education in Russia (Late 18th-Early 19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya M. Rumyantseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy of Russia in the field of education during the late 18th - early 19th centuries. This period is characterized by a great democratization of education and the definition of new goals, objectives and content of education: the professional training of a young person becomes inseparable from the education of a citizen - a patriot of a state and a broadly enlightened personality in different sciences. The paper analyzed historical documents (orders of Russian emperors concerning public education, school and university statutes, historical references. In the chronological order, state reforms in the field of education in Russia were constructed and characterized at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the statistical data on the number of pupils, teachers and schools within the period under review were presented.

  16. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  17. THE DISCOUNT RATE POLICY IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pociovalisteanu Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, economists have generally acknowledged the importance of the central bank discount rate as the reference interest rate in a country: by increasing the interest rate during economic booms that forego the busts, the Central Bank

  18. In the Age of Changes: Rebellion, Insurrection and Revolution in the 17thEarly 20th Centuries in the Russian Province: All-Russian Conference to the 100th Anniversary of 1917 Revolutionary Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Lyapin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author points out the importance of studying social conflicts in the history of Russia. Over the past years, this problem has been in the core of scholars’ attention. The study of social conflicts and crisis periods allows revealing important features of development of the Russian state. In this regard, the conference “In the age of changes: rebellion, insurrection and revolution in the 17thearly 20th centuries in the Russian province” that took place on September 21–23, 2017 at the Elets State University named after I.A. Bunin was characterized by utmost relevance. The conference was held with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Administration of the Lipetsk Region. The scholars from 14 regions of Russia took part in the conference, more than half of them were represented by doctors of sciences. The reports of the conference participants aroused debates and focused on the social conflicts taking place in the Russian province in the 17th – first quarter of the 20th century. The reports were published in a special issue of the journal History: Facts and Symbols. The conference served as the discussion platform for major Russian scholars, and allowed to put forward new ideas, which together can be embodied in new events of this kind. The author considers several problematic reports and notes that the conference showed the importance of such events that determine and guide the development of rebellion studies in historical science.

  19. 20th century climate warming and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullman, L

    2001-03-01

    Climate warming by ca. 0.8 degree C between the late-19th and late-20th century, although with some fluctuations, has forced multispecies elevational tree-limit advance by > 100 m for the principal tree species in the Swedish part of the Scandinavian mountain range. Predominantly, these processes imply growth in height of old-established individuals and less frequently upslope migration of new individuals. After a slight retardation during some cooler decades after 1940, a new active phase of tree-limit advance has occurred with a series of exceptionally mild winters and some warm summers during the 1990s. The magnitude of total 20th century tree-limit rise varies with topoclimate and is mainly confined to wind-sheltered and snow-rich segments of the landscape. Thickening of birch tree stands in the "advance belt" has profoundly altered the general character of the subalpine/low alpine landscape and provides a positive feedback loop for further progressive change and resilience to short-term cooling episodes. All upslope tree-limit shifts and associated landscape transformations during the 20th century have occurred without appreciable time lags, which constitutes knowledge fundamental to the generation of realistic models concerning vegetation responses to potential future warming. The new and elevated pine tree-limit may be the highest during the past 4000 14C years. Thus, it is tentatively inferred that the 20th century climate is unusually warm in a late-Holocene perspective.

  20. Educational Foundations Best Writings (20th Century): Biblio-Historical Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper lists and discusses, in historical progression, books and other writings that are considered to cover the major developments of education in the United States in the 20th century. The paper is intended to help professional educators to know better the great ideas, themes, and books that laid the foundations of education in the United…

  1. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  2. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed......In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between...... and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought...

  3. Responses of Multi-Aged Music Students to Mid-20th-Century Art Music: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation replicates previous research into K-12 students' responses to mid-20th-century art music. The study extends that research to include undergraduates and graduates as well as an additional group of graduate students who had taken a 20th-century music class. Children's responses showed remarkable consistency and indicated that…

  4. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface climate...

  5. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  6. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface climate over the...

  7. Observation-Driven Estimation of the Spatial Variability of 20th Century Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B. D.; Burgos, A.; Thompson, P. R.; Landerer, F. W.; Piecuch, C. G.; Adhikari, S.; Caron, L.; Reager, J. T.; Ivins, E. R.

    2018-03-01

    Over the past two decades, sea level measurements made by satellites have given clear indications of both global and regional sea level rise. Numerous studies have sought to leverage the modern satellite record and available historic sea level data provided by tide gauges to estimate past sea level rise, leading to several estimates for the 20th century trend in global mean sea level in the range between 1 and 2 mm/yr. On regional scales, few attempts have been made to estimate trends over the same time period. This is due largely to the inhomogeneity and quality of the tide gauge network through the 20th century, which render commonly used reconstruction techniques inadequate. Here, a new approach is adopted, integrating data from a select set of tide gauges with prior estimates of spatial structure based on historical sea level forcing information from the major contributing processes over the past century. The resulting map of 20th century regional sea level rise is optimized to agree with the tide gauge-measured trends, and provides an indication of the likely contributions of different sources to regional patterns. Of equal importance, this study demonstrates the sensitivities of this regional trend map to current knowledge and uncertainty of the contributing processes.

  8. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  9. Propaganda Art from the 20th to the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study by artist Jonas Staal explores the development of propaganda art from the 20th to the 21st century. Staal defines propaganda as the performance of power by means of the equation propaganda = power + performance. Through his work as a propaganda researcher and practice as a

  10. Measles epidemics of variable lethality in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis; Hu, Zheng; Waller, Michael; Lee, Seung-eun; Terfa, Daniel; Howard, Alan; van Heyningen, Elizabeth; Brundage, John F

    2014-02-15

    Until the mid-20th century, mortality rates were often very high during measles epidemics, particularly among previously isolated populations (e.g., islanders), refugees/internees who were forcibly crowded into camps, and military recruits. Searching for insights regarding measles mortality rates, we reviewed historical records of measles epidemics on the Polynesian island of Rotuma (in 1911), in Boer War concentration camps (in 1900-1902), and in US Army mobilization camps during the First World War (in 1917-1918). Records classified measles deaths by date and clinical causes; by demographic characteristics, family relationships (for Rotuma islanders and Boer camp internees), and prior residences; and by camp (for Boer internees and US Army recruits). During the Rotuman and Boer War epidemics, measles-related mortality rates were high (up to 40%); however, mortality rates differed more than 10-fold across camps/districts, even though conditions were similar. During measles epidemics, most deaths among camp internees/military recruits were due to secondary bacterial pneumonias; in contrast, most deaths among Rotuman islanders were due to gastrointestinal complications. The clinical expressions, courses, and outcomes of measles during first-contact epidemics differ from those during camp epidemics. The degree of isolation from respiratory pathogens other than measles may significantly determine measles-related mortality risk.

  11. Mathematical and conceptual foundations of 20th-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for Mathematicians, but it is also hoped that students in the physical sciences, will find here information not usually available in physics texts. The main aim of the book is to provide a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-century Physics, in a form suitable for a one-year survey course in Mathematics or Mathematical Physics. Emphasis is laid on the interlocked historical development of mathematical and physical ideas. (Auth.)

  12. Global economic impacts of climate variability and change during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Francisco; Tol, Richard S J; Botzen, Wouter J W

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of the global economic impacts of observed climate change during the 20th century obtained by applying five impact functions of different integrated assessment models (IAMs) are separated into their main natural and anthropogenic components. The estimates of the costs that can be attributed to natural variability factors and to the anthropogenic intervention with the climate system in general tend to show that: 1) during the first half of the century, the amplitude of the impacts associated with natural variability is considerably larger than that produced by anthropogenic factors and the effects of natural variability fluctuated between being negative and positive. These non-monotonic impacts are mostly determined by the low-frequency variability and the persistence of the climate system; 2) IAMs do not agree on the sign (nor on the magnitude) of the impacts of anthropogenic forcing but indicate that they steadily grew over the first part of the century, rapidly accelerated since the mid 1970's, and decelerated during the first decade of the 21st century. This deceleration is accentuated by the existence of interaction effects between natural variability and natural and anthropogenic forcing. The economic impacts of anthropogenic forcing range in the tenths of percentage of the world GDP by the end of the 20th century; 3) the impacts of natural forcing are about one order of magnitude lower than those associated with anthropogenic forcing and are dominated by the solar forcing; 4) the interaction effects between natural and anthropogenic factors can importantly modulate how impacts actually occur, at least for moderate increases in external forcing. Human activities became dominant drivers of the estimated economic impacts at the end of the 20th century, producing larger impacts than those of low-frequency natural variability. Some of the uses and limitations of IAMs are discussed.

  13. Optical Character Recognition Applied to Romanian Printed Texts of the 18th–20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Optical Character Recognition (OCR of historical texts of the 18th–20th century in the Romanian language using the Cyrillic script. We differ three epochs (approximately, the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with different usage of the Cyrillic alphabet in Romanian and, correspondingly, different approach to OCR. We developed historical alphabets and sets of glyphs recognition templates specific for each epoch. The dictionaries in proper alphabets and orthographies were also created. In addition, virtual keyboards, fonts, transliteration utilities, etc. were developed. The resulting technology and toolset permit successful recognition of historical Romanian texts in the Cyrillic script. After transliteration to the modern Latin script we obtain no-barrier access to historical documents.

  14. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them.

  15. Public health and social supervision issues within public administration of ukrainian territories in the late 8th- early 9th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynzovskyi, Anatolii M; Holovanova, Irina A; Omelchuk, Sergei T; Kuzminska, Olena V; Hrynzovska, Anastasia A; Karlova, Olena O; Kondratiuk, Vitalii Ye

    Introduction: The public health system modernization history is based upon the progress in state country administration and administration of healthcare within the sectorwide approach. The WHO European Bureau pays much attention to the National Health Service systems development while implementing their basic policies. The Ukrainian state health service management was founded basing on the regulatory field of the Russian Empire, using the European healthcare promotion experience. Aim: of the article is the analysis of the regulatory field of police and amenity authorities of the Russian Empire and Ukraine within the medical and social service in the 18th-19th centuries. Materials and methods: The structure of the article corresponds to the problem city and chronology principles, using the following methods and techniques of scientific learning: the systemic, historic, regulatory comparative, logical and structural-functional analysis of the studied medical-legal phenomena. The study sources are the scientific publications, collections of laws and executive orders of the Russian Empire and Ukraine in the 18th-19th centuries. Review: As a result of the performed work it can be determined were the main directions of the police competence in late 18th- early 19th centuries. Conclusion: Preserving health, treatment of the ill and injured, management of medical and social service of those in need, holding various preventive activities and supporting safe environment and regulating the safety of food were the main directions of the police competence in late 18th- early 19th centuries.

  16. Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Banić-Grubišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Radmila Radić. Narodna verovanja, religija i spiritizam u srpskom društvu 19. i u prvoj polovini 20. veka. [Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century]. 2009. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, pp. 295

  17. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  18. Changes in the flora of the Netherlands in the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, Wilhelmus Laurentius Martinus

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the flora of the Netherlands in the 20th century Throughout the world, biodiversity is under major threat from human activity. As the gravity of the situation unfolds, critical analysis shows that our knowledge and understanding of these developments is still very incomplete, both

  19. The economic impact of climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The national version of FUND3. 6 is used to backcast the impacts of climate change to the 20th century and extrapolate to the 21st century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water

  20. Land motion due to 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the contribution from ice sheets and glaciers to past sea level change is of great value for understanding sea level projections into the 21st century. However, quantifying and understanding past changes are equally important, in particular understanding the impact in the near-field where the signal is highest. We assess the impact of 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet on land motion using results from Kjeldsen et al, 2015. These results suggest that the ice sheet on average lost a minimum of 75 Gt/yr, but also show that the mass balance was highly spatial- and temporal variable, and moreover that on a centennial time scale changes were driven by a decreasing surface mass balance. Based on preliminary results we discuss land motion during the 20th century due to mass balance changes and the driving components surface mass balance and ice dynamics.

  1. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, Valentin P; Schechter, A N

    2010-01-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  2. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  3. [The 20th century legal framework regarding risk at work and occupational health in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Soler, Juan M; Luna-García, Jairo E; Correa-Moreno, Yerson A; Campos, Adriana C

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the 20th century Colombian legal framework from the point of view of labor law, social security and public health for identifying concepts regarding occupational health and professional risk and trying to establish convergence and differences between such foci and whether they fulfilled a complementary view. This work involved documentary research by means of thematic categorical analysis of the laws and statutes promulgated in 20th century Colombia, considering the main element or entity which should have regulated that related to professional risk or occupational health. The development of the 20th century Colombian legal framework regarding health at work was periodized, revealing the predominance of a view of social law focused on protecting dependent workers' work-related risks, as part of a tendency extending to the Colombian Sistema General de Riesgos Laborales. The proposed stages used for organizing the legal framework concerning social security regarding professional risk and occupational health facilitated some important elements being recognized concerning the social, legal and institutional context from which workers' health laws emerged. Tension was noted concerning statutes orientated towards redress and compensation regarding accidents at work and legislation emphasizing prevention.

  4. Limited creativity: Women in the Serbian architecture from the early 20th century to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić-Lazar Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to point out the change in women's position in architecture in the period from the early 20th century to date through a prism of their architectural and professional achievements as a form of exercising their rights and achieving the equality with their male colleagues. The purpose of this paper is to also shed light on the reasons of tacit acceptance of the system of discriminatory character that allowed the women architects to be only the „anonymous associates“ (so that they could be able to deal with the job of architect, „assistants in the profession“ (urban planners or critics and publicists where they gained the most popularity and success or to become „female reformers“ particularly in the domain of legal reforms, planning and development, which they essentially became only after the Second World War when the modernisation and emancipation processes took place and when the Law on Invalidity of the Previous Discriminatory Regulations was passed by which the women acquired suffrage. The paper particularly addresses the status of women architects today who are, besides all professional temptations, also in a conflicting situation. They are a pillar of family and social life, on the one hand, while they are constantly facing the attempts to be pushed from the mainstream of professional life and the attempts to deny their importance, role and influence in society, on the other hand.

  5. Multidecadal changes in the Etesians-Indian Summer Monsoon teleconnection along the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Delgado, F. de Paula; Vega, Inmaculada; Gallego, David; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Ribera, Pedro; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    In this work we made use of historical winds record taken aboard ships to reconstruct a series of the prevalent summer northerly winds (Etesian winds) over the Eastern Mediterranean for the entire 20th century. Previous studies have shown a significant link between the frequency and strength of these winds and the strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), but this relationship had only been studied in detail for the second half of the 20th century due to the absence of long and continous series of observed wind in the Eastern Mediterranean for previous periods. In this work, a new climatic index, the so-called " Etesian Wind Index " (EWI), is defined as the percentage of days with prevalent northerly wind (wind blowing from 305° to 35°) in a fixed region [20E-30E, 32N-37N]. By using historical wind observations, we have been able to compute this index for the summer (JJAS) since 1880 and analyze the long term variability of the Etesians, as well as to research into its relation with the ISM at an unprecedent temporal coverage. A running coverage analysis revealed a strong and significant positive correlation between the EWI and the strength of the ISM for the period 1960-1980, more markedly in July and August. This result is in accordance with other recent studies. However, we have found that the correalation fades out in the first half of the 20th century (1900-1950) and in the period 1980-2012, even showing significant negative values around the subperiod 1920-1950. Similar indices to the EWI were computed using two different 20th century reanalysis datasets (ERA20C and 20CR-V2C). Despite the fact that both indices show some discrepancies with the EWI before 1950, the correlation analysis with the ISM revealed similar results, pointing out a strong loss of the EWI-ISM correlation in the first half of the 20th century and from 1980 onwards, as well as a marked positive correlated period between 1960 and 1980, specially in August. In this study, we show that

  6. CHANGING PARADIGMS IN SPACE THEORIES: Recapturing 20th Century Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Kaçmaz Erk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of space entered architectural history as late as 1893. Studies in art opened up the discussion, and it has been studied in various ways in architecture ever since. This article aims to instigate an additional reading to architectural history, one that is not supported by “isms” but based on space theories in the 20th century. Objectives of the article are to bring the concept of space and its changing paradigms to the attention of architectural researchers, to introduce a conceptual framework to classify and clarify theories of space, and to enrich the discussions on the 20th century architecture through theories that are beyond styles. The introduction of space in architecture will revolve around subject-object relationships, three-dimensionality and senses. Modern space will be discussed through concepts such as empathy, perception, abstraction, and geometry. A scientific approach will follow to study the concept of place through environment, event, behavior, and design methods. Finally, the reearch will look at contemporary approaches related to digitally  supported space via concepts like reality-virtuality, mediated experience, and relationship with machines.

  7. Danish Capitalism in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    marked by large-scale redistribution and a very active public sector. The purpose of this book project is to analyze development of Danish capitalism in the 20th century. The first of our hypothesis state that the phases of Danish capitalism and the general corporate strategies reflected each other...... how the corporate strategies shaped and was shaped by the changing nature of Danish capitalism. Such a work as this is important as it bears testimony to the changing nature of market institutions. A descriptive and analytic exercise such as proposed here have only to a limited extent been carried out...... in the Danish language, and never in a compiled, comprehensive, and connected work. The English language situation for understanding Danish capitalism is even more dire, which leads to increasing, and likely reinforcing, stereotypes and myths about “the fairytale country”....

  8. The Use of Monograms on Byzantine Seals in the Early Middle-Ages (6th to 9th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Seibt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals especially with monograms on Byzantine lead seals. The early form was the block monogram, a type used already in Classical times, which came into fashion in the Byzantine world in the 6th or already in the 5th century and remained important till the early 7th century. Such monograms hide normally a name, a title or an office, the Greek ones in genitive, the Latin ones in nominative or genitive. Many of them can be read in different ways. For the double using of parts of letters for other ones the well-known Latin monogram of Theoderich is explained in detail.  But the “typical Byzantine monogram” became the cross monogram, with letters more or less affixed on the arms of a Greek cross. The earliest example stems from a coin of Justinus I, starting 522, quite earlier than Theodora’s monograms on capitals in the Hagia Sophia. These cruciform monograms presented in the beginning also a name, a title or an office, but in the 8th century already often a combination of them; these monograms with prosopographical information stopped in Byzantium at the end of the 8th century.  On the other hand invocative monograms (like Θεοτόκε βοήθει, often with the tetragram τῷ σῷ δούλῳ in the free quarters of the monogram, started around the middle of the 7th century and can be found till the earlier 11th century. The most common ones were collected by V. Laurent – we use this system till today, though there are much more types documented.  An important problem is that sometimes single letters are “hidden” in another letter, e. g. Lambda in Alpha or Delta, Epsilon in a Kappa on the left bar of a cross monogram, Sigma in Epsilon, Sigma in Kappa, Omikron in Rho, etc. In Vienna we developed a special program to solve many monograms. If we bring all the readable letters of a monogram (including the possibly additional ones in an alphabetical order, and do the same with the letters of names, titles and offices

  9. Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhi, Hai; Wang, Bin; Wan, Hui; Li, Chao; Liu, Hailong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Weipeng; Zhou, Tianjun

    2008-07-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the “Climate of the 20th century experiment”, “CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment” and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios A1B and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural variations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temperature increases about 0.5°C and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model’s ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6°C in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5°C and 2.4°C in the A1B and B1 scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  10. Valladolid, a Festival Town (17th-18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes AMIGO VÁZQUEZ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The festival was a great sociocultural event whose dimensions reached their maximum evolution in Early Modern Spain, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries and in its urban centres. This was the «festive society» par excellence, because of the frequency of the celebrations and the multiplicity of meanings, implications and consequences. Society and power, ultimately, were represented at the festival. In this context, the specific case of Valladolid demonstrates both its character as a germane model, applicable to any other town, and its uniqueness. Significantly, in the early 17th century it was once again the seat of the Court and yet even after being abandoned by Philip III in 1606, it continued to be one of the most important towns of Castile, the seat of the Royal Chancellery.

  11. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutov, Valentin P [Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schechter, A N [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-08

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  12. Global economic impacts of climate variability and change during the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, Francisco; Tol, Richard S.J.; Botzen, Wouter J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of the global economic impacts of observed climate change during the 20th century obtained by applying five impact functions of different integrated assessment models (IAMs) are separated into their main natural and anthropogenic components. The estimates of the costs that can be

  13. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  14. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  15. Sociolinguistic Aspects of the Ashkenazim Language Situation in the Russian Empire at the Turn of the 19th and in the Early 20th Centuries (On the Base of Sholom Aleichem's Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Boichuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the sociolinguistic situation of the Ashkenazi Jews in the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century. The research is based on the works of a leading Yiddish author and playwright - Sholom (Sholem Aleichem. His writings, besides their highest artistic value, have been found to be a relevant source of sociolinguistic information. A sociolinguistic analysis of the Ashkenazim language situation has been carried out. The main languages spoken by the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement have been singled out. Their interrelation has been established. Each language played a special role in the life of the Ashkenazim at the period: Hebrew enjoyed high social prestige and alongside with Aramaic was mainly the language of religion. Yiddish was the vernacular of the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement, and it had to struggle for achieving its status as a literary language. Russian, Ukrainian and Moldavian were mainly used for communication with the surrounding Gentiles. Polish remained as a fading vestige of former Polish presence in the area. German and French were the most common foreign languages.

  16. Agricultural advertising in periodicals of the late 19th - early 20th centuries from the collection of NMHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Serjant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the stage of development, advertising as a historical phenomenon was expanding its sphere of influence penetrating more and more in various spheres of human activity. Agriculture, which is an important branch of the national economy closely related to the trade, always needs advertising. The absence of serfdom and the agrarian reforms have contributed to the integration of Bessarabian agriculture into the system of market relations. Local farmers needed promotion and marketing of agricultural products. For this they applied to various means of advertising. Agricultural advertisings can be found in the pages of the Bessarabian press from the late 19th - early 20th centuries. Most often, they were printed in publications of agricultural profile. An example is the magazine "Bessarabskoe sel'skoe khozyaistvo" ("Bessarabian Agriculture", the publication of Agronomic Section of the Bessarabian Naturalists' Society and the Chişinău Department of the Imperial Russian Society for Horticulture. The magazine was published from 1908 to 1917. In the collection of MNHM there are 28 issues of this magazine (in all there were 240 issues. The years of publication: 1909, 1910, 1912 and 1916. They are the main source of research on the topic. The aim of this work is to determine the themes of agricultural advertisements and their contribution to the im- provement of agricultural management in Tsarist Bessarabia. All issues of the journal had the ads section. Regular customers of the journal were both local and foreign manufac- turers. Among the local: Fruit an Grape Nurseries "EKO" (Soroca; Bucovăţ Fruit and Grape Nurseries; Baron A. Stuart's Fruit Nursery (Chişinău; Cocorozeni Agricultural School; E.P. Melega-Kuzminskaia's estate of Temeleuţi and F.F. Köppen's estate of Voinovo-Ikel; Horticulture, Viticulture and Winemaking Bureau and Storage of Agricultural Machinery of N.G. Kavsan (Chişinău, etc. The ads offered planting material tested

  17. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These moraines date back to the maximum Neoglacial extent at the end of the 19th century and the outermost allow...... of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease...

  18. Mathematical and conceptual foundations of 20th-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This volume presents a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-century Physics. Part 1 provides a survey of classical physics divided in separate chapters on mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism. This study provides opportunities to place in perspective the successive advents of calculus, of probability and statistics, of differential and sympletic geometry, and of classical functional analysis. Relativity is presented in part 2 of this book and quantum theory in part 3. The motivation provided by physical problems in the development of mathematical disciplines such as, for instance, pseudo-Riemannian geometries, Hilbert spaces and operator algebras, are emphasized. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; schemes

  19. Mobility and the Modern Intellectual: Translated Images from Early 20th-Century Literary Works in Spanish by Carmen Lyra and Luisa Luisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kanost

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay juxtaposes original translations of contrasting images from the novel En una silla de ruedas [In a Wheelchair] by Costa Rican writer Carmen Lyra and Poemas de la inmovilidad [Poems of Immobility] by Uruguayan writer Luisa Luisi to reveal how representations of intellectuals who are paralyzed might complicate discourses of the artist, social hygiene, and eugenics in early 20th-century Spanish America. Lyra portrays her protagonist's paralysis as a tragedy, but his disability is also the source of social mobility that allows the novel to depict marginalized members of Costa Rican society. Luisi contests modernista aesthetics of perfect forms, countering with a multifaceted exploration of inner space enabled by physical stillness. Through their depictions of hospitals, asylums, and sanitariums, both writers bear witness to bodies the modernizing project would prefer to hide, and imagine alternative forms of progress.

  20. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  1. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2017-12-01

    The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored

  2. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  3. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.

  4. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  5. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Valitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the educational activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The analysis of archival material reflects the foundation, development and evolution of parish schools in Western Siberia; the activity of the eparchy inspectors and parish school boards being outlined. The main emphasis is on the Tomsk eparchy – the regional leader in successful primary school development in Western Siberia. For many Russian citizens then, the parish schools were the only available educational institutions. In Western Siberia, the ascetic enlightening activity of the clergymen had a great impact on raising the literacy level; the process being complicated by the vast territories, remoteness of the settlements, and lack of local schools. The research demonstrates the parallel evolution of the parish and civil education, however, the former one was always ahead in many aspects. The competition between the two systems stimulated new effective educational methods and teacher training processes, and contributed a lot to the Russian primary education development. The paper might be of interest to the experts in education and church history, and local historians

  6. Ethnic Entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the Era of Economic Modernization in the Second Half of the 19thEarly 20th Century (as Illustrated in the Example of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 19th century brought about the modernization reforms in the Russian political system, which accelerated the development of the country's capitalist economy. The abolition of segregationist regulations contributed to the development of bourgeois relations in industry and agriculture. The pace of economic modernization was faster in European Russia, while the country’s frontier regions in the Asiatic part of the Russian Empire seriously lagged behind the center. The role of agents for capitalist change in industry and agriculture was accepted by the members of non-Russian ethnic groups, such as Jews, Germans, Poles and others. They became new bourgeois who were former government officials who had required connections to establish factories, and traders, who accumulated significant capital. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, a major role was performed by individual entrepreneurship inside ethnic communities. Its scope comprised the sectors which generated no economic interest among Russians living in Siberia, and which required large capital investments (distilling, shipping companies. In the early 20th century the social composition of communities was blurry thanks to peasants who formed a key component in migratory flows to Siberia. This shifted emphasis to small and medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector. The purpose of the paper is to use specific examples to show how ethnic entrepreneurship depended on a community's social composition, and determine its place in the regional economy in the conditions of ongoing political modernization and initial steps to industrialization. The foundation for the study is built on the archival documents, statistical digests and current research. The work is based on comparativism.

  7. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  8. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19thEarly 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

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    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19thearly 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  9. From Card Catalogues to WebPACs: Celebrating Cataloguing in the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper provides an overview of cataloging in the 20th century. Highlights include: (1) issues in 1901, including the emerging cooperative cataloging system and the work of Charles Ammi Cutter; (2) the 1908 code, i.e., "Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries," published in British and American editions; (3) the Vatican rules, a code…

  10. The face and life of Lisbon movie theaters in the 20th century

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    Talitha Ferraz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the book Os cinemas de Lisboa: um fenômeno do século XX [Movie theaters in Lisbon: a 20th century phenomenon], Margarida Acciaiuoli makes a discuss about the relationship between collective equipment of cinema leisure and urban settings of the Portuguese capital, signaling as the exhibition was engendered in the processes of production of social space and sociabilities of the city, over the past century. Our review highlights the issues raised by the author, about the history of cinema-building as a symbol of modern time.  

  11. Scientists and scientific associations in Catalonia (Spain in the early 20th century: manuscript vs. published research in earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Batlló

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available


    Culture in Catalonia and, specifically, science had an important rebirth in the second half of the 19th century. But, due to the lack of State support, development of earth physical sciences in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century was almost a private enterprise. This situation caused dispersion of the efforts that, in any case, were extensive. The study of the evolution of earth sciences and the recovery and study of the accumulated data in such circumstances requires relying heavily on manuscript information. The present study deals with the problems and possibilities of this situation, shows some study cases and extracts some conclusions of general interest from them.


  12. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil

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    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomical-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  13. The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Joerg; Pelger, Ines; Twrdek, Linda

    2009-12-01

    This anthropometric study focuses on the histories of three important Latin American countries - Brazil, Peru, and Argentina - during the 19th century, and tests hypotheses concerning their welfare trends. While non-farm Brazil and Lima, Peru, started at relatively low height levels, Brazil made substantial progress in nutritional levels from the 1860s to the 1880s. In contrast, Lima remained at low levels. Argentinean men were tall to begin with, but heights stagnated until 1910. The only exception were farmers and landowners, who benefited from the export boom.

  14. Amusement places in Chişinău. Cafe Man’kov (Late 19th century - the 30ies of 20th century

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    Ana Griţco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collections of postcards are a chronicle in images that captivate us with variety of topics, the study of which can extract from the darkness of oblivion different scenes of everyday life in certain historical periods. In this sense, interesting is a postcard from the museum collection, which depicts Cafe Man'kov - a place where more than a century ago the Chişinău cream of society loved spending time. The history of this coffee house is associated with the name of A.I. Man'kov, a prosperous businessman of the second half of 19th - early 20th centuries. Initially, in the 1880s, it was located in the building of the Diocesan House (the Alexandrovskaia Street, where A. Man'kov rented premises, and since 1901 it has moved into the Schwartzman's House (the Pushkinskaia Street, a rented space as well. In 1905, the cafe was opened in a specially built building in Fountain Lane (between the Sinadinovskaia and Pushkinskaia Streets known as Cafe Man'kov, with an interesting architecture, "European" interior, and tastefully furnished terraces. Cafe Man'kov was one of the first buildings in Chişinău which was electrified (1907. It soon became a favorite place of leisure for Chişinău dwellers, where one could drink tea or coffee with Swiss chocolate, enjoy a delicious cake, as well as have lunch or dinner. The cafe existed until 1934, when A. Man'kov died at the age of 92 years. In Soviet times, the building was demolished, and now in its place there is the Press House (the area between the streets of Pushkin and Vlaicu Pârcălab.

  15. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Icelandic Glaciers in the 20th Century Using Geodetic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    by bedrock geometry. It is revealed that dynamic ice loss recently seen in the southeast and northwest GrIS also occurred in the northwest between 1985 and 1993, highlighting the difficulty of capturing these events in mass balance models. Extending the record back to the LIA, the results show...... that for the past 110 years, the surface mass balance has been decreasing, while the dynamic term has been constant. The spatial pattern of thinning in the 20th century is identical to that of current change, suggesting this pattern will continue in the near future. The mass change of the GrIS in 20th century...

  16. Adventurers, Flaneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland

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    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on border crossings in travel stories, which were published in hand-written newspapers in 19th- and early 20th-century Finland. These papers were a popular tradition in student organizations and popular movements. Border crossings appear in travel stories in three different representations. Firstly, border crossings are repeated motifs in travel stories, both as challenging events and as small gestures and encounters. Travel stories demarcate boundaries, but they also provide a means for transgressing them. Secondly, hand-written newspapers as a literary practice highlight borders between oral and written communication. They were produced as one single manuscript copy, and published by being read out aloud in social events. Thirdly, the authors of hand-written newspapers were placed on the border of different positions in society such as class, gender and age. My analysis is based on the methodological discussion of small stories and personal experience narratives; travel stories can be defined as "local event narratives". I have outlined four basic models for travel stories which emerge from hand-written newspapers: the great mission story, the grand tour story, the flaneur story and the retreat story. The analysis of travel stories is presented through four different case studies with a time range from the 1850s to the 1920s: these materials have been produced in two provincial student fraternities (osakunta, in the temperance society "Star" in Helsinki in the 1890s, and in the Social Democratic Youth Club in the small industrial town of Karkkila in the 1910s and the 1920s. Many parallel features can be observed in travel stories, even though the social background and ideology of the authors are quite different. Time and space are important aspects in travel stories, and they often demarcate boundaries of class and gender.

  17. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  18. Slovenian facsimile in the19th and in the first half of the 20th century:pre-modern facsimile

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    Mihael Glavan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers on Slovenian territory did not attempt to print facsimiles until the beginning of the 20th century and neither did they publish anything relevant in this expert field. The development of Slovenian facsimile nevertheless started (outside Slovenia almost a whole century earlier. Its course is outlined against European parallels, providing achievements in the pre-modern era (18129-1959. The analysis focuses on earlier Slovenian facsimiles which have not been well known or had been especially scientifically unexplored. A surprisingly high expert level, both in terms of technology and editing, is revealed by our first facsimiles of the 19th century which were mostly initiated by Jernej Kopitar. In this period medieval materials give way to modern ones (Prešeren’s Poezije, which prevail afterwards. According to the fundamental criteria, upon which the definition of a modern facsimile is based, 12 units have been identified as facsimiles, 4 of them recognised as complete facsimiles meeting all the required criteria of that period.

  19. Storm Surge Reconstruction and Return Water Level Estimation in Southeast Asia for the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, Alba; Wahl, Thomas; Chambers, Don P.; Muis, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    We present a methodology to reconstruct the daily maximum storm surge levels, obtained from tide gauges, based on the surrounding atmospheric conditions from an atmospheric reanalysis (20th Century Reanalysis-20CR). Tide gauge records in Southeast Asia are relatively short, so this area is often

  20. Marriage in the 20th century: A feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampage, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    A defining feature of the 20th century in Western civilization was a profound change in the roles women play in both private and public life. The field of couple therapy was influenced by that change and, to a limited extent, participated in it. I will argue that the field has avoided fully embracing the principles of feminism that generated the social changes in gender and marital roles, settling instead for a more token acknowledgment that gender means something, without wanting to specify what that something is. In responding to the other articles in this issue, I make the case that the connection between gender and power in marriage needs to be more fully integrated, in the theory, research, and treatment of couples.

  1. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor.

  2. Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Wöppelmann, Guy; Conrad, Clinton P.; Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y−1. Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records that both incorporates up-to-date observations of vertical land motion (VLM) and corrections for local geoid changes resulting from ice melting and terrestrial freshwater storage and allows for the identification of possible differences compared with earlier attempts. Our reconstructed GMSL trend of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm⋅y−1 (1σ) before 1990 falls below previous estimates, whereas our estimate of 3.1 ± 1.4 mm⋅y−1 from 1993 to 2012 is consistent with independent estimates from satellite altimetry, leading to overall acceleration larger than previously suggested. This feature is geographically dominated by the Indian Ocean–Southern Pacific region, marking a transition from lower-than-average rates before 1990 toward unprecedented high rates in recent decades. We demonstrate that VLM corrections, area weighting, and our use of a common reference datum for tide gauges may explain the lower rates compared with earlier GMSL estimates in approximately equal proportion. The trends and multidecadal variability of our GMSL curve also compare well to the sum of individual contributions obtained from historical outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This, in turn, increases our confidence in process-based projections presented in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. PMID:28533403

  3. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  4. High-Altitude Aggressions and Physiological Degeneration? The Biography of “Climate” as an Object of Scientific Inquiry in Colombia During the 19th and the Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pohl-Valero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the role played by experimental physiology in the way of understanding the effects of high-altitude climates on the functioning of the human body and the possibilities of progress of the Colombian nation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Content: the transformation of the concept of climate as an object of scientific inquiry is explored over the studied period. This is done by analyzing investigations on respiratory capacity, nutrition and metabolism, blood chemistry and heart function in people of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Conclusions: beyond an institutional or disciplinary history of physiology, this article shows that some practices of experimental physiology played a role in the process of represent­ing the Colombian nation, territory, and population. The inhabitants of the Andean highlands were understood not only in terms of race and innate abilities, but also in terms of social classes and organic transformations. The idea that there was a supposed process of “physiological de­generation”, decreasing the efficiency of high-altitude workers, was tried to compensate through a “rational diet”.

  5. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  6. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century,

  7. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  8. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  9. Progress in China's climate change study in the 20th century%20世纪中国气候变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟盘茂; 巢清尘; 邹旭恺

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the 20th century climate change in China have revealed that under the background of global warming over the past century,climate in China has also experienced significant change with mean annual temperature increased by about 0.5 °C.More reliable results for the latter part of the 20th century indicate that the largest warming occurred in Northwest China,North China and Northeast China,and the warming in winter is most significant.Although no obvious increase or decrease trends were detected for mean precipitation over China in the past half century,regional differences are very distinct.In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,precipitation increased,while that in the Yellow River Basin markedly decreased.Studies suggest that climate change in China seems to be related not only with the internal factors such as ENSO,PDO,and the others,but also with the anthropogenic effects such as greenhouse gas emissions,and land use.The future climate change studies in China seem to be important in narrowing understanding the nature of China's climate change and its main causes,since it is significant for projection and for impact assessment of climate change in the future.

  10. Swedish political attitudes towards Baltic independence in the short 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldkepp, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the history of Swedish attitudes towards Baltic independence in the period in the so-called short 20th century (1914-1991), focusing primarily on the years when Baltic independence was gained (1918-1920) and regained (1989-1991). The former period was characterized by Swedish skepticism towards the ability of the Baltic states to retain their independence long-term, explainable by the Swedish political elites’ conviction that the weakening of Russia in the First World W...

  11. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  12. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  13. Early Mongols – the Ethno-Political History to the 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Vidaković

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the etnogenesis of the Mongol tribes from the period of the Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances to the unification in the early 13th century under Genghis Khan’s leadership. The initial period of the ethnogenesis of medieval Mongols’ ancestors is associated with Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances while news about them are written in Chinese dynastic chronicles. Within the Shiwei association there was the Mengwu tribe that inhabited forest expanses of north-western Manchuria, and the Argun river basin is considered to be the original homeland of the Mongols. The directions and time of migration processes which played an important role in the transformation of part of Mongol tribes from forest hunters to steppe nomads have been further investigated. The ethnic history of the Mongol tribes is closely associated with the Turkic and Tungus-Manchurian tribes. The Turkic tribes, that inhabited the steppes of Mongolia today, had a crucial importance in the development of Mongol nomadic tribes, while the Tungus-Manchu and northern Mongol tribes shared forest expanses of Manchuria and Trans-Baikal. The following text describes the events in the Turkic khaganates and kingdoms in the north of China, which influenced the historical development of the Mongol tribes. The period of the Qidan Liao dynasty (10th ‒ 12th century is of great importance because the core of the Mongol nomadic tribes was formed at that time in the northeastern Mongolia, that were gradually spreading over the steps to the west. During the Jurchen Jin dynasty (12th ‒ 13th century the importance of the Mongol tribes in the steppe increased. The attempts of political unification of the Mongols appeared during that period – for the first time in the mid-12th century, during the reign of Khabul Khan. The final part of the paper describes the struggle of Temujin (Temüjin, the future Genghis Khan, for the unification of the Mongol-Turkic tribes. After victory over

  14. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

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    P. Albini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  15. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

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    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  16. Extreme precipitation in the Polish Carpathians in the 20th century in the context of last 500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Extreme weather phenomena together with their exceptional course and intensity have always been dangerous for people. In the historical documents such phenomena were marked as basic disasters. First notes about weather phenomena were made in Polish lands in the 10th century. Most information concerns floods caused by intensive rains. Using the data base created within the Millennium project, extreme precipitation cases exceeding 100 mm were analysed. In each case, the intensive precipitation was followed by a summer flood in the Polish Carpathians in the Upper Vistula River basin. Data from the period of instrumental measurements in the 20th century were studied in detail by the analysis of the frequency of occurrence and the spatial and temporal distribution. The results were referred to last 500 years. The information obtained gives approximate image of extreme precipitation in the historical times in Polish lands. All available multi-proxy data were used. Newspapers' notes concerning described phenomena from 1848-1850 published in Kraków were used to complete and verify the quality of data from the early instrumental period and also to complete the data from the period of the Second World War.

  17. Paleoimaging of a modern mummy from Lithuania (circa 19th–20th century

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    Dario Piombino-Mascali

    Full Text Available An anthropogenic human mummy curated in the Museum of the History of Medicine, Vilnius University, was recently examined by means of computed tomography. Although the mummy lacked data regarding its specific context and historical information on its identity and chronology, the investigation focused on the embalming method adopted to preserve it. Some pathological alterations were also recorded. This research appears to suggest that this body was prepared for educational and/or scientific purposes rather than funerary purposes. Hence, the case could be categorized as a “medical mummy” prepared between the mid-19th and the mid-20th centuries. Keywords: Mummy, Embalming, Education, Anatomy, Radiology

  18. On the unstable ENSO-Western North Pacific Monsoon relation during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Martín, Inmaculada; Gallego Puyol, David; Ribera Rodriguez, Pedro; Gómez Delgado, Francisco de Paula; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The concept of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon (WNPSM) appeared for the first time in 1987. Unlike the Indian Summer Monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon, the WNPSM is an oceanic monsoon driven essentially by the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature. Its circulation is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented monsoon trough with intense precipitation and low-level southwesterlies and upper-tropospheric easterlies in the region [100°-130° E, 5°-15°N]. Although this monsoon is mainly oceanic, it modulates the precipitation of densely populated areas such as the Philippines. To date, the WNPSM has been quantified by the so-called Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI), an index based on wind anomalies over large domains of the Western Pacific. The requirement of continuous observed wind over remote oceanic areas to compute the WNPMI has limited its availability to the 1949-2014 period. In this work we have extended the index by almost 100 years by using historical observations of wind direction taken aboard ships. Our Western North Pacific Directional Index (WNPDI), is defined as the sum of the persistence of the low-level westerly winds in [5°-15°N, 100°-130°E] and easterly winds in [20°-30°N, 110°-140°E]. The new WNPDI index is highly correlated to the existent WNPMI for the concurrent period (1948-2014). (r=+0.88, p<0.01), indicating that the new approach based in the use of wind direction alone (a variable that can be considered instrumental even before the 20th Century), captures most of the monsoonal signal. Previous studies found that, during the second part of the 20th Century the WNPSM exhibited two basic characteristics: first a large interannual variability and second, a significant relation between the WNPSM and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in a way in which a strong (weak) WNPSM tends to occur during the El Niño (La Niña) developing year or/and La Niña (El Niño) decaying year. The analysis of

  19. DIMMING OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s

  20. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  1. The reception of the models of the New School in the Spanish manualistic of the early 20th century

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    Agustín ESCOLANO BENITO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines certain aspects related to the reception of the patterns of the New Education in the Spanish textbooks of the first third of the 20th century. This appropiation of the renewing pedagogical models by writers of didac- tic texts is also related to the processes of school modernisation during the period in Spanish and supose a mode of metamorphosis undergone by the principles of the renewed education on being transferred to the world of the prevailing educational practice. This influence consisted of the changes which affected the classical textbooks and in the appearance of new types of manuals which correspond to specific models and give rise to new textual forms.

  2. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  3. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16thearly 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

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    Dmitry Vladímirovich LISÉYTSEV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes. It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the organs of estate representation. Meanwhile, the analysis of historical sources does not allow to assume that during this period the Zemsky Sobors played a greater role than they did previously. Even the most studied Zemsky Sobors – the elective Sobors of 1598 and 1613 – were held with serious violations of election procedures, and the provinces were not represented to the extent it was described in the official documents. The question of the place of the Zemsky Sobors in the political system of Muscovite state at the beginning of the 17th century requires further analysis.

  4. Environmental Conflicts in Mining, Quarrying and Metallurgical Industries in the Iberian Peninsula (19th and 20th Century): Pollution and Popular Protest

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS IN MINING, QUARRYING, AND METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA (19TH AND 20TH CENTURY): POLLUTION AND PUBLIC PROTEST. Paulo E. Guimarães, NICPRI / University of Évora (Portugal) J. D. Pérez Cebada, Universidad of Huelva (Spain) Comparative and transnational analyses of social conflicts, related to the environmental changes produced by modern and contemporary mining industries, have been a topic of growing academic interest for the last two decad...

  5. Changes in Vascular Plant Biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th Century Explained by their Climatic and other Environmental Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Van der Meijden, R.; Udo de Haes, H.A. [Nationaal Herbarium Nederland/Leiden University Branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Van ' t Zelfde, M. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    In the Netherlands nation-wide databases are available with about 10 million records of occurrences of vascular plant species in the 20th century on a scale of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. These data were analysed with a view to identifying relationships between changes in botanical biodiversity and climatic and other environmental factors. Prior to analysis the data were corrected for several major forms of survey bias. The records were broken down into three periods: 1902-1949, 1975-1984 and 1985-1999. Using multiple regression analysis, differences between successive periods were related to plant functional characteristics as explanatory variables. Between the periods 1902-1949 and 1975-1984 there were small but significant increases in the presence of both thermophilic ('warm') and psychrophilic ('cold') species. However, in the final decades of the 20th century there was a marked increase in thermophilic species only, coinciding with the marked increase in ambient temperature observed during this period, evidence at least of a rapid response of Dutch flora to climate change. Urbanisation was also examined as an alternative explanation for the increase in thermophilic plant species and was found to explain only 50% of the increased presence of such species in the final decades of the 20th century. Besides temperature-related effects, the most important change during the 20th century was a strong decline in oligotrophic and a marked increase in eutrophic plant species.

  6. Freedom and Slavery in Early Islamic Time (1st/7th and 2nd/8th centuries

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    Schneider, Irene

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on two topics: the presumption of freedom in the “literary period” (from the 8th century on and the question of enslavement, sale, bondage or self-dedition of free persons in the “pre-literary period” (7th and 8th centuries. Based on the assumption that the legal practice in Late Antiquity influenced the discussions of the early Muslim jurists I will try to reconstruct the legal discourse of the 1st/7th and 2nd/ 8th centuries and to show that this discourse comprised interesting legal opinions with regard to the sale of children, debt-bondage and the legal position of foundlings. In the legal literature which emerged from the 2nd/8th century the jurists did not, as one would expect, deal intensively with the topic. Thus there is, as will be shown, a certain inconsistency between the lively and controversial discourse in the “pre-literary period” on the topic, which will be reconstructed in this article, and the marginalization of the topic in the legal literature afterwards.

    Este artículo se centra en dos cuestiones: por un lado, la presunción de libertad en el «período literario» (desde el s. VIII en adelante; y, por otro, la cuestión de la esclavización, venta o servidumbre —voluntaria o no— de personas libres en la «época preliteraria» (ss. VII y VIII. Asumiendo de partida la idea de que la práctica legal en la Antigüedad Tardía influyó en las discusiones de los primeros juristas musulmanes, trataré de reconstruir el discurso legal de los siglos I/VII y II/VIII y de mostrar que ese discurso contenía interesantes opiniones legales en relación a la venta de niños, servidumbre por deudas y la situación legal de los huérfanos. En la literatura legal que emergió desde el s. II/VIII los juristas, al contrario de lo que se hubiese esperado, no trataron estas cuestiones intensamente. Tal y

  7. Strategy in the 20th Century: Explanations from History

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    Leonardo Silveira Conke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we argue that an historical perspective helps to understand some of the strategic choices made by organizations. More specifically, the purpose here is to describe the great influence of historical events (related to economy, politics, technological advancement etc. on the creation, acceptance, spreading and / or establishment of the strategic theories and tools developed since the beginning of the 20th century. Texts that usually discuss management and history outline only the Industrial Revolution or the transition from feudalism to capitalism, underestimating other historical forces that offer additional explanations to the evolution of strategic thinking. As a result of an extensive bibliographical research, we were able to identify four periods where the strategic theories developed reveal suitable responses to the challenges created by the environment: in the first one (1900-1938, strategy is concerned with organization and control of business activities, resembling the ideas developed by Scientific Administration; in the second period (1939-1964, strategic planning is formalized and the area is broadly recognized; the next decades (1965-1989 are characterized by competition and uncertainty, making strategy focus on problems emerged from the outside; finally, on the turn of the century (1990-2010, the unlimited information availability enhances the need for strategists’ conceptual and practical knowledge. Also, as a final contribution, we suggest two possible trends to the future of strategy.

  8. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo; Leandro de Paula Santos

    2017-01-01

    By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this...

  9. Chronology of 3rd–5th Century Female Graves from Tarasovo Burial Ground

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    Goldina Rimma D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the concluding part a series of works by the authors on the dating of burials from the unique 1st–5th century Tarasovo burial ground in the Middle Kama region. The first article was dedicated to the chronology of graves dating back to the early Nyrgynda stage (1st–2nd centuries of this monument. The second and third publications feature an analysis of the chronology of 3rd–5th century male burials. The present work describes 160 female burials of 3rd–5th centuries analyzed from the perspective of chronology. Similarly to previous research, the three main methods employed by the authors of this research include those of formal typology, cultural stratigraphy and the nearest neighbour method. A total of 12 chronological groups were singled out as a result: 1st half of 3rd century A.D. (group 1; 2nd half of 3rd century (2; 3rd century (3; 4th century (group 4; 2nd half of 3rd–4th centuries (5а; 3rd–4th centuries (5б; 1st half of 5th century (6; 2nd half of 5th century (7; 5th century (group 8; 2nd half of 4th–5th centuries (9; 4th–5th centuries (10; 2nd half of 3rd–5th centuries

  10. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

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    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  11. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  12. A new daily observational record from Grytviken, South Georgia: exploring 20th century extremes in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Turney, C. S.; Allan, R.; Colwell, S.; Kelly, G.; Lister, D.; Jones, P. D.; Beswick, M.; Alexander, L. V.; Lippmann, T.; Herold, N.; Jones, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Although recent work has highlighted a host of significant late 20th century environmental changes across the mid to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, the sparse nature of observational records limits our ability to place these changes in the context of long-term (multi-decadal and centennial) variability. As a result, investigating the impact of anthropogenic forcing on climate modes of variability and ecosystems is particularly challenging. Sub-Antarctic islands are particularly important in this regard, straddling major ocean and atmospheric boundaries and offering the potential to develop highly resolved records of change. In 1905, a whaling and meteorological station was established at Grytviken on Sub-Antarctic South Georgia in the South Atlantic (54°S) providing near-continuous observations through to present day. Although South Georgia lies in a strategic location for understanding Southern Ocean atmosphere-ocean dynamics, only a monthly resolved dataset has until now been available. Here we report a near continuous daily observational record from Grytviken for temperature and precipitation, which we compare to different datasets (including Twentieth Century Reanalysis; 20CR version 2c). A warming trend over the 20th century is observed in mean daily temperature at Grytviken with an average rate of temperature rise of 0.14°C per decade over the period 1907-2016 (p<0.0001). We find a significant trend towards increasingly warmer daytime extremes commencing from the mid-20th century accompanied by warmer night-time temperatures. Analysis of these data, and reanalysis products, suggest a realignment of synoptic conditions across the mid to high-latitudes, with a link between increasing temperature trends and atmospheric circulation dominated by stronger westerly airflow, resulting in significant foehn-related warming.

  13. Hekla Volcano, Iceland, in the 20th Century: Lava Volumes, Production Rates, and Effusion Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.; Belart, J. M. C.; Magnússon, E.; Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Kizel, F.; Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Lava flow thicknesses, volumes, and effusion rates provide essential information for understanding the behavior of eruptions and their associated deformation signals. Preeruption and posteruption elevation models were generated from historical stereo photographs to produce the lava flow thickness maps for the last five eruptions at Hekla volcano, Iceland. These results provide precise estimation of lava bulk volumes: V1947-1948 = 0.742 ± 0.138 km3, V1970 = 0.205 ± 0.012 km3, V1980-1981 = 0.169 ± 0.016 km3, V1991 = 0.241 ± 0.019 km3, and V2000 = 0.095 ± 0.005 km3 and reveal variable production rate through the 20th century. These new volumes improve the linear correlation between erupted volume and coeruption tilt change, indicating that tilt may be used to determine eruption volume. During eruptions the active vents migrate 325-480 m downhill, suggesting rough excess pressures of 8-12 MPa and that the gradient of this excess pressure increases from 0.4 to 11 Pa s-1 during the 20th century. We suggest that this is related to increased resistance along the eruptive conduit.

  14. Potentially dangerous 24-hour rainfall in the Provadiyska vally system at the end of the 20th and early 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladev, Dimitar

    2018-03-01

    Extreme rainfalls are of paramount importance for the formation of river springs and, consequently, the occurrence of spills and floods. The article presents the results of a case study of the potentially dangerous 24-hour eruptions in the Provadiyska valley system from the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to the morphometric parameters and the configuration of the river-valley supply network of the Provadiyska river. On this basis, there are defined areas in which there are favorable conditions for forming high river waves.

  15. Specifics of the implicit expression of the author’s gender identity in 19th and 20th century German-language female memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler L.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available this article covers the expression of implicit gender identity of the subject of speech activity in the 19th and 20th century women's memories. The study revealed that implicit gender aspects associated with linguistic ascertainment of gender stereotypes presented in female linguistic material form the lexico-semantic category of “Character”. Within this category, the lexico-semantic sub-categories “Emotionality”, “Fearfulness and diffidence” and “Dreaminess” play a significant role, representing the corresponding stereotypes.

  16. Banknote Typography with a Particular Reference to Croatia through the 20th Century

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    Vilko Žiljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the research of transformation of formatting information on banknotes during the 20th century, which is the period of some of the greatest graphical innovations after Gutenberg’s invention of movable type printing. Computer graphics had taken over in the field of typography in the exact moment of hand engraving’s highest level of art in the creation of the font cut. About forty years ago, the era of etching used in copper etching and steel engraving in hand - made drawings had begun, along with the use of phototypesetting as the representative of digital technology. Quality of the written lines has introduced microtypography as a special method of rasterization in the background of banknotes. In Croatia, the above mentioned modifications are present through the works of our typographers, even though the multiplication of banknotes was done in foreign printing houses that had appropriately protected printing technology. The paper contributes to the scientific analysis of the technical aspect of banknote making on Croatia’s soil during the course of the 20th century, and this, with the methods of analysis and synthesis incorporated, gives a clear picture and transparency into the method of banknote making, both from a technological and development cycle - making aspect. Given the fact that not only the Croatian banknotes are examined, analysis contributes to comparative procedures of local scopes in the field of technological manufacture of other banknotes that belong to the same time period.

  17. H.C.Ørsted, Science and "Dannelse" in the early 19th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens Jakob

    philosophers/professors in humanities in creating a new idea about school curriculum and content. An idea based on the Humboldtian movement with the concept "Algemeine bildung" in the center of reforming the educational system, but in contrast to this movement with a focus on "naturvidenskabelig almendannelse......A research into the introduction of the concept "Almendannelse" (Litteracy/Education/Culture) in the Danish discourse about reforming the educational system in the early 19th Century, reveals a time in Danish history where the world famous scientist H.C. Ørsted was working together with central...

  18. ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav šebečić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual production of minor brickyards amounted to 200-300,000 bricks, and that of major ones was 1-2,000,000 pieces of bricks or roofing-tiles. The number of workers in brickyards and cement works was growing in the first decade of 20th century, while that of potter's and stove-maker's crafts was decreasing. Pottery became a secondary trade in the majority of Croatian and Slavonian counties (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease.

  20. The visual difficulties of selected artists and limitations of ophthalmological care during the 19th and early 20th centuries (an AOS thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, James G

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist's ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist's ability to depict fine details. Ophthalmological

  1. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF OFFICIALS OF NOBLE BIRTH IN SECOND HALF OF XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE RYAZAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Викторовна Власова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the Russian provincial officialdom of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. It analyzes the educational level of the officials of noble birth and shows the number of the officials with higher, secondary, elementary and home education. Attention is drawn to the changes in the training of the officials by the early 20th century. The paper is based on the archival materials (service records foundinthe State Archives of the Ryazan region. The analysis of the sources shows that about 15% of the officials studied in the institutions of higher education, 31% got secondary education, 29% - elementary education. About 19% had home education. And only about 21% of the officials had systematic (that is finished higher and secondary education. The author concludes that in comparison with early 19th century the educational level of the officials had an upward tendency but on the whole it continued to be low.

  2. The Machine as Art (in the 20th Century: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Bessette

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The machine, over the course of the 20th century, progressively integrated itself into all fields of human activity, including artistic creation; and indeed, with the first decades of that century having established a surprisingly vital and wide-ranging series of perspectives on the relationship between art and the machine, certain artists in the wake of the Second World War no longer felt compelled to treat the machine as a mere theme or source of inspiration: the machine itself becomes art—unless it is art which seeks to become mechanical? The artist mutates into “artist-engineer”; and this transition, resonating within a specific historical context, leads not only to a questioning of the nature of the work itself, but also to a broader questioning which places us within the realm of anthropology: what is this art telling us about the actual conditions of contemporary human society, and what is it telling us about the future to which we aspire? It is the goal of this special issue of Arts to stimulate an historically conscious, protean, and global (rethinking of the cultural relationship between man and machine; and to this end, we welcome contributions falling anywhere within the nearly infinite spectrum represented by the prismatic period during the middle of the last century in which the machine became a legitimate artistic medium.

  3. The Idea of Modernity in Italian Literature at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries

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    Anastasia V. Golubtsova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various concepts of modernity in Italian literature at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Modernity is considered a key category of the literary process of the period: different views of modernity reveal philosophical, historical, and aesthetic ideas of the major authors and literary currents. The term modernity in its relation to Italy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries may be understood in two different ways: as a specific time period after the unification of Italy and as an aesthetic ideal, both reachable and unreachable. Modernity as a historical period is inseparable from the sense of disappointment and awareness of Italian backwardness and provincialism. The Scapigliati manifest their socio-critical position as a Romantic conflict between individual and society, Verism represents the same idea as a tragic clash of traditional peasant world and modernity that is destroying it. Luigi Pirandello belongs to the same socio-critical tradition. The sense of weariness and decadence is one of the aspects of modern worldview: Gabriele D’Annunzio expresses it in the form of decadent aestheticism; the Crepusculars reject modernity and replace it with the idea of everyday life; Luigi Pirandello puts a special emphasis on the state of perplexity and confusion experienced by a modern man. From the aesthetic point of view, modernity in Italy begins as a struggle against Romanticism; however, here we encounter the controversial nature of the concept again. Giosue Carducci and the Scapigliati reject Italian Romanticism but turn to European Romanticism trying to overcome Italian cultural backwardness. A Verist writer Luigi Capuana elaborates a positivist ideal of modern literature and yet abandons it later. D’Annunzio sees the ideal of modern art in restoring cultural continuity. Futurists, on the contrary, understand modernity as breaking with tradition. Thus, all aesthetic interpretations of modernity in Italy focus

  4. Senj’s steam-shipping and socioeconomic circumstances at the turn of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Šimunić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the paper examine the historical and geographical aspects of the emergence, development and decline of Senj’s steam-shipping as the crucial element of the overall social and economic progress of Senj at the turn of the 20th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, owing to the special city autonomy and the modern road connections, the Port of Senj was one of the most important maritime trading centres of the Croatian Littoral and the entire Adriatic in general, and its residents were important participants in social, economic and political turmoil of that time. Steam-shipping development has surely provided the residents of Senj a good market position in the times of demanding economic circumstances. The work also analyses important causes of weakening of Senj's economy, which during the period of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia isolated the city from the dominant maritime and economic processes, thus heavily influencing the city's socioeconomic situation.

  5. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  6. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  7. With the best intentions. Wax-resin lining of Danish Golden Age paintings (early 19th century) on canvas and changed response to RH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil K.; Mecklenburg, Marion F.; Scharff, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Wax-resin lining treatments in the 20th century were chosen specifically for many of the 19th century Danish Golden Age paintings on canvas to counteract their suspected response to moisture. This is a study of the response of painting samples and mock-ups to changing relative humidity (RH) before...

  8. 20th-Century Climate Change over Africa: Seasonal Variation in Hydroclimate Trends and Sahara Desert Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Thomas, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Twentieth-century trends in seasonal temperature and precipitation over the African continent are analyzed from observational data sets and historical climate simulations. Given the agricultural economy of the continent, a seasonal perspective is adopted as it is more pertinent than an annual-average one which can mask off-setting but agriculturally-sensitive seasonal hydroclimate variations. Examination of linear trends in seasonal surface air temperature (SAT) shows that heat stress has increased in several regions, including Sudan and Northern Africa where largest SAT trends occur in the warm season. Broadly speaking, the northern continent has warmed more than the southern one in all seasons. Precipitation trends are varied but notable declining trends are found in the countries along the Gulf of Guinea, especially in the source region of Niger river in West Africa, and in the Congo river basin. Rainfall over the African Great Lakes - one of the largest freshwater repositories - has however increased. We show that the Sahara Desert has expanded significantly over the 20th century - by 12-20% depending on the season. The desert expanded southward in summer, reflecting retreat of the northern edge of the Sahel rainfall belt; and to the north in winter, indicating potential impact of the widening of the Tropics. Specific mechanisms driving the expansion in each season are investigated. Finally, this observational analysis is used to evaluate the state-of-the-art climate models from a comparison of the 20th-century hydroclimate trends with those manifest in historical climate simulations. The evaluation shows that modeling regional hydroclimate change over the Africa continent remains challenging.

  9. Records of auroral candidates and sunspots in Rikkokushi, chronicles of ancient Japan from early 7th century to 887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Isobe, Hiroaki; Namiki, Katsuko; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of the surveys on sunspots and auroral candidates in Rikkokushi, Japanese official histories from the early 7th century to 887, to review the solar and auroral activities. In total, we found one sunspot record and 13 auroral candidates in Rikkokushi. We then examine the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates, compare the auroral candidates with the lunar phase to estimate their reliability, and compare the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates with the contemporary total solar irradiance reconstructed from radioisotope data. We also identify the locations of the observational sites to review possible equatorward expansion of the auroral oval. These discussions suggest a major gap in auroral candidates from the late 7th to early 9th centuries, which includes the candidate of the grand minimum reconstructed from the radioisotope data, a similar tendency as the distributions of sunspot records in contemporary China, and a relatively high magnetic latitude of observational sites with a higher potential for observing aurorae more frequently than at present.

  10. Forms and subannual variability of nitrogen and phosphorus loading to global river networks over the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollón, José M.; Beusen, Arthur H.W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. N and P transfer to surface freshwaters has amplified during the 20th century, which has led to widespread eutrophication problems. The contribution of different sources, natural and

  11. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  12. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  13. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since ~ 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  14. Let the dead teach the living: the rise of body bequeathal in 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garment, Ann; Lederer, Susan; Rogers, Naomi; Boult, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    America's medical schools have long used human cadavers to teach anatomy, but acquiring adequate numbers of bodies for dissection has always been a challenge. Physicians and medical students of the 18th and 19th centuries often resorted to robbing graves, and this history has been extensively examined. Less studied, however, is the history of body acquisition in the 20th century, and this article evaluates the factors that coalesced to transition American society from body theft to body donation. First, it describes the legislation that released the unclaimed bodies of those dying in public institutions to medical schools for dissection, thereby effectively ending grave robbery. Then it discusses midcentury journalistic exposés of excesses in the funeral industry-works that were instrumental in bringing alternatives, including the previously unpopular option of body donation, to public consciousness. Finally, it examines the rise of body transplantation, the Uniform Anatomical Gifts Act of 1968, and the subsequent state of willed-body programs at the turn of the 21st century. Body-donation programs have gradually stabilized since and currently provide most of the bodies used for dissection in American medical schools. Relying as they do on public trust, however, these programs remain potentially precarious and threatened by public scandals. Whether American medical schools will receive enough bodies to properly educate students in the future remains to be seen.

  15. Atom pictures. Iconography of the atom in science and public of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Jochen; Bigg, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century can be described as century of the atom. From the development of molecular models until nanotechnology, from Becquerel's discovery of the radioactivity until the reactor accident in Chernobyl was and remains the atom subject of the research as well as of the discussion in culture and politics. Thereby the concept and the imagination of the ''atom'' have been subjected to manifold changes, which were essentially generated by pictures. The volume summarizes famous as well as less famous pictures from laboratories, exhibitions, publications, and films. It gives both a contribution to the history of science and culture and a summarizing of different disciplinary approaches to the circulation of pictures between science and public

  16. WILLIAM GURNEE SINNIGEN - 20TH CENTURY CLASSICIST AND ROMAN HISTORIAN: BIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gray Marsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available William Gurnee Sinnigen was a Classicist and Roman historian, active in the mid-to-late 20th century. Trained at the University of Michigan by noted Roman administrative historian Arthur E. R. Boak, Sinnigen continued his mentor’s work in administrative history, producing several articles on different aspects of Roman and Byzantine administrative topics.  Sinnigen was also responsible for the revision and update of Boak’s acclaimed textbook on Roman history, as well as Charles Alexander Robinson’s textbook on Ancient history.  This article will provide a brief biography of Professor Sinnigen, along with a bibliography of his published works and reviews by other scholars of his work.

  17. Introduction to Music and Art in Albania during the 20-th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kaçinari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Albanian music, which dates back to the Albanian Independence, is characterized by two main aspects: supporting of patriotic, illuminist and democratic ideas and a model in most classical or romantic music as well as being linked to folk music. The history of last year’s is followed with the oppression and dream to come close to the European Culture. During this relatively long period (almost half century, the first musical compositions were created in Albania. Initially there were some pre - professional attempts to create genuine musical compositions which had a significant role in some aspects. First, these compositions leaded to the creation of the first musical genres of the Albanian music. Second, different vocal and orchestral ensembles started to include in their repertoires operas of Albanian authors and in the case of vocal operas, even with Albanian language texts. Third, the level of musical compositions was updated, from folk music towards a level that would improve decade after decade. From the ranking of piano operas of the Albanian music that I did and showed at the end of this work, it is noticed that the first operas of our piano music sprung during the first years of 20th century. Those years were filled with endeavours and struggles for national identity, for the protection of borders from excessive greed of our neighbours or superpowers interests and also years of the first attempts to follow the steps of developed countries’ cultures that surround us. So it was the time of efforts for cultivation of people and step by step creation of our cultural identity. Referring to this, the Albanian writer, aesthete, translator and teacher Ernest Koliqi wrote: “It is an axiomatic affirmation that small nations that would not know how to organise their culture, fatally would dissolve under huge political and social exacerbations emerging today. We are moving toward formation of a politically united Europe and through sufferings

  18. Geopolitical perspectives in Spain: from the Iberismo of the 19th century to the Hispanoamericanismo of the 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodríguez-Esteban

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes which took place in the balance of power in Europe in the last thirty years of the 19th century, together with the process of colonial expansion and partition, led Spanish geographers to see the need to combine the territorial projects and interests of Spain and Portugal with the aim of defending what remained of their colonial empires, coveted by English-speaking countries. This gave new life to a school of thought known as "Iberismo", which now extended to include France in the formula of a "triple alliance of the South" based on the common interests of Latin countries. The failure of both attempts at rapprochement gave rise to these ideas being transferred, by the beginning of the 20th century, to the Spanish-speaking countries of America. Iberismo was to become "Hispano-Americanismo", and the defence of strategic and material interests was to begin with a reaffirmation of the moral and spiritual qualities of peoples sharing common roots and a common language. Ideas and arguments along these lines were then developed on both sides of the Atlantic, crossing boundaries into other spheres of intellectual activity.

  19. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  20. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  1. Murman Coast of the Barents Sea at the Second Half of the 19th and the Begining 20th Century. Russian or European Colonization?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to analysing the historical background of the process of colonization Murman coast of the Barents Sea at the second half of the 19th and the begining 20th century. It consider two different interpretations of the history of colonization. One of them is the process of checking the Murman coast as a result of Russia imposed Western European initiatives. Another interpretation associates colonization with traditional process of the Russian presence on Murman.

  2. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  3. State Policy of Russia in the Field of Science and Education (The end of 17th-early 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroniсa E. Matveenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of education and science intensive development in Russia at the end of the 17th - the beginning of the 18th centuries is completely related with the personality of Emperor Peter I (Great, who understood the grandiose importance of public education for Russia. The reforms of Peter I in the field of science and education became the most important foundation in the history of pedagogy and military affairs development in Russia, as well as in the history of the Russian state national security strengthening. The result of Peter I reforms in education was the creation of domestic regular Armed Forces of Russia and the provision of the Russian state with the experts of different profiles: military people, engineers, technicians and diplomats. The authors of the article carried out a comprehensive analysis of the materials available in Russia about the Peter schools in order to systematize and preserve these data for pedagogical science and history. The work studied the documents (decrees and letters of Peter the Great reflecting the reforms in the field of science and education of Russia at the end of the 17th - early 18th centuries. With the support of historical documents, the establishment chronology of the first schools in Russia, the conditions for schoolchildren teaching, the structure and the content of training programs were described, and the teaching aids used in Peter schools were listed.

  4. Childcare in Reggio Emilia: Origins and Changes between the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Raimondo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the evolution in the type of interventions and childcare models adopted by the institutions charged with caring for orphans in 18th- and 19th-century Reggio Emilia, Italy. Through analysis of the documents – some previously unseen – preserved at the archives of ASP Reggio Emilia Città delle Persone and Polo Archivistico Comunale, it is possible to understand how the city of Reggio Emilia adapted itself to the developing needs of its wards, and social, legislative and especially educational changes, seeking to go beyond the isolatory and custodial spirit that characterised life within orphanages until the end of the 19th century. The history of the local institutions intertwines with that of the national processes and changes which revolutionised the traditional concept of «institute». The monolithic, centuries-old and obsolete «orphanage» gave way to care within the community (1962, founded on the principles of protection, promotion and education of individuals. The stories of these individuals that emerge from the personal records and material analysed enable us to broaden our gaze on the reconstruction of institutional history, starting from a more internal perspective and focusing on the «subjectivity» of those in need of basic care. Such personal histories enable us to not only to understand the peculiarities of the various «cases», but also their living conditions, and the ways in which care, and at the same time education, was provided.

  5. Early 20th-century research at the interfaces of genetics, development, and evolution: reflections on progress and dead ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2011-09-01

    Three early 20th-century attempts at unifying separate areas of biology, in particular development, genetics, physiology, and evolution, are compared in regard to their success and fruitfulness for further research: Jacques Loeb's reductionist project of unifying approaches by physico-chemical explanations; Richard Goldschmidt's anti-reductionist attempts to unify by integration; and Sewall Wright's combination of reductionist research and vision of hierarchical genetic systems. Loeb's program, demanding that all aspects of biology, including evolution, be studied by the methods of the experimental sciences, proved highly successful and indispensible for higher level investigations, even though evolutionary change and properties of biological systems up to now cannot be fully explained on the molecular level alone. Goldschmidt has been appraised as pioneer of physiological and developmental genetics and of a new evolutionary synthesis which transcended neo-Darwinism. However, this study concludes that his anti-reductionist attempts to integrate genetics, development and evolution have to be regarded as failures or dead ends. His grand speculations were based on the one hand on concepts and experimental systems that were too vague in order to stimulate further research, and on the other on experiments which in their core parts turned out not to be reproducible. In contrast, Sewall Wright, apart from being one of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1930s, opened up new paths of testable quantitative developmental genetic investigations. He placed his research within a framework of logical reasoning, which resulted in the farsighted speculation that examinations of biological systems should be related to the regulation of hierarchical genetic subsystems, possibly providing a mechanism for development and evolution. I argue that his suggestion of basing the study of systems on clearly defined properties of the components has proved superior to

  6. Mapping Utopia: Cartography and Social Reform in 19th Century Australia

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    Matthew Graves

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the 16th century on, the great Southern continent figured in the European literary and political imagination as a field for utopian thought. While we might expect such Arcadian essays to tail off as the colonisation of Australia proceeded apace in the late 18th, early 19th centuries, such was not the case: there are many examples of utopian literature set in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries, and several examples from the 1830s , the period examined in this article. This article explores the utopian elements in the work of three near contemporaries: Edward G. Wakefield (1796-1862, Thomas J. Maslen (1787-1857 and James Vetch (1789-1869 who mapped onto Australia political and social projects that had their origin and rationale in objectives for reform in the mother country. They brought to their self-appointed task underlying assumptions and biases that reveal a range of influences, not least those of colonial expansionism, and an imperial disregard for the realities of the terrain and inhabitants of a country they had never visited. The article undertakes a close reading of the maps, systems of nomenclature and division of territory proposed by two of the three: Maslen and Vetch, and their underlying rationale and function. Both writers sought to redraw the map of Australia in order to advance projects for reform, imposing on an ‘empty land’ principles of division and sub-division claimed to be rational and scientific and yet essentially utopian.

  7. Agronomists and the construction of policy for agricultural teaching in the early 20th Century

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    Marco Arlindo Amorim Melo Nery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on agricultural modernization and the formation of specialized workers, already present throughout the 19th century, were highlighted by the establishment of the National Society of Agriculture (SNA. This fact demonstrated the rise of the landed elite seeking more space in politics, coupled to the emergence of agronomists as holders of scientific knowledge focused on agricultural practices. SNA members counterpoised the power of the São Paulo landed elite and demanded from the central Brazilian government the establishment of a policy that would meet the organization's interests. The Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Trade (1906 was the result of tensions between the SNA and the São Paulo coffee growers. Four years later, legislation on agricultural education was enacted.

  8. Visible signs of illness from the 14th to the 20th century: systematic review of portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Als, C; Stüssi, Y; Boschung, U; Tröhler, U; Wäber, J H

    2002-01-01

    way in which people were reproduced. People depicted are possibly not representative of the general Bernese population as they constituted a socioeconomically advantaged group. What is already know on this topicReviews of individual portraits from the past have found clinical signs of illness that have led to discussions of underlying diseasesGoitre probably affected in excess of 80% of the population of the canton of Berne up to the beginning of the 20th centuryWhat this study addsIn a large series of portraits from the Bernese region, goitre and other diseases are under-representedFindings of age dependent overweight (a survival advantage in times of potential famine) were probably more realisticLikely explanations for this include idealisation depending on sex and age, artistic skills, fashion, and sociocultural significance of illnessA decline in depicted signs of illness from the 19th century may indicate progress of preventive medicine and hygiene PMID:12493682

  9. The Tatar Tsarevitches in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (15th–18th centuries »

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    S.V. Dumin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the genealogy of the three families of the Tatar tsarevitches (Soltans, settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th or early 16th century. The first of these (extinct until the mid 16th century descended from “tsarevitch Sihdohman from Perekop” (in all probability, from khan Sidi Ahmed. The second, tsarevitches Ostrynsky (extinct in the early 17th century, were descendants of the Crimean Giray dynasty. The third, ”tsarevitches Zavolzhsky”, called later “tsarevitches Punsky”, were the descendants of Halleck-Soltan, nephew of the last khan of the Great Horde Shah Ahmat (Sheikh Ahmed and they still existed in the first half of the 18th century. At the beginning of the 16th century these tsarevitches maintained their contacst with the Great Horde and Crimea and played some role in the diplomatic relations of the Grand Duchy and Tatar khanates. Later, they turned into ordinary military landowners, though they occupied the honored place in the Lithuanian Tatar aristocracy and retained their traditional title of tsarevitches (though often they also titled princes, like other noble Tatars.

  10. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

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    Luca Aversano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  11. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete

  12. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete. 32 refs.; 16 figs

  13. MIKHAIL BAKUNIN AND HIS IDEAS IN THE GERMAN ANARCHISIC PRESS IN THE FIRST THIRD OF 20 TH CENTURY

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    Наталия Александровна Жукова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of research of the article is five German anarchistic newspapers and journals of the first third of 20 th century. The purpose of this article is to find out specifics of the perception of Mikhail Bakunin’s ideas among the part of German society. The analysis allowed determining general trends, stages of the German anarchistic press and showing the difference of views on Bakunin’s theory depending on period. The author of the article concludes that the interest in Russian anarchist study among German authors was stable during the first third of 20 th century. Before the First World War the name of Bakunin was used for propaganda of active revolutionary movement. After 1918 he was the main critic of centralism and Marxism. German authors appreciated positively theories of Bakunin and try to find in his works answers for contemporary problems; he was for them an ideal revolutionary, who was always ready for struggle, for leading the way and who can inspire the other people.

  14. [Recent fauna of ground-nesting birds in Transvolga steppes and its dynamics in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, M L

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the ground-nesting bird fauna in Transvolga steppes has changed during the 20th century. The complex of lark species characteristic of true and dry steppe has disappeared because of climate change and impact of economic activity (the establishment of windbreak and roadside forest strips), which has provided for a sharp increase in the abundance of corvid birds.

  15. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

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    Hughes, D. W.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  16. The Opinions of Music Education Students about 20th and 21st Centuries Classical Music: Uludag University Exemplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ajda Senol

    2016-01-01

    The debates of music historians, composers, and performers on difficulties in understanding the 20th and 21st Centuries international classical music and the reasons have been ongoing for years. The opinions of music education students on this matter and their interests in music of these periods are a matter of curiosity. With this research,…

  17. RTG's for space exploration at the end of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimielewski, A.

    1989-01-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are the only type of energy conversion devices that are available for spacecraft designed for environments where sunlight is weak. The two upcoming missions Galileo and Ulysses will both use General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG's. Two other missions that are planned for mid nineties and will carry RTG's on board are: Comet Rendezvous Astroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini. Another mission that might become a program start in the last decade of the 20th century is Solarprobe. Solarprobe is most likely to use Modular RTG's. Several other missions that are in different planning stages are in need of RTG's to meet their power requirements: Mars Rover Sample Return, planetary penetrators, microspacecraft and Mars Egg. The paper briefly describes all of these missions stressing their RTG requirements

  18. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

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    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  19. Mound No. 24 of the Alebastrovo I Burial Ground and the Problem of Succession Among the Early Nomadic Cultures of the Southern Urals in the 6th – 4th and 3rd – 1st Centuries BC

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    Denis V. Maryksin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on one of the burial mounds – Alebastrovo I, which is situated in the middle reaches of the Ural river. The analysis of the burial rite and grave goods reveals the combination of features peculiar of the culture of early nomads from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC and later features typical for the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. The collective nature of the burial in a large square pit (burial no. 2 relates to early features. Such burials are typical for the 5th and 4th centuries BC. But a dagger with a direct crosshair and a crescent-shaped pommel found in the burial belongs to the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. Findings of a mirror, a spoon and a whorl also deserve special attention. On formal grounds a mirror belongs to the type “Skripkin 1.6” – with a flat disk without roll and stick in the form of a triangular stem. They appeared in Sauromatian time, but were not widespread. Most of these mirrors refer to the turn of the eras – the first centuries AD. However, in our view the mirror from Alebastrovo I has the greatest similarity with the mirror disks of the so-called “musical” mirrors, which date back to the 2nd half of the 4th century BC. The bone spoon belongs to the type I, peculiar of the Sauromatian-time things of the 6th – 4th centuries BC. However, the pattern is similar to that on the handle of the bone products of later time – the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC. Clay whorl has a pattern in the form of 4 sectors, decorated with grooves and pits. Analogies are available on this ornament spindles from the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC of the Kara-Abyz culture in the Southern Urals. According to the set of attributes, this burial mound dated to the second half of the 3rd - 2nd centuries BC. The finds from this burial mound confirm the conclusion of the first explorer B. F. Zhelezchikov about continuity of the development of the early nomadic culture of this region in the 6th – 3rd centuries BC.

  20. Careers of men and women in the 19th and 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313807922

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing

  1. Stephen S. Wise and the Urban Frontier: American Jewish Life in New York and the Pacific Northwest at the Dawn of the 20th Century

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    Mark A. Raider

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The case of Stephen S. Wise provides a lens through which to examine American Jewry’s transformation at the dawn of the 20th century. Not only were New York City and Portland, Oregon – places Wise called home – two geographic poles of America’s urban frontier, they also highlight a spectrum of possibilities available to the New World’s fledgling Jewish community. Viewed in tandem, they illustrate American society’s raw, open, and pliable terrain as it emerged from a rural pre-industrial past. Moreover, by placing Wise in the context of the metropolitan growth that reshaped the Atlantic and Pacific frontiers in the late 19th century, we gain a better understanding of the relationship between the country’s dynamic environmental conditions and the phenomenon of Jewish immigrant absorption, acculturation, and Americanization.In withdrawing to the wilderness, Wise exposed himself to new possibilities for thinking about the place of Jews in American society and the future of American Judaism. He also honed the role of which he was to become a superlative exemplar – a 20th-century American rabbi at home in the worlds of religion and politics. Furthermore, his synthesis of liberal Judaism, American pluralism, Zionism, and Progressive-era notions of social justice anticipated the rise of a new American Jewish sensibility that would become normative in the 20th century.

  2. Tree ring evidence of a 20th century precipitation surge in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to develop an annual (August-July) precipitation series back to AD 1330 using a tree ring data network of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) from the Lahaul-Spiti region in the western Himalaya, India. The rainfall reconstruction reveals high magnitude multidecadal droughts during the 14th and 15th centuries and thenceforth a gradual increase in precipitation. Increasingly wet conditions during the 20th century are consistent with other long-term precipitation reconstructions from high Asia and reflect a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle, coincident with what is anticipated due to global warming. Significant relationships between reconstructed precipitation and precipitation records from central southwest Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, ENSO (NINO4-SST) variability and summer monsoon rainfall over central northeast India underscore the utility of our data in synoptic climatology.

  3. Historical outline of 16th century signets: including examples from the Franciscan monastery in Novo mesto

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    Ines Jerele

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The library of the Franciscan Monastery in Novo mesto keeps 224 early prints from the 16th century in which 175 printers’ and publishers’ devices were recorded. These were printed between 1501 and 1600 in 88 printers’ workshops across Europe. Printers’ and publishers’ devices, also called signets, were used in the 16th century as trademarks of respective printers and publishers. Spiritual and cultural ideas of the 16th century and intellectual goals of their owners are reflected in the complex humanistic motifs of signets. Most of the 16th century signets can be compared to impresas; they include a symbolic image and a short motto in Latin. This text presents some of the main characteristics of signets registered in Slovenia, such as the meaning, design features and motifs, dating from the early development of print culture in Europe.

  4. Differential resilience of Amazonian otters along the Rio Negro in the aftermath of the 20th century international fur trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Natalia C; Antunes, André P; Barnett, Adrian A; Macedo, Valêncio W; Shepard, Glenn H

    2018-01-01

    Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation. We analyzed previously unanalyzed data from historical records of hide shipments to track changes in hide sales and prices for the two species in the late 20th century. We also gathered oral histories from older Baniwa people who had witnessed or participated in commercial otter hunting. These complimentary data sources reveal how intrinsic biological and social characteristics of the two otter species interacted with market forces and regional history. Whereas giant otter populations were driven to local or regional extinction during the late 20th century by commercial hunting, neotropical otters persisted. In recent decades, giant otter populations have returned to some parts of the upper Rio Negro, a development which local people welcome as part of a generalized recovery of the ecosystems in their territory as a result of the banning of animal pelt exports and indigenous land demarcation. This paper expands the scope of the field historical ecology and reflects on the role of local knowledge in biodiversity conservation.

  5. The key role of ozone depleting substances in weakening the Walker Circulation over the second half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, K.; Polvani, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the Walker Circulation will weaken in response to increasing greenhouse gases (GHG) by the end of the 21st century. But over the 20th century, the existence of a statistical significant weakening trends in the observations remains unclear. We here present new modelling evidence showing that Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) may have significantly contributed to the weakening of the Walker Circulation over the years 1955-2005. While the primary impact of increasing ODS has been the formation of the ozone hole, it is perhaps not as widely appreciated that ODS are also powerful greenhouse gases. Using an ensemble of integrations with the the Whole Atmosphere Chemistry Climate Model, we show that the surface warming caused by increasing ODS over the second half of the 20th century causes a statistically significant weakening of the Walker Circulation in the model. In fact, we find that the increase of the other well-mixed GHG alone leads to a strengthening, not a weakening of the Walker Circulation, over that period in our model. When ODS concentrations are held fixed at 1950's levels, the effect of the other GHG is not sufficient, and a warming delay in the eastern tropical Pacific SST leads to an increase in the east-west SST gradient which is accompanied by a strengthening of the Walker Circulation. But, when the forcing from ODS is added in, the additional radiative forcing causes the eastern Pacific to warm faster, and the trend in the Walker Circulation reverses sign and becomes negative over the second half of the 20th century.

  6. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  7. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  8. Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outridge, P.M.; Hobson, K.A.; Savelle, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth δ 15 N values: 15.6-20.5%o) than modern animals (δ 15 N: 17.2-21.1%o). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth δ 13 C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and

  9. Cohort fertility and educational expansion in the Czech Republic during the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Zeman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 20th century the Czech Republic went through profound changes in female employment, gender roles, population and family policies, and public childcare. The educational structure of the female population changed tremendously. At the same time, completed cohort fertility fluctuated between 1.8 and 2.2 children per woman. Objective: This article analyses the changes in the level of completed cohort fertility by education, during educational expansion in the Czech population under the economic, cultural, and institutional background of the state socialist regime, and after its breakdown. Methods: The changes in the level of completed cohort fertility by education are analysed by means of decomposition, complemented by the analysis of parity composition. Results: During the 20th century, education-specific completed cohort fertility increased, rather than declined. Fertility levels converged upwards, contributing to high uniformity within educational categories. The overall changes in fertility levels were driven by changes in the educational structure. These trends resulted in the dominance of the two-child family, while large families were disappearing and childlessness dropped to the biological minimum. Conclusions: An egalitarian economic system with traditional family-friendly policies, in combination with a family-unfriendly labour market, developed into a male breadwinner model of low gender equity. Future family policies should focus on the reconciliation of work and family. Contribution: The study contributes to the discussion on links between education and fertility, adding a new picture to the mosaic of country-level analyses. The Czech Republic is an example of a country with high educational homogeneity of fertility behaviour where the education-specific levels of fertility converged upwards.

  10. [A development of Byzantine Christian charities during the 4(th)-7(th) centuries and the birth of the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine the beginning and the development of Christian Charities during the 4(th)-6(th) centuries which would eventually result in the birth of the hospital in modern sense in the first half of the 7(th) century. For this purpose, I looked carefully into various primary sources concerning the early Christian institutions for the poor and the sick. Above all, it's proper to note that the first xenodocheion where hospitality was combined with a systematic caring, is concerned with the Trinitarian debate of the 4(th) century. In 356, Eustathios, one of the leaders of homoiousios group, established xenodocheion to care for the sick and the lepers in Sebaste of Armenia, whereas his opponent Aetios, doctor and leader of the heteroousios party, was reckoned to have combined the medical treatment with his clerical activities. Then, Basil of Caesarea, disciple of Eustathios of Sebaste, also founded in 372 a magnificent benevolent complex named 'Basileias' after its founder. I scrupulously analysed several contemporary materials mentioning the charitable institution of Caesarea which was called alternatively katagogia, ptochotropheion, xenodocheion. John Chrysostome also founded several nosokomeia in Constantinople at the end of the 4(th) century and the beginning of the 5(th) century. Apparently, the contemporary sources mention that doctors existed for these Charities, but there is no sufficient proof that these 'Christian Hospitals,' Basileias or nosokomeia of Constantinople were hospitals in modern sense. Imperial constitutions began to mention ptochotropheion, xenodocheion and orphanotropheion since the second half of the 5(th) century and then some Justinian laws evoked nosokomium, brephotrophia, gerontocomia. These laws reveal that 'Christian Hospitals' were well clarified and deeply rooted in Byzantine society already in these periods. And then, new benevolent institutions emerged in the 6(th) century: nosokomeia for a specific class and

  11. History of science and technology in the 20th century and super-technologies at present. 20 seiki no kagaku gijutsushi to genzai no (cho) gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futami, S. (Yasukawa Electric Mfg. Co. Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Technologies whose names are prefixed with super are discussed from a viewpoint of history of science and technology. A chronology for super-prefixed sciences and technologies in the 20th century is presented. Since Bohr's quantum theory and Einstein's fundamental formula for atomic energy: E = mc[sup 2] that rank as two heads of super-science, were published in the begining of the 20th century, their theories have been playing roles as a foundation of the development of science and technology in this century. Namely, on the basis of quantum theory, semi-conductors were invented and super-conduction has been developed. The Einstein's fundamental formula has led to atomic bombs and commercial power reactors. Development to super-technologies in various fields of sciences and technologies is explained. When a nation's history of science and technology is assumed as a process from mimicry to self-sustenance that is composed of the following four steps: (1) import of products, (2)initiation of production and transfer of technology, (3)transit to technological self-sustain, (4) establishment of creative technology. Japan is in a process between(3) and(4). Further, super-technologies under research and development for the present in Japan are enumerated. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Response of the everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Willard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. [Eugenics and Discrimination in Colombia: the Role of Medicine and Psychiatry in Immigration Policy at the Beginning of the 20th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Jaime Carrizosa

    2014-03-01

    With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

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    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

  15. AMERICAN MULTI-DWELLING ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Srđan Nađ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the evolution of American multiple-dwelling architecture was marked by the passage from the standard construction of single-family standalone homes and row houses to a new housing typology which corresponded to all of the new urban planning rules and requirements of the contemporary way of life in cities. New York was the first American city to face the problem of dense settlement in limited spaces. The »U, E, H« ground plan designs were developed and were most commonly used during the period when the Building Zone Resolution adopted in 1916 by New York City was in force. The Building Zone Resolution introduced another novelty into New York town planning, i.e. the setting back of exterior walls above a determined height. Consequently, this gave rise to buildings with stepped profiles and many more storeys. The solutions developed by the New York residential architecture were adopted by other cities and further developed in line with specific local influences. Chicago is the most interesting of these cities; between 1924 and 1929 several quality housing complexes were built there which strongly deviated from the then housing construction in New York by the consistent ground plan designs of structures and apartment designs.

  16. [Venereal diseases in a "general practice" in the 17th and early 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, F; Winckelmann, H J

    2018-01-31

    The diary of the town physician Johannes Franc (1649-1725), handwritten in Latin, gives-among other diseases-an overview of sexually transmitted infections affecting citizens in Ulm such as syphilis and gonorrhea. Franc reported on his own experiences in the diary and also included many theoretical details on the causes of the diseases and the corresponding therapies, including ethical considerations. Even in ancient times, there are indications of venereal diseases. However, at the latest with the outbreak of syphilis around the year 1495, the treatment and control of the spread of venereal diseases became an important task of medicine. Before gonococci were detected by Neisser in 1879, sexually transmitted diseases were generally seen as a single disease. However, at the beginning of the 18 th century, there were several doctors who treated syphilis and gonorrhea as separate entities. Franc was one of them. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis and gonorrhea, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of these diseases. Franc's treatment patterns are illustrated. Franc's case reports indicate a fundamental change in the perception of STIs at the end of the 17 th /beginning of the 18 th century.

  17. Evolution of high-rise construction in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20th - Early 21st centuries: projects and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaytens, Andrey; Rusanov, Gennadiy; Skryabin, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    One of the most important issues in national urban planning is arrangement of high-rise buildings in the largest cities of Russia. This issue becomes especially acute in such cities as Saint Petersburg, which has unique architectural and urban-planning heritage preserved to a great extent. In this regard, it seems important to trace the evolution of high-rise construction development and arrangement in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20thearly 21st centuries. The goal of the article is to consider high-rise construction development regarding both public and residential buildings in comparison of project ideas and results of their implementation in the 1940s-2000s. Prerequisites and issues of high-rise construction of that period are considered. Particular attention is paid to changes in the official urban-planning policy, regulatory framework and attitude of city authorities to high-rise construction. The study was carried out with the consideration of the following historic periods differing in their urban-planning policy: the late 1940s-1950s; 1960s; 1970-1980s; 1990s; 2000s-2010s. Economical prerequisites of high-rise construction and their influence on the modern urban-planning policy during the post-Soviet period are considered. In conclusion, an attempt is made to determine tendencies of high-rise construction development in Saint Petersburg.

  18. The role of church history and Byzantine studies in the history of historical sciences, religious and secular education in Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Y. Medovkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical retrospective of formation of the non­religious phenomenon «new Christianity» in the conteThe article examines the impact of the educational and scientific activities of famous church historians on the expansion of knowledge in the history of church, development of historical studies, religious and secular education in Ukrainian territories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of the biographies, activities and scientific papers of such well­known scientists as Aleksey Dmitriyevskiy, Ivan Sokolov, Kostiantyn Kharlampovych, Vasyl Bidnov and Oleksandr Lototskyi shows that the scholars made a great contribution to the expansion of historical knowledge in the history of church and Byzantine studies. They achieved it by finding and publishing new sources, studying new topics that had not been covered earlier, applying the historical comparative method and analysing the local history within the context of general history of humankind. Furthermore, just by reviewing the list of offices held by the above scholars, subjects they taught, and scientific journals where they worked as authors and editors and understanding what role they played in preserving church antiques during the period when objects of historical importance were expropriated and used for other purposes, you can appreciate not only their contribution to fostering a great number of well­educated broad­minded and scientifically oriented researchers and clergy members, but also the importance of the position they took on social issues. Because of the social principles they defended the scholars were often persecuted by the Bolsheviks, which caused their premature death or forced emigration.

  19. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

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    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  20. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  1. Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century London

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century LondonPar Heather ShoreThe Boydell press, Woodridge, 2002, 193 p. Cet ouvrage d’une historienne universitaire, dont la première édition date de 1999, se propose d’étudier l’émergence de la catégorie des « délinquants juvéniles » au cours de la première moitié du XIXème siècle. L’auteur compare les représentations de ces mineurs véhiculées par les autorités publiques, les réformateurs et dans l’opinion publique avec les réalités de leur vi...

  2. A multidisciplinary study of significant migrations on the territory of Vojvodina in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations of population in a particular area and/or at a particular time represent the phenomenon of global proportions. As such, they require multidisciplinary approach to research. The most common questions posed by the individual, but also multidisciplinary scientific disciplines are: Who is moving? Where are they going? Why do they go? What are the natural and economic conditions of migrations? Why do migrations occur and how they maintain over time? Multidisciplinary research of migrations is very important for a more complete understanding of this process, primarily from the physical, historical, economic, ethnographic, anthropological, legal, politicological, sociological, etc. The aim of the paper is to highlight the importance of multidisciplinary research through the representation of some major migrations in Vojvodina in the 20th century. As a subject of research the following has been singled out: colonization (immigration of population from 1919 to 1930, 1945-1948 (there are some similarities among them (population decline, new social and political conditions and legal regulation, difficulties to get used to new ways of life, mixing folklore and customs with the local population. The paper includes the emigration of the German population from Vojvodina, 1944-1950, as part of one of the largest (e migrations in Europe in the 20th century. This migration, seen from legal, economic, historical and political aspects has consequences today, during the approach of Serbia to the European Union. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007 i br. III47027

  3. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  4. The dynamic intensity of CO 2 emissions: empirical evidence for the 20 th century

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    DIEGO CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The debate around the economic growth and environmental degradation is the hot topic among academics. However, up to a point, all of them embrace the uncontroversial view that tells us that anthropic factors have leverage on global climate. It happens that the so-called greenhouse effect is closely related to the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, whose original source comes from productive sectors. Thus, our purpose in this article is to estimate the rate of emission intensity - here we mean the ratio between CO2 emissions and GDP - which has increased since the early part of the 20th century. To support that idea, this study reports on data from 24 different countries. In terms of C02 emission, the results undoubtedly show that United Kingdom and the United States highlight a negative picture, particularly when both are compared to India. It should be noted the presence of structural changes, which coincide with three major historical events: the World War I (1914-1918, the Great Depression in the 1930s, and finally the Oil-price shocks in the 1970s. As the result of the analysis demonstrates, the amount of emission produced by developing countries is surprisingly low. That the technology reveals its relative merit for reducing the overall emission intensity is transparently obvious.

  5. Pedagogy in Slovenia at the Beginning of the 20th Century

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    Tadej Vidmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy in Slovenia gradually won its recognition as an academic science, and therefore obtained improved possibilities for its conceptualization, when the university in Ljubljana was established in 1919. The time between the two world wars was marked with three principal pedagogical concepts: Herbartianism, geisteswissenschaftliche pedagogy, and reform pedagogy. The first of these to be theoretically conceptualized in Slovenia was the geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy. Ideas of reform pedagogy, especially its social-critical movement, interpreted, represented, and defended primarily left-oriented pedagogues and teachers, who were convinced that actual school reform would be possible only after (revolutionary changes of social conditions. In the first decades of the 20th century, numerous conflicts and disagreements occurred in the process of establishing individual pedagogical currents and orientations in Slovenia. The strongest and most productive polemics were held between geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy, and some currents, or just individual representatives, of reform pedagogy (e.g., theory vs. praxis, old vs. new school. Unfortunately, the postwar Marxist pedagogical concept was highly unfavorable to the prewar orientations and prevented their further development.

  6. Old Believers in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century and under People’s Republic of Tuva

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    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the specifics of culture and everyday life of the Old Believers’ (staroobryadtsy community in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as under the People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Our study was based on research in the general history and culture of Old Belief in Russian and Siberia, as well as on the documents from the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.   Old Believers who settled in Tuva (Uryankhaisky Krai in late 19thearly 20th century accounted for about a third of all Russian settlers. For the first two decades, their situation in the region was relatively favorable. For them, Tuva was a faraway region that suited well their isolationist lifestyle. It was the Promised Land, the Belovodye which ‘Antichrist’s henchmen’ (Russian government officials could not reach. In the natural abundance of Tuva they saw a country where every hard-working Christian could become master of his own household. Although settling in the new land with its often adverse conditions for farming could prove difficult, Old Believers managed to adapt to the new climate and build good relations with the local powers which rarely intervened into their lives. Alongside with farming and cattle breeding, Old Believers were involved in hunting, fishing, crafts and trade. Their situation, however, worsened when the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT in the 1930s accelerated the Socialist reforms and implemented an anti-religious policy. Those Old Believers who refused to change their lifestyle due to religious considerations (i.e., evaded military conscription, etc., as well as clergy and monks, were given prison sentences that they had to serve outside Tuva. Old Believers protested against censuses, introduction of mandatory passports, universal education (at schools where atheism was an official policy, etc. Many families tried to find ’salvation’ by fleeing deep

  7. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

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    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  8. Infant Mortality in Germany in the 19th Century

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    Rolf Gehrmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developments in infant mortality in Germany have previously only been documented in a fragmentary fashion for the 19th century as a whole, and only on a small scale for the period prior to 1871. For the first time, this paper lays a solid statistical foundation by reprocessing the figures assembled by the German states of that time. The reconstructed national statistical series (from 1826 onwards reveals a comparatively high infant mortality, with minor deviations until the turn of the 20th century. The impact of urbanisation and industrialisation is not denied, but an evaluation of the different regional patterns and trends leads to a new weighting. The living and working conditions in the countryside were thus highly determining. The relationship between fertility and infant mortality is assessed differently for the era of the sustained reduction in fertility than for the preceding period. All in all, the prevalent customs and attitudes are regarded as being vital to infants’ survival chances. We therefore need to look at attitudes among the educated public and the authorities. Efforts on the part of these groups to bring about change were particularly observed in the South West, where an awareness of the dramatic problem arose comparatively early. Further historic research at the regional level will be needed in order to achieve a final evaluation of these processes.

  9. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  10. The dentist's armamentarium: a collection of 19th century instruments in the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheramie, Toby J; Strother, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    A small collection of antique dental instruments located in the LSU School of Dentistry Library (LSUSD) provides a glimpse into the world of the 19th century dentist. The instruments in this collection, with handles carved from common and rare early materials such as bone, wood, ivory, ebony, cameo, shell and pearl, provide a striking contrast to all-steel instruments of the 20th century. An understanding of their development and function substantially increases appreciation of these instruments, which can be categorized as instruments for oral surgery, prophylaxis, restoration, and general use. In this article, the authors summarize the historical development of each type of instrument and describe the specific items in the LSUSD Library collection.

  11. Bookseller’s Classification: Classification Examples and Criteria of Croatian Booksellers in Sales Catalogs and Book Lists from the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Topić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to conduct research on the topic of ways of bookstore (sales classification of Croatian bookstores from the beginning of the 20th century. By content analysis of the 17 sales lists/catalogs of books from Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Karlovac, Zagreb and Osijek, the classification structure has been reconstructed, and the criteria according to which the booksellers offerings have been classified in the early 20th century have been determined. Conducting of the analysis established the following criteria of the bookstore classification: topic/content, form/type of work, type of corpus, genre, language, purpose, publishing series, publisher, time of publication, (new edition, time of publication/purchase, customer's specific interests, number, letter and author. Order of enumeration within specific categories is mostly alphabetic, numeric or according to order of publication. Unlike the library classification and classification systems in general, the problematics of bookstore classification is not very present in the current existing sources. Research studies that focus on the history of bookselling, even if they reveal ways of classification of booksellers offers remain on a descriptive level without any deeper analysis of the criteria or possible reasons of such classification. Therefore, the contribution of the paper is a detailed analysis of a larger pattern of bookstore sales catalogs, and also an attempt of illuminating the criteria and reasons of creating a system of bookstore classification in the defined historical, spatial and time context.

  12. Quantifying the quiet epidemic: Diagnosing dementia in late 20th-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    During the late 20 th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that 'reliable modes of diagnosis' were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated 'top priority'. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts.

  13. Randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the 20th century climate data

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    Teija Seitola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new algorithm called randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA, which is a generalisation of the traditional multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA into problems of arbitrarily large dimension. RMSSA consists of (1 a dimension reduction of the original data via random projections, (2 the standard MSSA step and (3 a recovery of the MSSA eigenmodes from the reduced space back to the original space. The RMSSA algorithm is presented in detail and additionally we show how to integrate it with a significance test based on a red noise null-hypothesis by Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, RMSSA is applied to decompose the 20th century global monthly mean near-surface temperature variability into its low-frequency components. The decomposition of a reanalysis data set and two climate model simulations reveals, for instance, that the 2–6 yr variability centred in the Pacific Ocean is captured by all the data sets with some differences in statistical significance and spatial patterns.

  14. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  15. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  16. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero, J. M.; Santos, A.

    2000-01-01

    Spain was a scientifically backward country in the early 19th-century. The causes were various political events, the War of Independence, and the reign of Fernando VII. The introduction of contemporary physics into textbooks was therefore a slow process. An analysis of the contents of 19th-century Spanish textbooks is here presented, centred on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases.

  17. The Role of the Nobility in the Development of Navigation on the Danube (XIX - early XX centuries

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    Liliya Tsyganenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the place and role of the nobility of Bessarabia in the development of transport Infrastructure of the region in the late 19th - early 20th centuries is disscused. The activity of Prince Y. Gagarin - the first founder of shipping company on the Danube - Russian-Danube Shipping Company, which by 1886 evolved into a major joint-venture private limited transport in Bessarabia - Black Sea-Danube Shipping

  18. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century

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    Antonio Viñao, España.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a imagem e idéias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas na Espanha ao magistério primário durante o século 20, através dos manuais de História da Educação e outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a imagem e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, e a modo de contraste, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau nos mencionados manuais. Esse exame se divide em duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com o fim de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católica, conservadora, moralizante e crítica do genebriano. Palavras-chave: Rousseau, manuais escolares, educação primária, formação do magistério primário, Espanha (século 20.   Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century Abstract This article deals with Rousseau’s images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau’s ideas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau’s place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism. Key-words: Rousseau, school books, primary education, teacher’s training, Spain (20th century.   La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20 Resumen Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau

  20. Carbon profile of the managed forest sector in Canada in the 20th century: sink or source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Heath, Linda S

    2014-08-19

    Canada contains 10% of global forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's managed forest sector, the managed forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive carbon balance analysis to date, this study shows Canada's managed forest area and resulting HWP were a sink of 7510 and 849 teragrams carbon (TgC), respectively, in the period 1901-2010, exceeding Canada's fossil fuel-based emissions over this period (7333 TgC). If Canadian HWP were not produced and used for residential construction, and instead more energy intensive materials were used, there would have been an additional 790 TgC fossil fuel-based emissions. Because the forest carbon increases in the 20th century were mainly due to younger growing forests that resulted from disturbances in the 19th century, and future increases in forest carbon stocks appear uncertain, in coming decades most of the mitigation contribution from Canadian forests will likely accrue from wood substitution that reduces fossil fuel-based emissions and stores carbon, so long as those forests are managed sustainably.

  1. Od ne-hudby k hudbě. Hudební využití hluku ve 20. století // From non-music to music. Musical use of noise in the 20th century

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    Matěj Kratochvíl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The range of sounds available to musicians has grown considerably during the 20th century. The invention of sound recording has made it possible to document any sonic event and to use it in a musical way. This text summarizes the history of this development and tries to show how the use of nonmusical sounds can be explained as the next stage in the history of western classical and how we can compare it with so called emancipation of dissonance at the end of the 20th century. It also analyzes various esthetic trends concerning the use of non-musical sounds and the ways in which the broadening of sonic possibilities influenced our understanding of what music is and how it functions as a way of human communication.

  2. Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, M B

    1988-05-01

    Although other forms of allergic disease were described in antiquity, hay fever is surprisingly modern. Very rare descriptions can be traced back to Islamic texts of the 9th century and European texts of the 16th century. It was only in the early 19th century that the disease was carefully described and at that time was regarded as most unusual. By the end of the 19th century it had become commonplace in both Europe and North America. This paper attempts to chart the growth of hay fever through the medical literature of the 19th century. It is hoped that an understanding of the increase in prevalence between 1820 and 1900 may provide an insight for modern researchers and give some clues into possible reasons for the epidemic nature of the disease today.

  3. On the stationarity of annual flood peaks in the continental United States during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Serinaldi, Francesco; Smith, James A.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2009-08-01

    Annual peak discharge records from 50 stations in the continental United States with at least 100 years of record are used to investigate stationarity of flood peaks during the 20th century. We examine temporal trends in flood peaks and abrupt changes in the mean and/or variance of flood peak distributions. Change point analysis for detecting abrupt changes in flood distributions is performed using the nonparametric Pettitt test. Two nonparametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) tests and one parametric (Pearson) test are used to detect the presence of temporal trends. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) are also used to parametrically model the annual peak data, exploiting their flexibility to account for abrupt changes and temporal trends in the parameters of the distribution functions. Additionally, the presence of long-term persistence is investigated through estimation of the Hurst exponent, and an alternative interpretation of the results in terms of long-term persistence is provided. Many of the drainage basins represented in this study have been affected by regulation through systems of reservoirs, and all of the drainage basins have experienced significant land use changes during the 20th century. Despite the profound changes that have occurred to drainage basins throughout the continental United States and the recognition that elements of the hydrologic cycle are being altered by human-induced climate change, it is easier to proclaim the demise of stationarity of flood peaks than to prove it through analyses of annual flood peak data.

  4. Outsets for studying interrelations between heritage institutions in the 20th century: initial theoretical considerations

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    Sanjica Faletar Tanacković

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage institutions, archives, libraries and museums, which share the common goal of safeguarding and enabling wide accessibility to and use of cultural heritage, have developed in different but not diametrically opposing directions. Many scientists and practitioners from archival science, librarianship, museology and the wider area of information science have therefore studied, over many years, fundamental principles and characteristics of their activity and similarities and differences between these institutions and professions with the ultimate aim of discovering and describing potential models and guidelines for their coordinated action. First papers on this topic in the 20th century appeared in 1930s. Authors of these papers were most often librarians and archivists whose writing was initiated by their immediate working and professional environment. Based on the analysis and overview of accessible literature this paper presents and comments the thoughts of the author who was writing on this subject for over five decades, from 1930s to 1980s. These authors came, in most cases, from the United States of America and they dealt with similarities and differences between archives and libraries. Museum professionals joined this discussion only in 1960s by introducing specific characteristics and aspects of museums and museum work. In order to contribute to the understanding of interrelationships and evident convergence of these three cultural heritage institutions, which resulted in their mutual respect and in some cases with practical and active collaboration in particular in the modern networked society, the authors will try to present the development of theoretical and methodological thought on this phenomenon. The paper will provide a critical review of the most important authors who wrote on this topic from the first works that appeared through the last decade of the 20th century.

  5. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  6. The Charity Activities of the Russian Business Owners During the Late 19th and Early 20th Centurie%19世纪末20世纪初俄国企业主的慈善活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海坤

    2015-01-01

    19世纪末20世纪初,以企业主阶层为代表的社会慈善活动,占据了俄国慈善事业的主导地位,俄国企业主在传统济贫、社会助养、教育、医疗、宗教等广泛的社会领域,进行了规模巨大、形式多样的慈善活动。其动机既有传统宗教伦理的道德导向因素,也有新兴资产阶级追求个人名誉、渴望社会认同和获取经济回报的现实利益诉求。企业主阶层的慈善活动一定程度上起到了调节社会再分配的作用,但不能从根本上调和尖锐的阶级矛盾、改变俄国社会普遍的反资本主义情结,其自身最终也随着俄国无产阶级革命的胜利而消亡。%Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the social charity activities mainly from business class occupied the dominance of philanthropy in Russia .Russian entrepreneurs carried out the huge and diverse forms of charity activities in a wide range of the society as traditional poor -support, social adoption, medical service, education, religion and so on.Their motivation included the ethics moral orientation factors of traditional religion , also emerging bourgeois’ pursuit of person-al reputation, social identity and the economic returns of realistic interests.To some extent Entrepreneurs charity activities played a role in regulating the social redistribution , but could not reconcile the sharp class warfare fundamentally , or change social universal anti –capitalism.And itself disappeared with the victory of the proletarian revolution in Russia finally .

  7. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

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    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years

  8. Razvojni put modne ilustracije 20. i 21. veka – likovno predstavljanje mode (u slikarstvu, modnim tablama i modnim ilustracijama / Development of Fashion Illustration during the 20th and 21st Century: Pictorial Representation of Fashion (in Painting, Fashion Plates and Fashion Illustrations

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    Vanja Kosanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is pictorial representation of costume and fashion in painting, fashion plates and fashion illustrations. Fashion illustration of the 20th century, specific in terms of freedom of interpretation that is given to the artists when representing fashion trends, has kept those elements of painting that are almost lost in contemporary art movements (for instance figuration. Through several specific examples in art history I will try to demonstrate the artist’s approach to the representation of costume. In this study I will also try to define the role of painting when it comes to the fashion, the role of fashion plates and then the role of fashion illustration created in the early 20th century. Finally, I will take a look at the fashion photography that in the beginning has found its role-models precisely in the fashion illustration and today is returning to the visual characteristics of renaissance art, and to the painting in general, from which everything has begun.

  9. [Demographic and epidemiologic changes in Colombia during the 20th century: facts and explanations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2005-12-01

    Research, education, organization and administration activities in health need an updated panoramic view of demographic and epidemiologic changes and tendencies. To describe the main changes in demography and epidemiology during the 20th century in Colombia and to comment on the causative models used by some authors. A descriptive and longitudinal study. Second hand information from various sources was used. The final section of the review includes a discussion on the interpretation of data given by the original authors. In 1905-2005, population increased from 4,737,588 inhabitants to 48,864,013. The age distribution of the population showed dramatic changes: the true pyramid, as seen in 1951, changed into a distorted figure (no apparent differences between 0 and 14 years of age). Both children and youngsters lost representation on age structure, while adult and older individuals gain representation. During 1905-1938, the birth rate was 43% and by the end of 2005 it will be 22%. Mortality dropped a 75%, falling from 23% in 1905-1912 to 6% in 1885-1993, but it rose a 33% after 1993, and will reach 8.3% in 2010. In 1938, the urban population was 31% and in 2002, 72%. Mortality discriminated by cause changed in a significant manner during the second half of the 20th century. Infectious-parasitic and perinatal diseases, the main cause of death by the end of the 1960-1969 decade, lost importance on behalf of degenerative diseases, accidents and homicides which are now the most frequent. Conclusions. Our present population density is relatively low. The demographic change has been profound but the velocity has been more important. The aging of population has serious implications for the country. These notable modifications in Colombian families raise challenges in all social fields. The demographic and epidemiological changes (structure and level of morbimortality) require a serious analysis, and easy explanations do not have to be accepted without repairs.

  10. ­Assessing the causes of 20th century wetting in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D. A.; Williams, P.; Seager, R.; Fiore, A. M.; Cook, B.; Mankin, J. S.; Singh, D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Rao, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    During the 20th century, a large area of the eastern United States (US) experienced increases in precipitation and reduced warming, with seasonal cooling of daytime temperatures. These trends are in stark contrast with observed drying and warming globally, particularly with those in the western US. While the reduced temperature trends, termed the eastern US `warming hole,' are well documented and have been linked to reduced insolation from aerosols, evaporative cooling from increased precipitation, and natural climate variability, there is little research evaluating the timing, spatial extent, and physical origins of the historical eastern US precipitation trends. Here we investigate: (1) hydroclimate trends and variability across the continental US for 1895-2016 for all seasons, (2) mechanistic links between wetting and cooling trends in the Southeast US, and (3) dynamical links between wetting trends and large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Our analyses of hydroclimatic trends indicate strong positive trends in fall precipitation in the Southeast and Northeast US, and positive trends in summer precipitation in the Northeast and Midwest US. The Southeast and Midwest wetting trends are coincident with negative trends in mean daily maximum temperatures (TMax), whereas the Northeast US wetting coincides with warming. Cross-wavelet analysis indicates low-frequency anti-phasing between summer precipitation and TMax, particularly in the Southeast US, but there is little coherence in the fall-season relationship. These results support a positive link between precipitation and evaporative cooling, as this mechanism is expected to be most focused in the boreal summer season. To investigate the shift to wetter conditions in the eastern US, we evaluate moisture transport across multiple reanalysis products, surface observations, and CMIP5 model runs. We find a step-shift toward enhanced southerly flow from the Gulf of Mexico into the Southeast and Midwest US that

  11. LAND USE CHANGES IN THE TRANS-BOUNDARY AMUR RIVER BASIN IN THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Victor Ermoshin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All distinctions in the economic and nature protection policy of the neighboring states are well reflected and shown within trans-boundary river basins. The parts of trans-boundary geosystem of one country can experience an essential negative influence from rash decisions in the field of nature use and nature protection policy of the neighboring state. The Amur River Basin covers the territories of Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Mongolia and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and occupies more than 2 million km2. The most intensive development of the basin territory has started since the middle of the 19th century. We compiled two maps of land use in the Amur River basin in the 1930–1940s and in the early 21st century. Results showed that, negative dynamics is marked for forest lands, meadows, wetlands and mountain tundra. The basic features in the change of land use within national parts of the basin in Russia, China and Mongolia are analyzed. The comparative analysis of land use peculiarities of the countries for the last 70 years has been done.

  12. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  13. Haunting the Metropole: Return Effects, Screen Memories, and Figures of Exile in 20th Century Filipino American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pangilinan, Mark Phillip Acutina

    2014-01-01

    In the works of Jessica Hagedorn, R. Zamora Linmark, and Joi Barrios, Martial Law under the Marcos Regime (1965 - 1986) is as much a recurring trope that works to maintain the mythos of American exceptionalism and discrete national border as it is a material period of Philippine history. In the novels and poetry of these authors, I map the interlocking processes by which late 20th century Filipino American literary objects alternately corroborate and challenge broadly conceived notions of Ame...

  14. Censum et iustitia. Libelli as a Mirror of Lucchese Social Transformations (9th-11th Century

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    Paolo Tomei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the mechanisms governing the political and social life of the Early Medieval Lucca, one of the most important cities of the Italian kingdom, using the numerous charters preserved in the archives of Lucca, and particularly the libelli. This type of charter is so widespread over the centuries from 9th to 11th that it strongly connote the political era marked in Lucca and Tuscany by the exceptional holding of the marquisal institutions.

  15. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20(th) Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalin, Albert I; Lowry, Deborah S

    2012-08-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908-1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20(th) century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument.

  16. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  17. THE RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE 18th CENTURY: BETWEEN THE RATIO OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ORTHODOX TRADITION

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    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the relationship between the rationalism, inherent in the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, and the Russian Orthodox traditon. The author raises the question whether it is true that in the Russian literature of the 18th century the Old Testament’s God (and, therefore, the Law prevails, as it was postulated by Y. Lotman and other researchers, or whether the Old Testament texts were seen by Russian writers through the perspective of New Testament’s Grace due to such dominant concepts of the Russian culture as sobornost, paskhalnost, and Christocentrism. Thus, in the Russian Orthodox tradition the Psalter does not represent the God of the Old Testament, rather it shows the Christianized understanding of the God in the New Testament. In the cultural unconscious mind of a Russian person, which had a strong influence on the individual creative work of our poets, the Psalter is an integral part of the very Orthodox Сhurch, the Orthodox divine service. When analyzing the versification of psalms by Russian poets of the 18th century, one should not ignore this situation. This article demonstrates the influence of the Orthodox tradition on the poetics of a fable as one of the most ancient genres. The author reconstructs the cultural context of the last decade of the 20th century and outlines new perspectives in the study of a transition period between the Russian Middle Ages and the early modern period.

  18. The Armory Chamber and Armed Forces of Russia in the Second Half of 17th - Early 18th Century

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    Orlenko Sergey P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the activities of the Armory chamber in the second half of 17th - beginning of 18th centuries – supplying the needs of the Russian armed forces. Political and military realities of the first half of the seventeenth century revealed the need for the modernization and transformation of the armed forces of Russia. Military reform required a massive amount of combat weapons and equipment made by Western European standard. The middle of the 17th century was the times of a search for an optimal algorithm which would provide the armed forces with weapons and equipment. The integration in this process of the court gunsmith and Armory was an effective solution. The content of the Inventory of the Armory Chamber in 1647 can be divided into two parts: 1 parade and ceremonial weapons and armor, designed for the sovereign and court 2 a huge number of combat weapons deposed in a different storages. The research is based on the complex of archival documents showing the role of the Armory chamber officials in organizing the purchase of combat weapons, its testing, preserving, repairing and transfer to the troops. The author also observed the changes in the activities of the institution in the last quarter of the century – when craftspeople of the court Armory workshop participated in the manufacturing of some special types of combat arms and service as a military gunsmith directly in troops and provincial armories.

  19. Compositores Latino-Americanos and New Paradigms of the 20th Century Classical Music

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    Eliana Monteiro da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the direction taken by some Latin American composers in light of the new tendencies aimed to challenge paradigms of traditional Western classical music during the 20th century. Latin American composers were influenced by these tendencies to a greater or lesser degree depending on the place and time they lived. They worked with different styles and techniques while attempting to maintain a dialogue with the production of other contemporary artists without losing their identity. Some of these practices are shown in this paper. The examples were taken from a set of 54 pieces for piano recorded by Beatriz Balzi, an Argentinian-Brazilian pianist, contained in her album entitled Compositores Latino-americanos [Latin American Composers]. Exemplifying 13 Latin American countries, this repertoire was analyzed by the authors in order to define the most common practices adopted and/or created by the composers chosen by Balzi. These practices were then catalogued into six topics and organized in chronological order of events and styles to which they relate. To describe the main tendencies mentioned in this paper the authors adopted Stefan Kostka's Materials and Techniques of Twentieth Century Music for his clear, objective writing. This work helped to contextualize Balzi's repertoire, comparing the Latin American compositional process to some of the most respected musicians of the Western world.

  20. 19th and early 20th century trade cards about Oceania as tools of information, education and propaganda for European colonial powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mückler, Hermann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-19th century on, trade cards became a significant medium not only for advertising consumer products, but also for promoting and distributing political messages such as the idea of colonization. With regard to the Pacific Islands, the article highlights the role of trade cards as a channel to create a specific image of the Pacific Islands as a region worthy to be colonized, missionized and exploited. A core symbol of this idea figured in the South Seas stereotype which was widely used to merge visions of unspoiled, peaceful island societies and dreams of a paradise on earth, with goals of establishing political control over the islands in the context of the race for colonies of the Western powers in the age of imperialism.

  1. [Considerations concerning medical knowledge inherited in Mexico from 19th century: the diabetes mellitus case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Alba-García, Javier Eduardo; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana Leticia; Milke-Najar, María Eugenia; Alonso-Reynoso, Carlos; García de Alba-Verduzco, Javier Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico, as in the entire Western world, during the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century, medical knowledge developed in a remarkable way and the case of diabetes mellitus was not the exception. This situation, which arose on the basis of the antique paradigm, and which in turn was overthrown by the positivism as the emergent paradigm (with its clinical and anatomical, as well as physiopathological and etiopathological viewpoints), was reflected during the 19th the century through its actors and the communications that opened the access of Mexican medicine to the modernity.

  2. The Absolutist Reformism: Projects of Political Reforms in Russia (2nd half of 18th century – 1st quarter of 19th century

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    Konstantin D. Bugrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of absolutist reformism – a form of political culture that chronologically spans from the mid-18th century to 19th century, and is determined by both communicative context (genre, pragmatic purpose, and the social and political status of its participants, the members of court-administrative elite. The author argues that the principal reformers, who belonged to the court and administrative elite of Russian Empire, were competing with each other, and the reform proposals allowed the competitors to simultaneously improve their own positions within the structure of state governance and enact the absolute power of the monarch to bring the reform forth. However, that meant that the monarch was appearing in the reform proposals as an omnipotent arbiter capable of creating the social and political institutions by his will. Consequently, these reform proposals – starting from the early projects of the 1750es – 1760es, and finishing with the intense production of reform plans under Alexander I – were aimed at increasing the power of monarch, assuring its benevolent character, and protecting it from the potential usurpation from the inside of the bureaucratic apparatus. This logic of argumentation, which places the monarch against the bureaucracy, was to flourish later on in Russian 19th century.

  3. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

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    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  4. An application of the variable-r method to subpopulation growth rates in a 19th century agricultural population

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    Corey Sparks

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the differential growth rates of the farming and non-farming segments of a rural Scottish community during the 19th and early 20th centuries using the variable-r method allowing for net migration. Using this method, I find that the farming population of Orkney, Scotland, showed less variability in their reproduction and growth rates than the non-farming population during a period of net population decline. I conclude by suggesting that the variable-r method can be used in general cases where the relative growth of subpopulations or subpopulation reproduction is of interest.

  5. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  6. Rising trends of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Baron, J H

    2010-10-01

    The risk of dying from gastric cancer appears to have increased among consecutive generations born during the 19th century. To follow the time trends of hospitalization for gastric cancer and test whether they confirm such increase. Inpatient records of the last two centuries from four hospitals in Scotland and three US hospitals were analysed. Proportional rates of hospitalization for gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were calculated during consecutive 5-year periods. The data from all seven cities revealed strikingly similar patterns. No hospital admissions for gastric cancer or peptic ulcer were recorded prior to 1800. Hospital admissions for gastric cancer increased in an exponential fashion throughout the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. In a majority of cities, the rise in hospitalization for gastric cancer preceded a similar rise in hospitalization for gastric ulcer. Hospitalization for these two latter diagnoses clearly preceded hospitalization for duodenal ulcer by 20-40 years. The occurrence of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer markedly increased during the 19th century. Improvements in hygiene may have resulted in the decline of infections by other gastrointestinal organisms that had previously kept concomitant infection by Helicobacter pylori suppressed. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article handles general developments and changes in book trade which took place in Estonia during the second half of the 19th century. The aim is to show the formation of bookshops trading with Estonian books and to analyse the activities of Estonian booksellers.The survey is based on the research literature and on the master thesis by Signe Jantson “Raamatukaubandus Eestis aastatel 1850–1917: raamatukauplused ja nende omanikud” (Book trade in Estonia 1850–1917: bookshops and their owners [9]. In this study great importance wasattached to the national and social origin of bookshop owners and their activities. Up to the middle of the 19th century the book production and dissemination in Estonia was in the hands of Baltic German entrepreneurs and depended on the political and economic developments not only in Russia but also in Germany. In the middle of the 19th century there were only 5 bookshops in Estonia located in bigger towns – Tallinn and Tartu. In 1870 the number of bookshops reached 13. The greater ascent can be noticed in the last decade of the period – 1870–1880 when 20 new bookshops were opened. In 1867 Heinrich Laakmann, a German origin publisher and the printing shop owner opened the first bookshop in Tartu to sell Estonian language books. The economic and political reforms as well as the national awakening movement favoured the engagement of Estonians in the sphere of book production and dissemination. Increasing publishing of Estonian language books enabled the development of trade. At the end of the national awakening period most of the bookshop owners were already of Estonian origin. Since 1870ies the number of Estonian bookshops started to grow and at the end of the 19th century they outnumbered German and Russian shops. In all over Europe book trade concentrated into the big cities (in the case of Estonia in Tallinn and Tartu, but bookshops were opened also in the rural area (small towns and villages

  8. Benjamin Banneker's 18th Century Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sethanne

    2018-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker is considered to be the first African-American man of science (1731-1806), a contempory of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. He was a self taught clock maker, mathematician, and astronomer. He owned land in Baltimore County near Ellicott City, Maryland where he farmed tobacco. He is especially known for his work on the Boundary Survey of our new Capital. Surveyors place boundary stones along the boundary of the nascent Capital. Banneker was part of the team who measured the latitutde and longitude for each stone. Using 18th century surveying techniques Banneker became part of the early history of Washington DC. He also published popular almanacs.

  9. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  11. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  12. Article Commentary: What was Glaucoma Called before the 20th Century?

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    Christopher T. Leffler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena , or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”.

  13. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Collapse of Independent State of Croatia on May 8th, 1945 to the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991

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    Vancik, H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of Croatian chemistry from the end of the Second World War to the establishment of the Republic of Croatia is outlined. Briefly discussed is the founding and development of the Chemistry Department of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and the Rugjer Bošković Institute. Also presented is the postwar structure and organization of the chemical-technological study at the Technical Faculty and later at the Faculty of Technology. The chemical lectures and research in chemistry at the Faculty of Nutrition and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Facultyof Agronomy and Faculty of Forestry are reviewed. This article follows logically our first article in this series entitled Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. I. From the Turn of the Century to May 8,th 1945 (Kem. Ind. 56 (2007 403–416.

  14. Globalization and Chinese Education in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    With China's growing significance in the global economy ever more evident, studies in recent years have highlighted multiple aspects of China's "Globalization" (or global connections) that predate the contemporary period. This article focuses on educational reform in the late Qing and early Republic as a way of illuminating a significant…

  15. Tuning the climate sensitivity of a global model to match 20th Century warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, T.; Roeckner, E.

    2015-12-01

    A climate models ability to reproduce observed historical warming is sometimes viewed as a measure of quality. Yet, for practical reasons historical warming cannot be considered a purely empirical result of the modelling efforts because the desired result is known in advance and so is a potential target of tuning. Here we explain how the latest edition of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) atmospheric model (ECHAM6.3) had its climate sensitivity systematically tuned to about 3 K; the MPI model to be used during CMIP6. This was deliberately done in order to improve the match to observed 20th Century warming over the previous model generation (MPI-ESM, ECHAM6.1) which warmed too much and had a sensitivity of 3.5 K. In the process we identified several controls on model cloud feedback that confirm recently proposed hypotheses concerning trade-wind cumulus and high-latitude mixed-phase clouds. We then evaluate the model fidelity with centennial global warming and discuss the relative importance of climate sensitivity, forcing and ocean heat uptake efficiency in determining the response as well as possible systematic biases. The activity of targeting historical warming during model development is polarizing the modeling community with 35 percent of modelers stating that 20th Century warming was rated very important to decisive, whereas 30 percent would not consider it at all. Likewise, opinions diverge as to which measures are legitimate means for improving the model match to observed warming. These results are from a survey conducted in conjunction with the first WCRP Workshop on Model Tuning in fall 2014 answered by 23 modelers. We argue that tuning or constructing models to match observed warming to some extent is practically unavoidable, and as such, in many cases might as well be done explicitly. For modeling groups that have the capability to tune both their aerosol forcing and climate sensitivity there is now a unique

  16. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  17. From the small palace to the tenement: the use of hydraulic tiles in São Paulo city’s buildings in the turn from 19th to 20th century

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    Solange de Aragão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the use of hydraulic tiles (a type of flooring resulted from the mixture of Portland cement with sand, water, marble and granite, and that features colorful drawings of geometric or floral shapes in some constructions built in the city of São Paulo at the turn of the 20th century – more specifically during the last decades of the 19th century and during the first decades of the 20th. We aim to demonstrate here how this building material, which was at first used on the floor of the richest houses of São Paulo city (such as some of the ancient small palaces as symbol of status, would spread out little by little, being found in other types of buildings, like some old houses of working class people, and even in one of the poorest types of housing in the city – the tenement; we also associate the different degrees of complexity on tiles design to the income level of their original owners – the more complex the design, the higher the price of each piece and therefore the richer the building’s owner. Also noteworthy is how this handmade material is still valued by architects and other professionals today due to the richness of its drawings, its colors and the diversity of possibilities when making a composition with it.

  18. Organization of training and educational process in the church school of Transbaikalia at the end of 19 th - early 20 th century

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    Volnina Natal'ia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The articledeals with the problemsof the educationalandupbringing process inparochial schoolsin Transbaikalia in the late XIX - earlyXXcenturies.This type ofschoolswasthe most widespread on the territory ofthe Transbikalregion.Parochial schoolsplayed an importantrole in the culturaldevelopment of the regionin thelate XIX - earlyXX centuries, they became an integralpart of thehistorical andcultural process.The history of their formation, analysis of their activitiesareof great scientifi c andpractical interestfor the history of culture, education, religious studies.The author concludesthat theeducational processinparochial schoolswas organized in the form of unifiededucational system, aimedat religiousand moral education ofcomprehensively developed personality. According to “Regulations on the parochial schools” (1884, the main purpose of-such a school is“to approvethe orthodox doctrineof the Christianfaith and morals among people, andto transfer the initialuseful knowledge”.Therefore,the most important componentof the educational systemof church-maintained schoolswas the subjects ofpurely religious education, but comprehensiveeducational componentof church-maintained schoolswas notso narrow too, as evidenced bythe schools’ schedule. In addition tothe Law of God, Church Slavonic languageandchurch musicstudents learnedreading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, calligraphy, Russianlanguage, drawing. In some schoolsvocational classesand societies of crafts, drawing, choral singing were created. Educational process wasbuildingon the basisof main requirementsof the educational programs, the content of whichwassaturatedand to some extend included detailedlesson plans. Eachsection of the programwas provided by the list ofmanuals andguidelines for teachers. The church-maintained schools were run by parish priest, trustees. Schoolswere often locatedin the homes ofclergymen, but many priestsnoted thatonly havingits own building, the

  19. Black and white body mass index values in developing nineteenth century Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about late 19th and early 20th century BMIs on the US Central Plains. Using data from the Nebraska state prison, this study demonstrates that the BMIs of dark complexioned blacks were greater than for fairer complexioned mulattos and whites. Although modern BMIs have increased, late 19th and early 20th century BMIs in Nebraska were in normal ranges; neither underweight nor obese individuals were common. Farmer BMIs were consistently greater than those of non-farmers, and farm labourer BMIs were greater than those of common labourers. The BMIs of individuals born in Plains states were greater than for other nativities, indicating that rural lifestyles were associated with better net current biological living conditions.

  20. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Ferraria, A.M.; Casimiro, T.M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO 2 . All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  1. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  2. The Development of the Humanistic Curriculum in Fifteenth-Century Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendler, Paul F.

    One of the major changes in educational practices occurred during the Italian Renaissance, when a system of pre-university education based on a thorough grounding in the Latin, and to a lesser extent, the Greek classics began. This change started in early 15th century northern Italy and lasted until well into the 20th century. Italian school…

  3. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  4. [Early human transplants: 60th anniversary of the first successful kidney transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Marc E

    2015-11-01

    First kidney transplant attempts begin with the 20th century: improving vascular sutures, understanding the phenomena of rejection or tolerance, then progress in HLA groups enable early success in the second half of the century. Definition of brain death, use of corticosteroids, radiotherapy and prime immunosuppressors promote the development of transplants. Discover of cyclosporine in the 1980s, and legislative developments augur a new era. Many advances are arising: use of stem cells from the donor, enhancement of Maastricht 3 donor or living donation. Finally organ transplantation remains an immense human adventure, but also scientific and ethic. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The area around Buckley in north Wales has been associated with the production of pottery since the 13th or 14th centuries. Nineteen different pottery sites have been identified, producing a wide range of ceramic wares in the six-hundred year period up to the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the wares produced were of high quality, on a par with Staffordshire wares of the same date. In the early 17th century, the technique of sgraffito decoration spread to north Devon and Somerset from mainland Europe. Buckley is the only known site to produce early sgraffito wares in northern Britain. This article aims to establish the date of the production and range of early sgraffito wares at Buckley and to examine the derivation of the designs and illustrations on the vessels. An illustrated catalogue has been produced and a comparative study made of sgraffito wares elsewhere to place Buckley into a national and international context. The results show that early sgraffito production at Brookhill pottery, Buckley, was between 1640-1720. Of the excavated pieces, 62% were made between 1640-1680, and the number of sherds by vessel number is also greater within that date range. All the vessels are dishes. The form and designs on the remainder of the sherds, dated up to 1720, are no different from those dated to 1640-1680, which suggests a continuous period of production. The most common themes on the pots – tulips, leaves, mottoes, animals and birds – relate very closely to the designs featured on other objects made in the same period such as textiles, wallpaper, furniture and manuscripts. Some of the designs were available in pattern books for particular groups of objects, for example needlework and pastry decoration. There is an interesting sub-group of pieces with animal and bird motifs and mottoes on the rims. It is possible that the influence for these came from a resurgence of interest in the medieval bestiary texts and

  6. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  7. A görög-albán kapcsolatok története a 20. században - Greek-Albanian Relations in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALOGH, Ádám

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Greek and the Albanian nations have been living close to each other approximately in the same territory for almost three thousand years. An ethnically mixed population had lived in the contact zone of the two nations (Epirus, or Chameria in Albanian without any territorial disputes. Neither religious, nor language differences caused any serious conflicts between the Greeks and the Albanians until the 19th century when nationalism changed the political situation completely. However, Pan-Slavism and the decline of the Ottoman Empire prompted the cooperation of the two nations which was based on the Pelasg ideology, namely the common origin of the Greeks and the Albanians. Epirus was divided as a consequence of the Balkan Wars, and from that point, the status of minorities has poisoned the relationship between Albania and Greece. The author of the present article gives an overview of the historical antecedents and discusses the Greek-Albanian relations in the 20th century.

  8. Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ronald; Joshi, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics

  9. An exploration of the word 'palliative' in the 19th century: searching the BMJ archives for clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Mark; Fielding, Helen; Mathews, Emma; Frazer, Ricky

    2013-03-01

    Palliative care went through a significant evolution in the 20th century, but the 19th century has been seen my some scholars as the real turning point toward the more modern concept of hospices and palliative care. To investigate some examples of earlier uses of the word 'palliative', a literature search was conducted within the earliest available BMJ archive sections, the years 1840 to 1842. This provided a glimpse into how the word was used in the medical literature in Victorian times, mid-nineteenth century. Search results brought up a number of case reports, and the word was employed to describe medicines ('use of palliatives') as well as passive, non-active treatment approaches, probably best described as a watch-and-wait strategy. Of note is that the first recorded use of the word in the archives is by a surgeon. Some doctors associated the word palliative with there not being any prospect for cure and only for the relief of symptoms and greater comfort of the patient. There were, however, early reflections on whether palliative treatments may in some cases increase the length of patients' lives.

  10. Constraining 20th Century Pacific Trade-Wind Variability Using Coral Mn/Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayani, H. R.; Thompson, D. M.; Carilli, J.; Ireland, T. J.; Cobb, K. M.; Atwood, A. R.; Grothe, P. R.; Miller, S. J.; Hitt, N. T.; O'Connor, G.

    2017-12-01

    Global mean surface temperatures during the 20th century are characterized by multidecadal periods of either accelerated or reduced rates of warming that cannot be explained by external forcings alone. Both observations and modeling studies suggest that the reduced rate of global surface warming during the early-2000s can be largely explained by decadal climate variability in the tropical Pacific, specifically changes in trade-wind strength [e.g. Meehl et al., 2016]. However, the relationship between Pacific trade-wind strength and global surface warming is poorly constrained due to the lack of instrumental wind observations prior to the 1970s. Surface corals are now routinely used to generate records of past sea-surface temperature (SST) change, and have dramatically improved our understanding of oceanic variability in the tropical Pacific. Yet, there are few direct measurements of the atmospheric response to this SST variability. Skeletal Mn/Ca ratios in corals from Tarawa Atoll (1.3˚N, 173˚E) have been shown to track El Niño-related westerly wind events on interannual timescales [Shen et al., 1992], and the strength of Pacific trade winds on decadal timescales [Thompson et al., 2015]. Here, we investigate the utility of this novel wind proxy at Kiritimati Atoll (Christmas Island; 2˚N, 157.5˚W), a site that is hydrographically similar to Tarawa. We use a series of seawater samples collected across the 2015/16 El Niño to characterize and quantify the relationship between westerly wind events and seawater Mn variability around Kiritimati. Anchored by this modern-day calibration, we present a new reconstruction of westerly winds across the late-20thcentury from Kiritimati Atoll. We also assess the reproducibility of coral Mn/Ca across cores collected at varying distances from the lagoon, which represents the primary source of seawater Mn to the reef at our site. Lastly, we discuss the strengths and limitations of this novel proxy, as well as the potential for

  11. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure t...

  12. In the laboratory of the Ghost-Baron: parapsychology in Germany in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2009-12-01

    During the early twentieth century the Munich-based psychiatrist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing constructed a parapsychological laboratory in his Karolinenplatz home. Furnished with a range of apparatus derived from the physical and behavioural sciences, the Baron's intention was to mimic both the outward form and disciplinary trajectory of contemporary experimental psychology, thereby legitimating the nascent field of parapsychology. Experimentation with mediums, those labile subjects who produced ectoplasm, materialisation and telekinesis, however, necessitated not only the inclusion of a range of spiritualist props, but the lackadaisical application of those checks and controls intended to prevent simulation and fraud. Thus Schrenck-Notzing's parapsychological laboratory with its stereoscopic cameras, galvanometers and medium cabinets was a strange coalescence of both the séance room and the lab, a hybrid space that was symbolic of the irresolvable epistemological and methodological problems at the heart of this aspiring science.

  13. The image of the butcher (13th-20th): In search of respectability between corporate pride and blood concealment.

    OpenAIRE

    Leteux , Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In most images that represent butchers in France since the Middle Ages, the animal’s blood and death are often eclipsed or softened, except for the realistic photographs of slaughterhouses in the 20th century. The will to conceal blood shows the butchers’ will to build an honourable image of themselves. This quest for respectability is obvious if you look at the ceremony clothes worn by butchers during civil and religious celebrations. In the 19th century, as the trade...

  14. SEARCH OF NATIONAL STYLE IN RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE IN XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Сергеевна Семичевская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the process of establishment and development the Russian revival style in Russian Empire’s architecture of the 19th - early 20th centuries. During this period Russian society experienced intense changes that included innovations in technology, engineering and the art of building. Taking its origin from “Russian-byzantine” style in orthodox church building, the Russian revival style developed as a mixture of tradition and innovation. This eclectic style was inspired by the romantic revival movement of Western Europe and based on the interest in the historic monuments of the nation, especially in examples of pre-Peterine Russian architecture of the 17th century. The historicism of Russian Revival style resonated with the popular nationalism and pan-Slavism of the period. New style became a manifestation of the Russian national idea depicting in stone the specialty and uniqueness of our history and culture. Today the increasing interest to national cultural heritage actualizes the investigations of this extraordinary period of creativity represented by works of such famous architects as V. Stasov, K. Thon, V. Sherwood, I. Ropet and others. The appealing to “Russian-byzantine” style in modern church construction shows the power and vitality of its creative impulse.

  15. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-02-25

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers.

  16. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  17. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Historical outline of the cancer in the speech of the Doctors of the atlantic coast. The first half of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-Merlano Rita; Tuñón-Pitalúa Martha; Simancas-Mendoza Estela

    2012-01-01

    The present article is result of an historical investigation of descriptive character whichfundamental aim is to show, since the review of the medical scientific publications at theend of the 20th century and the first half of the 20thcentury, the presence of the canceras a welfare and academic subject matter in the Facultad de Medicina of the Universidadde Cartagena in Colombia. Moreover, to identify to the teachers who contributed in thediffusion of the knowledge in those subject matters an...

  19. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as

  20. Figurative Potential of Russian Hydronymes in the Poetry of 19th20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azaliya R. Gizatullina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of Dnieper, Don, Volga and Neva hydronyms use as aesthetically significant elements of an artistic text. The urgency of the work is that the development of language and speech aesthetics issues are among the promising trends of linguistic studies. However, the aesthetic resources of most onomastic units, including toponyms, are still poorly studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the figurative possibilities of these hydronyms, functioning in the poetic works of Russian authors. The following methods were used as the main ones in the work: modeling, distributive, semantic-stylistic and quantitative analysis. The material for the study was represented by the poetic works of the 19-20th centuries, extracted from the "National Corpus of the Russian Language". The novelty of the work was made up of selected figurative paradigms, in which the considered hydronyms are used as the subject of comparison. During the performed study five most voluminous figurative paradigms were revealed, in which the position of the right member is replaced by lexical units related to the concepts of "being", "water", "substance", "tissue" and "terrestrial space". The criteria of intentional rapprochement of hydronyms with other subject lexemes were determined in order to develop the imagery of a poetic text. The findings can be used to study the onomastic space of Russian language, as well as for the further development of artistic speech theory.

  1. Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ronald [Department of Philosophy, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.anderson@bc.edu; Joshi, G.C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: joshi@physics.unimelb.edu.au

    2008-04-15

    The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics.

  2. PLAYS BY BORIS ZAYTSEV IN RUSSIAN DRAMA OF THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Sobolev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Th e beginning of the 20th century is the heyday of Russian dramatic art. Moscow and St.  Petersburg became a  meeting place for a  considerable amount of  artistic talent that allowed, based on  the preceding theatrical tradition,creating outstanding works of theatrical art. Th e distinguishing feature of the poetics of the new Russian drama was plot collision, that does not derive from external events but from intentionally occasional, impulsive emotional movements of  the characters. Th e article reviews dramas of Boris Zaytsev, written in the fi rst half of the 20th century. For the plays of that period is typical impressionism, associative composition, weakness of  the plot. Th eir content is characterized by tense psychologism, the dynamics of emotional experience and philosophizing. Key themes developed in dramas become the theme of redemption by love, search for spiritual wholeness and overcoming of existential confl ict the heroes are faced with

  3. The coarse painter and his position in 17th- and 18th-century Dutch decorative painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.; van Eikema Hommes, M.H.; Keune, K.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.

    2015-01-01

    In modern studies of Dutch art, the makers of decorative paintings in the 17th and 18th centuries are usually referred to as ‘decorative painters’ or ‘interior painters’, as if this was a profession in its own right. However, neither name existed at the time. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the

  4. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions. PMID:28003468

  5. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent.

  6. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  7. Gender Disturbance: Women and War in 20th Century United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Claire; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Esteves, Olivier; Magot, Céline; Meschia, Karen; Molinari, Véronique; Noakes, Lucy; Pham Dinh, Rose-May; Stirling, Martine; Vervaecke, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In most societies gender stereotyped roles attribute to men combative functions related to defence and attack, whilst women are engaged in the functions of motherhood and caring for the community. This was nowhere more the case than in the UK, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century: strict division of gender roles, in the middle and upper classes, allotting men to the public domain and women to the home, suited the demands of developing industrial production. However, between 1939...

  8. Lack of cool, not warm, extremes distinguishes late 20th Century climate in 979-year Tasmanian summer temperature reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. J.; Cook, E. R.; Evans, R.; Francey, R.; Buckley, B. M.; Palmer, J. G.; Peterson, M. J.; Baker, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Very few annually resolved millennial-length temperature reconstructions exist for the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present four 979-year reconstructions for southeastern Australia for the austral summer months of December-February. Two of the reconstructions are based on the Australian Water Availability Project dataset and two on the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature dataset. For each climate data set, one reconstruction is based solely on Lagarostrobos franklinii (restricted reconstructions) while the other is based on multiple Tasmanian conifer species (unrestricted reconstructions). Each reconstruction calibrates ~50-60% of the variance in the temperature datasets depending on the number of tree-ring records available for the reconstruction. We found little difference in the temporal variability of the reconstructions, although extremes are amplified in the restricted reconstructions relative to the unrestricted reconstructions. The reconstructions highlight the occurrence of numerous individual years, especially in the 15th-17th Centuries, for which temperatures were comparable with those of the late 20th Century. The 1950-1999 period, however, stands out as the warmest 50-year period on average for the past 979 years, with a sustained shift away from relatively low mean temperatures, the length of which is unique in the 979-year record. The reconstructions are strongly and positively related to temperatures across the southeast of the Australian continent, negatively related to temperatures in the north and northeast of the continent, and uncorrelated with temperatures in the west. The lack of a strong relationship with temperatures across the continent highlights the necessity of a sub-regional focus for Australasian temperature reconstructions.

  9. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ∼200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

  10. [History of pediatric anesthesia: from the beginnings to the end of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourdin, N

    2013-12-01

    The first intuitions and descriptions of anesthesia can be found in the antique civilizations. In the 19th century, the invention of anesthesia took place in Boston, and quickly spread to Europe. In France, regulations and structures were created before the beginning of the 20th century to organize this new profession, for children as well as for adults. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. FROM “PEASANT” TO “FARMER” IN GREEK MODERNITY: CONSTRUCTING FARMER IDENTITIES IN 19th - AND 20th - CENTURY GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOS KABERIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing the farmer in the 19th -and-20th political discourses in Greece pertains to a passage from the peasant to the farmer/farm worker and farmer/patriot, on to the professional farmer; this passage ought to be studied in terms of a specific model which is characterized by small-size family farm units. The above model was mainly promoted by bourgeois forces which led the modernization process in Greek society, and it was the model which the rival socialist movements consented to after their defeat in the Civil War. In the postwar period the acceleration of agricultural development, particularly following the country’s integration in the European Community, imposed a certain consensus in seeking a unitary model of agriculture, whereby the dominant role was assigned to the small farmer-landowner-entrepreneur. At the dawn of the new century, the European agricultural policy reforms entail new vicissitudes for the small landowner, who is now finding him/herself seeking new roles in order to be integrated into a post-industrial developmental model for the countryside. He/she is constituted, once more, a subject of new ontological ventures, such as, for instance, the much-discussed symbolisms of the “warden of the countryside”, and “protector of the environment” and/or the “national cultural heritage”.

  12. Trousseau: economic and design aspects from the second half of 20th century in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laktim, M. C.; Giacomin, A. M.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Santos, H. N.; Borelli, C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    The trousseau is notorious since antiquity and has been influenced by a series of modifications, reflected in the type of fabric, confection, design, fashion and market share. This study aimed to present economic and design aspects of the bedding, table and bath linen sector (also known as bed, bath and beyond) occurred from the second half of the 20th century to recently in Brazil. A bibliographic research was carried out from the scientific literature and magazines of the area, notably the “Revista Vogue Casa Brasil” (“Vogue House Brazil Magazine”). It is concluded that the classic patterns predominate: white color and cotton in bed, table and bath products, being embroidery the most outstanding style ornament. The maintenance of these standards by the Brazilian manufacturers is interesting to maintain sales in the domestic market, but a limitation for export products destined to publics with different values and aesthetic tastes and with greater supply of items with variety of surface designs.

  13. Heinz Werner: His Life, Ideas, and Contributions to Developmental Psychology in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation. Versatile in rigorous experimental methodologies, and in observational and phenomenological methodologies, Werner's approach to development stood in contrast to other approaches of development, both past and current. For Werner, development was a heuristic, a way of looking at processes in a variety of domains, including ontogeny, phylogeny, microgenesis, biology, developmental psychopathology, neuropsychology, and comparative psychology. Werner viewed development as proceeding from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration, but he also stressed that individuals can function at different developmental levels under different times and conditions. Werner's holistic, organismic, comparative, and contextual approach to development transcended interdisciplinary boundaries, allowing him to study the interrelatedness between thought, language, feeling, perception, and culture.

  14. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  15. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Early evaluation and optimization of management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening disease that was first described in the 18th century, but it took until the early 20th century until the term "spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage" was introduced by the English neurologist Sir Charles P. Symonds. Nowadays, the term spontaneous

  16. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is

  17. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  18. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19thEarly 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  19. Reading Societies and their Social Exclusivity: Dalmatia in the First Half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lakuš

    2009-04-01

    institutions established in the course of the 1840s did not limit their memberships by the social parameters. The only criterion seems to have been activity work for the benefit of the nation and its education. Yet, it may be concluded that what had happened in most of Central and Western Europe in the late 18th century, occurred in Dalmatia only at the very end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. However, without an actual account of the membership of these societies and their reading habits (still missing in Croatian historiography due to a lack of information on the members and their numbers, it is difficult to give a completely accurate picture of the degree to which reading became significant in the early 19th century. Along with information on the amount of money set aside for new reading material and the increase of the library inventories (which has not yet been found, this would certainly shed new light on the importance of books and reading had in the first half of the 19th century.   Keywords:Dalmatia; 19th century; reading; reading societies; ”reading revolution”; casino; gabinetto di lettura

  20. [Alessandro Laurinsich, the key player in the progress of paediatrics in the 20(th) century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F

    2007-02-01

    Alessandro Laurinsich was one of the greatest Italian paediatricians of the 20(th) century. He was born in Monfalcone (it was the province of Trieste, but now it belongs to Gorizia) on 29(th) May 1899. After having completed secondary school in Trieste, he obtained a medical degree with honours in 1922 at the University of Naples and entered the paediatric clinic run by Rocco Jemma. Laurinsich was in charge of teaching at the clinic of infectious diseases from 1937 to 1940. During this period he focused on the study of tuberculosis in children, the first applications of pnemoencephalography in Italy, but also studied different malignant tumors of the kidney, neurological and psychological disorders in children, as well as educational problems. In 1940 he had a teaching post in the peadiatric clinic at the University of Siena and remained until 1945 when he moved to Parma. He worked with illegitimate children as well as evacuees. During the 1945-46 academic year, Alessandro Laurinsich was called to direct the paediatric clinic of Parma University where he created a series of paediatric centres and took many initiatives in the area. In 1961 he was offered the paediatric teaching post at the University of Milan, but inexplicably refused it. He was Dean of the faculty of Medicine from 1956 to 1968. He passed away on 2(nd) February 1969 in Parma.

  1. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log

  2. Mapping the refugee’s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvaidis, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

  3. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Faye

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/ reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  4. Isotope Reanalysis for 20th century: Reproduction of isotopic time series in corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, an isotope-incorporated GCM simulation for AD1871 to AD2008 nudged toward the so-called "20th Century Reanalysis (20CR)" atmospheric fields is conducted. Beforehand the long-term integration, a method to downscale ensemble mean fields is proposed, since 20CR is a product of 56-member ensemble Kalman filtering data assimilation. The method applies a correction to one of the ensemble members in such a way that the seasonal mean is equal to that of the ensemble mean, and then the corrected member is inputted into the isotope-incorporated GCM (i.e., IsoGSM) with the global spectral nudging technique. Use of the method clearly improves the skill than the cases of using only a single member and of using the ensemble means; the skill becomes equivalent to when 3-6 members are directly used. By comparing with GNIP precipitation isotope database, it is confirmed that the 20C Isotope Reanalysis's performance for latter half of the 20th century is just comparable to the other latest studies. For more comparisons for older periods, proxy records including corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores are used. First for corals: the 20C Isotope Reanalysis successfully reproduced the δ18O in surface sea water recorded in the corals at many sites covering large parts of global tropical oceans. The comparison suggests that coral records represent past hydrologic balance information where interannual variability in precipitation is large. Secondly for tree-rings: δ18O of cellulose extracted from the annual rings of the long-lived Bristlecone Pine from White Mountain in Southern California is well reproduced by 20C Isotope Reanalysis. Similar good performance is obtained for Cambodia, too. However, the mechanisms driving the isotopic variations are different over California and Cambodia; for California, Hadley cell's expansion and consequent meridional shift of the submerging dry zone and changes in water vapor source is the dominant control, but in Cambodia

  5. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  6. Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Inês; Sousa Silva, Luís; Garcia, João Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) Inês Amorim CITCEM, Department of History, Political and International Studies, U. of Porto, Portugal. Luís Sousa Silva CITCEM, PhD Fellowship - FCT. João Carlos Garcia CIUHCT, Geography Department, U. of Porto, Portugal. The first major national project on Historical Climatology in Portugal, called "KLIMHIST: Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources (17th-19th centuries)", ended in September 2015, coordinated by Maria João Alcoforado. This project began in March 2012 and counted on an interdisciplinary team of researchers from four Portuguese institutions (Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, University of Porto, and University of Évora), from different fields of knowledge (Geography, History, Biology, Climatology and Meteorology). The team networked and collaborated with other international research groups on Climate Change and Historical Climatology, resulting in several publications. This project aimed to reconstruct thermal and rainfall patterns in Portugal between the 17th and 19th centuries, as well as identify the main hydrometeorological extremes that occurred over that period. The basic methodology consisted in combining information from different types of anthropogenic sources (descriptive and instrumental) and natural sources (tree rings and geothermal holes), so as to develop climate change models of the past. The data collected were stored in a digital database, which can be searched by source, date, location and type of event. This database, which will be made publically available soon, contains about 3500 weather/climate-related records, which have begun to be studied, processed and published. Following this seminal project, other initiatives have taken place in Portugal in the area of Historical Climatology, namely a Ph

  7. Maks Fabiani and urbanism in Vienna at the turn of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mihelič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with new concepts in urban planning at the turn of the 19th century. It represents three key persons, all architects and urban planners: Camillo Sitte, Otto Wagner and Maks Fabiani. All three left an indelible mark on urban planning in the Hapsburg Monarchy. In particular, it focuses on Maks Fabiani, whose work is closely related with the reconstruction of Ljubljana after the earthquake at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Even though Fabiani was one of the most distinguished and respected urban planners in Vienna, his contribution to the history and theory of urban planning was until now relatively overlooked and not stressed enough upon in the context of the urban history within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  8. Statures of 19th century Chinese males in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2007-01-01

    This study considers statures of 19th century male Chinese immigrant to the American West and assesses how their personal characteristics were related with stature variation. The subjects were 1423 male Chinese prisoners received between 1850 and 1920 in the Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington state prisons. The study compares 19th century Chinese inmate statures with other studies and employs stature regression models on time, socio-economic status and residence within the USA to account for biological variation. Between 1830 and 1870, Chinese youth male stature declined by over 2 cm. Between 1820 and 1860, Chinese adult male stature also declined by over 2 cm. Chinese stature did not vary with socio-economic status or residence. Nineteenth century Chinese emigrant statures were influenced more by political and economic events than socio-economic status, and male emigrants' biological conditions may have deteriorated throughout the 19th century.

  9. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (∼ 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

  10. Tartu as the Eastern Outpost of European Medicine in the First Half of the 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina Rein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of medicine in Tartu begins with medieval monastic Church, which were probably founded in the middle of the 13th century. The physician who arrived from Tallinn. Up to the beginning of the 17th century, the owners of the pharmacy were the only representatives of academic medicine in Tartu. Academic medical education in Tartu had its beginnings with the academic gymnasium founded in 1630 and the university founded in 1632. One of the three higher faculties at the University of Tartu at that time was the Faculty of Medicine. It was planned to have two professorships, although in reality only one professor of medicine was employed. The model of the University of Paris demanded that all “proper” universities must have a medical faculty. There were very few students studying at the Faculty of Medicine in Tartu in the 17th century. Only two names—David Cunitius and Olaus Oestenius—could be mentioned from among those who studied medicine at Academia Gustaviana and were later active as physicians. There were also students who studied in some other faculty in Tartu and However, the Swedish University of Tartu can be considered an important centre of early modern medical thought in the Eastern Europe. The article tries to give some idea about the medical situation in Tartu before the founding of the University of Tartu and during its early period of existence. The task is to investigate whether the academic medicine of the th century has introduced any changes into the history of medicine of Tartu.

  11. Männerbund: Theory and reality in Germany at the beginning of 20.Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar Aleksandar I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author is dealing with the connection between the renaissance of the unions of men (Männerbünde and rise of scientific interest in such forms of social life in the early 20th Century Germany. Although new forms of Männerbünde were not entirely adequate to the old forms, there is no doubt that all main features of militant Männerbünde were present at the beginning of Weimar republic: the cult of youth, ecstatic experiences, elitist conciseness, as well as tendency towards open and rough violence. Author‘s intention is to stress the importance of the role that Männerbünde played in the early phase of German revolution - especially in provoking civil war, spreading hatred towards modern (i.e. "Western" civilization, reviving old militant German traditions, fighting democracy and undermining the fragile foundations of Weimar republic.

  12. The laser microprobe dating drives K-Ar geochronology into a new milestone at the end of 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Zhiguo; Gao Yongjun

    2001-01-01

    K-Ar age dating method is facing a serious challenge to its application due to that both Ar loss and Ar excess are widespread found even though it has been undergoing 50 years. In the latest few years of the 20th century, studies on K-Ar geochronology have been pushing on a new step as a sign of method perfected and precision enhanced. High precision and high resolution 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating, can use in both micro-area and a single grain, extends dating limit into the historical realm. Applied range of K-Ar geochronology is getting bigger and bigger due to fine analytical techniques while solved geological problems are getting wider and wider

  13. Coral Records of 20th Century Central Tropical Pacific SST and Salinity: Signatures of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate changes in many regions of the world largely depend on quantifying anthropogenic trends in tropical Pacific climate against its rich background of interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. However, the strong natural climate variability combined with limited instrumental climate datasets have obscured potential anthropogenic climate signals in the region. Here, we present coral-based sea-surface temperature (SST) and salinity proxy records over the 20th century (1898-1998) from the central tropical Pacific - a region sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whose variability strongly impacts the global climate. The SST and salinity proxy records are reconstructed via coral Sr/Ca and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw), respectively. On interannual (2-7yr) timescales, the SST proxy record tracks both eastern- and central-Pacific flavors of ENSO variability (R=0.65 and R=0.67, respectively). Interannual-scale salinity variability in our coral record highlights profound differences in precipitation and ocean advections during the two flavors of ENSO. On decadal (8yr-lowpassed) timescales, the central tropical Pacific SST and salinity proxy records are controlled by different sets of dynamics linked to the leading climate modes of North Pacific climate variability. Decadal-scale central tropical Pacific SST is highly correlated to the recently discovered North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO; R=-0.85), reflecting strong dynamical links between the central Pacific warming mode and extratropical decadal climate variability. Whereas decadal-scale salinity variations in the central tropical Pacific are significantly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO; R=0.54), providing a better understanding on low-frequency salinity variability in the region. Having characterized natural climate variability in this region, the coral record shows a +0.5°C warming trend throughout the last century

  14. Professional veterinarians in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz, Spain during the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Suárez-Guzmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinarians had different names throughout the 19th century in Spain: veterinary surgeons, farriers, castrators, marshals, etc., and they were not professionally and socially recognized until the 20th century. In 1850 they were given sanitary and zootechnical responsibilities, although many of them continued practicing horse shodding. With the creation of veterinary schools, the foundations of modern veterinary medicine were established in Spain; this has a special importance for public health issues, especially regarding figures like deputy veterinary and meat inspector, as they tried to understand the impact of animal diseases on the population who consumed animal meat. Studies in the Historical Archives of Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz, Spain made it possible to analyze how veterinary professionals lived and worked there during the 19th century, how they settled in or left the city, how they treated epidemics in animals for human consumption, and how they suffered the economic difficulties of the period and the City. The destruction and loss of part of the Archives makes it difficult to obtain more data.

  15. Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/Ca variations from Northwest Atlantic coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/Ca ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/Ca is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/Ca). Algal Ba/Ca ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.

  16. VISI-VISI POSTMODERN DALAM KESUSASTRAAN JERMAN AWAL ABAD KE-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudy Syafrudin

    2016-08-01

      Postmodern Visions In German Literature In The Beginning Of 20th Century. The flow of postmodern thinking in all areas of life began to imerge in the second half of the 20th century However; the roots of these ideas already started to appear in the 19th century. Criticism towards modern thinking occured in various expressions of the society, such as art, architecture, and literature. In German literature, ideas that can be categorized as postmodern vision can be found in several literary works published in the early 20th century. This paper discusses the postmodern visions contained in the novel Siddhartha written by Hermann Hesse in 1919. The discussion in this paper focuses on the vision of postmodern spirituality. The spiritual visions appear in the description of the main character and intercharacter relationships, and background. Spirituality which is internal, essential, and constitutive, and spirituality that is organis comes to netralize the issue of modernism at the time the work was written. Keywords: postmodern, Siddhartha, spirituality

  17. Presence and its absences. The 17th century gallery picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Mikkel

    A discussion of how pictures made specifically for the gallery viewer in the 17th century produce certain kinds of presence in order to catch attention......A discussion of how pictures made specifically for the gallery viewer in the 17th century produce certain kinds of presence in order to catch attention...

  18. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-03-01

    This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pixeanalysis of some artefacts from the first Bulgarian capital pliska in 9th-11th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Galina; Penev, Ilia; Tzekova, Galina; Pantelica, Dan; Pantelica, Ana; Ionescu, Paul; Gugiu, Marius; Fluerasu, Daniela; Calinescu, Ionut C.; Costache, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been applied to determine major, minor and trace elements in 20 metallic and glass artefacts discovered in 2012 from the archaeological site Pliska, the old capital of Bulgaria in 9th-11th centuries. PIXE analysis was performed using a 3 MeV proton beam in vacuum at the 9 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem accelerator of IFIN-HH in Bucharest-Magurele, Romania. The GUPIX (Guelph PIXE) programme was employed to determine the quantities of around 30 elements (Z ≥ 14) in the investigated samples. The obtained results were compared with literature data for the medieval epoch in Bulgaria. Key words: PIXE, elemental content, artefacts, metal, glass, Pliska, Bulgaria

  20. Homily of 18th - early 19th century as source of science about vital values of a Russian cleric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альберт Иванович Есюков

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the value aspects of the gospels of the 18th century. It demonstrates the real importance of the heritage of the major Russian theologians for understanding of the basic value focus of the national culture. To achieve this, the article analyses the ideas of labour, wealth and poverty, «personal benefit» and «public welfare», the balance between theonomy and autonomy, «eternity» and everyday life.

  1. If All the World Were Chicago: American Education in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Marvin

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of issues as they relate to the city of Chicago during the late 19th and early 20th centuries are examined: race and the liberal agenda, the role of academics in public policy, the organization of teachers, and the ambiguities of progressive policy. (RM)

  2. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  3. Patterns of Hospitality: Aspects of Institutionalisation in 15th & 16th Centuries Nuremberg Healthcare

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    Fritz Dross

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with poor relief and health care provision by hospitals and hospital-like institutions in the imperial city of Nuremberg in 15th and 16th centuries southern Germany. It concentrates on the interplay and the functional connections of different types of charity. Thus, it is hoped to gain a more reliable base for analysing processes of differentiation in early modern health care provision than looking for the developments only in one prominent hospital alone. Special attention is paid to a charity caring for foreign lepers and thus prima facie contradicting the general trend of excluding lepers as well as foreigners from benevolence within the city's walls. In addition to analyse the hospitals' regulations and the patients' motiviation to get into a hospital this paper suggests to take a look for the ecomical and administrative conditions which force the inmates to leave hospitals and thus accelerating the development of temporarily care.

  4. Using atmospheric CO2 data to assess a simplified carbon-climate simulation for the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Rachel M.; Kowalczyk, Eva A.; Wangs, Ying-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The CSIRO biosphere model has been coupled to an atmosphere model and a simulation has been performed for the 20th century. Both biosphere and atmosphere are forced with global CO 2 concentration and the atmosphere is also forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The simulation follows the C4MIP Phase 1 protocol. We assess the model simulation using atmospheric CO 2 data. Mauna Loa growth rate is well simulated from 1980 but overestimated before that time. The interannual variations in growth rate are reasonably reproduced. Seasonal cycles are underestimated in northern mid-latitudes and are out of phase in the southern hemisphere. The north-south gradient of annual mean CO 2 is substantially overestimated due to a northern hemisphere net biosphere source and a southern tropical sink. Diurnal cycles at three northern hemisphere locations are larger than observed in many months, most likely due to larger respiration than observed

  5. A brief history of the changing occupations and demographics of coleopterists from the 18th through the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth century. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the early twentieth century. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth century, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth century list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth century. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth century were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth century, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth century list, like the eighteenth century list, contains no women. By the twentieth century, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the twentieth century list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time.

  6. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2016-11-01

    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Risk communication and the transformations in the meta narrative of the nuclear field in the 20th and 21st centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Tariana B.

    2015-01-01

    The meta narrative of the nuclear field was influenced in the beginning by the perspectives of economic prosperity and the possibility of diversifying to alternative sources of power. However, it has been transformed throughout the 20 th and the early 21 st centuries by the collective memory and micro narratives of the nuclear bombs during the II World War and the nuclear or radiologic incidents of Three Mile Island, in 1979, Chernobyl, 1986, Goiania, 1987, and Fukushima, 2011. The most recent occurrence made countries like France and Germany, which depend a great deal on nuclear power supply, to suspend their nuclear programs, although having to retake them afterwards due to the impossibility of getting new sources of energy in a short period of time. All that attracted negative attention to the field and severely impacted the perception of risk by the society. This paper observes the future of the meta narrative in such area will be based in the influence of other national and supranational risk communication narratives around security, pollution, environment and economy. The discussion is based on theories by researchers such as Andreas Huyssen, Carlo Ginzburg, Lorenzo Negri, Maurice Halbwachs, Max Weber, Pedro Fernando Bendassolli, Peter Sandman, Roland Barthes, Ulrick Beck and Walter Benjamin. (author)

  8. Possible role of the dimming/brightening in observed temperatures across Europe since the second half of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The surface solar radiation (SSR) is the fundamental source of energy in the climate system, and consequently the source of life on our planet, due to its central role in the surface energy balance. Therefore, a significant impact on temperatures is expected due to the widespread dimming/brightening phenomenon observed since the second half of the 20th century (Wild, 2009). Previous studies pointed out the effects of SSR trends in temperatures series over Europe (Makowski et al., 2009; Philipona et al., 2009), although the lack of long-term SSR series limits these results. This work describes an updated sunshine duration (SS) dataset compiled by the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) project based on around 300 daily time series over Europe covering the 1961-2010 period. The relationship between the SS and temperature series is analysed based on four temperature variables: maximum (TX), minimum (TN) and mean temperature (TG), as well as the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Regional and pan-European mean series of SS and temperatures are constructed. The analyses are performed on annual and seasonal scale, and focusing on the interannual and decadal agreement between the variables. The results show strong positive correlations on interannual scales between SS and temperatures over Europe, especially for the DTR and TX during the summer period and regions in Central Europe. Interestingly, the SS and temperatures series show a tendency towards higher correlations in the smoothed series, both for different regions and temperature variables. These results confirm the relationship between temperature and SS trends over Europe since the second half of the 20th century, which has been speculated to partially decrease (increase) temperatures during the dimming (brightening) period (Makowski et al., 2009; Wild, 2009). Further research is needed to confirm this cause-effect relationship currently found only using correlation analysis.

  9. Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter

  10. Images of the Other in the German Travel Accounts of the 16th and 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Bole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the image of the Russian in the selected German travel accounts of the 16th and 17th century, through the eyes of the West European well-educated legate seen as a savage, boorish Barbarian. The image of the Russian illustrates the importance of the relationship between the one’s own, civilized (here German and the other, often barbaric (here Russian cultural reality. Key words: Images of the Other / Travel Account / Herberstein, Olearius / Russia of the 16th and 17th Century.

  11. Bible translations into Italian (20th century

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    Ryszard Wróbel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing twentieth-century translations of the Bible into Italian we have to make a crucial distinction: there are different translations and different editions; the latter are more numerous, as the same translation may appear in different forms. For many of them it is difficult to determine to whom they are addressed: some of the features show a broad willingness to promote the content of the Bible, while others make them a tool only for a group of specialists. The article discusses the issue of the Bibles, which were printed in Italy in the twentieth century; there were 27. It deliberately does not include translations and elaborations less prevalent or partial studies for professionals. The information is presented in a tangible and transparent scheme, which facilitates their mutual compatibility. Each description contains the name or title of work, author’s name, place and date of publication, publisher’s name, names of translators, editors, source of translation, editing characteristics, and other observations.

  12. New Early Cycladic Figurine At Nea Styra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, M.

    The existence of an Early Bronze Age coastal site in the district of Nea Styra has been known since the end of the 19th century when three marble figurines of early Cycladic type had been found in the area. During the 20th century survey investigations conducted by Greek and foreign archaeologists offered new evidence which demonstrated the significance of the site during the Early and Middle Helladic periods. A new figurine of early Cycladic type, which recently came to light at Nea Styra due to the control of building permits by the 11th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, reaffirms the identification of the area as one of the three most important sites on Euboea during the Early Helladic II period. This paper focuses on a newly discovered figurine and its typological character. The new find is compared to the figurines that had been found in the 19th century at Nea Styra. We hope that the scheduled excavations on the private land plot where the new figurine was found will offer new data leading to a better understanding of the character of the Early Helladic settlement in this part of southern Euboea.

  13. Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a

  14. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  15. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  16. Lucha antivenérea en Antioquia entre finales del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX: una cuestión moral Anti-venereal fight in Antioquia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a moral question.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martínez Londoño

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca responder en qué sentido la lucha antivenérea en Antioquia a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, parte del dispositivo higienista, fue una lucha contra la inmoralidad. Para su construcción se realizó revisión bibliográfica de fuentes secundarias. El proyecto regional en su dimensión ética-cultural incluyó una apuesta modernizadora, a cargo de los médicos, ajustada a la moral puritana promovida por la Iglesia, para ello emprendieron una lucha antivenérea que consistió en ilustrar a las masas populares: se debía reservar la sexualidad a la familia y reprochar moralmente a la población donde aparecían dichas enfermedades. Así, el discurso médico-científico juzgó las prácticas de los sectores populares mientras los hombres de ciencia ingresaban al escenario social con poder por tener jerarquía moral. This article aims to define in what ways the anti-venereal fight in Antioquia, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which was part of the hygienic device, was really a fight against the immorality. In order to write it, secondary bibliographic sources were revised. In its ethical and cultural dimension, the regional project included a modernizing project. Doctors were in charge of this project which was adjusted to fit the puritan moral the Church promoted. They began a fight against sexual transmission diseases tah was bases upon illustration of communities: sexuality was to be reserved to family environments and populations where diseases appeared should be morally rejected. An so, medical scientific speech be judged low class populations` actions while men of science entered the social scenario with power from having moral hierarchy.

  17. North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation

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    I. Medhaug

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–1950s and the following colder period (1960s–1980s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

  18. [Is there a German history of evidence-based medicine? Methodic standards of therapeutic research in the early 20th century and Paul Martini's "Methodology of therapeutic investigation" (1932)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, S; Roelcke, V; Raspe, H

    2005-07-29

    The article addresses the history of evidence-based medicine in Germany. Its aim was to reconstruct the standard of clinical-therapeutic investigation in Germany at the beginning of the 20 (th) century. By a historical investigation of five important German general medical journals for the time between 1918 and 1932 an overview of the situation of clinical investigation is given. 268 clinical trails are identified, and are analysed in view of their methodological design. Heterogeneous results are found: While few examples of sophisticated methodology exist, the design of the majority of the studies is poor. A response to the situation described can be seen in Paul Martini's book "Methodology of Therapeutic Investigation", first published in 1932. Paul Martini's biography, his criticism of the situation of clinical-therapeutic investigation of his time, the major points of his methodology and the reception of the book in Germany and abroad are described.

  19. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-09-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  20. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  1. Parenthood characteristics in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, relevant for reproductive behavior

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    Kuburović Ankica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of insufficient childbearing is a demographic and social problem of contemporary society. In order to resolve the determination of low fertility in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, empirical research of the effects of reproductive behavior had been intensified. The purpose of this paper is to point out to the characteristics of parenthood relevant for bringing the decision on giving birth to children on the basis of this empirical material. A comparative approach, based on illuminating the compatibility of practice and models of responsible parenthood, enables the recognition of limiting factors of childbearing not only of those who are already parents but of young people who still do not have this experience. The complexity and responsibility of the parent role are stressed as part of the experience as well as the basic characteristic of the parenthood model. An adequate and efficient rehabilitation of the role of parenthood, as a necessity of the pro-natal policy must take into consideration the gender asymmetry of parenthood into consideration as well.

  2. 17th century – a turning point in the development of modern science

    OpenAIRE

    Hebrang Grgić, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    This paper explains the development of modern science and scientific comunication in the 17th century. Postulates of Modern Age philosophers René Descartes and Francis Bacon are interpreted. The need for scientific communication resulted in organizing scientific guilds as well as in the publishing of the first two scientific journals – Journal des Sçavans and Philosophical Transactions. The beginning of intellectual property protection in European countries and the early development of librar...

  3. “The Concert of Europe” In 20th Century British and American Historiography

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    Ekaterina V. Romanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a critical analysis of the interpretations of the Concert of Europe by British and American historians of the XXth century. The interest in the study of this phenomenon is rooted in its relation to the problems of the maintenance of international order and stability. It is not only academic, being partly determined by the fact that throughout the XX century first Britain and then the USA was at the top of the world hierarchy, and accordingly played a leading role in the construction and maintenance of the European order. Current international environment, the experience of the two World Wars of the XXth century determined the angle from which the phenomenon of the Concert of Europe was studied. Whereas in the second half of the 1910s - early 1920s historians pointed to the deficiencies of the international system of the preceding century (and in particular, the institution of the Concert of Europe, the students of the Vienna system working after the Second World War regarded the period of 1815-1914 as relatively stable, compared to the short interwar interlude. The Concert of Europe was named as one of the factors contributing to stability and peace. Certain logic can be discerned in the development of the historiography of the problem, which to some degree reflected the evolution of ideas about international relations management. At the same time, the differences in the interpretations of the Concert of Europe derive from the fact that this very concept in the XIXth century was not fixed and static. Great Powers' readiness to cooperation did not mean that there were no conflicts of interests. They struggled for leadership within the Concert and sought to impart to it their own interpretation.

  4. The height increments and BMI values of elite Central European children and youth in the second half of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, John

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal height measurements on children and youth are very rare prior to the 20th century, as are BMI values. Growth increments and BMI values were determined among elite (select) Habsburg children and youth in the late 19th century and compared with other extant historical and contemporary data. Archival data on height and weight were collected for approximately 3500 students attending Habsburg Military schools. The students were measured once a year for 4 years. Because of the minimum height requirement, truncated regression was used in order to estimate height trends, but standard procedures were used to determine height increments and BMI values. Heights increased at most 0.9-1.6 cm between the birth cohorts of circa 1870s and 1900. These future officers were about the same size as their counterparts in the USA and France, but smaller than those attending the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst, England, who were taller and probably the tallest in the world at the time. Height increments were markedly smaller than those experienced by German students in the 18th century after age 15. Central European BMI values were above those obtained in the USA in the 19th century but well below modern values. Although peak height velocity was experienced as early as ages 13 and 14, the height increments were very small compared even to other historical populations. The military academy selected mainly precocious applicants (with probably larger height increments at younger ages and smaller increments at older ages). BMI values in this sample were well below modern standards, but they were unexpectedly as high as those of contemporary US West Point cadets, a well nourished group. There were significant differences in the height of elites in Central Europe in the 19th century, pointing to substantial socio-economic inequality, but at least the elites were as well nourished as the US population.

  5. Ammunition production in the USSR in 20-30 years of 20th century and efficiency of the Red Army in the eve and during of the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Николаевич Балыш

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of Ammunition Industry in connection with action variation at the first part of 20th century is analyzed in the present paper. It is studied how the New Economic Policy (NEP influenced onto the development of ammunition industry and respective branches of heavy industry. For the first time several manufacturing peculiarities of ammunition main elements (by example of ammunition bodies in the eve of the Great Patriotic War are analyzed on the base of archival documents and the role of these peculiarities in fighting efficiency of the Soviet forces during the Second World War is studied.

  6. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846.

  7. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, V.; Porca, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Pastrana, M.P. [Centro de Conservacion y Restauracion de Bienes Culturales, Junta de Castilla y Leon, Simancas (Spain); Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Saiz-Jimenez, C., E-mail: saiz@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  8. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, V.; Porca, E.; Pastrana, M.P.; Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  9. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation.

    Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

  10. Forms and subannual variability of nitrogen and phosphorus loading to global river networks over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollón, José M.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. N and P transfer to surface freshwaters has amplified during the 20th century, which has led to widespread eutrophication problems. The contribution of different sources, natural and anthropogenic, to total N and P loading to river networks has recently been estimated yearly using the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment - Global Nutrient Model (IMAGE-GNM). However, eutrophic events generally result from a combination of physicochemical conditions governed by hydrological dynamics and the availability of specific nutrient forms that vary at subyearly timescales. In the present study, we define for each simulated nutrient source: i) its speciation, and ii) its subannual temporal pattern. Thereby, we simulate the monthly loads of different N (ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, and organic N) and P forms (dissolved and particulate inorganic P, and organic P) to global river networks over the whole 20th century at a half-degree spatial resolution. Results indicate that, together with an increase in the delivery of all nutrient forms to global rivers, the proportion of inorganic forms in total N and P inputs has risen from 30 to 43% and from 56 to 65%, respectively. The high loads originating from fertilized agricultural lands and the increasing proportion of sewage inputs have led to a greater proportion of DIN forms (ammonium and nitrate), that are usually more bioavailable. Soil loss from agricultural lands, which delivers large amounts of particle-bound inorganic P to surface freshwaters, has become the dominant P source, which is likely to lead to an increased accumulation of legacy P in slow flowing areas (e.g., lakes and reservoirs). While the TN:TP ratio of the loads has remained quite stable, the DIN:DIP molar ratio, which is likely to affect algal development the most, has increased from 18 to 27 globally. Human activities have also affected the

  11. Native American Games & European Religious Attitudes in the 16th & 17th Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, George

    Some aspects of the white-Indian relationship are reflected in the writings of 16th and 17th century observers of Indian pastimes. The Noble Savage image was apparently accepted by French colonists as a consequence of an intellectual disappointment in the contemporary societies. In an age of absolutism and religious intolerance, the picture of the…

  12. Quantitative assessment of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panecki Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.

  13. Review: SERUYA, Teresa; D´HULST, Lieven; ASSIS ROSA, Alexandra; LIN MONIZ, Maria. Translation in Anthologies and Collections (19th and 20th Centuries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Pappen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p351 Translation in Anthologies and Collections (19th and 20th Centuries, como outros livros que abordam a questão, é produto de um evento organizado em 2010. Ao todo, são 16 artigos no volume, agrupados em três tópicos: “Discursive practices and scholarly agency”; “National and international canonization processes”; e “Selection and censorship”, em uma obra inteiramente redigida em inglês (menos o texto do espanhol Sabio Pinilla e publicada pela John Benjamins, bom indicador do público ao qual se dirige. Uma operação acertada parece ser a que guia a escolha do título, que ao invés de tentar antecipar uma definição de “antologias traduzidas”, ou “antologias de literatura traduzida”, propõe o guarda-chuva mais abarcador da “tradução em antologias e coleções”. Ou seja, o interesse passa a ser localizar a mediação tradutiva nessas obras.

  14. Rainfall over the African continent from the 19th through the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.; Funk, Chris; Fink, Andreas H.

    2018-06-01

    Most of the African continent is semi-arid and hence prone to extreme variations in rainfall from year to year. The extreme droughts that have plagued the Sahel and eastern Africa are particularly well known. This article uses a markedly expanded and updated rainfall data set to examine rainfall variability in 13 sectors that cover most of the continent. Annual rainfall is presented for each sector; the March-to-May and October-November seasons are also examined for equatorial sectors. In each case, the article includes the longest and most comprehensive precipitation gauge series ever published. All time series cover at least a century and most cover roughly one and one-half centuries or more. Although towards the end of the 20th century there was a widespread trend towards more arid conditions, few significant trends are evident over the entire period of record. The largest were downward trends in the Sahel and western sectors of North Africa. In those regions, an abrupt reduction in rainfall occurred around 1968, but a synchronous change occurred many other parts of Africa. A recovery did occur in the Sahel, but to varying degrees across the east-west expanse of the region. Noteworthy is that the west-to-east rainfall gradient across the region appears to have weakened in recent decades. For the continent as a whole, another change began in the 1980s decade, with more arid conditions persisting at the continental scale until early in the twenty-first century. No other such period of dry conditions occurred within the roughly one and one-half centuries evaluated here. A notable change also occurred at the seasonal level. During the period 1980 to 1998 rainfall during March-to-May was well below the long-term mean throughout most of the area from 20° N to 35° S. At the same time rainfall was above the long-term mean in most of eastern sectors within this latitude span, indicating a change in the seasonality of rainfall of a large part of Africa.

  15. Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnéa Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar “Akakomugi,” was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The “Akakomugi” allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  16. Whooping Cough: A Brief History to the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the history of whooping cough (pertussis) from its first recorded mention in 1190 to the time when its microbial cause was identified. The historical records of the disease are complicated by the variation in the nomenclature employed and through using the same name for disorders with different symptoms. During the early-modern period it was considered to be a disease new to Europe-contagious, dangerous, and potentially epidemic. Believed to be confined to children, its significance was limited until the 18th century when its incidence increased markedly. This essay argues pertussis may have occurred in the late medieval period in individual, though not epidemical, cases.

  17. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relevance of 19th century continuous tone photomechanical printing techniques to digitally generated imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Stephen; Thirkell, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Collotype and Woodburytype are late 19th early 20th century continuous tone methods of reproducing photography in print, which do not have an underlying dot structure. The aesthetic and tactile qualities produced by these methods at their best, have never been surpassed. Woodburytype is the only photomechanical print process using a printing matrix and ink, that is capable of rendering true continuous tone; it also has the characteristic of rendering a photographic image by mapping a three-dimensional surface topography. Collotype"s absence of an underlying dot structure enables an image to be printed in as many colours as desired without creating any form of interference structure. Research at the Centre for Fine Print Research, UWE Bristol aims to recreate these processes for artists and photographers and assess their potential to create a digitally generated image printed in full colour and continuous tone that will not fade or deteriorate. Through this research the Centre seeks to provide a context in which the development of current four-colour CMYK printing may be viewed as an expedient rather than a logical route for the development of colour printing within the framework of digitally generated hard copy paper output.

  19. Studies on elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth collected from the early 17th century Portuguese shipwreck off Goa, West coast of India: Evidence of maritime trade between Goa, Portugal and African countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Godfrey, I.

    of excavated stoneware dated the wreck to the early 17th century AD. The Carbon 14 date of the ivory is 740 ± 130 yrs; with a calibrated age range of 740 to 560 yrs BP. The elephant tusks are highly degraded, discoloured and soft to the touch where...

  20. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century | Banwo | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. Adeyinko O Banwo. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 1, 1998: 129-146 ...

  1. Conceptual resistance in the disciplines of the mind: the Leipzig-Buenos Aires connection at the beginning of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Personal correspondence written by Prof. Felix Krueger from Argentina in 1906-1907 to his teacher and mentor Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig is situated in the historical context of the theoretical debates taking place at the University of Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 20th century. A critical survey of the transatlantic migration of psychological theories and their reception in Argentina raises the broader issues of the nature of the cultural and social roots of local interpretations induced by the circulation of theories across national fields of scientific inquiry. It is argued that national intellectual fields and the historicity of their categories of interpretation mediate in the foreign trade of theories.

  2. 17th Century Variola Virus Reveals the Recent History of Smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ana T; Perdomo, Maria F; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Marciniak, Stephanie; Poinar, Debi; Emery, Matthew V; Buchmann, Jan P; Duchêne, Sebastian; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Humphreys, Margaret; Golding, G Brian; Southon, John; Devault, Alison; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Sahl, Jason W; Dutour, Olivier; Hedman, Klaus; Sajantila, Antti; Smith, Geoffrey L; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-19

    Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and how it evolved in the context of increasingly widespread immunization, have proven controversial [4-9]. In particular, some molecular-clock-based studies have suggested that key events in VARV evolution only occurred during the last two centuries [4-6] and hence in apparent conflict with anecdotal historical reports, although it is difficult to distinguish smallpox from other pustular rashes by description alone. To address these issues, we captured, sequenced, and reconstructed a draft genome of an ancient strain of VARV, sampled from a Lithuanian child mummy dating between 1643 and 1665 and close to the time of several documented European epidemics [1, 2, 10]. When compared to vaccinia virus, this archival strain contained the same pattern of gene degradation as 20 th century VARVs, indicating that such loss of gene function had occurred before ca. 1650. Strikingly, the mummy sequence fell basal to all currently sequenced strains of VARV on phylogenetic trees. Molecular-clock analyses revealed a strong clock-like structure and that the timescale of smallpox evolution is more recent than often supposed, with the diversification of major viral lineages only occurring within the 18 th and 19 th centuries, concomitant with the development of modern vaccination. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczkowski Szymon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  4. Painting with gold: gilders in Northern Alentejo in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alexandra Rodrigues Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will demonstrate that the artistic context in the North Alentejo region, very dynamic in the 16th century and enriched by the presence of both national and international artists, evolved slowly during the late 17th and 18th centuries to a reality marked mainly by the activity of local painters, most of them unknown, which became increasingly versatile, working in oil painting, fresco and also gildings. To better characterize this reality, some examples will be presented of artists who worked in various techniques as proved by documentary evidences. The materials now presented were a relevant contribution for the project "Gilt Teller: an interdisciplinary multi-scale study of gilding techniques and materials in Portugal, 1500-1800".

  5. Applied geology in the research of Karol Bohdanowicz and his Polish graduates in Siberia at the turn of the 20th century (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej J. Wójcik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of applied geology (geology of deposits, engineering geology, hydrogeology at the turn of the 20th century in Siberia, was conducted by the graduates of the Institute of Mining led by Karol Bohdanowicz. The team included, among others, Stefan Czarnocki and Stanisław Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki. Their activity in Siberia became a proof that the so-called “Bohdanowicz’s school” existed and the results of their research have earned their place in the science and have become the basis for developing the mining of mineral resources.

  6. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  7. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  8. Time and Time Again; Determination of longitude at sea in the 17th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Determination of one's longitude at sea has perplexed sailors for many centuries. The significant uptake of world trade in the 17th and 18th Centuries rendered the increasingly urgent need to solve the 'longitude problem', an issue of strategic national importance. Historical accounts of these efforts often focus almost exclusively on John Harrison's role in 18th-Century Britain. This book starts instead from Galileo Galilei's late-16th-Century development of an accurate pendulum clock, which was first achieved in practice in the mid-17th-Century by Christiaan Huygens in the Dutch Republic. It is primarily based on collections of letters that have not been combined into a single volume before. Extensive introductory chapters on the history of map making, the establishment of the world's reference meridian at Greenwich Observatory, and the rise of the scientific enterprise provide the appropriate context for non-expert readers to fully engage with the book's main subject matter.

  9. Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Alicia; Valero, Antonio; Arauzo, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    A mineral deposit is a natural resource whose exergy can be calculated from a defined reference environment (RE). This RE can be compared to a thermodynamically dead planet, where all materials have reacted, dispersed and mixed. Like any substance, a mine is characterized by its quantity, chemical composition and concentration (ore grade). The mine's exergy measures the minimum (reversible) energy to extract and concentrate the materials from the RE to the conditions in the mine. And the mine's exergy replacement cost accounts for the actual exergy required to accomplish this, with available technologies. The exergy assessment of the natural resource wealth of the Earth defined from a RE is named as exergoecology. The aim of this paper is to prove the usefulness of these two indicators for assessing the degradation of mineral deposits over history. As an example, the exergy decrease of US copper mines due to copper extraction throughout the 20th century has been determined. The results indicate that the exergy decrease was 65.4 Mtoe, while the exergy replacement cost 889.9 Mtoe. During the past century, the US extracted the equivalent of 2.5 and 1.2 times of its current national exergy reserves and base reserve of copper, respectively

  10. [Asylum: the Huge Psychiatric Hospital in the 19th century U.S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazano, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale state psychiatric hospitals, referred to as "asylums," were built in the USA in the 19th century and generally have a bad reputation in Japan as institutions with an unpleasant environment for the patients. Asylums were not built for institutionalizing mental patients. The original meaning of the word asylum is a "retreat" or "sanctuary," and these institutions were originally built to act as sanctuaries for the protection of mental patients. The field of psychiatric medicine in western countries in the 19th century began to embrace the concept of "moral treatment" for mental patients, including no restraint of the patients and treating them in a more open environment. With this background, asylums were built according to the efforts of social activist Dorothea Dix with financial assistance from the Quakers. The psychiatrist Dr. Thomas Kirkbride had a large influence on asylum architecture, and believed that the hospital building and environment as well as location have healing effects on the patients, which he called the "therapeutic landscape". Kirkbridelater proposed an architectural plan that became the basis for subsequent mental hospital architecture, and many asylums were built according to this plan. As the architecture was considered part of the treatment, many leading architects and landscape architects at the time became involved in building asylums. In the later half of the 19th century, over 150 asylums were built across the USA. However, moral treatment fell out of favor toward the end of the 19th century, and the concept of therapeutic landscape was also neglected. The hospitals had many uncured patients, and caregivers became pessimistic about the efficacy of the treatments. Abuse and neglect of the patients were also common. The environment at the asylums deteriorated, which created the image of asylums that, we hold today. Many asylums have been demolished or abandoned. These early attempts at asylum failed due to insufficient

  11. Potential Predictability of the Sea-Surface Temperature Forced Equatorial East Africa Short Rains Interannual Variability in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Gizaw, G.; Kucharski, F.; Diro, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the predictability of the 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) forced East African short rains variability is analyzed using observational data and ensembles of long atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. To our knowledge, such an analysis for the whole 20th century using a series of AGCM ensemble simulations is carried out here for the first time. The physical mechanisms that govern the influence of SST on East African short rains in the model are also investigated. It is found that there is substantial skill in reproducing the East African short rains variability, given that the SSTs are known. Consistent with previous recent studies, it is found that the Indian Ocean and in particular the western pole of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) play a dominant role for the prediction skill, whereas SSTs outside the Indian Ocean play a minor role. The physical mechanism for the influence of the western Indian Ocean on East African rainfall in the model is consistent with previous findings and consists of a gill-type response to a warm (cold) anomaly that induces a westerly(easterly) low-level flow anomaly over equatorial Africa and leads to moisture flux convergence (divergence) over East Africa. On the other hand, a positive El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly leads to a spatially non-coherent reducing effect over parts of East Africa, but the relationship is not strong enough to provide any predictive skill in our model. The East African short rains prediction skill is also analyzed within a model-derived potential predictability framework and it is shown that the actual prediction skill is broadly consistent with the model potential prediction skill. Low-frequency variations of the prediction skill are mostly related to SSTs outside the Indian Ocean region and are likely due to an increased interference of ENSO with the Indian Ocean influence on East African short rains after the mid-1970s climate shift.

  12. The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tullia Catalan

    2011-01-01

    This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians...

  13. The role of atmospheric nuclear explosions on the stagnation of global warming in the mid 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiaki

    2011-04-01

    This study suggests that the cause of the stagnation in global warming in the mid 20th century was the atmospheric nuclear explosions detonated between 1945 and 1980. The estimated GST drop due to fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions based on the published simulation results by other researchers (a single column model and Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model) has served to explain the stagnation in global warming. Atmospheric nuclear explosions can be regarded as full-scale in situ tests for nuclear winter. The non-negligible amount of GST drop from the actual atmospheric explosions suggests that nuclear winter is not just a theory but has actually occurred, albeit on a small scale. The accuracy of the simulations of GST by IPCC would also be improved significantly by introducing the influence of fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions into their climate models; thus, global warming behavior could be more accurately predicted.

  14. Predicting U.S. food demand in the 20th century: a new look at system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Mukund; Cellier, Francois E.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

    1998-08-01

    The paper describes a new methodology for predicting the behavior of macroeconomic variables. The approach is based on System Dynamics and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. A four- layer pseudo-hierarchical model is proposed. The bottom layer makes predications about population dynamics, age distributions among the populace, as well as demographics. The second layer makes predications about the general state of the economy, including such variables as inflation and unemployment. The third layer makes predictions about the demand for certain goods or services, such as milk products, used cars, mobile telephones, or internet services. The fourth and top layer makes predictions about the supply of such goods and services, both in terms of their prices. Each layer can be influenced by control variables the values of which are only determined at higher levels. In this sense, the model is not strictly hierarchical. For example, the demand for goods at level three depends on the prices of these goods, which are only determined at level four. Yet, the prices are themselves influenced by the expected demand. The methodology is exemplified by means of a macroeconomic model that makes predictions about US food demand during the 20th century.

  15. Visual Showcase: An Illustrative Data Graphic in an 18th-19th Century Style

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Pierre; Bach, Benjamin; Dufournaud, Nicole; Huron, Samuel; Isenberg, Petra; Jansen, Yvonne; Perin, Charles; Spritzer, André; Vuillemot, Romain; Willett, Wesley; Isenberg, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract and exhibition piece; International audience; We exhibit an data graphic poster that emulates the style of historic hand-made visualizations of the 18th -19th century. Our visualization uses real data and employs style elements such as an emulation of ink lines, hatching and cross-hatching, appropriate typesetting, and unique style of computer-assisted facial drawings.

  16. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  17. Risk communication and the transformations in the meta narrative of the nuclear field in the 20{sup th} and 21{sup st} centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Tariana B., E-mail: tariana@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Comunicacoes e Artes. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Comunicacao

    2015-07-01

    The meta narrative of the nuclear field was influenced in the beginning by the perspectives of economic prosperity and the possibility of diversifying to alternative sources of power. However, it has been transformed throughout the 20{sup th} and the early 21{sup st} centuries by the collective memory and micro narratives of the nuclear bombs during the II World War and the nuclear or radiologic incidents of Three Mile Island, in 1979, Chernobyl, 1986, Goiania, 1987, and Fukushima, 2011. The most recent occurrence made countries like France and Germany, which depend a great deal on nuclear power supply, to suspend their nuclear programs, although having to retake them afterwards due to the impossibility of getting new sources of energy in a short period of time. All that attracted negative attention to the field and severely impacted the perception of risk by the society. This paper observes the future of the meta narrative in such area will be based in the influence of other national and supranational risk communication narratives around security, pollution, environment and economy. The discussion is based on theories by researchers such as Andreas Huyssen, Carlo Ginzburg, Lorenzo Negri, Maurice Halbwachs, Max Weber, Pedro Fernando Bendassolli, Peter Sandman, Roland Barthes, Ulrick Beck and Walter Benjamin. (author)

  18. The Queens' estates: fiscal properties and royal policy ( 9th -10th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lazzari (a cura di

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The special condition of the queens of italic Kingdom during the 9th and 10th centuries is exemplified by the title of consors regni and by the exceptionally copious dowers bestowed to them when compared to those entrusted to other European queens. Through the accurate reconstruction of these dowries, composed of royal fiscal assets, this anomaly is explained within the context of specific royal governmental strategies.

  19. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles.

  20. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Dabernat

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th-19(th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  1. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  2. How to sit on Two Sides of the Table? Swedish and Norwegian Unions’ Approaches to Representative Worker Participation during the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sass

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To this day, participation rights in Sweden have been reserved for union members both on the company level and on the board level, while all employees in companies, which are covered by respective agreements and laws, have voting rights in Norway. The aim of this article is twofold: First of all, it traces this difference back in time, using historical evidence from relevant periods of the 20th century to illuminate how approaches of Swedish and Norwegian unions to representative worker participation evolved. Through the method of comparison, not only similarities and differences between the two countries but also continuities within the two union movements become apparent. It becomes clear that unions of both countries were worried about “double loyalties”, but participation was more closely and deliberately linked with membership in Sweden. This in turn points to the second aim of the article, namely to identify possible reasons for this particular difference. Why were Swedish unions apparently more worried about “free riders”? While a final explanation will not be attempted here, one possible explaining factor is that private capital concentration was higher in Sweden and that Swedish employer organizations were more powerful. Swedish unions thus might have used membership requirements with regard to participation to avoid internal splits and to protect their comparatively high unity and density. This might have helped them to confront their, in comparison with Norway, better organized adversaries. The main aim of the article, however, is the first one, namely to give a synthetical, comparative account of Swedish and Norwegian unions’ approaches to representative worker participation during the 20th century, with a main focus on voting rights.

  3. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF PARISH CLERGY IN CIRCUMSTANCES OF GOVERNMENTALIZING OF ORTHODOX CHURCH IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE OF 19 TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Геннадиевна Зубанова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the experience of the Russian empire of the 19 th century in creating the conditions for social activities of the Russian Orthodox Church. The author describes such types of the Russian Orthodox Church activities aimed at helping those in need as helping the poor, coordinating the work of poor-houses, collecting donations, supporting parochial schools, poor houses, orphanages, hospitals, construction and reconstruction of churches. The author analyzes the role of the parochial patronages in the charity and social service activities, as well as in the moral and spiritual education of the population. The work of the well-known members of the clergy which forms a part of the Russian Orthodox Church and Russian history in general is given as an example of the above mentioned activities. The article extensively covers the responsibilities of parish priests, the difficulties which they come across, and highlights the reasons for the negative attitude towards the clergy in the late 19 th - early 20 th centuries. The author summarizes the historical lessons of the social activity of the Russian Orthodox Church. The article provides grounds for the opinion that the social activities of the Church should not interfere with its main religious functions, and the partnership of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church in the social projects should contribute to the improvement of people’s life and their moral and spiritual growth.

  4. Customs of Galati Port at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Common practices, whether recognized or not as a source of law, represented an area of great importance in economic practice and judicial bodies, especially in maritime and river transport, but also rail and air transport. The Civil Code of 1864 made some references to local custom, while the new Civil Code provisions establish that practices are sources of law. In this way was settled a particularly sensitive area, namely, the existence and applicability of common practices in special matters such as those on business, commercial transactions, financial and otherwise, being directly related to maritime and river transport. This study attempts to identify specific features of the common practices application in Galaţi port in the early twentieth century.

  5. Russian Monastery’s Accounting and Auditing in the 16th –17th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews a history of accounting and auditing practice in 16th-17th centuries at the most known monastery of Russia – Solovetsky. This monastery was established in the first half of 15th c. For the first time the earliest of the preserved accounting documents of the monastery - saint hegumen Philip’s “memory” of donations and expense to the cloister building (1547/48) is introduced. The evolution of accounting system and basic principles of the income-expenditure books’ composition ...

  6. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen

    2015-01-01

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate...

  7. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  8. 19th Century Roots to the American Vocational Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Gordon F.

    Historical developments in the 18th and 19th centuries influenced the course of European and American education and the separate path of vocational education. The first of these developments was the emergence of schools as primary instruments for the transmission of knowledge and culture, as a result of the phenomenal growth of the American states…

  9. Three points of a triangle: Italian, Latin and German oratorios and sepolcros in the early 18th century central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-188 ISSN 1212-0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Italian oratorio * 18th century * Bohemian Lands Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. Fiction as a Medium of Social Communication in 19th Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Pstrocki-Sehovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will present the extent to which literature could be viewed as means of social communication – i.e. informing and influencing society – in 19thcentury France, by analysing the appearance of three authors at different points:  the beginning, the middle and the end of the century. The first is the case of Balzac at the beginning of the 19th Century who becomes the most successful novelist of the century in France and who, in his prolific expression and rich vocabulary, portrays society from various angles in a huge opus of almost 100 works, 93 of them making his Comédie humaine. The second is the case of Gustave Flaubert whose famous novel Madame Bovary, which depicts a female character in a realist but also in a psychologically conscious manner, around the mid-19th century reaches French courts together with Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire and is exposed as being socially judged for its alleged immorality. The last is the political affair of Dreyfus and its defender Emile Zola, the father of naturalism. This case confirms the establishment of more intense relations between writer and politics and builds a solid way for a more conscious and everyday political engagement in the literary world from the end of the 19th century onwards. These three are the most important cases which illustrate how fiction functioned in relation to society, state and readership in 19th century France.

  11. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th-16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, O.; Caluwe, D.; Wouters, H.; Janssens, K.; Verhaeghe, F.; Pieters, M.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Facon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century

  12. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th-16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalm, O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: koen.janssens@ua.ac.be; Caluwe, D. [Department of Archaeology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 1, B-1040 Brussels (Belgium); Wouters, H. [Institute for the Archaeological Heritage of the Flemish Community, Doornveld Industrie Asse 3, nr. 11, bus 30, B-1731 Zellik (Belgium); Janssens, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Verhaeghe, F. [Department of Archaeology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 1, B-1040 Brussels (Belgium); Pieters, M. [Institute for the Archaeological Heritage of the Flemish Community, Doornveld Industrie Asse 3, nr. 11, bus 30, B-1731 Zellik (Belgium)

    2004-10-08

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Facon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century.

  13. The institutions forming the socioeconomic structure of Turkish private enterprises between the 13th and the 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özbirecikli

    2015-04-01

    principios éticos de la vida empresarial, en esencia, son los mismos. Dentro de este contexto, nos atrevemos a sugerir que las raíces del código ético de la vida empresarial turca se retrotraen en la historia a hace más de 800 años. Además, la similitud entre el funcionamiento presente y pasado indica que el origen de la formación de los aprendices para las empresas turcas tiene, igualmente, más de 800 años de historia.This study investigates three institutions forming the socioeconomic structure of Turkish private enterprises between the 13th and 19th Centuries: Akhism (13th-16th century, the Lonca System (the Guilds (16th-18th century, and the Gedik (Monopoly System (18th-20th century. The study particularly focuses on the social and economic rules, vocational training process, and organizational structure of the said institutions in order to discuss the effects of the socioeconomic structure of Turkish enterprises on economic and social development of private enterprises. The study also struggles to link between the relevant current applications and the applications in the past such as the social rules and vocational training. From economic point of view, both the statist structure of the State and the economic rules of the institutions herein caused private enterprises to remain small, and prevented them from having a competitive environment and having capital accumulation. As a result, enterprises could not benefit from new production techniques and the Turkish enterprise mentality fell behind modern developments On the other hand, although these three systems were completely abolished in the early 20th Century, it is seen that especially traces of the Akhism and Lonca systems have still been surviving. Both the most of rules of Akhism and some of the duties of the board of directors of Lonca such as keeping moral standards of production and trade remind us of professional code of ethics of today's modern business life. In other saying, there was code of

  14. An 18th Century Jesuit “Refutation of Metempsychosis” in Sanskrit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Colas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Punarjanmākṣepa, a work in Sanskrit from the 17th–18th century Jesuit milieu, aims at refuting the notion of reincarnation as believed by the Hindus in India. It discloses an interesting historical perspective of missionary comprehension and criticism of the belief. This paper briefly examines the context, purpose and the rhetorical strategies of the work and incidentally situates the subject of reincarnation in the 18th century European intellectual ideologies.

  15. Jacob Lorhard's ontology: A 17th century hypertext on the reality and temporality of the world of intelligibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øhrstrøm, P.; Schärfe, H.; Uckelman, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Jacob Lorhard published his ontology in 1606. In this work the term ontologia ‘ontology’ was used for the first time ever. In this paper, it is argued that Lorhard’s ontology provides a useful key to the understanding of the early 17th-century world view in Protestant Europe. Among other things,

  16. The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Catalan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians. The picture which emerges allows for the proposition of a new interpretative model, that of the "port-merchant." The second part of the article focuses on the second half of the nineteenth-century, when the model of Trieste as a tolerant city was challenged by the nationalist fights between Italians and Slovenians, and by the political antisemitism. The city lost its capacity to include the 'Other', and was rapidly transformed into a genuine breeding-ground of Italian racism.

  17. National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh VanHandel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available William Rothstein’s article “National metrical types in music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries” (2008 proposes a distinction between the metrical habits of 18th and early 19th century German music and those of Italian and French music of that period. Based on theoretical treatises and compositional practice, he outlines these national metrical types and discusses the characteristics of each type. This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine whether, and to what degree, Rothstein’s characterizations of national metrical types are present in 19th century French and German art song. Studying metrical habits in this genre may provide a lens into changing metrical conceptions of 19th century theorists and composers, as well as to the metrical habits and compositional style of individual 19th century French and German art song composers.

  18. From Subsistence to Commercial Hunting: Technical Shift in Cynegetic Practices Among Southern Cameroon Forest Dwellers During the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Dounias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforest dwellers, who are currently engaged in bushmeat trade, used to track game for their own subsistence. We investigate the technical evolution over the past century of bushmeat procurement by the Fang, a group of southern Cameroon forest dwellers who are renowned for their extensive cynegetic expertise. This investigation consists of a diachronic approach to assess Fang hunting and trapping technology by comparing firsthand data on bushmeat procurement collected in the early 1990s with detailed descriptions recorded in the early 1900s among the same populations by the German anthropologist Günter Tessmann. Other archive sources bequeathed by explorers in the twilight of the 19th century are also exploited. The comparison conveys a more dynamic view of hunting practices following the greater involvement of the Fang hunters in the bushmeat trade. Historical sources remind us that projectile weapons were initially destined for warfare and that trapping, mobilizing a vast panel of modalities, was the prominent means to catch game for domestic consumption. Net hunting and crossbow hunting, which used to be typical Fang activities, are now exclusively conducted by Pygmies; spear hunting with hounds has become anecdotal. If a large range of trap mechanisms is still functional, effort is now focused on snares, elicited by the banalization of twisted wire cable. The legacy of other remaining models is left to children who carry out a didactic form of garden trapping. The major detrimental change is the use of firearms, which were initially adopted as a warfare prestige attribute before becoming the backbone instrument of bushmeat depletion. Revisiting the past provides useful lessons for improving current hunting management, through the promotion of garden hunting and wildlife farming, and the revitalization of a collective and cultural art of hunting as an alternative to indiscriminate overhunting by neophyte and increasingly

  19. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th 16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalm, O.; Caluwé, D.; Wouters, H.; Janssens, K.; Verhaeghe, F.; Pieters, M.

    2004-10-01

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Façon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century.

  20. Leo Sgouros – Tyrant and Patriot. The Ruler of the Northeastern Peloponnese in the Early 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor N. Chkhaidze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leo Sgouros is one of the Byzantine magnates who ruled in the northeastern Peloponnese in the late 12thearly 13th centuries. The paper discusses the separatist activity of the Leo Sgouros which allowed him in a short time to create ephemeral ‘state’ in the South of Thessaly, Boeotia, Attica, Corinth and the Argolid. In order to give legitimacy to his authority Leo Sgouros married the daughter of the deposed Emperor Alexios III. But his way from separatism to Imperial idea was interrupted by the clash with the knights of the Latin Empire who have predetermined his defeat. Among the reasons for the defeat we can name the enmity with the clergy and nonpossibility of joining with other governors in fighting the crusaders. According to later legend, Leo Sgouros died, throwing himself with his horse from the cliff of the Acrocorinth fortress, besieged by the crusaders. According to another version, Leo Sgouros died under the walls of his native city Nauplius. The study examined the seal of the Leo Sgouros with a rare title of sebastohypertatos (higher sebastos, and similar seal which was reused by John Branas. Data analysis suggests that such a contradictory personality as Leo Sgouros’ may be characterized not only as an ambitious tyrant and the defender of Byzantine Hellenism. The Annex contains information about the seven of Sgouros names that have become known in recent years by virtue of the monuments of sphragistics.

  1. Ethnic Migrations in Vojvodina in the Second Half of the 20th Century

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    Nada Raduški

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Population migrations are a significant social phenomen which undoubtedly left a mark on the last decade of the 20th century. Political changes in the 90’s made migrations even more relevant from a demographic, economic and legal aspect, taking into consideration not only their scope, but also the new specific forms of migration movements that arose (voluntary and forced migrations, ethnocentric migrations, refugees, displaced persons, etc. along with their reasons and consequences. The violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and the subsequent creation of new ethnonational states and bouts of ethnic cleansing had as a consequence enormous population movements, as well as the creation of considerable number of refugees gravitating towards their mother countries. The large refugee wave which took refuge in Vojvodina exceeds, by its number, even the large colonization of this province after World War II. Apart from refugees, internally displaced persons of non-Albanian nationality, who immigrated from Kosovo and Metohija due to political reasons, are found in Vojvodina. Placed together, all this represents a significant problem, especially given the grave economic situation which the country is experiencing. Ethnocentric migrations (both voluntary and forced were the driving force behind the change of the country’s ethnic structure in terms of creating more nationally homogeneous regions, not only with regard to the national structure of the refugee-population, but also taking into account the emigration of other nationalities as well (Hungarians and Croats who migrated to their mother countries for political and economic reasons. Bearing in mind that Vojvodina is a multiethnic and multiconfessional region, the question of minorities and interethnic relations are unquestionably of great significance for the stability and demographic development of this region.

  2. The early colonial atlantic world: New insights on the African Diaspora from isotopic and ancient DNA analyses of a multiethnic 15th-17th century burial population from the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jonathan; Fregel, Rosa; Lightfoot, Emma; Morales, Jacob; Alamón, Martha; Guillén, José; Moreno, Marco; Rodríguez, Amelia

    2016-02-01

    The Canary Islands are considered one of the first places where Atlantic slave plantations with labourers of African origin were established, during the 15th century AD. In Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), a unique cemetery dated to the 15th and 17th centuries was discovered adjacent to an ancient sugar plantation with funerary practices that could be related to enslaved people. In this article, we investigate the origin and possible birthplace of each individual buried in this cemetery, as well as the identity and social status of these people. The sample consists of 14 individuals radiocarbon dated to the 15th and 17th centuries AD. We have employed several methods, including the analysis of ancient human DNA, stable isotopes, and skeletal markers of physical activity. 1) the funerary practices indicate a set of rituals not previously recorded in the Canary Islands; 2) genetic data show that some people buried in the cemetery could have North-African and sub-Saharan African lineages; 3) isotopic results suggest that some individuals were born outside Gran Canaria; and 4) markers of physical activity show a pattern of labour involving high levels of effort. This set of evidence, along with information from historical sources, suggests that Finca Clavijo was a cemetery for a multiethnic marginalized population that had being likely enslaved. Results also indicate that this population kept practicing non-Christian rituals well into the 17th century. We propose that this was possible because the location of the Canaries, far from mainland Spain and the control of the Spanish Crown, allowed the emergence of a new society with multicultural origins that was more tolerant to foreign rituals and syncretism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Provisions on illegitimate children in 19th century Montenegrin legislature

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    Kulauzov Maša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of illegitimate children according to 19th century Montenegrin legislature is examined in this paper. Provisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Montenegrin 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper.

  4. A Dutch Book of Hours from the 15th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.; Hansen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Private books of hours were the European bestseller of the 14th-16th centuries, especially among the aristocracy and urban élite. They typically began with a calendar, which listed saints’ days and other religious holidays, the most important of which were written in red – the so-called “red-lett...

  5. ON THE FRAGMENTARY PERCEPTION OF FRENCH LITERATURE IN THE 18 TH CENTURY RUSSIA AND SWEDEN

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    Mikhail Yu. Ljustrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the problem of the fragmentary perception of European literature in the 18 th Century Russia. The author compares the body of 17 th Century French poetical works translated into Russian and Swedish languages and published in the Russian and Swedish editions in the middle of the 18 th Century. Regardless of many predicted coincidences, Russian and Swedish lists are not identical. Some 17 th Century French poets unknown in Russia were, however, extremely popular in the 18 th Century Sweden. The essay focuses on the work of E. Pavillon, a member of the French Academy and of the General R. de Bussy-Rabutin. The “Våra fӧrsӧk” edition released in Sweden in the 1750s, included numerous translations of the poems by these two authors as well as discussions about the specificity of their poetic gifts. Pavillon’s works are in the center of discussion by Swedish authors. In G. F. Gyllenborg’s “Satire öfver Sprätthökar,” E. Pavillon is compared with J.-B. Rousseau, in H. Ch. Nordenflycht’s “De svenska poeter” he is identified with a famous Swedish poet J. Frese. Swedish poems mentioning R. de Bussy are absent in the edition of “Våra fӧrsӧk”, however the French poet was familiar to Swedish authors, and the interest in his works drew on his role in the 17 th Century Franko-Swedish history. Swedish and French participation in the Thirty Years War and a visit of Christine, Queen of Sweden, to Paris were well known to Swedish authors. The paper argues that the lack of interest in the work of these authors in Russia is conspicuous if compared with their Swedish perception. This may be explained by cultural and historical circumstances and also by the lack of demand for some of the “species” of the 17 th Century French poetry in the Russian poetry of the 18 th Century.

  6. Family and marital affairs in 19th century Serbia

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    Divac Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnology, as a science, continues to dedicate very much attention to the traditional culture of Serbian 19th century villages. In the past, material culture with all of the disappearing, relic artifacts no longer in use was in the focus of the science. A large amount of data was gathered, on the population origins, migrations, beliefs, rituals, social institutions such as cooperative associations and so on. In spite of these data, ethnology today has no detailed knowledge on life of Serbian 19th century villages especially there is a gap in our knowledge on family life in the first half of the 19th century. Family researches, such as ethnologists, sociologists and particularly those that deal with transformations, in their analyses use as a variable the so-called patriarchal-traditional model of the family. The model assumes: extended or cooperative family, stable and directed toward maintaining family ties and property; divorce is rare since the marriage itself is founded on duties toward family group and deference for a husband or father; the family is tied down to its land and family ties with male lineage are encouraged, and so on. In the first half of the 19th century however, Serbia was the battle-field of political turmoil, rebellion fights and huge social changes and general attitude of instability, migrations arguments, Turkish aggression, and frequent governmental changes, which brought about disturbance in patriarchal system, customs and regulations. Archival sources from the period reveal that courts were very busy dealing with cases of family and marital issues. It is evident that the regulations were put forward to enhance family solidity through marriage and family stability. Several available examples show "a dark side" of the Serbian family life of the period; today, it is not possible to establish the degree to which the family transformed itself from a patriarchal to a more liberated one.

  7. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

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    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  8. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

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    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  9. On the Wave of Spiritual Tension (Late 60s of the 20th Century -the Beginning of the 21th Century

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    B. FILIPPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Here the author continues to consider the cyclic-wave character of religious (spiritual life. During the last third of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, a global phenomenon emerged which can be described (by sociologists, researchers of religions and political scientists as «de-secularization», «religious revival» or «spiritual awakening». The author made an attempt to structure this phenomenon, to show stages of its development (the rise, the highest point and the recession as well as its main features and characteristics. As the beginning of the wave the author considers the mass exodus of hippies into sects in the late 60’s — early 70’s and the formation of the Catholic «base communities» in Latin America. The first signs of change in the attitudes of the young toward religion were perceived by Soviet sociologists in 1969. At an individual level, a new religious wave in the European countries (including the USSR began when people started to study and practice Eastern spiritual practices and ardently search for ways of spiritual perfection. This new religious revival was largely «interdenominational and non-institutional». This is evidenced by the rapid growth of new religious movements (NRM, especially the charismatic movement. The new religion was not connected with any religious education or with elementary theological literacy. This wave chronologically coincided with the emergence of the new worldwide information and communication medium — the Internet, which has become «the most organic medium channel for religious organizations». By the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century the religious tension has exhausted itself.

  10. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  11. THE A.P. CHEKHOV CHISHINAU RUSSIAN DRAMA THEATRE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY THROUGH THE PRISM OF CRITICISM

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    AXIONOVA NADEJDA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the A. Р. Chekhov Chishinau Russian Drama Theatre during the 1980s-2000s of the 20th century is closely connected with the names of the following directors: I. Petrovski, M. Abramov, J. Ţiţinovski, N. Betsis, V. Apostol, M. Polea-kov, A. Barannikov, I. Shats, V. Madan, P. Vutcarau and A. Vasilake. In their work these directors based themselves on various theatre schools: the Stanislavsky experimental school, the Brecht psychological theatre etc. All these activities were relected by such theatre experts and critics as L. Shorina, N. and V. Rojcovskii, O. Garusova etc., and characterized by journalists in mass-media. This article reveals the importance of the A. Р. Chekhov Russian Drama Theatre in the public life of Moldova.

  12. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    layering in Holocene peat bogs. He specifically linked the exceptionally wet Atlantic period to the prolonged precession minimum at 33,300 yr ago and further related basic stratigraphic alternations to precession induced climate change in general. Such a linkage was also proposed by Grove Karl Gilbert for cyclic alternations in the marine Cretaceous of North America. Extrapolating sedimentation rates, he arrived at an astronomical duration for part of the Cretaceous that was roughly as long as the final estimate of William Thomson for the age of the Earth. Assuming that orbital parameters directly affect sea level, Karl Mayer-Eymar and Blytt correlated the well known succession of Tertiary stages to precession and eccentricity, respectively. Remarkably, Blytt, like Croll before him, used very long-period cycles in eccentricity to establish and validate his tuning. Understandably these studies in the second half of the 19th century were largely deductive in nature and proved partly incorrect later. Nevertheless, this fascinating period marks a crucial phase in the development of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and climate, and in astronomical dating. It preceded the final inductive phase, which started with the recovery of deep-sea cores in 1947 and led to a spectacular revival of the astronomical theory, by a century. The first half of the 20th century can best be regarded as an intermediate phase, despite the significant progress made in both theoretical aspects and tuning.

  13. In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

    2013-09-02

    Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-administration of the people of Sakha in Yakutian region from 17th to 19th century in context of imperial statehood

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    Sargylana E. Nikitina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Russian civilization started to interact with the aboriginal traditional civilization in the Yakutian region by the 17th century, and by that time the potestas system was already formed within a common law in the Yakutian society. The clan aristocracy that received social privileges within the Russian statehood turned into an additional grass-roots level of government in the Yakutian district during the 17th-18th centuries.

  15. 20th Century British Colonialism in Cyprus through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmatyatli, Içim Özenli; Özkul, Ali Efdal

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The island of Cyprus, due to its strategic location, was under the influence of many conquerors throughout the centuries. Cultural traces of these captors have survived to the present day. This long, turbulent history has had a profound effect on the Cypriot educational system, with the most recent influence being the impact of…

  16. Methodological disputes about interpretation of neum notation in the 20th century

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    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in

  17. From the history of Săseni village of the Orhei County in 15th-18th centuries

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    Mihai Onilă

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a documentary research of the history of establishment of Săseni village in Orhei County, which was formed in the second stage of the population of Moldova, during 15th-18th centuries. According to the documents, the first owner of the village was mentioned in the charter of Stephen II of March 6, 1443 as “pan Ivan Boldur”, who sold this place to “God-loving pan Mihul the scribe”. In the 16th century the settlement came into the possession of State Treasurer Mire Călugărul, the progenitor of the family of Bulat and a ktitor of the Hîrjauca Monastery. This article also presents the place, the specifics of the village in the administrative apparatus of Ţara Moldovei, its demographics and socio-economic development.

  18. Greenland's 20th Century retreat illuminated - great spatial variability with strong connections to subglacial topography and fjord bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Boeckel, M. V.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Fenty, I. G.; Khan, S. A.; Mouginot, J.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss acceleration from the Greenland Ice Sheet is a dominant contributor in recent global sea-level rise, and has been for several decades. While ice sheet wide mass loss has recently been documented from the end of the Little Ice Age (c. 1900 CE) to the 1980s, the detailed changes during this period remain poorly known. In this study, we map glacier margins of Greenland's 310 largest outlet glaciers in order to get the full picture of the 20th Century mass loss. We take advantage of the rich history of aerial photography over Greenland and combine photos from archives in Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States. We supplement the historical aerial photographs with declassified US spy satellite imagery and recent satellite imagery to document glacial retreat and advance on a decadal scale. With recent advances in bathymetry mapping and subglacial topography mapping, we are able to show that spatial differences in retreat throughout the last 100 years are largely controlled by the underlying topography. Our study further highlights hotspots of past rapid mass loss in Greenland, and discusses implications for periods of regional stability and advance.

  19. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20 th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  20. Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music (Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music

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    Martina Stratilková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenology, as a philosophy of the twentieth century, is often confronted with music of the same period, which in contrast with the classical-romantic repertoire recedes from previously codified means for the organisation of musical structure (namely tonality and holds up the actual matter of the music – sound – for admiration. So musical experience dwells more at the sound and its direct appearance rather than rushing to the musical meanings intended through sensuous moments. From this aspect music in the first decades of the twentieth century complemented the other arts undergoing a similar development. Romantic art was replaced by artistic creativity relying on the objectivity of the musical material and not on the emotional quality. The paper considers circumstances under which some of the phenomenological approaches adopt a positive approach to the music of the twentieth century (those which stress the immediacy of the perceptive presence and some of which tend to reject it (those which apply the requirement of expressive intentionality.

  1. Ostaci srednjevjekovne utvrde Kaštel (Fenarlik u kartografskim izvorima XIX i XX vijeka : The remains of the fortress Kaštel (Fenarlik in cartographic sources of the 19th and 20th centuries

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    Jusuf Topoljak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utvrda Kaštel (Fenarlik, locirana između Novog Travnika i Bugojna, vjerovatno je podignuta u razdoblju srednjeg vijeka, a u kartografskim izvorima se prvi put javlja tek 1883. godine. Geodetski planovi i karte 19. i 20. vijeka vjerodostojno dokumentuju propadanje ostataka tog utvrđenja, isprva ga jasno prikazujući kao ruševinu, dok se naposljetku sačuvao samo toponim Kaštel. Ovim radom autori su pokušali identifikovati i objediniti sve relevantne kartografske izvore na kojima je predočen lokalitet Kaštela, uz analizu načina topografisanja ostataka srednjevjekovne utvrde. : The fortress Kaštel (Fenarlik, located between Novi Travnik and Bugojno, probably was built in the period of middle ages. Concerning cartographic sources, it first appeared in 1883. Geodetic plans and maps from the 19th and 20th century credibly documented deterioration of the fortress remains. At first, it clearly displayed a ruin, while ultimately toponym Kaštel was the only preserved. Authors of this paper tried to identify and consolidate all relevant cartographic sources that represent the place Kaštel, together with the analysis of topographing the medieval fortresses.

  2. Fencing the forest: early use of barrier fences in Sami reindeer husbandry

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    Gudrun Norstedt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier fences are generally not considered to have been used in Sami reindeer husbandry in Sweden before the early 20th century. As a rule, they are thought to have been introduced with the transition from intensive to extensive herding that is assumed to have taken place at this time. However, in this study, we show that barrier fences were widely used in Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Arjeplog Municipalities from the mid-18th century onwards, especially in the forests. Until the early 20th century, these fences were built of local materials, mainly whole trees and boulders, and we therefore call them whole-tree fences. Some of the barrier fences were used during periods of loose supervision by herders who otherwise practised intensive methods, while others were built in a context of extensive herding, large herds and conflicts over land use. Extensive reindeer herding was thus practised in the area much earlier than usually presumed, and it overlapped with intensive herding in both time and space.

  3. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19thearly 20th

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    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19thearly 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  4. [The end of a myth? The topic of charity care of indigent patients in deontologic texts especially in the 17th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeles, B

    1990-01-01

    Deontological writings of the 17th and early 18th century frequently stress an obligation of physicians to provide free medical care to the poor. This obligation can be traced to medical writings of antiquity and to medieval civil and canon law. Medical authors of early modern times restricted this duty in many respects: they emphasized that a physician was obliged to treat without remuneration only if the patient was in mortal danger, if nobody else could be found to pay for the treatment, if no other physicians were available, or if the patient himself had called on him for help. In this context, a debate on the definition of poverty played a decisive role. Physicians employed by towns or by the state were obliged to provide free treatment to a well defined group of poor inhabitants. Still, the general right of physicians to their fees was strongly emphasized too. On the basis of the deontological sources of the 17th and 18th century it is not possible to determine to what degree physicians of the time did in fact offer free medical care to the poor. A moral obligation to offer treatment to all persons who could not afford the physicians' fees, did not exist.

  5. Brief communication: Unabated wastage of the Juneau and Stikine icefields (southeast Alaska) in the early 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Larsen, Christopher; Durkin, William J.; Willis, Michael J.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2018-04-01

    The large Juneau and Stikine icefields (Alaska) lost mass rapidly in the second part of the 20th century. Laser altimetry, gravimetry and field measurements suggest continuing mass loss in the early 21st century. However, two recent studies based on time series of Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation models (DEMs) indicate a slowdown in mass loss after 2000. Here, the ASTER-based geodetic mass balances are recalculated carefully avoiding the use of the SRTM DEM because of the unknown penetration depth of the C-band radar signal. We find strongly negative mass balances from 2000 to 2016 (-0.68 ± 0.15 m w.e. a-1 for the Juneau Icefield and -0.83 ± 0.12 m w.e. a-1 for the Stikine Icefield), in agreement with laser altimetry, confirming that mass losses are continuing at unabated rates for both icefields. The SRTM DEM should be avoided or used very cautiously to estimate glacier volume change, especially in the North Hemisphere and over timescales of less than ˜ 20 years.

  6. World War, Then and Now: World War III in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    groups. Fascism is a form of radical authoritarianism that became prominent in early 20th-century Europe. Fascists sought to unify their nations or...strong leader, and an emphasis on elimina- tion of diversity and of civil and human rights and the rule of law. Fascism views political violence, war

  7. [Animal ethics in the 19th century and Swiss animal protection law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, I

    2018-01-01

    The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations. With the Swiss animal protection law, which came into force in 1981, most of the postulates could be realised. It is shown, how animal protection has developed since that time.

  8. HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goaster, Jacqueline; Bouree, Patrice; El Sissy, Franck N; Phuong Bui, Florence; Pokossy Epee, Johanna; Rollin, Paul; Tangy, Frédéric; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2016-01-01

    At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1. Data on these ancient medical observations regarding African cancer epidemics can today be referred to as the relationship between the unfortunate immune deficiency of herpes in Bantu populations and HIV-1 viral strains. For centuries, the Bantu populations dispersed in forests were living in close proximity to chimpanzees infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and were exposed to SIV contamination which became HIV-1 in human beings. Presently, these unexplained Bantu cancer epidemics can be linked to the viral partnership of HSV-1/HSV-2 to HIV-1 strains. The key issue is now to prevent HSV-1/HSV-2 diseases related to HIV-1. An anti-herpes treatment administered early during childhood to Bantu populations will offer a mean of preventing herpes diseases related to HIV-1 infection and hence avoid cancer epidemics.

  9. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  10. [Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized.

  11. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  12. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss autobiographical texts which focus on children and childhood in late 19th century Estonia. Childhood memories as well as other autobiographical material became popular in Estonia in the 1920s-1930s, when most of the studied works--the memoirs by Anna Haava, Mait Metsanurk, Jaan Lattik, Jaan Vahtra, Friedebert Tuglas, August Kitzberg and Marta Sillaots--were written. Some texts come from the 19th century (e.g. Lilli Suburg’s autobiographical works or early 20th century (e.g. manuscripts by Hans Leoke, and Johannes Kõrv. Childhood as described in these autobiographical texts covers a period of circa 1850-1900, and the majority of the authors come from the families of South-Estonian peasants or manorial servants. In addition to being written in Estonian and having the same theme, they were all also written by authors of fiction for children or by people who had close contact with children, such as schoolteachers. The article offers a novel approach in the Estonian context by presenting a typology of childhood stories and looking at childhood recollections as an important part of childhood studies. The researchers of childhood investigate how society understands and values children and childhood, what children’s everyday life is like, what possibilities there are for development and if there exists a specific children’s culture in society (such as clothing, food, language, leisure activities, or independent creative work. Childhood studies as a separate discipline does not exist in Estonia, although some important works have been published by educational scholars and art historians. The autobiographical texts under discussion show that in the late 19th century, the majority of Estonian children lived in the countryside in patriarchal families, and childhood was short because children had to help their parents with farmwork quite early, at the age of six. The boundary of childhood was around the age of 10-11, when

  13. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Physical Formation of Nicosia in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus from 13th to 15th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çilen ERÇİN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available City may be defined as the artificial creation of communal life in a natural environment, made up of complexes of buildings that cater to human needs. Urbanization then is a process that forms a chain of events over time. It may be said that city itself is a process, when viewed as whole. In this article, this formation process is examined taking Nicosia on the island of Cyprus as the example. The article was prompted by a number of factors, namely similarities between the walled city in the centre of Nicosia and its equivalent in European medieval settlements, the fact that Nicosia’s walled city has survived to the present relatively intact, and its lack of mention in available sources. The article examines Nicosia’s walled city in the context of findings on the medieval cities of Europe. The information on Nicosia city in the medieval period and 13th-15th centuries was taken from available sources, and interpreted by analyzing the physical structure of the settlement. In the introduction, an overall perspective is given of the historical period of Nicosia city. This is followed by a detailed description of the medieval period and 13th-15th centuries of the city. The article concludes with an evaluation and comments on the the physical formation of Nicosia city at the close of 15th century.

  15. Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyung KIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera

  16. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  17. Industrial energy from water-mills in the European economy, 5th to 18th Centuries: the limitations of power,

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The water-mill, though known in the Roman Empire from the second century BCE, did not come to enjoy any widespread use until the 4th or 5th centuries CE, and then chiefly in the West, which was then experiencing not only a rapid decline in the supply of slaves, but also widespread depopulation, and thus a severe scarcity of labour. For the West -- those regions that came to form Europe -- the water-mill then became by far the predominant ‘prime mover’: i.e., an apparatus that converts natural...

  18. Moulds and profiles of the building facades of St. Petersburg of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author underlines the importance of details (moulds and profiles for the architects of previous times. The architects of the 17th-19th centuries expressed their creative and filosofic position choosing some concrete example of the great theorists of the past when constructing moulds and orders. We should note that the negative attitude to Classicism theory reasoned in the lack of investigations of the architectural details of the buildings of the 18th-19th centuries, in particular the ones in Saint Petersburg. At the present moment the interest to studying the architectural theories and forms is reappearing both in Russia and in Europe. The article considers the architectural moulds of the eighteenth century buildings of St. Petersburg, examples of their construction in each stylistic period. The analysis shows the significant differences of the Russian moulds drawings from the recommendations of classical treatises of the Renaissance and educational counterparts. The author offers the basic analysis of the characteristic features and data elements for each stylistic period in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the 18th century, as well as a unique handwriting of the architects who worked in that era.

  19. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  20. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia, 16th to 17th Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Teixeira

    Full Text Available The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia. Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  1. Bottom lines: the influence of government funding on 20th century district nursing practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the impact of past government policy and legislation on the practice of district nursing in Australia. Nurses have historically been politically passive and have not engaged in the political processes of policy development. However, legislation can have profound impacts on the daily work of nurses as demonstrated in this paper. Historical analysis. The archival records of six district nursing services in Australia were analysed within the political, social and economic context of the 20th century, with particular focus on the 1950s and 1970s. Two pieces of Federal legislation passed in 1956 and 1973, respectively, had critical effects on the work of district nurses. Both resulted in significant expansion of district nursing in Australia; neither was formulated with input from district nursing services. However, together these acts shifted district nursing from being a voluntary, charity based activity to one that was greatly controlled by government. Greater government funding allowed district nursing to expand beyond the capacity possible when funding was locally based, but with government funding came other restrictions related to accountability processes and expectations regarding services provided, and these had profound effects on nursing practice, including excess workloads to the point of unsafe practice. Nurses need to engage with the political processes associated with government policy formulation and implementation if they are to avoid placing themselves and their clients in vulnerable situations as a result of government decisions.

  2. Legislation and judicial practice on illegitimate children in 19th century Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of non-marital children according to 19th century Serbian legislature and judicial practice is examined in this paper. Provisions and court decisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative and judicial attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper. Beside legalization, adoption was also the way to better position of illegitimate children in great extent, as adopted child was granted the status of a child born in lawful marriage. That is a reason why judicial practice concerning adoption, widespread in 19th century Serbia, is scrutinized and critically analyzed in the article.

  3. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  4. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  5. Honoring the Call to Duty: Veterans’ Disability Benefits in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    War or the 1899-1901 Philippine Insurrection.14 I.2 World War I By the early 20th century, the reconstituted Armed Forces of the United States...to the tardiness of the current system. Third, when medical evidence, possibly new, about the veteran from non-VA medical facilities is critical to

  6. Decadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on trends in surface solar radiation (SSR involves uncertainties due to the scarcity of long-term time series of SSR, especially with records before the second half of the 20th century. Here we study the trends of all-sky SSR from 1885 to 2010 in Switzerland, which have been estimated using a homogenous dataset of sunshine duration series. This variable is shown to be a useful proxy data of all-sky SSR, which can help to solve some of the current open issues in the dimming/brightening phenomenon. All-sky SSR has been fairly stable with little variations in the first half of the 20th century, unlike the second half of the 20th century that is characterized also in Switzerland by a dimming from the 1950s to the 1980s and a subsequent brightening. Cloud cover changes seem to explain the major part of the decadal variability observed in all-sky SSR, at least from 1885 to the 1970s; at this point, a discrepancy in the sign of the trend is visible in the all-sky SSR and cloud cover series from the 1970s to the present. Finally, an attempt to estimate SSR series for clear-sky conditions, based also on sunshine duration records since the 1930s, has been made for the first time. The mean clear-sky SSR series shows no relevant changes between the 1930s to the 1950s, then a decrease, smaller than the observed in the all-sky SSR, from the 1960s to 1970s, and ends with a strong increase from the 1980s up to the present. During the three decades from 1981 to 2010 the estimated clear-sky SSR trends reported in this study are in line with previous findings over Switzerland based on direct radiative flux measurements. Moreover, the signal of the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruption visible in the estimated clear-sky SSR records further demonstrates the potential to infer aerosol-induced radiation changes from sunshine duration observations.

  7. Cases of aphasia in a work on medicine from the 16th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Sanz, Augustin; Garcia-Avila, Juan Fernando; Vallejo, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the international community the role in the history of aphasiology of the eminent Renaissance figure, the Extremaduran Francisco Arceo de Fregenal. To present the subject, after a brief biography of this surgeon, we will trace the development of the concept of aphasia up to the 16th century. In some ancient cultures we find that this disorder was described as a "cerebral accident", to be presented subsequently in the Middle Ages as a divine punishment, only for the original idea to be taken up again during the Renaissance. This return to the concept of the early civilisations was not to lead to the formal classification of this condition however, until the studies of Broca and Wernicke were published in the 19th century. The contribution of Arceo lies in the description of clinical cases included in his book De Recta cvrandorum, which are presented in their original written version in Latin accompanied by a translation in English. The first of these cases tells of spontaneous recovery from the disease, and the second of the evolution of a patient with aphasia secondary to traumatic brain injury following surgery. Despite the great value of Arceo's report, the historical context and his professional attitude did not allow for a localisationist interpretation of the concept of aphasia.

  8. The use of tyranny in response to the Visigothic domination in the Tarraconensis (5th-6th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jiménez Sánchez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 5th century, the Hispano-Roman population watched in dismay as the Visigothic presence in Tarraconensis lands grew. Between the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century, two individuals —Burdunelus and Peter— illegally came into power and led revolts against the Visigothic domination. The source that reports on these events, the Pseudo Chronica Caesaraugustana, is an extremely problematic text which for many years was interpreted as the remains of the historiola written by bishop Maximus of Saragossa (c. 599-614/620, when, in fact, they are mere annotations made on the margins of previous chronicles. Moreover, the vicissitudes of the transmission of the manuscript led to the displacement of some of these annotations from their original position, which resulted in erroneous dates. In this paper we study the entries regarding the rebellions of Burdunelus and Peter, we propose a new chronology, we analyse the social origins of these leaders, and we examine the implications of these uprisings in the context of an imminent confrontation between Visigoths and Franks.

  9. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  10. On the mechanisms of late 20th century sea-surface temperature trends over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Kamenkovich, Igor; Hogg, Andrew M.; Peters, John M.

    2011-11-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), with its associated three-dimensional circulation, plays an important role in global climate. This study concentrates on surface signatures of recent climate change in the ACC region and on mechanisms that control this change. Examination of climate model simulations shows that they match the observed late 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) trends averaged over this region quite well, despite underestimating the observed surface-wind increases. Such wind increases, however, are expected to lead to significant cooling of the region, contradicting the observed SST trends. Motivated by recent theories of the ACC response to variable wind and radiative forcing, the authors used two idealized models to assess contributions of various dynamical processes to the SST evolution in the region. In particular, a high-resolution channel model of the ACC responds to increasing winds by net surface ACC warming due to enhanced mesoscale turbulence and associated heat transports in the mixed layer. These fluxes, modeled, in a highly idealized fashion, via increased lateral surface mixing in a coarse-resolution hybrid climate model, substantially offset zonally non-uniform surface cooling due to air-sea flux and Ekman-transport anomalies. These results suggest that the combination of these opposing effects must be accounted for when estimating climate response to any external forcing in the ACC region.

  11. Domenico Cirillo's collections. A recently rediscovered 18th-century Neapolitan herbarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Massimo; Castellano, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The herbarium of the 19th-century Neapolitan botanists Vincenzo and Francesco Briganti was acquired by Orazio Comes in 1892 for the Royal Higher School of Agriculture in Naples. Based on a study of the handwriting on their labels, Comes concluded that some of the dried specimens were the sole remains of the herbarium of Domenico Cirillo, the distinguished 18th-century Neapolitan botanist, entomologist and physician. The current arrangement of the specimens not uniform and it is clear that they underwent extensive handling and rearrangement Some of the exsiccata are preserved in two packets, fixed on sheets bearing a printed label that reads "Herbarium D. Cyrilli". In an additional label Gaetano Nicodemi's handwriting and not Cirillo's as stated by Comes was identified. Other specimens, many of them mounted in a different manner from those in the first group, are arranged in another three packets. Certain characteristics of the herbarium may be explained by the vicissitudes of its history, including a hasty salvage operation. A study of the collection was conducted, including an analysis of the handwritten labels and notes, leading to conclusions that shed light on the significance of the Cirillo collection within the historical and scientific context of 18th-century Naples.

  12. ‘The resonance of ruins and the question of history’: Southeast Asia in Ruins: Art and Empire in the Early 19th Century, by Sarah Tiffin, Singapore: NUS Press, 2016,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Blair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia in Ruins: Art and Empire in the Early 19th Century, by Sarah Tiffin, offers an overview of eighteenth-century interpretations of ruin as applied to the images of Java’s abandoned temples that illustrated Thomas Stamford Raffles’ The History of Java. These images were surrounded by discourse on aesthetics, politics, and religion that served to reinforce British beliefs in their own cultural superiority, and Tiffin argues that this was particularly the case in Raffles’ book, which served as a retrospective justification of his administration and reflected his personal feelings of loss. In this review, I argue that Southeast Asia in Ruins raises interesting questions about the nature of historical objectivity, visual literacy and cross-cultural ruin appreciation that have relevance beyond the period examined by the book.

  13. Dialetic Between Islamic Law and Adat Law in the Nusantara: A Reinterpretation of the Terengganu Inscription in the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayang Utriza Yakin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the inscription found in Terengganu, which originated in the early XIV Century. The inscription documents the laws implemented by the rulers of the time. These texts reveal that the laws of this time came from two sources: Islamic law and customary (adat law. In other words, the inscription indicates that legal pluralism was already in existence by the 14th Century. Adat law was the principle legal system in place, playing an important role in the archipelagic society at the time. However, there was an alternative system of Islamic law (e.g. stoning as a punishment for adultery in place for lower social classes. This finding suggests that Islamic law was already in existence in the early 14th century—much earlier than the prevailing understanding of the history of Islamic law suggests. The article contributes by providing the new transliteration from Jawi into Latin characters