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Sample records for earlier tumour stage

  1. FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

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    ... Updates FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... disease.” back to top New Paths for New Alzheimer’s Drugs FDA’s draft guidance aims to encourage research ...

  2. Glycemic management in ESRD and earlier stages of CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark E; Garg, Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    The management of hyperglycemia in patients with kidney failure is complex, and the goals and methods regarding glycemic control in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not clearly defined. Although aggressive glycemic control seems to be advantageous in early diabetic nephropathy, outcome data supporting tight glycemic control in patients with advanced CKD (including end-stage renal disease [ESRD]) are lacking. Challenges in the management of such patients include therapeutic inertia, monitoring difficulties, and the complexity of available treatments. In this article, we review the alterations in glucose homeostasis that occur in kidney failure, current views on the value of glycemic control and issues with its determination, and more recent approaches to monitor or measure glycemic control. Hypoglycemia and treatment options for patients with diabetes and ESRD or earlier stages of CKD also are addressed, discussing the insulin and noninsulin agents that currently are available, along with their indications and contraindications. The article provides information to help clinicians in decision making in order to provide individualized glycemic goals and appropriate therapy for patients with ESRD or earlier stages of CKD.

  3. Marijuana and Cannabinoids in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Joshua L; Wyatt, Christina M

    2017-08-12

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, and legal recreational and medicinal use has gained public acceptance during the last decade. Twenty-nine US states have established medical marijuana programs, 8 of which have also legalized recreational marijuana, and Canada is expected to legalize recreational marijuana in 2018. Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are chronic conditions with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients experience substantial symptom burden that is frequently undertreated due to adverse medication side effects. This article reviews the available evidence for the use of medical marijuana to manage chronic pain, nausea/vomiting, anorexia/cachexia, and pruritus, all of which are frequently reported by patients with advanced CKD or ESRD. Potential adverse health effects of medical and recreational marijuana use are also discussed. Regardless of personal, social, and political beliefs, marijuana use is becoming mainstream, and nephrologists should be aware of the potential impact on our patient population. Further research is warranted to investigate the renal endocannabinoid system, the impact of marijuana use on kidney disease outcomes, and the risks and benefits of medical marijuana use on symptoms of advanced CKD and ESRD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ENETS TNM Staging Predicts Prognosis in Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirajaskanthan, Rajaventhan; Ahmed, A.; Prachialias, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Heaton, N.; Jervis, N.; Quaglia, A.; Vivian, G.; Ramage, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are the most common type of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours. The incidence and prevalence of these tumours are on the rise. The aims of this study were to determine prognostic clinicopathological features and whether the ENETS TNM staging system predicts prognosis and also. Method. Clinical data was collected retrospectively from 138 patients with histologically proven small bowel NETs managed at King's College Hospital. Histology was reviewed and small bowels tumours, were staged according to the ENETS TNM staging system. Results. Median age was 65 years (range 29–87). The 5-year survival was 79.5% and the 10-year survival was 48.5%. Resection of the primary tumour was associated with improved survival (120 versus 56 months, P TNM staging significantly separated survival of stage 2 and stage 3 from stage 4 NETs. Conclusion. Small bowel primary tumour resection and not having carcinoid heart disease are prognostic factors. The ENETS TNM staging and grading system appears to be of prognostic relevance to small bowel NETs. PMID:23533809

  5. Tumour Calcification and Calciphylaxis in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although soft tissue and vascular calcifications are common in CKD and progress as an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality, tumour calcification and calciphylaxis are uncommon in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Here, we discuss a rare case of a patient with tumour calcification complicated with calciphylaxis developed septic shock from infection. Our patient is a 57-year-old man in his late stage of renal disease who presented with a huge mass at the right hip and necrotic cutaneous ulcers on the lower legs followed by local and systemic infection and death due to septic shock.

  6. Pulmonary tumours in the Netherlands : focus on temporal trends in histology and stage and on rare tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W. K.; Schaapveld, M.; Blaauwgeers, J. L. G.; Groen, H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent temporal trends in histology and stage of pulmonary tumours in the Netherlands were studied. The incidence of rare pulmonary tumours was determined. Methods: All tumours originating from the trachea, bronchus and lung recorded in the Netherlands Cancer Registry were included. Base

  7. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Graf, Norbert M. [University Hospital of the Saarland, Clinic for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Homburg (Germany); Grundy, Paul [University of Alberta, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care, and Northern Alberta Children' s Cancer Program, Edmonton (Canada); Godzinski, Jan [Mother and Child Institute, Department of Oncological Surgery for Children and Adolescents, Warsaw (Poland); Levitt, Gill A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children NHS Trust, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Jenkinson, Helen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Trust, Oncology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is the most common malignant renal tumour in children. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as the result of advances in anaesthetic and surgical management, irradiation and chemotherapy. Current therapies are based on trials and studies primarily conducted by large multi-institutional cooperatives including the Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SIOP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The primary goals are to treat patients according to well-defined risk groups in order to achieve the highest cure rates, to decrease the frequency and intensity of acute and late toxicity and to minimize the cost of therapy. The SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy, whereas the COG trials and studies start with primary surgery. This paper reviews prognostic factors and staging systems for Wilms tumour and its current treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery remains a crucial part of treatment for nephroblastoma, providing local primary tumour control and adequate staging and possibly controlling the metastatic spread and central vascular extension of the disease. Partial nephrectomy, when technically feasible, seems reasonable not only in those with bilateral disease but also in those with unilateral disease where the patient has urological disorders or syndromes predisposing to malignancy. Partial nephrectomy, however, is frequently not sufficient for an anaplastic variant of tumour. The late effects for Wilms tumour and its treatment are also reviewed. The treatment of Wilms tumour has been a success story, and currently in excess of 80% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour can look forward to long-term survival, with less than 20% experiencing serious morbidity at 20 years from diagnosis. The late complications are a consequence of the type and intensity of treatment required, which in turn reflects the nature and extent of the original tumour. Continual international trial

  8. TNM-O: ontology support for staging of malignant tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Martin; França, Fábio; Bronsert, Peter; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-11-14

    Objectives of this work are to (1) present an ontological framework for the TNM classification system, (2) exemplify this framework by an ontology for colon and rectum tumours, and (3) evaluate this ontology by assigning TNM classes to real world pathology data. The TNM ontology uses the Foundational Model of Anatomy for anatomical entities and BioTopLite 2 as a domain top-level ontology. General rules for the TNM classification system and the specific TNM classification for colorectal tumours were axiomatised in description logic. Case-based information was collected from tumour documentation practice in the Comprehensive Cancer Centre of a large university hospital. Based on the ontology, a module was developed that classifies pathology data. TNM was represented as an information artefact, which consists of single representational units. Corresponding to every representational unit, tumours and tumour aggregates were defined. Tumour aggregates consist of the primary tumour and, if existing, of infiltrated regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. TNM codes depend on the location and certain qualities of the primary tumour (T), the infiltrated regional lymph nodes (N) and the existence of distant metastases (M). Tumour data from clinical and pathological documentation were successfully classified with the ontology. A first version of the TNM Ontology represents the TNM system for the description of the anatomical extent of malignant tumours. The present work demonstrates its representational power and completeness as well as its applicability for classification of instance data.

  9. Bladder tumour staging: comparison of diffusion- and T{sub 2}-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Assmy, Ahmed [Mansoura University, Department of Urology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt); Mansoura University, Department of Radiology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt); Abou-El-Ghar, Mohamed E.; Refaie, Huda F.; El-Diasty, Tarek [Mansoura University, Department of Radiology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt); Mosbah, Ahmed; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.; Hekal, Ihab A.; Ibrahiem, El Housseiny [Mansoura University, Department of Urology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in detection and staging of urinary bladder tumour and to compare DW MRI with the T{sub 2}-weighted technique. One hundred and six patients with bladder tumour were prospectively included in our study. All patients were evaluated with MR imaging. We started with axial T{sub 2}-weighted high resolution MR of the urinary bladder, then DW MRI. Two radiologists independently interpreted the MR images, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The accuracy of DW MRI in staging of bladder tumour was evaluated using the final histopathological findings. In DW imaging (DWI) staging accuracy was 63.6% and 69.6% in differentiating superficial from invasive tumours and organ-confined from non-organ-confined tumours, respectively. On a stage by a stage basis, DWI accuracy was 63.6% (21/33), 75.7% (25/33), 93.7% (30/32) and 87.5% (7/8) for stages T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. In the T{sub 2}-weighted technique, the overall staging accuracy was only 39.6% and accuracy for differentiating superficial from invasive tumours and organ-confined from non-organ-confined tumours was 6.1% and 15.1%, respectively. DW is superior to T{sub 2}-weighted MRI in staging of organ-confined tumours ({<=}T2) and both techniques are comparable in the evaluation of higher-stage tumours. (orig.)

  10. Two-stage laparoscopic resection of colon cancer and metastatic liver tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Iwashita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the case of 70-year-old woman in whom colon cancer and a synchronous metastatic liver tumour were successfully resected laparoscopically. The tumours were treated in two stages. Both post-operative courses were uneventful, and there has been no recurrence during the 8 months since the second procedure.

  11. Two-stage laparoscopic resection of colon cancer and metastatic liver tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashita Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the case of 70-year-old woman in whom colon cancer and a synchronous metastatic liver tumour were successfully resected laparoscopically. The tumours were treated in two stages. Both postoperative courses were uneventful, and there has been no recurrence during the 8 months since the second procedure.

  12. Staging of Klatskin tumours (hilar cholangiocarcinomas): comparison of MR cholangiography, MR imaging, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.

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    Vogl, Thomas J; Schwarz, Wolfram O; Heller, Matthias; Herzog, Christopher; Zangos, Stephan; Hintze, Rainer E; Neuhaus, Peter; Hammerstingl, Renate M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare prospectively magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in the diagnosis and staging of Klatskin tumours of the biliary tree (hilar cholangiocarcinomas). Forty-six patients with suspected Klatskin tumours of the biliary tract underwent MRI and heavily T2-weighted, non-breathhold, respiratory-triggered fast spin-echo MRC. Forty-two patients underwent ERC within 24 h; in four patients, ERC was not feasible, and percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography (PTC) was carried out instead. Two independent investigators evaluated imaging results for the presence of tumour, bile duct dilatation, and stenosis. Clinical and histopathological correlation revealed Klatskin tumours in 33 patients. MRI revealed a slightly hyperintense signal of infiltrated bile ducts in T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. The malignant lesion was regularly visualized as a hypointense area in T1-weighted gradient-echo sequences with substantial contrast enhancement along the involved bile duct walls. MRC revealed the location and extension of the tumour in 31 of 33 cases correctly (sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%, diagnostic accuracy 95%). In 27 of 31 cases, ERC enabled accurate staging and diagnosis of Klatskin tumours with a sensitivity of 87%. ERC and PTC combined yielded a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 97%. Tumours were grouped according to the Bismuth classification, with MRC allowing correct identification of type I tumour in seven patients, type II tumour in four patients, type III tumour in 12 patients, and type IV tumour in ten patients. MRC provided superior visualization of completely obstructed peripheral systems. MRC in combination with MRI is a reliable non-invasive diagnostic method for the pre-therapeutic staging of Klatskin tumours.

  13. Staging of Klatskin tumours (hilar cholangiocarcinomas): comparison of MR cholangiography, MR imaging, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schwarz, Wolfram O.; Heller, Matthias; Herzog, Christopher; Zangos, Stephan; Hammerstingl, Renate M. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hintze, Rainer E. [Humboldt University of Berlin, Department of Gastroenterology, Berlin (Germany); Neuhaus, Peter [Humboldt University of Berlin, Department of Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of the study was to compare prospectively magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in the diagnosis and staging of Klatskin tumours of the biliary tree (hilar cholangiocarcinomas). Forty-six patients with suspected Klatskin tumours of the biliary tract underwent MRI and heavily T2-weighted, non-breathhold, respiratory-triggered fast spin-echo MRC. Forty-two patients underwent ERC within 24 h; in four patients, ERC was not feasible, and percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography (PTC) was carried out instead. Two independent investigators evaluated imaging results for the presence of tumour, bile duct dilatation, and stenosis. Clinical and histopathological correlation revealed Klatskin tumours in 33 patients. MRI revealed a slightly hyperintense signal of infiltrated bile ducts in T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. The malignant lesion was regularly visualized as a hypointense area in T1-weighted gradient-echo sequences with substantial contrast enhancement along the involved bile duct walls. MRC revealed the location and extension of the tumour in 31 of 33 cases correctly (sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%, diagnostic accuracy 95%). In 27 of 31 cases, ERC enabled accurate staging and diagnosis of Klatskin tumours with a sensitivity of 87%. ERC and PTC combined yielded a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 97%. Tumours were grouped according to the Bismuth classification, with MRC allowing correct identification of type I tumour in seven patients, type II tumour in four patients, type III tumour in 12 patients, and type IV tumour in ten patients. MRC provided superior visualization of completely obstructed peripheral systems. MRC in combination with MRI is a reliable non-invasive diagnostic method for the pre-therapeutic staging of Klatskin tumours. (orig.)

  14. Fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer depending on fibre source, sex, tumour location and Tumour, Node, Metastasis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcan, Alexandra; Brändstedt, Jenny; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika

    2015-09-28

    Studies on fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate inverse associations. Differences by tumour stage have not been examined. We examined associations between fibre intake and its sources, and incidental CRC. Separate analyses were carried out on the basis of sex, tumour location and the Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a population-based cohort study, including individuals aged 45-74 years. Dietary data were collected through a modified diet history method. The TNM classification was obtained from pathology/clinical records and re-evaluated. Among 27 931 individuals (60% women), we found 728 incident CRC cases during 428 924 person-years of follow-up. Fibre intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.026). Concerning colon cancer, we observed borderline interaction between fibre intake and sex (P = 0.052) and significant protective association restricted to women (P(trend) = 0.013). Intake of fruits and berries was inversely associated with colon cancer in women (P(trend) = 0.022). We also observed significant interactions between intakes of fibre (P = 0.048) and vegetables (P = 0.039) and sex on rectal cancer, but no significant associations were seen between intake of fibre, or its sources, in either of the sexes. Except for inverse associations between intake of fibre-rich cereal products and N0- and M0-tumours, we did not observe significant associations with different TNM stages. Our findings suggest different associations between fibre intake and CRC depending on sex, tumour site and fibre source. High fibre intake, especially from fruits and berries, may, above all, prevent tumour development in the colon in women. No clear differences by TNM classification were detected.

  15. RESEARCH Osteosarcoma presentation stages at a tumour unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regimens and surgical techniques.2,4,6,8 To benefit from these advances in treatment, the ... osteosarcoma were managed at our orthopaedic tumour unit. After complete ... (Table 1); metastasis to the lung was the most common site in 12/16.

  16. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

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    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students.

  17. Prognostic significance of tumour progression and human papillomavirus in advanced tonsillar cancer classified as stage IVa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E; Jung, K-Y; Kwon, S-Y; Woo, J-S; Cho, J-G; Park, M W; Kim, I S; Kim, S J; Baek, S-K

    2015-01-01

    To identify clinical factors that can explain the differences in treatment outcome, and examine the value of human papillomavirus infection as a prognostic biomarker in stage IVa tonsillar carcinomas. Fifty-nine patients with tonsillar carcinoma classified as stage IVa were retrospectively analysed for survival outcomes according to various clinical factors. Human papillomavirus infection was evaluated using a human papillomavirus DNA chip test and immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53. Lower disease-free survival rates were associated with increasing local invasiveness and nodal status. Although human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression was more common in locally advanced tonsillar carcinomas with advanced nodal status, the overall survival rate was better for patients with human papillomavirus positive, p16-positive tumours. The disease-free survival rate may differ according to local tumour invasiveness and nodal status, even for stage IVa tonsillar cancers. Human papillomavirus infection may be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes for stage VIa tumours.

  18. Deducing the stage of origin of Wilms' tumours from a developmental series of Wt1-mutant mice

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    Rachel L. Berry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms' tumours, paediatric kidney cancers, are the archetypal example of tumours caused through the disruption of normal development. The genetically best-defined subgroup of Wilms' tumours is the group caused by biallelic loss of the WT1 tumour suppressor gene. Here, we describe a developmental series of mouse models with conditional loss of Wt1 in different stages of nephron development before and after the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET. We demonstrate that Wt1 is essential for normal development at all kidney developmental stages under study. Comparison of genome-wide expression data from the mutant mouse models with human tumour material of mutant or wild-type WT1 datasets identified the stage of origin of human WT1-mutant tumours, and emphasizes fundamental differences between the two human tumour groups due to different developmental stages of origin.

  19. Incidence and tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of Aachen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemayer, C A; Breuer, Elisabeth; Kroll, G; Markus-Sellhaus, S; Reineke, T H; Mittermayer, C

    2002-03-01

    We present epidemiological data of female breast cancer in the region of Aachen (Germany) including incidence and tumour stages for the period 1996-1997. Furthermore, we compare epidemiological data from Aachen with data from the directly neighbouring Dutch region South-Middle Limburg before and after the introduction of a national mammographic screening programme. The field study of breast cancer was undertaken at the Institute of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Aachen, supported by the Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), using data files from the Cancer Registry Aachen. The patient's consent to collect all data concerning her epidemiological and social situation as well as information on the outcome of disease was obtained in 83.4% of all cases. The remaining 16.6% of the cases without a patient's consent are based on histopathological reports. Only those patients are included who were documented as residing in the region of Aachen at the time of diagnosis. Tumour cases were counted according to International Agency for Research on Cancer rules and tumour stages are classified according to UICC guidelines. Incidence rates are calculated as crude value, adapted to the European and World Standard population (ESR, WSR), and the age specific incidence is presented in 5-year intervals. The cumulative risk is assessed for a certain life span by summarizing the age-specific incidences. The age-standardized breast cancer incidence rate in Aachen was 94 per 100 000 women in 1996 and 90 cases of invasive breast cancer per 100 000 women in 1997 according to the ESR. The cumulative risk of developing breast cancer in the life span ranging from 0 to 74 years is approximately 8%. The stage distribution of breast cancer reveals only 4% favourable carcinomata in situ, but 12% advanced T4 tumours. T1 and T2 tumour stages count for about 40% and T3 tumour stages about 4%. Incidence rates and the tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of

  20. The association between socioeconomic status and tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES differ...

  1. Metabolic tumour volumes measured at staging in lymphoma: methodological evaluation on phantom experiments and patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meignan, Michel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Paris-Est University, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, EAC CNRS 7054, Hopital Henri Mondor AP-HP, Creteil (France); Sasanelli, Myriam; Itti, Emmanuel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Casasnovas, Rene Olivier [CHU Le Bocage, Department of Hematology, Dijon (France); Luminari, Stefano [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Diagnostic, Clinic and Public Health Medicine, Modena (Italy); Fioroni, Federica [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Medical Physics, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Coriani, Chiara [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Masset, Helene [Henri Mondor Hospital, Department of Radiophysics, Creteil (France); Gobbi, Paolo G. [University of Pavia, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Hematology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Versari, Annibale [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging on CT is an independent prognostic factor in malignant lymphomas. However, its prognostic value is limited in diffuse disease. Total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) determined on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT could give a better evaluation of the total tumour burden and may help patient stratification. Different methods of TMTV measurement established in phantoms simulating lymphoma tumours were investigated and validated in 40 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Data were processed by two nuclear medicine physicians in Reggio Emilia and Creteil. Nineteen phantoms filled with {sup 18}F-saline were scanned; these comprised spherical or irregular volumes from 0.5 to 650 cm{sup 3} with tumour-to-background ratios from 1.65 to 40. Volumes were measured with different SUVmax thresholds. In patients, TMTV was measured on PET at staging by two methods: volumes of individual lesions were measured using a fixed 41 % SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub 41}) and a variable visually adjusted SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub var}). In phantoms, the 41 % threshold gave the best concordance between measured and actual volumes. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect. In patients, the agreement between the reviewers for TMTV{sub 41} measurement was substantial (ρ {sub c} = 0.986, CI 0.97 - 0.99) and the difference between the means was not significant (212 ± 218 cm{sup 3} for Creteil vs. 206 ± 219 cm{sup 3} for Reggio Emilia, P = 0.65). By contrast the agreement was poor for TMTV{sub var}. There was a significant direct correlation between TMTV{sub 41} and normalized LDH (r = 0.652, CI 0.42 - 0.8, P <0.001). Higher disease stages and bulky tumour were associated with higher TMTV{sub 41}, but high TMTV{sub 41} could be found in patients with stage 1/2 or nonbulky tumour. Measurement of baseline TMTV in lymphoma using a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold is reproducible and correlates with the other parameters for tumour mass evaluation

  2. Has lymphography a role in early stage testicular germ cell tumours?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, N.J.H. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sandeman, T.F.; McKenzie, A.F. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Depts. of Radiation Oncology and Diagnostic Imaging

    1995-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 183 newly diagnosed seminoma cases and 73 newly diagnosed non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) presenting from 1985 to 1989 to a tertiary referral cancer hospital. The purpose was to assess the contribution of bipedal lymphography (LG) to the management of these patients. As the main value of LG is in detecting small retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) metastases, analysis concentrated upon early stage disease, specifically N{sub 0} and N{sub 1a} LN disease. Comparison between LG results, abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT), final clinical stage and treatment outcome was performed. We found that with the LG and APCT criteria used (filling defects > 2 mm and LN diameter >20 mm, respectively), LG was much more sensitive in disease detection. However, with modern techniques APCT can reliably detect disease 10 mm or greater. In addition, tumour marker status, primary tumour vascular invasion status and initial clinical examination were each more important in staging NSGCT disease than LG alone. Thus, LG is now rarely used in our institution but we will have to monitor our excellent survival data to confirm that this change in policy is warranted. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. High tumour cannabinoid CB1 receptor immunoreactivity negatively impacts disease-specific survival in stage II microsatellite stable colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia B Gustafsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is good evidence in the literature that the cannabinoid system is disturbed in colorectal cancer. In the present study, we have investigated whether CB(1 receptor immunoreactive intensity (CB(1IR intensity is associated with disease severity and outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CB(1IR was assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens collected with a consecutive intent during primary tumour surgical resection from a series of cases diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Tumour centre (n = 483 and invasive front (n = 486 CB(1IR was scored from 0 (absent to 3 (intense staining and the data was analysed as a median split i.e. CB(1IR <2 and ≥2. In microsatellite stable, but not microsatellite instable tumours (as adjudged on the basis of immunohistochemical determination of four mismatch repair proteins, there was a significant positive association of the tumour grade with the CB(1IR intensity. The difference between the microsatellite stable and instable tumours for this association of CB(1IR was related to the CpG island methylation status of the cases. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses indicated a significant contribution of CB(1IR to disease-specific survival in the microsatellite stable tumours when adjusting for tumour stage. For the cases with stage II microsatellite stable tumours, there was a significant effect of both tumour centre and front CB(1IR upon disease specific survival. The 5 year probabilities of event-free survival were: 85±5 and 66±8%; tumour interior, 86±4% and 63±8% for the CB(1IR<2 and CB(1IR≥2 groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The level of CB(1 receptor expression in colorectal cancer is associated with the tumour grade in a manner dependent upon the degree of CpG hypermethylation. A high CB(1IR is indicative of a poorer prognosis in stage II microsatellite stable tumour patients.

  4. The Predictive Value of Plasma Fibronectin Concentration on Fetal Growth Retardation at Earlier Stage of the Third Trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zehua; XIONG; Guirong; ZHU; Ying

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive value of maternal plasma fibronectin (FN) concentration at 24-34 weeks on fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a prospective double-blinded study was performed. The maternal plasma FN concentrations were measured by using a rate nephelometric procedure in the 130 initial normal nulliparous pregnant woman at 24-34 gestational weeks.The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. IUGR was defined as that the birth weight was less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. The receiver operating characteristic curves and predictive values of FN predicting on outcome of pregnancy with IUGR were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) In a cohort of 130 initially normal nulliparous pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 14 cases during the follow-up; (2) The plasma FN levels in the women with IUGR (467.58± 104.43 mg/L) were significantly higher than in the normal control group (299. 44±105.55 mg/L, P<0. 01). However, there was no significant difference in the mean maternal age,gravidity, sampling gestational ages, delivering gestational ages between the two groups (P>0. 05);(3) The areas under ROC curve for predicting the outcome of pregnancy in IUGR was 0. 893; (4)At the cut point of 475 mg/L FN level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index for predicting the outcomes of pregnancy in IUGR were 57. 14 %,95. 69 %, 61.54 %, 94.87 %, 0. 5455 respectively. It was concluded that the maternal plasma FN might be used as an earlier predictor for screening of IUGR.

  5. Cancerous Tumour Model Analysis and Constructing schemes of Anti-angiogenesis Therapy at an Early Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mukhomorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an alternative and successfully employed method for treatment of cancerous tumour. However, this therapy isn't widely used in medicine because of expensive drugs. It leads naturally to elaboration of such treatment regimens which use minimum amount of drugs.The aim of the paper is to investigate the model of development of illness and elaborate appropriate treatment regimens in the case of early diagnosis of the disease. The given model reflects the therapy at an intermediate stage of the disease treatment. Further treatment is aimed to destroy cancer cells and may be continued by other means, which are not reflected in the model.Analysis of the main properties of the model was carried out with consideration of two types of auxiliary systems. In the first case, the system is considered without control, as a model of tumour development in the absence of medical treatment. The study of the equilibrium point and determination of its type allowed us to describe disease dynamics and to determine tumour size resulting in death. In the second case a model with a constant control was investigated. The study of its equilibrium point showed that continuous control is not sufficient to support satisfactory patient's condition, and it is necessary to elaborate more complex treatment regimens. For this purpose, we used the method of terminal problems consisting in the search for such program control which forces system to a given final state. Selecting the initial and final states is due to medical grounds.As a result, we found two treatment regimens | one-stage treatment regimen and multi-stage one. The properties of each treatment regimen are analyzed and compared. The total amount of used drugs was a criterion for comparing these two treatment regimens. The theoretical conclusions obtained in this work are supported by computer modeling in MATLAB environment.

  6. E-cadherin downregulation at the infiltrating tumour front is associated with histological grade and stage in colorectal carcinoma of Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Serena Diane; Cheah, Phaik-Leng; Ong, Diana Bee-Lan; Teoh, Kean-Hooi; Looi, Lai-Meng

    2015-04-01

    Loss of E-cadherin, a 120 kDA transmembrane glycoprotein responsible for cell-cell adhesion, is one of the hallmarks of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). E-cadherin expression was immunohistochemically studied in 94 histopathologically re-confirmed colorectal carcinomas (CRC) using a monoclonal antibody to E-cadherin (Dako: Clone NCH-38) on a Ventana Benchmark XT automated system. Each case was assessed for E-cadherin immunopositivity at two separate locations viz the tumour centre (TC) as well as the infiltrating front (IF). Expression was semiquantitated for proportion of immunopositive malignant cells as 0 (negative), 1 (1-25% staining), 2 (26-50% staining), 3 (51-75% staining) and 4 (>75% staining) and staining intensity: 0 (negative), 1 (weak), 2 (moderate) and 3 (strong). The final histoscore of E-cadherin immunopositivity was arbitrarily computed as proportion of immunopositivity multiplied by staining intensity of the malignant cells. E-cadherin histoscores were significantly lower at the IF (4.5±2.5) compared with TC (10.7±2.4). Furthermore, the histoscores were significantly reduced at the IF of 49 TNM III+IV tumours (3.6±2.5) compared with 45 II+III CRC (5.4±2.2). Reduction of E-cadherin expression was also noted in the 23 high grade (TC=8.6±3.2; IF=2.6±2.3) compared with 71 low grade tumours (TC=11.4±1.5; IF=5.1±2.3). E-cadherin is downregulated at the infiltrating front of CRC, possibly marking for EMT at this location. The downregulation is further enhanced amongst late stage and high grade tumours compared with earlier stage and low grade tumours; findings which are similar to that noted in CRC of other populations.

  7. The science behind the 7th edition Tumour, Node, Metastasis staging system for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Henry M; Leong, Steven C; Bowman, Rayleen V; Yang, Ian A; Fong, Kwun M

    2012-02-01

    The Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) system for classifying lung cancer is the cornerstone of modern lung cancer treatment and underpins comparative research; yet is continuously evolving through updated revisions. The recently published Union for International Cancer Control 7th Edition TNM Classification for lung cancer addresses many of its predecessor's shortcomings and has been subject to rigorous evidence-based methodology. It is based on a retrospective analysis of over 80 000 lung cancer patients treated between 1990 and 2000 carried out by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. The dataset was truly international and included patients treated by all modalities. Extensive internal and external validation of the findings has ensured that the recommendations are robust and generalizable. For the first time, a single classification system has been shown to be applicable not only to non-small cell lung cancer, but also to be of prognostic significance in small cell lung cancer and bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumours. We review the history of the Union for International Cancer Control TNM staging system, the changes in the most recent 7th edition and the strength of the scientific basis motivating these changes. Limitations of the current staging edition are explored, post-publication independent validation studies are reviewed, and the future of TNM staging for lung cancer is discussed.

  8. Low birth weight is associated with earlier onset of end-stage renal disease in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Low-birth-weight individuals have a higher risk of hypertension and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Here we investigated whether low birth weight was associated with earlier onset of ESRD in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In collaboration with all Danish depar...... birth weight may contribute to considerable phenotypic variability in the progression of renal disease between individuals with ADPKD....

  9. Two-Stage Surgery for a Large Cervical Dumbbell Tumour in Neurofibromatosis 1: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ariff S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal neurofibromas occur sporadically and typically occur in association with neurofibromatosis 1. Patients afflicted with neurofibromatosis 1 usually present with involvement of several nerve roots. This report describes the case of a 14- year-old child with a large intraspinal, but extradural tumour with paraspinal extension, dumbbell neurofibroma of the cervical region extending from the C2 to C4 vertebrae. The lesions were readily detected by MR imaging and were successfully resected in a two-stage surgery. The time interval between the first and second surgery was one month. We provide a brief review of the literature regarding various surgical approaches, emphasising the utility of anterior and posterior approaches.

  10. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the initial staging of germ cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hain, S.F.; O' Doherty, M.J. [Clinical PET Centre, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Timothy, A.R.; Leslie, M.D.; Partridge, S.E. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Huddart, R.A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Royal Marsden, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare tumour with the potential for cure at diagnosis. It is important, however, to identify those patients with metastases at presentation so as to ensure that the optimum treatment strategy is employed. Many criteria have been used to try to place patients into high- or low-risk groups, with variable success. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has the potential to identify active disease and thereby influence further management. Here we report on a retrospective study of the use of FDG-PET in the detection of metastatic testicular carcinoma at diagnosis. Thirty-one patients [13 with seminoma and 18 with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (13 teratomas, 5 mixed)] were staged by FDG-PET scanning. The imaging was performed using a Siemens ECAT 951 scanner. All results were assessed on the basis of histology or clinical follow-up. FDG-PET scan identified metastatic disease in ten and was negative in 16; there were no false-positives and five false-negatives. There were six patients in whom FDG-PET was negative and computed tomography was regarded as suspicious but follow-up was inconclusive. The positive predictive value was 100%. The negative predictive value was 76% or 91%, depending on whether the aforementioned six cases were regarded as true-negatives or false-negatives. It may be concluded that FDG-PET is capable of detecting metastatic disease at diagnosis that is not identified by other imaging techniques. These preliminary results are sufficient to suggest that a large prospective study should be performed to evaluate the role of FDG-PET in primary staging of disease. (orig.)

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: comparison of diffusion and perfusion characteristics between different tumour stages using intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Vincent; Li, Xiao; Huang, Bingsheng; Khong, Pek Lan [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Fong, Daniel Yee Tak [University of Hong Kong, School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, New Territories (China)

    2014-01-15

    To explore intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and relationships with different tumour stages. We prospectively recruited 80 patients with newly diagnosed undifferentiated NPC. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed and IVIM parameters (D, pure diffusion; f, perfusion fraction; D*, pseudodiffusion coefficient) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and TNM staging for determination of the predictive powers of IVIM parameters using t test, multiple logistic regression and ROC curve analyses. D, f and D* were all statistically significantly lower in high-stage groups in AJCC, T and N staging. D, f and D* were all independent predictors of AJCC staging, f and D* were independent predictors of T staging, and D was an independent predictor of N staging. D was most powerful for AJCC and N staging, whereas f was most powerful for T staging. Optimal cut-off values (area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) were as follows: AJCC stage, D = 0.782 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.915, 93.3 %, 76.2 %, 3.92, 0.09); T staging, f = 0.133 (0.905, 80.5 %, 92.5 %, 10.73, 0.21); N staging, D = 0.761 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.848, 87.5 %, 66.7 %, 2.62, 0.19). Multivariate analysis showed no diagnostic improvement. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has distinctive intravoxel incoherent motion characteristics parameters in different tumour staging, potentially helping pretreatment staging. (orig.)

  12. Tumour length measured on PET-CT predicts the most appropriate stage-dependent therapeutic approach in oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedl, Johannes B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Abdominal and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Boston (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston (United States); Sahani, Dushyant V.; Mueller, Peter R.; Blake, Michael A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Abdominal and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Boston (United States); Colen, Rivka R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Abdominal and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Boston (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston (United States); Fischman, Alan J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston (United States)

    2008-12-15

    To compare the accuracy of determining the most appropriate treatment approach based on a visual analysis on combined PET-CT, based on a visual analysis on PET (reviewed side-by-side with CT) and based on tumour length measurements (on PET and PET-CT). Tumour length, SUV, and the length-SUV index (length x SUV) were assessed (on PET and PET-CT) in benign oesophageal lesions (reflux oesophagitis; n = 29), in potentially curable stages of oesophageal cancer (Tis; T1-T3NxM0; curable group; n = 52), and in stages of oesophageal cancer best treated with palliative therapy (T4NxMx; TxNxM1; palliative group; n = 30). All lesions were histopathologically proven. Based on a visual analysis, PET-CT (sensitivity: 77%;specificity: 96%) was more accurate than PET (sensitivity: 67%; specificity: 89%) in assessing the appropriate treatment (curative vs. palliative). The length-SUV index was the most accurate quantitative parameter to distinguish palliative from curable stages (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 90%) and to predict survival. The highest overall accuracy was reached when combining the results of the quantitative (length-SUV index) analysis with those of the qualitative (visual) analysis (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 96%). Moreover, neither tumour length nor SUV can be used to distinguish reflux oesophagitis from early malignant lesions (T1 stage). Tumour length measured with PET-CT or PET is associated with stage and overall survival of oesophageal cancer and helps to guide the appropriate treatment approach. (orig.)

  13. Perspectives on a combined test of multi serum biomarkers in China: towards screening for and diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma at an earlier stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keming; Song, Peipei; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Gaohua; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Shaogeng

    2014-06-01

    China has 50% of the worldwide hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, and the HBV-related cases accounts for approximately 85%. Over the past few decades, although a series of standardized management methods for HCC has been implemented in China, most HCC patient in China still suffered from advanced-stage disease, in consequence, reducing the opportunity of curable treatment that can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival for HCC patient. Accordingly, strategies including screening and diagnose HCC at an earlier stage are urgently needed in China. In this study, the current status, challenges, and prospects of early detection of HCC in China have been analyzed. The result indicated the need for using multi serum biomarkers for early HCC detection. During the past ten years, the research on the clinical usefulness of novel serum biomarkers of des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP), Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Midkine (MDK) in early HCC detection for Chinese patients found that the novel serum biomarker can complete the measurement of α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis process of HCC, particularly for the patient with negative AFP with/or at an early stage. More large-scale, multi-center studies are expected to be performed in China to provide further evidence, and using novel and reliable serum biomarkers to complement AFP as a new trend is expected to be extensively used in clinical practice to facilitate early detection for those patients with HCC in China.

  14. Whole-body FDG-PET in patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Daugaard, G; Eigtved, A;

    2003-01-01

    Relapse occurs in 30% of patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) within 1 year after orchiectomy. Whole-body positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) may detect small metastases when standard staging with computed tomography (CT) and tumo...... predictive value of standard staging procedures was 78%. FDG-PET thus seems to be superior to conventional staging (P=0.06) in stage I NSGCT. This non-invasive method may improve the overall management of patients with NSGCT.......Relapse occurs in 30% of patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) within 1 year after orchiectomy. Whole-body positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) may detect small metastases when standard staging with computed tomography (CT) and tumour......-six patients have remained disease free with a median follow-up of 48 months (range 24-76). Ten patients (22%) suffered disease relapse after a median of 2 months (range 1-8), and of these, seven had a true positive initial PET with increased uptake of FDG indicating metastatic disease. There were three false...

  15. Evaluation of lasersurgery and radiotherapy as treatment modalities in early stage laryngeal carcinoma: tumour outcome and quality of voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, A.J.; Hoebers, F.J.P.; Klop, W.M.C.; Balm, A.J.M.; Hamming-Vrieze, O.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    For treatment of early stage (Tis-T2) laryngeal cancer the main choice is between microlaryngoscopy with carbon dioxide laser resection (laser surgery) and radiotherapy. Because both treatments provide excellent tumour control, secondary outcome variables such, as quality of voice may be of importan

  16. 2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging system for primary malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek J.; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Aronson, Daniel [Academisch Medisch Centrum/Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Clapuyt, Philippe; Ville de Goyet, Jean de; Otte, Jean-Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Departments of Surgery and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Czauderna, Piotr [Medical University of Gdansk, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Gdansk (Poland); Gauthier, Frederic; Pariente, Daniele [Centre Hospital-Universitaire de Bicetre APHP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre cedex (France); MacKinlay, Gordon [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Maibach, Rudolf [SIAK Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Plaschkes, Jack [Inselspital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bern (Switzerland); Childs, Margaret [United Kingdom Children' s Cancer Study Group, Leicester (United Kingdom); Perilongo, Giorgio [Padua University Hospital, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Padua (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT system for staging malignant primary liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT system. (orig.)

  17. Fibroblast gene expression profile reflects the stage of tumour progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kue Peng; Cirillo, Nicola; Hassona, Yazan; Wei, Wenbin; Thurlow, Johanna K; Cheong, Sok Ching; Pitiyage, Gayani; Parkinson, E Ken; Prime, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. This study examined the behaviour of fibroblast strains from normal oral mucosa, dysplastic epithelial tissue, and genetically stable (minimal copy number alterations-CNA; minimal loss of heterozygosity-LOH; wild-type p53; wild-type p16INK4A) and unstable (extensive CNA and LOH; inactivation of p53 and p16INK4A) oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Fibroblasts from genetically unstable OSCC relative to the other fibroblast subtypes grew more slowly and stimulated the invasion of a non-tumourigenic keratinocyte cell line into fibroblast-rich collagen gels. To understand these findings, genome-wide transcriptional profiles were generated using the GeneChip(®) cDNA whole transcript microarray platform. Principal component analysis showed that the fibroblasts could be distinguished according to the stage of tumour development. Tumour progression was associated with down-regulation of cell cycle- and cytokinesis-related genes and up-regulation of genes encoding transmembrane proteins including cell adhesion molecules. Gene expression was validated in independent fibroblast strains using qRT-PCR. Gene connectivity and interactome-transcriptome associations were determined using a systems biology approach to interrogate the gene expression data. Clusters of gene signatures were identified that characterized genetically unstable and stable OSCCs relative to each other and to fibroblasts from normal oral mucosa. The expression of highly connected genes associated with unstable OSCCs, including those that encode α-SMA and the integrin α6, correlated with poor patient prognosis in an independent dataset of head and neck cancer. The results of this study demonstrate that fibroblasts from unstable OSCCs represent a phenotypically distinguishable subset that plays a major role in oral cancer biology. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A high lymph node yield in colon cancer is associated with age, tumour stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjær, Ole

    2016-01-01

    by curative resection of stage I-III colon cancer in the period 2003-2011. The association between a LNY ≥ 12 and age, sex, body mass index, open vs. laparoscopic surgery, acute vs. elective surgery, pT stage, tumour sub-site and year of diagnosis was analysed. RESULTS: A total of 13,766 patients were...... eligible for the analysis. In total, 71.4 % of the patients had a LNY ≥ 12. In multivariate analysis, age, pT stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery were independently associated with the probability of a LNY ≥ 12. Odds ratios (ORs) were as follows: age ...) 0.586-0.800), >75 0.517 (CI 0.439-0.609); T1 1, T2 2.750 (CI 2.168-3.487), T3 6.016 (CI 4.879-7.418), T4 6.317 (CI 4.950-8.063); right colon 1, left colon 0.568 (0.511-0.633); elective surgery 1, acute surgery 0.748 (CI 0.625-0.894). Moreover, year of diagnosis was associated with the probability...

  19. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The seventh tumour-node-metastasis staging system for lung cancer: Sequel or prequel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Janssens, Annelies

    2013-09-01

    Anatomical cancer extent is an important predictor of prognosis and determines treatment choices. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification developed by Pierre Denoix replaced in 1968 the Veterans Administration Lung cancer Group (VALG) classification, which was still in use for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Clifton Mountain suggested several improvements based on a database of mostly surgically treated United States (US) patients from a limited number of centres. This database was pivotal for a uniform reporting of lung cancer extent by the American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union against Cancer (IUCC), but it suffered increasingly from obsolete diagnostic and staging procedures and did not reflect new treatment modalities. Moreover, its findings were not externally validated in large Japanese and European databases, resulting in persisting controversies which could not be solved with the available database. The use of different mediastinal lymph-node maps in Japan, the (US) and Europe facilitated neither the exchange nor the comparison of treatment results. Peter Goldstraw, a United Kingdom (UK) thoracic surgeon, started the process of updating the sixth version in 1996 and brought it to a good end 10 years later. His goals were to improve the TNM system in lung cancer by addressing the ongoing controversies, to validate the modifications and additional descriptors, to validate the TNM for use in staging SCLC and carcinoid tumours, to propose a new uniform lymph-node map and to investigate the prognostic value of non-anatomical factors. A staging committee was formed within the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) - which supervised the collection of the retrospective data from >100,000 patients with lung cancer - treated throughout the world between 1990 and 2000, analyse them with the help of solid statistics and validate externally with the Surveillance

  1. New entrants to HIV care are presenting only at marginally earlier stages of disease but may increasingly represent groups perceived at lower risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupa, Chariclia V; Lederman, Michael M; Valdez, Hernán; Salata, Robert A; McComsey, Grace A; Gripshover, Barbara; Fulton, Scott; Lisgaris, Michelle V; Kucia, Michelle; Asaad, Robert; Cline, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Benigno

    2005-06-01

    Treatment has improved HIV infection prognosis, but whether risk and health care seeking behavior have improved is unclear. New entrants to HIV care at University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio, between 1995 and 2002, with no history of AIDS-defining illnesses or antiretroviral exposure were included. Of new patients, 806 (80%) met the inclusion criteria. Median age increased during the study period(35.2 to 38.6 years; P < .001); proportions of females and non-whites increased nonsignificantly. Prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses decreased from 1995 to 1996 (25.0% to 14.2%; P <.001) but remained stable thereafter. Category B conditions and sexually transmitted diseases decreased significantly(31.7% to 9.1%; P = .039 and 22.5% to 8.0%; P = .003), as did hepatitis B and C seroprevalence (8.3% to 3.6%; P = .05 and 26.2% to 14.3%; P = .003). Median CD4 counts and HIV RNA did not change significantly. Prevalence of Category B conditions, sexually transmitted diseases, and hepatitis B and C declined significantly in this study. Prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses decreased early in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era only, whereas markers of HIV disease stage remained stable, suggesting a need for earlier recognition of infection. Decreasing sexually transmitted diseases and hepatitis coinfections suggest that HIV infection is increasingly seen in populations previously perceived at lower risk.

  2. Hyperphosphorylation of Tau at Ser396 occurs in the much earlier stage than appearance of learning and memory disorders in 5XFAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the relation of age-dependent spatial learning/memory impairment and Tau phosphorylation in 5XFAD mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. In the water maze test, the acquisition and retention latencies for 5XFAD mice at 6 months, but not 2 months, of age was significantly longer than those for wild-type mice at the same months of age, without difference in the swim speed and visual acuity between two groups. The level of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation at Ser9 in the hippocampus for the 5XFAD mice at >4 months of age was significantly lesser than that for wild-type mice at the same months of age, while a robust increase in the Tyr216 phosphorylation of GSK-3β was found both in wild-type and 5XFAD mice at 6 months of age, without no significant difference in the extent between two groups. There was no significant difference in the Tau phosphorylation at Ser202/Thr205 in the hippocampus between two groups, but Ser396 phosphorylation for 5XFAD mice was significantly higher than that for wild-type mice at ages ranging from 2 to 6 months. The results of the present study indicate that Tau hyperphosphorylation in the brain for 5XFAD mice precedes high activation of GSK-3β and occurs in the much earlier stage than appearance of learning and memory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical staging and prognosis in serous borderline ovarian tumours (BOT): a subanalysis of the AGO ROBOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillsch, F; Mahner, S; Vettorazzi, E; Woelber, L; Reuss, A; Baumann, K; Keyver-Paik, M-D; Canzler, U; Wollschlaeger, K; Forner, D; Pfisterer, J; Schroeder, W; Muenstedt, K; Richter, B; Fotopoulou, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Burges, A; Ewald-Riegler, N; de Gregorio, N; Hilpert, F; Fehm, T; Meier, W; Hillemanns, P; Hanker, L; Hasenburg, A; Strauss, H-G; Hellriegel, M; Wimberger, P; Kommoss, S; Kommoss, F; Hauptmann, S; du Bois, A

    2015-02-17

    Incomplete surgical staging is a negative prognostic factor for patients with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT). However, little is known about the prognostic impact of each individual staging procedure. Clinical parameters of 950 patients with BOT (confirmed by central reference pathology) treated between 1998 and 2008 at 24 German AGO centres were analysed. In 559 patients with serous BOT and adequate ovarian surgery, further recommended staging procedures (omentectomy, peritoneal biopsies, cytology) were evaluated applying Cox regression models with respect to progression-free survival (PFS). For patients with one missing staging procedure, the hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence was 1.25 (95%-CI 0.66-2.39; P=0.497). This risk increased with each additional procedure skipped reaching statistical significance in case of two (HR 1.95; 95%-CI 1.06-3.58; P=0.031) and three missing steps (HR 2.37; 95%-CI 1.22-4.64; P=0.011). The most crucial procedure was omentectomy which retained a statistically significant impact on PFS in multiple analysis (HR 1.91; 95%-CI 1.15-3.19; P=0.013) adjusting for previously established prognostic factors as FIGO stage, tumour residuals, and fertility preservation. Individual surgical staging procedures contribute to the prognosis for patients with serous BOT. In this analysis, recurrence risk increased with each skipped surgical step. This should be considered when re-staging procedures following incomplete primary surgery are discussed.

  4. Gender, anthropometric factors and risk of colorectal cancer with particular reference to tumour location and TNM stage: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brändstedt Jenny

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC associated with obesity differs by gender, distribution of fat, tumour location and clinical (TNM stage. The primary aim of this study was to examine these associations in 584 incident colorectal cancer cases from a Swedish prospective population-based cohort including 28098 men and women. Methods Seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, bodyfat percentage, hip circumference, waist circumference, BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were categorized into quartiles of baseline anthropometric measurements. Relative risks of CRC, total risk as well as risk of different TNM stages, and risk of tumours located to the colon or rectum, were calculated for all cases, women and men, respectively, using multivariate Cox regression models. Results Obesity, as defined by all anthropometric variables, was significantly associated with an overall increased risk of CRC in both women and men. While none of the anthropometric measures was significantly associated with risk of tumour (T-stage 1 and 2 tumours, all anthropometric variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of T-stage 3 and 4, in particular in men. In men, increasing quartiles of weight, hip, waist, BMI and WHR were significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node positive (N1 and N2 disease, and risk of both non-metastatic (M0 and metastatic (M1 disease. In women, there were no or weak associations between obesity and risk of node-positive disease, but statistically significant associations between increased weight, bodyfat percentage, hip, BMI and M0 disease. Interestingly, there was an increased risk of colon but not rectal cancer in men, and rectal but not colon cancer in women, by increased measures of weight, hip-, waist circumference and bodyfat percentage. Conclusions This study is the first to show a relationship between obesity, measured as several different

  5. Gender, anthropometric factors and risk of colorectal cancer with particular reference to tumour location and TNM stage: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändstedt, Jenny; Wangefjord, Sakarias; Nodin, Björn; Gaber, Alexander; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin

    2012-10-16

    It remains unclear whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with obesity differs by gender, distribution of fat, tumour location and clinical (TNM) stage. The primary aim of this study was to examine these associations in 584 incident colorectal cancer cases from a Swedish prospective population-based cohort including 28098 men and women. Seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, bodyfat percentage, hip circumference, waist circumference, BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were categorized into quartiles of baseline anthropometric measurements. Relative risks of CRC, total risk as well as risk of different TNM stages, and risk of tumours located to the colon or rectum, were calculated for all cases, women and men, respectively, using multivariate Cox regression models. Obesity, as defined by all anthropometric variables, was significantly associated with an overall increased risk of CRC in both women and men. While none of the anthropometric measures was significantly associated with risk of tumour (T)-stage 1 and 2 tumours, all anthropometric variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of T-stage 3 and 4, in particular in men. In men, increasing quartiles of weight, hip, waist, BMI and WHR were significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node positive (N1 and N2) disease, and risk of both non-metastatic (M0) and metastatic (M1) disease. In women, there were no or weak associations between obesity and risk of node-positive disease, but statistically significant associations between increased weight, bodyfat percentage, hip, BMI and M0 disease. Interestingly, there was an increased risk of colon but not rectal cancer in men, and rectal but not colon cancer in women, by increased measures of weight, hip-, waist circumference and bodyfat percentage. This study is the first to show a relationship between obesity, measured as several different anthropometric factors, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer of

  6. Bilateral testicular germ cell tumours in patients with initial stage I disease : Prevalence and prognosis - a single centre's 30 years' experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, DJA; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1998-01-01

    Development of second testicular tumours, i.e. bilateral testicular cancer, is influenced by systemic chemotherapy for the first tumour. The prevalence of bilateral testicular cancer was studied in patients with initial stage I disease, in which no systemic treatment was given after orchidectomy. Al

  7. Bilateral testicular germ cell tumours in patients with initial stage I disease : Prevalence and prognosis - a single centre's 30 years' experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, DJA; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1998-01-01

    Development of second testicular tumours, i.e. bilateral testicular cancer, is influenced by systemic chemotherapy for the first tumour. The prevalence of bilateral testicular cancer was studied in patients with initial stage I disease, in which no systemic treatment was given after orchidectomy. Al

  8. Incidental Phaeochromocytoma on Staging PET-CT in a Patient with a Sigmoid Tumour and Situs Inversalis Totalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Boland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adrenal “incidentaloma” is defined as an unexpected finding on radiological imaging performed for unrelated indications. Improvements in radiological technology have seen a dramatic increase in this phenomenon. We report the unique case of a 60-year-old female presenting with a 6-month history of abdominal pain, altered bowel habit, and rectal bleeding. Her past medical history included situs inversus totalis and a patent ductus arteriosus. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerated tumour in her sigmoid colon. Staging PET-CT confirmed a sigmoid tumour and also identified a large heterogenous enhancing FDG-avid right adrenal mass. Biochemical testing/MIBG imaging confirmed a right adrenal phaeochromocytoma. Hypertension was controlled and excision was performed via a transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy, in the left lateral decubitus position. Uniquely, liver retraction was not required due to its position in the left hypochondrium. Histology confirmed a benign 46 mm phaeochromocytoma. Subsequent uncomplicated sigmoid colectomy/right salpingo-oophorectomy for a locally advanced colonic tumour was performed with adjuvant chemotherapy. This case highlights the importance of accurately identifying functioning adrenal tumours before elective surgery as undiagnosed phaeochromocytomas carry significant intraoperative morbidity/mortality. Right adrenalectomy was made easier in this patient by the liver’s unique position. Uncomplicated colorectal resection was made possible by combined preoperative functional/anatomical imaging.

  9. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (PNET): Staging accuracy of MDCT and its diagnostic performance for the differentiation of PNET with uncommon CT findings from pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Hyo Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jae [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 657 Hannam-Dong, Youngsan-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To investigate staging accuracy of multidetector CT (MDCT) for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (PNET) and diagnostic performance for differentiation of PNET from pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We included 109 patients with surgically proven PNET (NETG1 = 66, NETG2 = 31, NEC = 12) who underwent MDCT. Two reviewers assessed stage and presence of predefined CT findings. We analysed the relationship between CT findings and tumour grade. Using PNETs with uncommon findings, we also estimated the possibility of PNET or adenocarcinoma. Accuracy for T stage was 85-88 % and N-metastasis was 83-89 %. Common findings included well circumscribed, homogeneously enhanced, hypervascular mass, common in lower grade tumours (p < 0.05). Uncommon findings included ill-defined, heterogeneously enhanced, hypovascular mass and duct dilation, common in higher grade tumours (p < 0.05). Using 31 PNETs with uncommon findings, diagnostic performance for differentiation from adenocarcinoma was 0.760-0.806. Duct dilatation was an independent predictor for adenocarcinoma (Exp(B) = 4.569). PNETs with uncommon findings were associated with significantly worse survival versus PNET with common findings (62.7 vs. 95.7 months, p < 0.001). MDCT is useful for preoperative evaluation of PNET; it not only accurately depicts the tumour stage but also prediction of tumour grade, because uncommon findings were more common in higher grade tumours. (orig.)

  10. A Numerical Analysis Research on Earlier Behavior of Molten Droplet Covered with Vapor Film at the Stage of Triggering and Propagation in Steam Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the molten fuel with high temperature falls into the cavity water, it will be dispersed into droplets which are covered with vapor films due to the rapid heat transfer with phase transition. This situation cannot be simply described by liquid-liquid or gas-liquid systems. And there are no sufficient experimental studies on the behavior of droplet covered with vapor film because of the rapid reaction and the difficulty in capture of the film configuration. In this paper, a multiphase code with the volume of fluid (VOF method is used to simulate the earlier behavior of droplet when vapor film exits. The earlier behavior is defined as behavior of the droplet before its disintegration. Thermal effect and pure hydrodynamic effect are, respectively, considered. The simulation results indicate that the film thickness and material density have significant effect on the earlier behavior of droplet. The situation assumed in Ciccarelli and Frost’s model (1994 is observed in current simulation of earlier thermal droplet behavior. The effect of triggering pressure pulse on earlier hydrodynamic behavior is also discussed and it indicates that vapor film has little effect on the hydrodynamic droplet deformation when the intensity of the pressure pulse is very high.

  11. Malignant tumours of the oral cavity and oropharynx: staging; Maligne Tumoren der Mundhoehle und des Oropharynx. Stadieneinteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssefzadeh, S.; Pamberger, P. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Baumgartner, W.; Burian, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Wien (Austria); Becherer, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Wachter, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie, Wien (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    Staging of malignant tumours of the oral cavity and the oropharynx not only requires far more than a basic knowledge of anatomy and the usual pathways of spread, but also a broad understanding of the diagnostic benefits of current imaging modalities. As radiology should never try to replace histology, the main aim should be precise prediction of tumour margins and differention of tumour from edema and posttherapeutic changes. Only then will imaging studies have a significant clinical impact. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um sich mit der Stadieneinteilung maligner Tumoren von Mundhoehle und Oropharynx vertraut zu machen, bedarf es einerseits einer sehr grundlegenden Kenntnis der normalen Anatomie und der bevorzugten Ausbreitungswege in den verschiedenen Tumorlokalisationen, andererseits eines fundierten Wissens um die Aussagekraft der gaengigen Untersuchungsmodalitaeten. Trotz rasanter Fortschritte soll sich die Bildgebung nicht anmassen, die Histologie ersetzen zu koennen. Wichtiger als praeoperativ die Dignitaet festzustellen,ist es jedoch, die Tumorgrenzen so genau wie moeglich zu definieren und von oedematosen und narbigen Veraenderungen zu unterscheiden, um wirkliche klinische Konsequenzen zu setzen. (orig.)

  12. ANALYSIS OF TUMOUR LENGTH AND CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN CARCINOMA OESOPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pampanagouda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even with multidisciplinary team approach, the prognosis of Oesophageal Cancer (EC has not significantly changed. Studies are required to explore the other prognostic factors, which might alter the outcome. Our study aims at correlating the oesophageal tumour length with stage of the disease and analyse the clinicopathological features. METHODS 150 patients with oesophageal carcinoma (ca who underwent curative surgery without neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are included in the study. Formalin fixed oesophageal tumour length was measured. Tumour length was analysed with respect to overall stage, T stage and N stage of the disease. Clinicopathological characteristics were studied. RESULTS From our study correlating tumour length with stage and lymph node involvement, it is observed that there is no linear association with stage of the disease. Squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant histology and lower third was the site most affected. Even though most of the patients still present at an advanced stage, patients with adenocarcinoma presented earlier than squamous cell carcinoma patients. CONCLUSION As there is no proportionate increase in stage of disease with increase in length of tumour, oesophageal tumour length may not be an appropriate prognostic factor. Further well planned studies might bring more evidence on this aspect with respect to impact of tumour length on survival.

  13. MRI fused with prone FDG PET/CT improves the primary tumour staging of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Velloso, Maria J; Ribelles, Maria J; Rodriguez, Macarena; Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro; Sancho, Lidia; Prieto, Elena; Santisteban, Marta; Rodriguez-Spiteri, Natalia; Idoate, Miguel A; Martinez-Regueira, Fernando; Elizalde, Arlette; Pina, Luis J

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fused with prone 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in primary tumour staging of patients with breast cancer. This retrospective study evaluated 45 women with 49 pathologically proven breast carcinomas. MRI and prone PET-CT scans with time-of-flight and point-spread-function reconstruction were performed with the same dedicated breast coil. The studies were assessed by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician, and evaluation of fused images was made by consensus. The final diagnosis was based on pathology (90 lesions) or follow-up ≥ 24 months (17 lesions). The study assessed 72 malignant and 35 benign lesions with a median size of 1.8 cm (range 0.3-8.4 cm): 31 focal, nine multifocal and nine multicentric cases. In lesion-by-lesion analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 97%, 80%, 91% and 93% for MRI, 96%, 71%, 87%, and 89% for prone PET, and 97%. 94%, 97% and 94% for MRI fused with PET. Areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.953, 0.850, and 0.983, respectively (p PET is more accurate than FDG-PET in primary tumour staging of breast cancer patients and increases the specificity of MRI. • FDG PET-CT may improve the specificity of MRI in breast cancer staging. • MRI fused with prone 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET-CT has better overall diagnostic performance than MRI. • The clinical role of fused PET-MRI has not yet been established.

  14. The cholesterol-binding protein NPC2 restrains recruitment of stromal macrophage-lineage cells to early-stage lung tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Jin, Hong; Giblett, Susan; Patel, Bipin; Patel, Falguni; Foster, Charles; Pritchard, Catrin

    2015-07-16

    The tumour microenvironment is known to play an integral role in facilitating cancer progression at advanced stages, but its function in some pre-cancerous lesions remains elusive. We have used the (V600) (E)BRAF-driven mouse lung model that develop premalignant lesions to understand stroma-tumour interactions during pre-cancerous development. In this model, we have found that immature macrophage-lineage cells (IMCs) producing PDGFA, TGFβ and CC chemokines are recruited to the stroma of premalignant lung adenomas through CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-dependent mechanisms. Stromal IMCs promote proliferation and transcriptional alterations suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in isolated premalignant lung tumour cells ex vivo, and are required for the maintenance of early-stage lung tumours in vivo. Furthermore, we have found that IMC recruitment to the microenvironment is restrained by the cholesterol-binding protein, Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2). Studies on isolated cells ex vivo confirm that NPC2 is secreted from tumour cells and is taken up by IMCs wherein it suppresses secretion of the CCR1 ligand CC chemokine 6 (CCL6), at least in part by facilitating its lysosomal degradation. Together, these findings show that NPC2 secreted by premalignant lung tumours suppresses IMC recruitment to the microenvironment in a paracrine manner, thus identifying a novel target for the development of chemopreventive strategies in lung cancer.

  15. The prognostic role of the pathological T2 subclassification for prostate cancer in the 2002 Tumour-Nodes-Metastasis staging system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, I.M. van; Witjes, J.A.M.; Kok, D.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic role of the 2002 Tumour-Nodes-Metastasis (TNM) pT2 subclassification for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 1997 TNM staging system is based on one subdivision for organ-confined prostate

  16. The association between socioeconomic status and tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 18 case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praestegaard, C.; Kjaer, S.K.; Nielsen, T.S.; Jensen, S.M.; Webb, P.M.; Nagle, C.M.; Hogdall, E.; Risch, H.A.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.P.; Goode, E.L.; Winham, S.J.; Fridley, B.L.; Cramer, D.W; Terry, K.L.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Massuger, L.F.; Wentzensen, N.; Pharoah, P.; Song, H.; Whittemore, A.S.; McGuire, V.; Sieh, W.; Rothstein, J.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Pike, M.C.; Lee, A.W.; Chang-Claude, J.; Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES

  17. Multi-stage genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility locus for testicular germ cell tumour on chromosome 3q25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Sultana, Razvan; Renwick, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent meta-analyses have identified over 25 SNPs at 18 loci, together accounting for >15% of the genetic susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT). To identify further common SNPs associated with TGCT, here we report a three-stage ...

  18. Monitoring different stages of breast cancer using tumour markers CA 15-3, CEA and TPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    2004-01-01

    -individual biological variation, and the rate of increase. Patient cohorts were as follows: (A) 90 stage II breast cancer patients who were monitored postoperatively, (B) 204 recurrent breast cancer patients who were monitored during first-line chemotherapy, and (C) 112 patients who were monitored during the time...... period after first-line chemotherapy. The sensitivity for progression was 44% (cohort A), 69% (cohort B), and 68% (cohort C) without any false progression signals. Marker lead-times exceeded 3 months in 20% (cohort A) and 27% (cohort C) of patients. Marker lead-times were 1-6 months among 33...

  19. Application of the revised Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in eastern China: advantages and limitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Qin; Li-Jiang Sun; Li Cui; Qiang Cao; Jian Zhu; Pu Li; Gui-Ming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether the revised 2010 Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system could lead to a more accurate prediction of the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients.A total of 1216 patients who had undergone radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy for RCC from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled.All of the patients had pathologically confirmed clear cell RCC (ccRCC).All cases were staged by both the 2002 and 2010 TNM staging systems after pathological review,and survival data were collected.Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate cancer-specific survival (CSS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after surgery.Continuous variables,such as age and tumour diameter,were calculated as mean values and standard deviations (s.d.) or as median values.Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method,and the log-rank test assessed differences between groups.Statistically significant differences in CSS and PFS were noted among patients in T3 subgroups using the new 2010 staging system.Therefore,the revised 2010 TNM staging system can lead to a more accurate prediction of the prognosis of ccRCC patients.However,when using the revised 2010 staging system,we found that more than 92% of patients (288/313) with T3 tumours were staged in the T3a subgroup,and their survival data were not significantly different from those of patients with T2b tumours.In addition,T2 subclassification failed to independently predict survival in RCC patients.

  20. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  1. Treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma with adoptive transfer of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a single-centre, two-stage, single-arm, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Smita S; Somerville, Robert P T; Yang, James C; Sherry, Richard M; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Goff, Stephanie L; Wunderlich, John R; Danforth, David N; Zlott, Daniel; Paria, Biman C; Sabesan, Arvind C; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Xi, Liqiang; Pham, Trinh H; Raffeld, Mark; White, Donald E; Toomey, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Steven A; Kammula, Udai S

    2017-06-01

    Uveal melanoma is a rare tumour with no established treatments once metastases develop. Although a variety of immune-based therapies have shown efficacy in metastatic cutaneous melanoma, their use in ocular variants has been disappointing. Recently, adoptive T-cell therapy has shown salvage responses in multiple refractory solid tumours. Thus, we sought to determine if adoptive transfer of autologous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) could mediate regression of metastatic uveal melanoma. In this ongoing single-centre, two-stage, phase 2, single-arm trial, patients (aged ≥16 years) with histologically confirmed metastatic ocular melanoma were enrolled. Key eligibility criteria were an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, progressive metastatic disease, and adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function. Metastasectomies were done to procure tumour tissue to generate autologous TIL cultures, which then underwent large scale ex-vivo expansion. Patients were treated with lymphodepleting conditioning chemotherapy (intravenous cyclophosphamide [60 mg/kg] daily for 2 days followed by fludarabine [25 mg/m(2)] daily for 5 days, followed by a single intravenous infusion of autologous TILs and high-dose interleukin-2 [720 000 IU/kg] every 8 h). The primary endpoint was objective tumour response in evaluable patients per protocol using Response to Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0. An interim analysis of this trial is reported here. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01814046. From the completed first stage and ongoing expansion stage of this trial, a total of 21 consecutive patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were enrolled between June 7, 2013, and Sept 9, 2016, and received TIL therapy. Seven (35%, 95% CI 16-59) of 20 evaluable patients had objective tumour regression. Among the responders, six patients achieved a partial response, two of which are ongoing and have not reached maximum

  2. Loss of ATRX and DAXX expression identifies poor prognosis for smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential and early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Tania L; Hsia, Howard; Samaranayaka, Ari; Sykes, Peter; Clow, William Bill; Devenish, Celia J; Sutton, Tim; Royds, Janice A; Pc, Philip; Cheung, Annie N; Hung, Noelyn Anne

    2015-04-01

    Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) are diagnostically and clinically challenging. The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) telomere maintenance mechanism is associated with poor survival in soft tissue leiomyosarcoma. Time to first recurrence and survival were known for 18 STUMP and 43 leiomyosarcomata (LMS). These were screened for ALT telomere maintenance by the presence of ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) and for changes associated with the ALT phenotype, namely aberrant p53 expression, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation (R132H substitution) expression, mutant ATRX (αthalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) expression and mutant DAXX (death-domain-associated protein) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Overexpression of p16(INK4A) was examined immunohistologically in a subset of cases. Many of the tumours associated with death or recurrence demonstrated APBs commensurate with ALT telomere maintenance. However, all uterine STUMP (4/4), and vaginal STUMP (2/2) patients, and almost all LMS patients (88.4%, 23/26, including 90% (9/10) of stage 1 LMS cases), who had died of disease or who had recurrent disease, displayed loss of ATRX or DAXX expression. Loss of ATRX or DAXX expression identified poor prognosis (95% CI 2.1 to 40.8, p ATRX or DAXX expression in uterine smooth muscle tumours identifies a clinically aggressive molecular subtype of early stage LMS and when histopathological features are problematic such as in STUMP. As ATRX and DAXX IHC is readily performed in diagnostic laboratories these are potentially useful for routine histopathological classification and management.

  3. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome.

  4. The natural history of disappearing bone tumours and tumour-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Hideomi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Shirakura, Kenji; Takagishi, Kenji

    2001-11-01

    We describe 27 cases of bone tumours or tumour-like lesions where there was spontaneous regression. The follow-up period was 2.8-16.7 years (average, 7.0 years). Fourteen of these cases were no longer visible on plain radiographs. Histological diagnosis included exostosis, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma and bone island. Most cases began to reduce in adolescence or earlier, although sclerotic type lesions showed their regression in older patients. All lesions thought to be eosinophilic granuloma began to regress after periods of less than 3 months, while the duration of the other lesions showed wide variation (1-74 months). As resolution of the lesions took between 2 and 79 months (mean, 25.0 {+-} 20.3 months) we consider that the most likely mechanism was recovery of normal skeletal growth control. In exostosis with fracture, alteration of vascular supply may contribute to growth arrest, but not to subsequent remodelling stage. In inflammatory-related lesions such as eosinophilic granuloma, cessation of inflammation may be the mechanism of growth arrest, whilst temporary inflammation may stimulate osteogenic cells engaged in remodeling. In the sclerotic type, growth arrest is a less probable mechanism. Necrosis within the tumour and/or local changes in hormonal control, plus remodelling of the sclerotic area takes longer. Knowledge of the potential for spontaneous resolution may help in management of these tumour and tumour-like lesions of bone. Yanagawa, T. et al. (2001)

  5. {sup 18}F-FDG PET during stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung tumours cannot predict outcome: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Ubbels, Jan F.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Widder, Joachim [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Pruim, Jan [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Groen, Harry J.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pulmonology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been used to assess metabolic response several months after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, whether a metabolic response can be observed already during treatment and thus can be used to predict treatment outcome is undetermined. Ten medically inoperable patients with FDG PET-positive lung tumours were included. SBRT consisted of three fractions of 20 Gy delivered at the 80% isodose at days 1, 6 and 11. FDG PET was performed before, on day 6 immediately prior to administration of the second fraction of SBRT and 12 weeks after completion of SBRT. Tumour metabolism was assessed semi-quantitatively using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and SUV{sub 70%}. After the first fraction, median SUV{sub max} increased from 6.7 to 8.1 (p = 0.07) and median SUV{sub 70%} increased from 5.7 to 7.1 (p = 0.05). At 12 weeks, both median SUV{sub max} and median SUV{sub 70%} decreased by 63% to 3.1 (p = 0.008) and to 2.5 (p = 0.008), respectively. SUV increased during treatment, possibly due to radiation-induced inflammation. Therefore, it is unlikely that {sup 18}F-FDG PET during SBRT will predict treatment success. (orig.)

  6. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  7. Tumour biological prognosis factors in advanced-stage uterus cervical carcinoma treated primarily by radiation therapy. A study on the significance of tumour oxygenation, tumour vascularisatio, anaemia and tumour proteins for the clinical treatment outcome; Tumorbiologische Prognosefaktoren beim fortgeschrittenen, primaer strahlentherapeutisch behandelten Uteruszervixkarzinom. Eine Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Tumoroxygenierung, Tumorvaskularisation, Anaemie und Tumorproteinen fuer das klinische Behandlungsergebnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensgen, G.

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate tumour biological prognosis factors that might give an indication of a patient's probable radiation sensitivity and hence of the probable clinical outcome. The ultimate goal was to reveal relationships between special tumour biological circumstances and clinical results that would permit a definition of risk factors, thus facilitating an individualised, i.e. optimised treatment.

  8. High tumour stage and margin clearance are still important prognostic factors for post-mastectomy locoregional recurrence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Lau Peng; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Rampal, Sanjay; Saad, Marniza; Bustam, Anita Zarina; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2010-01-01

    Locoregional recurrence after mastectomy for breast cancer may predict distant recurrence and mortality. This study examined the pattern and rates of post-mastectomy locoregional recurrence (PMLRR), survival outcome and prognostic factors for isolated PMLRR (ILR) in a breast cancer cohort in University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC). We studied 522 patients who underwent mastectomy between 1998 and 2002 and followed them up until 2008. We defined PMLRR as recurrence to the axilla, supraclavicular nodes and or chest wall. ILR was defined as PMLRR occurring as an isolated event. Prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence were determined using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The overall PMLRR rate was 16.4%. ILR developed in 42 of 522 patients (8.0%). Within this subgroup, 25 (59.5%) remained disease free after treatment while 17 (40.5%) suffered disease progression. Univariate analyses identified race, age, size, stage, margin involvement, lymph node involvement, grade, lymphovascular invasion and ER status as probable prognostic factors for ILR. Cox regression resulted in only stage III disease and margin involvement as independent prognostic factors. The hazard of ILR was 2.5 times higher when the margins were involved compared to when they were clear (aHRR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.0). Similarly, compared with stage I those with Stage II (aHRR 2.1; 95%CI 0.6 to 6.8) and stage III (aHRR 4.6; 95%CI 1.4 to 15.9) had worse prognosis for ILR. Margin involvement and stage III disease were identified to be independent prognostic factors for ILR. Close follow-up of high risk patients and prompt treatment of locoregional recurrence were recommended.

  9. (18)F-FDG PET during stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung tumours cannot predict outcome : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Pruim, Jan; Ubbels, Jan F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Widder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been used to assess metabolic response several months after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, whether a metabolic response can be observed already during treatment and thus ca

  10. Expression of tissue factor in canine mammary tumours and correlation with grade, stage and markers of haemostasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Eva Bartholin; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Tranholm, M.

    2016-01-01

    to the cytoplasmic membrane of neoplastic luminal epithelial cells and/or diffusely in the cytoplasm. No association was found between TF expression and stage or grade of disease. A significant association between TF expression and antithrombin and plasminogen was found, and extensive TF expression was seen...... in a lymph node metastasis classified as anaplastic mammary carcinoma from a dog with concomitant disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)....

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yasukawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50–555 nmol/ear.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Yasukawa; Sakiko Okuda; Yasuhito Nobushi

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice....

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50-555 nmol/ear.

  14. Cost comparison of 111In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for staging enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Nils F; Brenner, Winfried; Nogami, Munenobu; Buchert, Ralph; Huppertz, Alexander; Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Prasad, Vikas; Hamm, Bernd; Maurer, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Although somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is gaining increasing popularity and has shown its diagnostic superiority in several studies, (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-octreotide is still the current standard for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours (NET). The aim of this study was to compare the costs for the two diagnostic tests and the respective consequential costs. From January 2009 to July 2009, 51 consecutive patients with enteropancreatic NET who underwent contrast-enhanced (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT (n = 29) or (111)In-DTPA-octreotide (mean 3 whole-body scans plus 1.6 low-dose single photon emission computed tomography/CT; n = 22) were included. For cost analysis, direct costs (equipment) and variable costs (material, labour) per examination were calculated. Additionally required CT and/or MRI examinations within the staging process were assessed as consequential costs. An additional deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed. A (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT examination yielded total costs (equipment, personnel and material costs) of 548 euro. On the other hand, an (111)In-DTPA-octreotide examination resulted in 827 euro total costs. Costs for equipment and material had a share of 460 euro/720 euro for (68)Ga-DOTATOC/(111)In-DTPA-octreotide and labour costs of 89 euro/106 euro. With (68)Ga-DOTATOC additional MRI had to be performed in 7% of the patients resulting in a mean of 20 euro for supplementary imaging per patient; 82% of patients with (111)In-DTPA-octreotide needed additional MRI and/or CT resulting in mean additional costs of 161 euro per patient. (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT was considerably cheaper than (111)In-DTPA-octreotide with respect to both material and personnel costs. Furthermore, by using (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT considerably fewer additional examinations were needed reducing the consequential costs significantly.

  15. Do clinical, histological or immunohistochemical primary tumour characteristics translate into different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT volumetric and heterogeneity features in stage II/III breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David; Martineau, Antoine; Merlet, Pascal [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR 1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Tixier, Florent; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze [Miletrie Hospital, DACTIM, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Poitiers (France); Espie, Marc [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Roquancourt, Anne de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if some features of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET images, including volume and heterogeneity, reflect clinical, histological or immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Included in the present retrospective analysis were 171 prospectively recruited patients with stage II/III BC treated consecutively at Saint-Louis hospital. Primary tumour volumes were semiautomatically delineated on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET images. The parameters extracted included SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and heterogeneity quantified using the area under the curve of the cumulative histogram and textural features. Associations between clinical/histopathological characteristics and {sup 18}F-FDG PET features were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were used to quantify the discriminative power of the features significantly associated with clinical/histopathological characteristics. T3 tumours (>5 cm) exhibited higher textural heterogeneity in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake than T2 tumours (AUC <0.75), whereas there were no significant differences in SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}. Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUV{sub max} values than invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.008) but MATV, TLG and textural features were not discriminative. Grade 3 tumours had higher FDG uptake (AUC 0.779 for SUV{sub max} and 0.694 for TLG), and exhibited slightly higher regional heterogeneity (AUC 0.624). Hormone receptor-negative tumours had higher SUV values than oestrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours, while heterogeneity patterns showed only low-level variation according to hormone receptor expression. HER-2 status was not associated with any of the image features. Finally, SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean} and TLG significantly differed among the three

  16. Cost comparison of {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for staging enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiter, Nils F.; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph; Prasad, Vikas [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Nogami, Munenobu [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nankoku, Kochi (Japan); Huppertz, Alexander [Imaging Science Institute Charite Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Pape, Ulrich-Frank [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Gastroenterology, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd; Maurer, Martin H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Although somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is gaining increasing popularity and has shown its diagnostic superiority in several studies, {sup 111}In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-octreotide is still the current standard for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours (NET). The aim of this study was to compare the costs for the two diagnostic tests and the respective consequential costs. From January 2009 to July 2009, 51 consecutive patients with enteropancreatic NET who underwent contrast-enhanced {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT (n = 29) or {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide (mean 3 whole-body scans plus 1.6 low-dose single photon emission computed tomography/CT; n = 22) were included. For cost analysis, direct costs (equipment) and variable costs (material, labour) per examination were calculated. Additionally required CT and/or MRI examinations within the staging process were assessed as consequential costs. An additional deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed. A {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT examination yielded total costs (equipment, personnel and material costs) of 548 EUR. On the other hand, an {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide examination resulted in 827 EUR total costs. Costs for equipment and material had a share of 460 EUR/720 EUR for {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC/{sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide and labour costs of 89 EUR/106 EUR. With {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC additional MRI had to be performed in 7% of the patients resulting in a mean of 20 EUR for supplementary imaging per patient; 82% of patients with {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide needed additional MRI and/or CT resulting in mean additional costs of 161 EUR per patient. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT was considerably cheaper than {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide with respect to both material and personnel costs. Furthermore, by using {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT considerably fewer additional examinations were needed reducing the consequential costs significantly. (orig.)

  17. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today Major Milestones Treatment Horizon Earlier Diagnosis Prevention Alzheimer’s and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis What if we could diagnose Alzheimer's before symptoms started? The hope is, future treatments ...

  18. Can prion disease suspicion be supported earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Zaira; Balaguer, Rainier Rodriguez; Calleja, Jesus Higuera

    2011-01-01

    The subacute spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases characterized by acute and rapid neurodegeneration that lead to the death of the patient within months to a few years. The epidemiology of CJD is complicated and the frequency in Mexico is unknown. We aim to describe the cases of prion disease in Mexico. Consecutive patients who met the diagnostic criteria by the WHO were enrolled. We describe 26 patients with clinical manifestations, imaging and laboratory studies compatible with prion disease. The mean age at onset was 52 years old. The main clinical manifestations were cognitive alterations (69%) followed by extrapyramidal movements (50%), abnormal cerebellar function (46%), behavioral alterations (46%), myoclonus (46%) and mood depression (23%), among other features. Half of the patients progressed rapidly to a state of akinetic mutism (53%). Only 2 (7.6%) patients had a family history of a similar disease. Time interval between onset and diagnosis varied between 71 days to 24 months, with a median of 6 months. The classical bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities were present in the very early stage of the disease. Protein 14-3-3 immuneassay in the CSF was positive in all measured cases. Bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities was the most important early finding, while protein 14-3-3 was a late finding and the results were usually obtained after the patient was discharged. Around 1.5 cases of CJD cases per year are reported in our country. When suspected, MRI can support the diagnosis earlier than other studies. PMID:21869605

  19. [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandier, Philippe Claus; Hansen, Alastair; Thorelius, Lars

    2009-01-26

    An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman. Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally. A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific. Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours. In general, it is recommended to obtain biopsies from suprarenal processes.

  20. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  1. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in primary staging of prostate cancer: PSA and Gleason score predict the intensity of tracer accumulation in the primary tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Kendler, Dorota; Scarpa, Lorenza; Di Santo, Gianpaolo; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Maffey-Steffan, Johanna; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Fritz, Josef [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Horninger, Wolfgang [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Urology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-06-15

    the intensity of tracer accumulation in the primary tumours of PC patients on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. As PC tumours with GS 6+7 and patients with PSA values ≤10 ng/ml showed significantly lower {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 uptake, {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT should be preferentially applied for primary staging of PC in patients with GS >7 or PSA levels ≥10 ng/ml. (orig.)

  2. Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgeon who first described this type of tumour in 1899. Wilms' tumour .... Open biopsy should be avoided at all costs, as it. 'upstages' the tumour. Survival ... surgeon. No laparoscopic surgery should be done, as the whole abdomen has to be.

  3. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal cancers ... the only way to diagnose esophageal cancer or stomach cancer is with endoscopy. This method is expensive, invasive ...

  4. MIBG scans in patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma reveal two metastatic patterns, one is associated with MYCN amplification and in MYCN-amplified tumours correlates with a better prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, Gitta [Academic Medical Centre/Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre, Department of Oncogenomics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, Berthe L. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zwinderman, Koos H. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteeg, Rogier [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Oncogenomics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Noesel, Max M. van [Erasmus Medical Centre/Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology/Haematology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kam, Boen L. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kaspers, Gertjan J. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, NC (United States); University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group (COG), Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group (COG), Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Haematology and Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hero, Barbara [University Hospital of Cologne, Children' s Hospital, Cologne (Germany); Schmidt, Matthias [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany); Laureys, Genevieve [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Lambert, Bieke [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Oera, Ingrid [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Oncogenomics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lund University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Lund (Sweden); Schulte, Johannes H. [University Children' s Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Caron, Huib N.; Tytgat, Godelieve A. [Academic Medical Centre/Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2014-09-30

    The aim of this study was to find clinically relevant MIBG-avid metastatic patterns in patients with newly diagnosed stage 4 neuroblastoma. Diagnostic {sup 123}I-MIBG scans from 249 patients (123 from a European and 126 from the COG cohort) were assessed for metastatic spread in 14 body segments and the form of the lesions: ''focal'' (clear margins distinguishable from adjacent background) or ''diffuse'' (indistinct margins, dispersed throughout the body segment). The total numbers of diffuse and focal lesions were recorded. Patients were then categorized as having lesions exclusively focal, lesions more focal than diffuse, lesions more diffuse than focal, or lesions exclusively diffuse. Diffuse lesions affected a median of seven body segments and focal lesions a median of two body segments (P < 0.001, both cohorts). Patients with a focal pattern had a median of 2 affected body segments and those with a diffuse pattern a median of 11 affected body segments (P < 0.001, both cohorts). Thus, two MIBG-avid metastatic patterns emerged: ''limited-focal'' and ''extensive-diffuse''. The median numbers of affected body segments in MYCN-amplified (MNA) tumours were 5 (European cohort) and 4 (COG cohort) compared to 9 and 11, respectively, in single-copy MYCN (MYCNsc) tumours (P < 0.001). Patients with exclusively focal metastases were more likely to have a MNA tumour (60 % and 70 %, respectively) than patients with the other types of metastases (23 % and 28 %, respectively; P < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, focal metastases were associated with a better event-free and overall survival than the other types of metastases in patients with MNA tumours in the COG cohort (P < 0.01). Two metastatic patterns were found: a ''limited and focal'' pattern found mainly in patients with MNA neuroblastoma that correlated with prognosis, and an ''extensive and

  5. Tumours and tumourous diseases; Tumoren, tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, W. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke) [German] Der vorliegende Band der Reihe Orthopaedie und orthopaedische Chirurgie behandelt das Thema Tumoren und tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen. Der Band teilt sich in zwei Kapitel: 1. Knochentumoren und tumorartige Laesionen und 2. Weichteiltumoren und tumorartige Laesionen. Dargestellt werden Pathologie, Diagnostik, konservative und perioperative Therapie, chirurgische Therapie, Komplikationen nach Resektion, Indikatoren zur Amputation, Nachsorgeempfehlung, Strahlentherapie, Radionuklidtherapie, alternative Therapieverfahren, Therapiekonzepte bei Metastasen, Tissue Engineering und plastisch-chirurgische Massnahmen. (uke)

  6. Audit of the association between length of time spent on diagnostic work-up and tumour stage in patients with symptomatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Jimmy; Gray, Andrew; Jackson, Christopher; Thompson-Fawcett, Mark; Schultz, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most incident cancers in New Zealand. Due to resource limitations, some patients experienced protracted wait times before reaching a definitive diagnosis. We analysed the relationship between time to diagnosis and clinical stage and reviewed the length of time for components of the diagnostic work-up to identify priority areas for service improvement. We benchmarked our timeliness against introduced standards. This retrospective study included all patients with colonic (not rectal) cancer between October 2007 and September 2009. Patients were stratified into an early and advanced group. Types of delay were calculated from the onset of symptoms to the administration of treatment. The compliance with target waiting times was assessed. Fifty-eight patients were included in the early group and 83 patients in the advanced group. There were no significant differences in demographics or symptoms. The work-up was longer than international benchmarks, but with wide variations. There was no statistical difference between lengths of work-up in the groups. The advanced group had increased utilization of private and emergency investigations. Forty-four per cent met the diagnostic colonoscopy target waiting time of 42 days with a trend in favour of the advanced group and 21% received treatment within 62 days (non-significant). Current systems are not sophisticated enough to predict the stage of colon cancer. Here, long waiting times were not associated with cancer stage in symptomatic patients. Resources need to be directed to diagnostic colonic imaging. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Euthanasia: why people want to die earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1994-09-01

    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The incidence of people saying they wanted to die sooner, and of requests for euthanasia are reported. Excluding a proportion who did not wish to express a view, or did not know the answer, about a quarter of both respondents and the people who died expressed the view that an earlier death would be, or would have been, preferable. 3.6% of people in the 1990 study were said to have asked for euthanasia at some point in the last year of life. The extent to which such views were determined by the experience of pain, other distressing symptoms, dependency and social and cultural factors such as religious belief and social class is explored. The finding that dependency was important in causing the feeling that an earlier death would have been better, as well as requests for euthanasia, is related to the public debate about euthanasia, which often contains the assertion that fear of pain is a dominant factor. Pain was found to be a significant factor in death from cancer, but not as important for other causes of death. Social class, place of residence of the deceased, and strength and type of religious faith were found to be largely insignificant in influencing feelings about an earlier death and requests for euthanasia.

  8. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  9. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  10. Contain of Material and Freedom of Spiritual: Study on the Salary of University Teachers in the Earlier Stage of the Republic of China%物质牵制与精神自由:民国前期大学教师薪酬研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海萍; 上官剑

    2012-01-01

    Marxist historical materialism points out that a person' s social Existence determines his social Different salary at different times is not only as a social condition for intellectuals to produce creative spirit, which is also an important symbol that reflects intellectuals' social impact and historical destiny. Based on the study of university teachers' salary in the Earlier Stage of the Republic of China, this paper outlines the salary system of university teachers in this period and gives a comparative analysis with the other classes of society, exploring during this period how university teachers sur- pass the fetters of power and money with the economic autonomy, and realize the reality of "independent personality" and "freedom of thought. "%人的社会存在决定人的社会意识。不同时期知识分子的不同薪酬,不仅是作为他们创造性精神生产赖以实现的社会条件,同时也是反映其社会影响及历史命运的重要标志。本文主要以民国前期的大学教师薪酬为研究对象,概述了这一时期大学教师的薪酬制度,并与其他社会阶层进行了比较与分析,探讨了这一时期的大学教师如何以经济自主超越“权”的羁绊和“钱”的束缚,从而真正实现“独立之人格”和“自由之思想”。

  11. Craniocaudal tumour extension in uterine cervical cancer on MRI compared to histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Boer

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MRI represents the histopathological craniocaudal tumour extension in the majority of patients with early stage uterine cervical cancer, but with a systematic small underestimation of the real craniocaudal tumour extension.

  12. Imaging of sacral tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Leclere, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Vanel, D. [The Rizzoli Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Missenard, G. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Comite de pathologie tumorale de l' appareil locomoteur, Villejuif (France); Pinieux, G. de [CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Hopital Trousseau, Tours (France)

    2008-04-15

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  13. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  14. Parapharyngeal space primary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Gianluigi; Suarez, Vanessa; Muñoz, María Gabriela; Costales, María; Llorente, José Luis

    The aim of this study is to present our experience with the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for parapharyngeal space tumours. This study is a retrospective review of 90 patients diagnosed with tumours of the parapharyngeal space and treated surgically between 1984 and 2015. Patients whose tumours were not primary but invaded the parapharyngeal space expanding from another region, tumours originating in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and head and neck metastasis were excluded from this study. 74% percent of the parapharyngeal space neoplasms were benign and 26% were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (27%), followed by paragangliomas (25%), miscellaneous malignant tumours (16%), neurogenic tumours (12%), miscellaneous benign tumours (10%), and malignant salivary gland tumours (10%). The transcervical approach was used in 56 cases, cervical-transparotid approach in 15 cases, type A infratemporal fossa approach in 13 cases, transmandibular approach in 4 cases and transoral approach in 2 cases. The most common complications were those deriving from nervous injuries. Most parapharyngeal space tumours can be removed surgically with a low rate of complications and recurrence. The transcervical approach is the most frequently used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemistry of neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2007-03-01

    Several circulating or urinary tumour markers can be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of functioning and clinically non-functioning neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreatic islet cells and intestinal tract. Among the specific tumour markers are serotonin and its metabolites--e.g. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)--in carcinoid tumours and the carcinoid syndrome, insulin and its precursors or breakdown products in insulinoma, and gastrin in gastrinoma. Plasma vasointestinal polypeptide (VIP) determinations have been used in the diagnosis of VIPoma, plasma glucagon for glucagonoma, and serum somatostatin for somatostatinoma. Among the tumour-non-specific markers are: chromogranins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), alpha-subunits of the glycoprotein hormones, catecholamines, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), ghrelin and adrenomedullin.

  16. Survival in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours: A Comparison between Sporadic and Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Porter

    2009-01-01

    As the survival rate in the NF group was dependant on tumour volume, routine screening of these patients with FDG PET and/or MRI may be warranted, thereby staging and controlling them at the earliest possible opportunity.

  17. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'psychiatric' indicators of possible brain tumour are sudden ... found to have weakness and/or loss of sensation in the lower extremities. Even when there is no clear weakness or hearing impairment, they may respond poorly, or not at all,.

  18. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  19. Bilateral Malignant Brenner Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser D Choudhary, S.Manzoor Kadri, Ruby Reshi, S. Besina, Mansoor A. Laharwal, Reyaz tasleem, Qurrat A. Chowdhary

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral malignant Brenner tumour ofovary is extremely rate. A case ofmalignant Brenner tumourinvolving both the ovaries with mctastasis to mesentery in a 48 year femalc is presented. Grosslyo'arian masses were firm with soft areas, encapsulated and having bosselated external surfaces.Cut sections showed yellowish white surface with peripheral cysts (in both tumours. Microscopyrevealed transitional cell carcinoma with squamoid differentiation at places. Metastatic deposits werefound in the mesentery. Endometrium showed cystic glandular hyperplasia.

  20. Tumour length is an independent prognostic factor of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning; PANG Lie-wen; CHEN Zhi-ming; MA Qin-yun; CHEN Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The latest version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system has not comprehensively evaluated the impact of tumour length on survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.Our study explored the relationship between tumour length and clinicopathological characteristics as well as long-term survival.Methods All 202 cases of esophageal resections done from January 1,2004 to December 31,2008 in Huashan Hospital,Fudan University were reviewed and followed up.Results Patients with tumour length >3 cm were related to more advanced tumour stage (X2=55.9,P <0.001),more metastatic lymph nodes (X2=14.6,P <0.001),increased metastatic lymph node ratio (x2=16.1,P <0.001) and worse overall TNM stage (X2=48.1,P <0.001).Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that tumour length was a significant prognostic risk factor (95% CI 0.235-0.947,P=0.035).Subgroup analyses disclosed that tumour length was a valuable prognostic predictor in patients with lower T stage,absence of metastatic lymph nodes and lower TNM stage.Conclusions Esophageal tumour length is a predictive factor for long-term survival especially for lower tumour stage,absence of metastatic lymph nodes and lower TNM stage patients.Tumour length should be incorporated in the staging system as an important grouping factor for better prognostic evaluation.

  1. Role of metallothionein in cisplatin sensitivity of germ-cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, C.; Timmer, A.; Vries, E.G.E.de; Groten, J.P.; Knol, A.; Zwart, N.; Dam, W.A.; Sleijfer, D.Th.; Mulder, N.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is an extremely active drug in the treatment of germ- cell tumours. Earlier, we found an unexpected inverse correlation between the total amount of sulfhydryl groups and CDDP sensitivity in a panel of 3 human germ-cell tumour and 3 colon-carcinoma cell lines. Major components of the

  2. Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164003.html Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People Study found ... News) -- Overweight and obese people tend to develop heart disease at an earlier age, living with chronic illness ...

  3. Imaging tumours of the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, Asif [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Brockley Hill, HA7 4LP, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Tumours of the brachial plexus are rare lesions and may be classified as benign or malignant. Within each of these groups, they are further subdivided into those that are neurogenic in origin (schwannoma, neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour) and those that are non-neurogenic. Careful pre-operative diagnosis and staging is essential to the successful management of these lesions. Benign neurogenic tumours are well characterized with pre-operative MRI, appearing as well-defined, oval soft-tissue masses, which are typically isointense on T1-weighted images and show the ''target sign'' on T2-weighted images. Differentiation between schwannoma and neurofibroma can often be made by assessing the relationship of the lesion to the nerve of origin. Many benign non-neurogenic tumours, such as lipoma and fibromatosis, are also well characterized by MRI. This article reviews the imaging features of brachial plexus tumours, with particular emphasis on the value of MRI in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. TUMOUR CASE IN KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study of tumour in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio was observed in rearing periode. This tumour occurs solitary, large, pale red, fleshy masses under the lips and dental plates on the outside, and by reason of its size, may prevent closure the mouth. Moreover, this tumour goes through into the inside of the mouth. At necropsy, there were two soft, firm, small mass at inside of the mouth and the bigger mass at outside the mouth. Samples of this tumour were fixed in 10% formalin were used for histology analysis. The clinical course of the tumour is one of relatively slow but progressive growth. The proliferative stage of the neoplastic process is preceded and accompanied by a striking vascular reaction. Intensed hyperemia invariably occurs in that region of the mucosal surface which later becomes the site of neoplastic proliferation. Neoplastic cells lied around lamina propria and submucosal. These cells were joined together to make vacuolization and the other cells become pleiomorphism with hyperchromatic nucleus and N/C ratio cells are 1:1. In some area, there were many empty holes, around the holes there were debris cells, inflammation cells, and erythrocytes.

  5. Towards the introduction of the 'Immunoscore' in the classification of malignant tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galon, J.; Mlecnik, B.; Bindea, G.; Angell, H.K.; Berger, A.; Lagorce, C.; Lugli, A.; Zlobec, I.; Hartmann, A.; Bifulco, C.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Palmqvist, R.; Masucci, G.V.; Botti, G.; Tatangelo, F.; Delrio, P.; Maio, M.; Laghi, L.; Grizzi, F.; Asslaber, M.; D'Arrigo, C.; Vidal-Vanaclocha, F.; Zavadova, E.; Chouchane, L.; Ohashi, P.S.; Hafezi-Bakhtiari, S.; Wouters, B.G.; Roehrl, M.; Nguyen, L; Kawakami, Y.; Hazama, S.; Okuno, K.; Ogino, S.; Gibbs, P.; Waring, P.; Sato, N.; Torigoe, T.; Itoh, K.; Patel, P.S.; Shukla, S.N.; Wang, Y.; Kopetz, S.; Sinicrope, F.A.; Scripcariu, V.; Ascierto, P.A.; Marincola, F.M.; Fox, B.A.; Pages, F.

    2014-01-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system provides the most reliable guidelines for the routine prognostication and treatment of colorectal carcinoma. This traditional tumour staging summarizes data on tumour burden (T), the presence

  6. Prognostic value of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal cancer and HLA-DR expression on tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Hjelmborg, J v B; Christensen, Per B

    2003-01-01

    clinical course, with significantly higher 5-year survival, p=0.046, independent of the Dukes stage and age. Our results have implications for tumour immunology; colorectal cancer cells might be a target for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, however the tumour cells are not able to initiate an immune response......The purpose of this study was to clarify whether HLA-DR expression of colorectal tumour cells or the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the tumour infiltrating lymphocytes is significantly associated with the prognosis of colorectal cancer. Using flow cytometry, we studied the tumour cell expression of the HLA...... class II in 70 enzymatically dissociated colorectal cancers and the phenotype of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 41 cases. There was no trend in 5-year survival between three levels (low, medium, high) of HLA-DR expression on the tumour cells. Patients with low CD4+/CD8+ ratios had a better...

  7. The ‘Pantie' Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silada Kanokrungsee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of radiation-associated angiosarcoma. A 67-year-old Thai woman was diagnosed with endometrium carcinoma stage IC and was treated with surgery and radiations. Ten years later, she presented with a gradually enlarging mass on the pubic area, in the shape of a pair of panties. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed angiosarcoma. The diagnosis was radiation-associated angiosarcoma. She was treated with chemotherapy due to unresectable tumour. The chemotherapy was started with paclitaxel 70 mg/m2 every 2 weeks. After completing the fifth cycle of paclitaxel, the lesion was markedly decreased in size and the symptoms previously described were also completely resolved.

  8. Tumour screening by means of tomography methods; Tumorscreening mit Schnittbildverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Marien-Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Tomography methods such as computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and sonography/ultrasound examinations make it possible to detect small asymptomatic tumours, thus potentially preventing their manifestation at an advanced stage and improving survival prospects for the patients concerned. There are data available on various common tumours which show that modern tomography methods are capable of detecting not only small asymptomatic tumours but also their benign precursors (e.g. polyps of the large intestine). This has been demonstrated for lung cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. However, it has not been possible to date to show for any tomography method or any type of tumour that the systematic use of such diagnostic procedures does anything to lower the mortality rate for that tumour. For other types of tumour (pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, ovary cancer) the above named methods are either not sufficiently sensitive or the body of data that has accumulated on their respective use is too small to judge the benefit of tomography screenings. Current technical developments make it appear probable that for many types of cancer the reliability with which small tumours can be detected will improve in future. Studies aimed at clarifying the potential of screenings for reducing mortality rates are already underway for lung cancer and would be worthwhile performing for other tumour types.

  9. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  10. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed.

  11. cell tumours of childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neuron-specific-enolase, vimentin and neurofilament us- .... ated on a 4-point scale based on the number of positive cells: Negative staining (—) = no tumour cell stained. Minimal .... the same laboratory, have been shown previously to be.

  12. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  13. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  14. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  15. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  16. This contribution follows an earlier attempt to show that many ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    of longevity in large squid should be revised upwards. * Fisheries Centre, 2204 .... can be assumed to trigger reproduction in squid as well (see text) ..... and the ageing bias mentioned earlier), the second phase, however, is ... and senescence ...

  17. Primary staging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, G.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentz, J.O. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ruijter, E.T.G. [Dept. of Urology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]|[Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rosette, J.J.M.C.H. de la [Dept. of Urology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oosterhof, G.O.N. [Dept. of Urology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    Staging prostate cancer is a systematic classification of the extent of disease based on clinical and pathological criteria. Despite general acceptance of the TNM staging system, a lot of controversy and uncertainty with respect to staging still exists. This paper gives an overview of differnt staging modalities and emphasizes the need for incorporation of prognostic factors, such as tumour grade and volume, in the staging system. (orig.)

  18. Tumour Debulking for Esophageal Cancer - Thermal Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer usually is discovered at a late stage and curative therapy seldom is possible. The prognosis is poor and most therapy is palliative. Endoscopic therapy commonly is employed; two common treatments involve thermal modalities. The Nd:YAG laser has been employed for 10 years and is effective in relieving obstruction in approximately 90% of cases. Re-ohstruction usually occurs in two to three months and repeat treatment may be necessary. Limitations to laser use include the fact that equipment is expensive and there are technical restrictions. An alternative thermal modality is the bipolar coagulation tumour probe which employs bipolar electrocoagulation. It is less expensive and, if the tumour is circumferential, tends to be easier to use. (It should not be used if the cancer is noncircumferential. The advantages and limitations of each modality are addressed.

  19. Hemoperitoneum: a diagnostic dilemma. A solid ovarian tumour mimicking ruptured ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills G. Sheelaa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 39 year old sterilized women presented like ruptured ectopic pregnancy with 40 days amenorrhea, pain, and shock Urine Pregnancy Test negative. Culdocentesis was positive. Ultra sonogram confirmed hemoperitoneum and TO mass. Laparotomy revealed left solid ovarian tumour with tumour mass protruding from perforated site and hemoperitoneum. Histological diagnosis was granulosa cell (GC tumour Stage 1c. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 254-256

  20. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  1. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  2. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob; Lühr, Armin; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Jäkel, Oliver; Mortensen, Lise Saksø; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B

    2014-01-01

    LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

  3. Diagnosis and staging of testicular cancer; Diagnostik und Staging von malignen Hodentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiers, Michael; Bender, Karen; Hallscheidt, Peter J. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2010-03-15

    With an incidence of just 2 % of all maligne tumour diseases testicular cancer is a relative rare tumour disease. In comparison to other tumours, orchiectomy is performed as a first step therapy straight after primary staging which is performed by palpation, ultrasonography and evaluation of the tumour markers. In a second diagnostic step initial staging will be done by re-evaluation of the tumour markers, X-ray of the thorax in some cases also by CT, CT of the abdomen/pelvis or MRI of the abdomen, in progressive disease additional MRI of the head. Follow-up after curative therapy will be performed according to the histological type (seminoma - non-seminoma) and tumour staging. (orig.)

  4. Germ cell tumours of the ovary. A clinical study of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; Browde, S; Nissenbaum, M M

    1984-04-14

    Our experience with germ cell tumours of the ovary is reviewed. Over the last 10 years, 15 cases, representing 6,4% of all our referred patients with malignant ovarian tumours, have been analysed. The type of tumour, histological appearances, stage, treatment and results of treatment are presented. The tumour most commonly seen was the dysgerminoma, comprising 60% of all cases (9 patients). Multimodal treatment generally consisted of surgery and radiotherapy for dysgerminoma with the addition of chemotherapy for the non-dysgerminomas. Survival depends on the stage and histological appearances of the tumour. Patients in whom the disease is at advanced stages have a poor prognosis, irrespective of histological features. A general review of this subject is also given.

  5. Galectin-3 coats the membrane of breast cells and makes a signature of tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-3, β-galactoside-binding lectin, coats the membrane of most cancer cells and is involved in metastasis and endothelium recognition as well as in evading immune surveillance through killing of activated T cells. To flag galectin as a biomarker of tumours and metastasis, it is pivotal to understand the role of this protein in different tumours and at different stages. Breast tumours have an anomalous behaviour of the galectin-3 compared to other tumour cells. Herein, FACS sorting and galactoside based assays were used to investigate the role of galectin-3 in metastasis and metastatisation of breast cancer cells. Breast galectin fingerprint at the FACS displayed a higher amount in healthy cells, compared to metastatic cells. The microfluidic assay was able to isolate tumour and metastatic cells more than healthy breast cells. Investigation was performed on samples from patients with breast tumours at stage I and stage III whilst MCF7 and EPH-4 cells were used to perform preliminary investigations. The readout of the conditioned medium (from culturing of stage I cells) fingerprint by FACS evidenced high expression of free galectin. Analysis of the results established that the galectin coating the membrane, by galactoside recognition of the breast cells, and engaged by the cells to form protein-carbohydrate complexes inside the microfluidic assay, resembled the tumour signature of tumours in breast cells whilst the galectin free is independent of those mechanisms. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Radiotherapy alone for local tumour control in esthesioneuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfari, G; Fusconi, M; Ciofalo, A; Gallo, A; Altissimi, G; Celani, T; De Vincentiis, M

    2008-12-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour. Due to its low incidence, this neoplasm is difficult to evaluate and its treatment remains a matter of debate. Although the role of post-operative radiation is relatively well-defined, little is reported regarding the role of radiotherapy as the only treatment modality. A retrospective analysis of the literature has been conducted. With reference to the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma, 55 patients submitted only to radiotherapy have been selected from publications of internationally indexed literature between 1979 and 2006. According to the Kadish classification, 6 patients were in stage A, 12 in stage B, and 37 in stage C. Response to therapy for each stage was assessed. There was no evidence of disease in: 6/6 stage A patients with a median follow-up period of 103.6 months, 7/12 stage B patients with a median followup period of 120 months, and 7/37 stage C patients with a median follow-up period of 77.3 months. A total of 27 patients died due to tumour-related causes and 5 due to intercurrent disease, while 3 patients were alive with disease (local recurrence and cervical lymph node metastasis). In conclusion, esthesioneuroblastoma is a malignant tumour which grows both locoregionally and distantly. For this reason, despite the satisfying results regarding response to radiotherapy alone in stage A patients, irradiation should be used only in early lesions arising below the cribriform plate, whereas all other cases require aggressive and multimodal therapy.

  7. Modern human settlement in East Asia earlier than thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Tracing through human migration history with the help of genes, Dr. SU Bing and coworkers from the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) lately revealed the evidence of a much earlier modem human settlement in East Asia than people previously thought.

  8. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurniawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

  9. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment.

  10. Unusual tumours of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E S; Pike, E; Couves, C M

    1983-09-01

    Unusual lung tumors are not simply pathological curiosities. They demonstrate features of major significance in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Six of these tumours are discussed: (1) Carcinosarcoma is rarely found in the lung. The histogenis of the lesion is unclear and the prognosis is poor. (2) Only three cases of pleomorphic adenoma have previously been described. Differentiation from other "mixed tumours" of the lung is essential. (3) A rare case of bronchial adenoma producing ectopic ACTH is described. Early recognition of these polypeptide hormone-secreting tumours is stressed. (4) Oat cell carcinoma with the myasthenic (Eaton-Lambert) syndrome shows the clinical features which should permit early tumour diagnosis. The hazards of muscle relaxants must be recognized. (5) Prostatic carcinoma with endobronchial metastases is is discussed. The importance of localization of the primary tumour is emphasized. (6) An example of double primary carcinoma is presented. The rarity of this finding may be related to the poor prognosis of patients with bronchogenesis carcinoma.

  11. Intraspinal tumours in the Kenya African.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, R F; Carmagnani, A L

    1976-06-01

    Thirty-one cases of intraspinal tumours in the African have been described, with age, sex incidence, frequency, site and histopathology shown. Intraspinal tumours in this series are compared with the larger series. Extradural and intramedullary tumours together with cervical spine tumours appear to be more frequent in this series. There is a high incidence of dumbell tumours in the neurinomas. Sarcomas are the most common type of tumours and mainly affect the thoracic spine.

  12. The effect of surgical wounding on tumour development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Molema, G; Hermens, RAEC; Wanebo, HJ; Reichner, JS; Hoekstra, HJ

    1999-01-01

    For more than a century, a role for wound healing in the outgrowth of tumours has been implied based on observations in both experimental and clinical studies. Wound healing can be divided into stages of inflammatory, proliferative, repair and remodelling processes. Through proper regulation of acti

  13. The effect of surgical wounding on tumour development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Molema, G; Hermens, RAEC; Wanebo, HJ; Reichner, JS; Hoekstra, HJ

    For more than a century, a role for wound healing in the outgrowth of tumours has been implied based on observations in both experimental and clinical studies. Wound healing can be divided into stages of inflammatory, proliferative, repair and remodelling processes. Through proper regulation of

  14. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  15. Circulating tumour cells as tumour biomarkers in melanoma: detection methods and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, L; Lorigan, P; Dive, C; Keilholz, U; Fusi, A

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are cells of solid tumour origin detectable in the peripheral blood. Their occurrence is considered a prerequisite step for establishing distant metastases. Metastatic melanoma was the first malignancy in which CTCs were detected and numerous studies have been published on CTC detection in melanoma at various stages of disease. In spite of this, there is no general consensus as to the clinical utility of CTCs in melanoma, largely due to conflicting results from heterogeneous studies and discrepancies in methods of detection between studies. In this review, we examine the possible clinical significance of CTCs in cutaneous, mucosal and ocular melanoma, focusing on detection methods and prognostic value of CTC detection.

  16. Urothelial Tumours of the Urinary Bladder: A Histopathological Study of Cystoscopic Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder tumours constitute one of the most common urological conditions. Urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all primary tumours of the bladder. These tumours are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to present the histopathological patterns of urothelial tumours and to determine the grade and stage of these tumours. Methods: This is a 3 year retrospective study of urothelial tumours carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS, Lalitpur, Nepal. Data of all cystoscopic biopsies collected during this period were analyzed. Results: Urothelial (transitional cell tumours accounted for 97.59% (81 cases of all bladder tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common tumour which was present in 67 cases (80.72%. Of these, 32 (47.76% were low grade TCC while 35 (52.24% were high grade TCC. Maximum number of tumours (70.37% were superficial (pTa and pT1 while (29.63% were muscle invasive (pT2. Sixteen percent of low grade and 76.92% of high grade tumours showed muscle invasion. Detrusor muscle was absent in 23.88% cases (16/67. Conclusion: Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common bladder cancer. Most of these tumours were high grade. A large percentage of high grade carcinomas presented with muscle invasion. Pathological grade and muscle invasion are the most valuable prognostic predictors of survival. The importance of including smooth muscle in the biopsy specimens needs to be emphasized Key words: cancer, high grade, low grade, transitional, tumour, urinary bladder.

  17. Tumour cell recruitment of the JB-1 and L 1210 ascites tumour determined directly by double labelling with [14C]- and [3H]-thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Schultze, B; Kondziella, U; Böswald, M

    1988-07-01

    Tumour cell recruitment of the JB-1 and L 1210 ascites tumour has been demonstrated directly by a double-labelling method with [14C]- and [3H]-thymidine (TdR). After [14C]-labelling of all proliferating tumour cells by multiple injections of [14C]TdR, recruitment of resting cells was stimulated by removal of the majority of tumour cells, i.e. by maximum aspiration of ascitic fluid. The number of recruited resting cells in the remaining tumour that re-enter the cell cycle after stimulation was demonstrated directly by a single injection of [3H]TdR given at different times after stimulation. The increase in the percentage of purely [3H]-labelled cells, i.e. recruited cells, with increasing time after stimulation, shows that recruitment is not a synchronous but a continuous process, the maximum of which occurs earlier in the case of the L 1210 than the JB-1 tumour. This suggests that there seems to be a relationship between the time required for maximum recruitment and the corresponding cell cycle parameters of the unperturbed tumour. There is a transitory increase of the growth fraction to about 100% and a considerable shortening of the cycle time at the maximum of recruitment.

  18. The Heidelberg classification of renal cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, G; Akhtar, M; Beckwith, BJ; Bugert, P; Cooper, CS; Delahunt, B; Eble, JN; Fleming, S; Ljungberg, B; Medeiros, LJ; Moch, H; Reuter, VE; Ritz, E; Roos, G; Schmidt, D; Srigley, [No Value; Storkel, S; VandenBerg, E; Zbar, B

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the conclusions of a workshop entitled 'Impact of Molecular Genetics on the Classification of Renal Cell Tumours', which was held in Heidelberg in October 1996, The focus on 'renal cell tumours' excludes any discussion of Wilms' tumour and its variants, or of tumours metastatic t

  19. Soft tissue tumours: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institute Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Klijanienko, Jerzy [Institute Curie, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Vascular tumours and malformations, fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumours and pseudotumours are the most common benign soft-tissue masses observed in children, and can be treated conservatively. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumours, accounting for about half of soft tissue sarcomas. A child referred for a soft-tissue mass should ideally be managed by a multidisciplinary team and primary excision should be proscribed until a definite diagnosis has been established. Clinical examination, conventional radiography and US with Doppler represent the first-line examinations and are sometimes sufficient to make a diagnosis. In all other situations, MRI is mandatory to establish the aggressiveness and extension of the tumour. This technique provides the relevant data to guide the decision regarding tissue sampling. (orig.)

  20. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.

    1988-02-01

    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  1. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.]|[Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital (China); Wang, C.C.; Wang, J. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.

    1999-03-01

    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary midbrain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs.

  2. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  3. Transarticular invasion of bone tumours across the sacroiliac joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhaya, S. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); University of Texas Health Science Centre, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States); White, L.M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Kandel, R. [University of Toronto, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Wunder, J.S.; Ferguson, P. [Univeristy of Toronto, University Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Agur, A. [University of Toronto, Division of Anatomy, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of tumour spread across the SI articulation, correlating with cadaveric anatomic observations, in order to better understand the local spread of tumour and to assist in the assessment of local staging. Twenty-four consecutive patients (14 male, 10 female; age range 22-89 years, mean 52 years) with primary bone tumours of the iliac bone or sacrum abutting the SI joint, in whom surgical resection of the SI joint was performed, were studied following institutional ethics approval. In all patients, preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the pelvis and SI joint were reviewed for imaging evidence of transarticular extension across the SI joint. Gross pathologic and histologic assessment of possible transarticular SI joint tumour extension was performed in all patients. Nine cadaveric pelvic specimens without pelvic neoplastic disease (4 male, 5 female; age range 20-84 years, mean 59 years, median 58 years) were anatomically dissected and the articular anatomy of the SI joint examined macroscopically. Twelve of the twenty-four patients demonstrated imaging and histological evidence of transarticular SI joint invasion. Eight tumours infiltrated only the interosseous ligamentous aspect of the SI joint. In the remaining four cases, extensive tumour infiltrated both the cartilaginous and ligamentous aspects of the joint. No case showed tumour involvement isolated to the cartilaginous aspect of the joint. Among the cadaveric specimens studied, degenerative changes were found involving the majority of cases (6/9), with cartilage thinning and fibrillation and antero-superior marginal osteophytes seen involving the cartilaginous portion of the SI joint articulation. Four of the nine specimens demonstrated central ossification bridging the iliac and sacral aspects of the ligamentous (interosseous) SI joint. (orig.)

  4. Prognostic impact of nomogram based on whole tumour size, tumour disappearance ratio on CT and SUVmax on PET in lung adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, So Hee; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Hyun [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Biostatistics Team, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Geewon [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Young [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Pathology, Inchun St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Inchun (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.J. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Respiratory and Critical Medicine of the Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Kwan; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Jhingook; Shim, Young Mog [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Lung adenocarcinoma frequently manifests as subsolid nodules, and the solid portion and ground-glass-opacity (GGO) portion on CT have different prognostic significance. Therefore, current T descriptor, defined as the whole tumour diameter without discrimination between solid and GGO, is insufficient. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of solid tumour size and attempt to include prognostic factors such as tumour disappearance rate (TDR) on CT and SUVmax on PET/CT. Five hundred and ninety-five patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed. We developed a nomogram using whole tumour size, TDR, and SUVmax. External validation was performed in another 102 patients. In patients with tumours measuring ≤2 cm and >2 to 3 cm, disease free survival (DFS) was significantly associated with solid tumour size (P < 0.001), but not with whole tumour size (P = 0.052). Developed nomogram was significantly superior to the conventional T stage (area under the curve of survival ROC; P = 0.013 by net reclassification improvement) in stratification of patient survival. In the external validation group, significant difference was noted in DFS according to proposed T stage (P = 0.009). Nomogram-based T descriptors provide better prediction of survival and assessment of individual risks than conventional T descriptors. (orig.)

  5. Association of primary tumour FDG uptake with clinical, histopathological and molecular characteristics in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, B.B.; Aukema, T.S. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrancken Peeters, M.J.T.F.D.; Rutgers, E.J.T. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, J.; Lips, E.H. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, W.V.; Valdes Olmos, R.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Werkhoven, E. van [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Biometrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, K.G.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rodenhuis, S. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of primary tumour {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake with clinical, histopathological and molecular characteristics of breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Second, we wished to establish for which patients pretreatment positron emission tomography (PET)/CT could safely be omitted because of low FDG uptake. PET/CT was performed in 214 primary stage II or III breast cancer patients in the prone position with hanging breasts. Tumour FDG uptake was qualitatively evaluated to determine the possibility of response monitoring with PET/CT and was quantitatively assessed using maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}). FDG uptake was compared with age, TNM stage, histology, hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, grade, Ki-67 and molecular subtype in univariable and multivariable analyses. In 203 tumours (95 %) FDG uptake was considered sufficient for response monitoring. No subgroup of patients with consistently low tumour FDG uptake could be identified. In a univariable analysis, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher in patients with distant metastases at staging examination, non-lobular carcinomas, tumours with negative hormone receptors, triple negative tumours, grade 3 tumours, and in tumours with a high proliferation index (Ki-67 expression). After multiple linear regression analysis, triple negative and grade 3 tumours were significantly associated with a higher SUV{sub max}. Primary tumour FDG uptake in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy is significantly higher in tumours with prognostically unfavourable characteristics. Based on tumour characteristics associated with low tumour FDG uptake, this study was unable to identify a subgroup of patients unlikely to benefit from pretreatment PET/CT. (orig.)

  6. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  7. Overexpression of Eag1 potassium channels in clinical tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliephacke Tessa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain types of potassium channels (known as Eag1, KCNH1, Kv10.1 are associated with the production of tumours in patients and in animals. We have now studied the expression pattern of the Eag1 channel in a large range of normal and tumour tissues from different collections utilising molecular biological and immunohistochemical techniques. Results The use of reverse transcription real-time PCR and specifically generated monoclonal anti-Eag1 antibodies showed that expression of the channel is normally limited to specific areas of the brain and to restricted cell populations throughout the body. Tumour samples, however, showed a significant overexpression of the channel with high frequency (up to 80% depending on the tissue source regardless of the detection method (staining with either one of the antibodies, or detection of Eag1 RNA. Conclusion Inhibition of Eag1 expression in tumour cell lines reduced cell proliferation. Eag1 may therefore represent a promising target for the tailored treatment of human tumours. Furthermore, as normal cells expressing Eag1 are either protected by the blood-brain barrier or represent the terminal stage of normal differentiation, Eag1 based therapies could produce only minor side effects.

  8. WILMS’ TUMOUR IN YOUNG ADULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilvel Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms’ tumour also called as nephroblastoma is a malignant renal neoplasm of childhood that arises from remnant of immature kidney. About 80% of Wilms’ tumour cases occur before age 5 with a median age of 3.5 years. But adult Wilms’ tumour can occur at any age from 16 to 70 years, the median age in young adult is around 24. CASE REPORT A 16-year-old girl came with history of mass right abdomen, which she noticed for 1 week duration; no urinary symptoms. Her recent blood pressure was 140/90 mmHg. Per abdomen a 10 x 9 cm mass palpable in the right lumbar region, surface smooth, firmto-hard in consistency, non-tender, well defined, no bruit. Urine routine examination was normal; urine culture was sterile; renal and liver function tests were within normal limits; Sr. calcium 9.5 mg/dL. CT abdomen plain and contrast showed a 10 x 9 cm heterodense lesion equivocal with renal cell carcinoma and angiomyolipoma. MR angiogram was done. It showed well-defined encapsulated heterointense mass of size 12 x 8 x 7cm, IVC and bilateral renal vein normal. Since findings were inconclusive, we did a CT-guided biopsy and report came as feature positive for small round cell tumour. Hence, proceeded with right radical nephrectomy. The final histopathology report came as Wilms’ tumour spindle cell variant. Margins clear and ureter not involved. She was then started on adjuvant chemotherapy Inj. Vincristine 2 mg weekly for 27 weeks. She is on regular followup now. CONCLUSION Wilms’ tumour should be considered in a patient who presents with a renal mass with or without loin pain, haematuria especially in young adults. Every attempt should be made to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma. The outcome for adult Wilms’ tumour is steadily improving with current multimodality treatment approach.

  9. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall; Tumor de Askin: tumor neuroectodermico de la pared toracica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, P.; Nicolas, A. I.; Vivas, I.; Damaso Aquerreta, J.; Martinez-Cuesta, A. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra. Pamplona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs.

  10. Tumour banking: the Spanish design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  11. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  12. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  13. Molecular imaging of tumour hypoxia;Imagerie moleculaire de l'hypoxie tumorale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Maire, J.P.; Trouette, R. [Hopital Saint-Andre, CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Oncologie Medicale et de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Fernandez, P.; Allard, M. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, Oncologie-radiotherapie, 94 - Creteil (France); Eimer, S. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Tourdias, T. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Neuroradiologie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Loiseau, H. [CHU de Bordeaux, Clinique universitaire de Neurochirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Huchet, A.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Maire, J.P.; Eimer, S.; Tourdias, T.; Loiseau, H. [Bordeaux-2 Univ., 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)

    2009-12-15

    By allowing an earlier diagnosis and a more exhaustive assessment of extension of the disease, the tomography by emission of positrons (PET) transforms the care of numerous cancers. At present, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]-F.D.G.) imaging appears as the only one available but new molecular markers are being developed. In the next future they would modify the approach of cancers. In this context, the molecular imaging of the hypoxia and especially the {sup 18}Fluoromisonidazole PET ([{sup 18}F]-MISO PET) can give supplementary information allowing the mapping of hypoxic regions within the tumour. Because of the links, which exist between tumour hypoxia and treatment resistance of very numerous cancers, this information can have an interest, for determination of prognosis as well as for the delineation, volumes to be irradiated. Head and neck tumours are doubtless those for which the literature gives the most elements on the therapeutic impact of tumour hypoxia. Targeted therapies, based on hypoxia, already exist and the contribution of the molecular imaging could be decisive in the evaluation of the impact of such treatment. Molecular imaging of brain tumours remains to be developed. The potential contributions of the [{sup 18}F]-MISO PET for the care of these patients need to be confirmed. In this context, we propose a review of hypoxia molecular imaging taking as examples head and neck tumours and glioblastomas (GB), two tumours for which hypoxia is one of the key factors to overcome in order to increase therapeutics results

  14. Anaesthetic management for combined emergency caesarean section and craniotomy tumour removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Y Bisri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of primary intracranial tumour during pregnancy is extremely rare. Symptoms of brain tumour include nausea, vomiting, headache and seizures which mimic symptoms of pregnancy-related hyperemesis or eclampsia. In very few cases, craniotomy tumour removal is performed earlier or even simultaneously with foetal delivery. A 40-year-old woman at 32 weeks of gestation in foetal distress presented to the emergency room with decreased level of consciousness Glasgow Coma Scale 6 (E2M2V2. Computed tomographic scan revealed a mass lesion over the left temporoparietal region with midline shift and intratumoural bleeding. In view of high risk of herniation and foetal distress, she underwent emergency caesarean section followed by craniotomy tumour removal. In parturient with brain tumour, combined surgery of tumour removal and caesarean section is decided based on clinical symptoms, type of tumour and foetal viability. Successful anaesthetic management requires a comprehensive knowledge of physiology and pharmacology, individually tailored to control intracranial pressure while ensuring the safety of mother and foetus.

  15. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  16. Preoperative shunts in thalamic tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one patients with thalamic glioma underwent a pre-tumour resection shunt surgery. The procedure was uneventful in 23 patients with relief from symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Eight patients worsened after the procedure. The level of sensorium worsened from excessively drowsy state to unconsciousness in seven patients. Three patients developed hemiparesis, 4 developed paresis of extra-ocular muscles and altered pupillary reflexes, and 1 developed incontinence of urine and persistent vomiting. Alteration in the delicately balanced intracranial pressure and movements in the tumour and vital adjacent brain areas could be the probable cause of the worsening in the neurological state in these 8 patients. On the basis of these observations and on review of literature, it is postulated that the ventricular dilatation following an obstruction in the path of the cerebrospinal fluid flow by a tumour could be a natural defense phenomenon of the brain.

  17. Staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  18. Earlier speech exposure does not accelerate speech acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Marcela; Werker, Janet F; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-08-15

    Critical periods in language acquisition have been discussed primarily with reference to studies of people who are deaf or bilingual. Here, we provide evidence on the opening of sensitivity to the linguistic environment by studying the response to a change of phoneme at a native and nonnative phonetic boundary in full-term and preterm human infants using event-related potentials. Full-term infants show a decline in their discrimination of nonnative phonetic contrasts between 9 and 12 months of age. Because the womb is a high-frequency filter, many phonemes are strongly degraded in utero. Preterm infants thus benefit from earlier and richer exposure to broadcast speech. We find that preterms do not take advantage of this enriched linguistic environment: the decrease in amplitude of the mismatch response to a nonnative change of phoneme at the end of the first year of life was dependent on maturational age and not on the duration of exposure to broadcast speech. The shaping of phonological representations by the environment is thus strongly constrained by brain maturation factors.

  19. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  20. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  1. Tumour seeding after percutaneous cryoablation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ping Wang; Hong Wang; Jian-Hui Qu; Yin-Ying Lu; Wen-Lin Bai; Zheng Dong; Xu-Dong Gao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the rate and risk factors for tumour seeding in a large cohort of patients.METHODS:Over an 8-year period,1436 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with 2423 tumour nodules underwent 3015 image-guided percutaneous cryoablation sessions [1215 guided by ultrasonography and 221 by spiral computed tomography (CT)].Follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging was performed every 3 mo.The detailed clinical data were recorded to analyse the risk factors for seeding.RESULTS:The median follow-up time was 18 (range 1-90) mo.Seeding was detected in 11 patients (0.76%)at 1-24 (median 6.0) mo after cryoablation.Seeding occurred along the needle tract in 10 patients and at a distant location in 1 patient.Seeded tumours usually showed similar imaging and histopathological features to the primary HCCs.Univariate analyses identified subcapsular tumour location and direct subcapsular needle insertion as risk factors for seeding.Multivariate analysis showed that only direct subcapsular needle insertion was an independent risk factor for seeding (P =0.017; odds ratio 2.57; 95%CI:1.47-3.65).Seeding after cryoablation occurred earlier in patients with poorly differentiated HCC than those with well or moderately differentiated HCC [1.33 ± 0.577 mo vs 11.12± 6.896 mo; P =0.042; 95%CI:(-19.115)-(-0.468)].CONCLUSION:The risk of seeding after cryoablation for HCC is small.Direct puncture of subcapsular tumours should be avoided to minimise seeding.

  2. Cardiac tumours in intrauterine life.

    OpenAIRE

    Groves, A.M.; Fagg, N. L.; Cook, A C; Allan, L. D.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980, 11 examples of cardiac tumour have been detected in the fetus out of a total of 794 congenital cardiac malformations. Patients were referred because of fetal hydrops in two, a family history of tuberous sclerosis in two, and because of the detection of a tumour mass during a scan at the local hospital in seven. The gestational age range at presentation was from 20-34 weeks. Of eight fetuses where death occurred, the histological type was rhabdomyoma in seven and teratoma in one. I...

  3. Liver metastases of neuroendocrine tumours; early reduction of tumour load to improve life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lips Cornelis JM

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroendocrine tumours frequently metastasize to the liver. Although generally slowly progressing, hepatic metastases are the major cause of carcinoid syndrome and ultimately lead to liver dysfunction, cardiac insufficiency and finally death. Methods A literature review was performed to define the optimal treatment strategy and work-up in patients with neuroendocrine hepatic metastases. Based on this, an algorithm for the management of these patients was established. Results Platelet serotonin and chromogranin A are useful biomarkers for detection and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumour. Helical computed tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy are the most sensitive diagnostic modalities. Surgical debulking is an accepted approach for reducing hormonal symptoms and to establish better conditions for medical treatment, but is frequently impossible due to the extent of disease. A novel approach is the local ablation of tumour by thermal coagulation using therapies such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA or laser induced thermotherapy (LITT. These techniques preserve normal liver tissue. There is a tendency to destroy metastases early in the course of disease, thereby postponing or eliminating the surgically untreatable stage. This can be combined with postoperative radioactive octreotide to eliminate small multiple metastases. In patients with extensive metastases who are not suitable for local destruction, systemic therapy by octreotide, 131I-MIBG treatment or targeted chemo- and radiotherapy should be attempted. A final option for selective patients is orthotopic liver transplantation. Conclusion Treatment for patients with neuroendocrine hepatic metastases must be tailored for each individual patient. When local ablative therapies are used early in the course of the disease, the occurrence of carcinoid syndrome with end stage hepatic disease can be postponed or prevented.

  4. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  6. Bilateral disease and new trends in Wilms tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Service de Radiodiagnostic, Paris (France); Begent, Joanna [University College Hospital, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Smets, Anne M. [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is a great therapeutic success story within paediatric oncology; its prognosis is excellent. Although mainly sporadic, occurring in otherwise well children, it occurs in a small number of genetically predisposed children. Thus regular surveillance imaging is performed in predisposed children in parts of the USA and Europe. The risks and benefits of surveillance are unclear, as the existing ad-hoc surveillance protocols are lacking in consistency of practice and equity of provision. We present guidelines for Wilms tumour surveillance based on a review of current practice and available evidence, outlined by a multidisciplinary working group in the UK. Wilms tumours are bilateral in 4-13% of affected children. Bilateral synchronous nephroblastomas are observed in 5% of affected children and are usually associated with the presence of nephrogenic rests, congenital malformations and predisposing syndromes. The major challenge in bilateral disease is to achieve a cure and at the same time to preserve sufficient functional renal tissue for normal growth and development. The association among Wilms tumour, nephrogenic rests and nephroblastomatosis makes detection and characterization of renal lesions with imaging extremely important. We discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different modalities used for diagnosis and follow-up in bilateral renal disease. We also discuss newly emerging diagnostic imaging tests such as {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). This technique, when fused with CT (PET-CT), allows accelerated metabolic activity to be accurately anatomically localised and so is potentially useful for staging, assessment of treatment response, and for surgical and radiotherapy planning. In addition, quantitative MRI techniques have been proved to be valuable in intracranial tumours, but no such role has been validated in abdominal disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging with calculation of ADC maps is feasible in

  7. Combined micro-PET/micro-CT imaging of lung tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rodt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice develop disseminated and circumscribed lung adenocarcinoma respectively, allowing for assessment of carcinogenesis and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility, the correlation of initial findings to histology and the administered radiation dose of combined micro-PET/micro-CT in these animal models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 14 C57BL/6 mice (4 nontransgenic, 4 SPC-raf transgenic, 6 SPC-myc transgenic were examined using micro-CT and (18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose micro-PET in-vivo. Micro-PET data was corrected for random events and scatter prior to reconstruction with a 3D-FORE/2D-OSEM iterative algorithm. Rigid micro-PET/micro-CT registration was performed. Tumour-to-non-tumour ratios were calculated for different lung regions and focal lesions. Diffuse tumour growth was quantified using a semiautomated micro-CT segmentation routine reported earlier. Regional histologic tumour load was assessed using a 4-point rating scale. Gamma radiation dose was determined using thermoluminescence dosimeters. RESULTS: Micro-CT allowed visualisation of diffuse and circumscribed tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic animals along with morphology, while micro-PET provided information on metabolism, but lacked morphologic detail. Mean tumour-to-non-tumour ratio was 2.47 for circumscribed lesions. No significant correlation could be shown between histological tumour load and tumour-to-nontumour ratio for diffuse tumours in SPC-raf transgenic animals. Calculation of the expected dose based on gamma dosimetry yielded approximately 140 mGy/micro-PET examination additional to approximately 200 mGy due to micro-CT. CONCLUSIONS: Combined micro-PET/micro-CT imaging allows for in-vivo assessment of lung tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice. The technique has potential for the evaluation of carcinogenesis and treatment strategies in circumscribed lung tumours.

  8. Combined micro-PET/micro-CT imaging of lung tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodt, Thomas; Luepke, Matthias; Boehm, Claudia; Hueper, Katja; Halter, Roman; Glage, Silke; Hoy, Ludwig; Wacker, Frank; Borlak, Juergen; von Falck, Christian

    2012-01-01

    SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice develop disseminated and circumscribed lung adenocarcinoma respectively, allowing for assessment of carcinogenesis and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility, the correlation of initial findings to histology and the administered radiation dose of combined micro-PET/micro-CT in these animal models. 14 C57BL/6 mice (4 nontransgenic, 4 SPC-raf transgenic, 6 SPC-myc transgenic) were examined using micro-CT and (18)F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose micro-PET in-vivo. Micro-PET data was corrected for random events and scatter prior to reconstruction with a 3D-FORE/2D-OSEM iterative algorithm. Rigid micro-PET/micro-CT registration was performed. Tumour-to-non-tumour ratios were calculated for different lung regions and focal lesions. Diffuse tumour growth was quantified using a semiautomated micro-CT segmentation routine reported earlier. Regional histologic tumour load was assessed using a 4-point rating scale. Gamma radiation dose was determined using thermoluminescence dosimeters. Micro-CT allowed visualisation of diffuse and circumscribed tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic animals along with morphology, while micro-PET provided information on metabolism, but lacked morphologic detail. Mean tumour-to-non-tumour ratio was 2.47 for circumscribed lesions. No significant correlation could be shown between histological tumour load and tumour-to-nontumour ratio for diffuse tumours in SPC-raf transgenic animals. Calculation of the expected dose based on gamma dosimetry yielded approximately 140 mGy/micro-PET examination additional to approximately 200 mGy due to micro-CT. Combined micro-PET/micro-CT imaging allows for in-vivo assessment of lung tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice. The technique has potential for the evaluation of carcinogenesis and treatment strategies in circumscribed lung tumours.

  9. Sox2 expression in breast tumours and activation in breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, O; Eguiara, A; Lopez-Arribillaga, E; Alberdi, M J; Hernandez-Garcia, S; Elorriaga, K; Pandiella, A; Rezola, R; Martin, A G

    2012-03-15

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model does not imply that tumours are generated from transformed tissue stem cells. The target of transformation could be a tissue stem cell, a progenitor cell, or a differentiated cell that acquires self-renewal ability. The observation that induced pluripotency reprogramming and cancer are related has lead to the speculation that CSCs may arise through a reprogramming-like mechanism. Expression of pluripotency genes (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) was tested in breast tumours by immunohistochemistry and it was found that Sox2 is expressed in early stage breast tumours. However, expression of Oct4 or Nanog was not found. Mammosphere formation in culture was used to reveal stem cell properties, where expression of Sox2, but not Oct4 or Nanog, was induced. Over-expression of Sox2 increased mammosphere formation, effect dependent on continuous Sox2 expression; furthermore, Sox2 knockdown prevented mammosphere formation and delayed tumour formation in xenograft tumour initiation models. Induction of Sox2 expression was achieved through activation of the distal enhancer of Sox2 promoter upon sphere formation, the same element that controls Sox2 transcription in pluripotent stem cells. These findings suggest that reactivation of Sox2 represents an early step in breast tumour initiation, explaining tumour heterogeneity by placing the tumour-initiating event in any cell along the axis of mammary differentiation.

  10. Computer-aided hepatic tumour ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Voirin, D; Amavizca, M; Leroy, A; Letoublon, C; Troccaz, J; Voirin, David; Payan, Yohan; Amavizca, Miriam; Leroy, Antoine; Letoublon, Christian; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2001-01-01

    Surgical resection of hepatic tumours is not always possible. Alternative techniques consist in locally using chemical or physical agents to destroy the tumour and this may be performed percutaneously. It requires a precise localisation of the tumour placement during ablation. Computer-assisted surgery tools may be used in conjunction to these new ablation techniques to improve the therapeutic efficiency whilst benefiting from minimal invasiveness. This communication introduces the principles of a system for computer-assisted hepatic tumour ablation.

  11. Primary brain tumours in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Damien; Idbaih, Ahmed; Ducray, François; Lahutte, Marion; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2012-05-26

    Important advances have been made in the understanding and management of adult gliomas and primary CNS lymphomas--the two most common primary brain tumours. Progress in imaging has led to a better analysis of the nature and grade of these tumours. Findings from large phase 3 studies have yielded some standard treatments for gliomas, and have confirmed the prognostic value of specific molecular alterations. High-throughput methods that enable genome-wide analysis of tumours have improved the knowledge of tumour biology, which should lead to a better classification of gliomas and pave the way for so-called targeted therapy trials. Primary CNS lymphomas are a group of rare non-Hodgkin lymphomas. High-dose methotrexate-based regimens increase survival, but the standards of care and the place of whole-brain radiotherapy remain unclear, and are likely to depend on the age of the patient. The focus now is on the development of new polychemotherapy regimens to reduce or defer whole-brain radiotherapy and its delayed complications.

  12. Intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Hille, JJ; Singh, S

    2001-01-01

    A case of an intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour of the dorsum of the tongue in a 73-year-old Caucasian male is reported. This case describes the oldest patient with this pathology to date. Immunoperoxidase staining for neuronspecific enolase (NSE) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) expression d

  13. Intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Hille, JJ; Singh, S

    2001-01-01

    A case of an intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour of the dorsum of the tongue in a 73-year-old Caucasian male is reported. This case describes the oldest patient with this pathology to date. Immunoperoxidase staining for neuronspecific enolase (NSE) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) expression d

  14. PET imaging in endocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Lloyd, C; Szyszko, T; Win, Z; Rubello, D; Al-Nahhas, A

    2008-06-01

    The role of PET in the assessment of endocrine tumours has been, until recently, restricted to the use of (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG). Being a marker of metabolically active lesions that show high grading and low differentiation, FDG is not ideal for this purpose since the majority of endocrine tumours are slow growing and highly differentiated. It is however useful when dedifferentiation takes place and provides excellent prognostic information. A number of hormone precursors and amino acids are labelled with (11)C and used successfully in the management of parathyroid, adrenal and pituitary tumours. However, the short half-life of (11)C radiopharmaceuticals restricts their use to centres with access to an on-site cyclotron, while the high cost of production may limit their use to research purposes. A promising new positron-emission tomography (PET) tracer is Gallium-68 obtained by elution from a long shelf-life generator that makes it economic and cyclotron-independent. Its short half-life and flexible labelling ability to a wide range of peptides and antibodies makes it ideal for PET imaging. In addition to imaging GEP-NETs and phaeochromocytoma, it has the potential to be used in a wider range of endocrine tumours.

  15. Detection of chromosomal aberrations in seminomatous germ cell tumours using comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, A M; Kirchhoff, M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    1997-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to evaluate tissue specimens from 16 seminomas in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of germ cell tumours in males. A characteristic pattern of losses and gains within the entire genomes was detected in 94% of the seminomas by comparing the ratio...... was demonstrated in the seminomas by improved detection criteria, which increased specificity and sensitivity. The rare aberrations, which appeared only in tumours in improved detection criteria, which increased specificity and sensitivity. The rare aberrations, which appeared only in tumours in clinical stage II...

  16. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  17. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierckx, Rudi Andre; de Wiele, Christophe Van

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceutic

  18. Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruers, T.J.M.; Jong, K.P. de; Ijzermans, J.N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Resection should still be considered the gold standard for many liver tumours. There is, however, growing interest in the use of radiofrequency (RFA) for the treatment of liver tumours. By RFA, tumour tissue can be destructed selectively without significant damage to vascular structures in the

  19. Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruers, TJM; de Jong, KP; Ijzermans, JNM

    2005-01-01

    Resection should still be considered the gold standard for many liver tumours. There is, however, growing interest in the use of radiofrequency (RFA) for the treatment of liver tumours. By RFA, tumour tissue can be destructed selectively without significant damage to vascular structures in the

  20. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  1. NY-ESO-1 antibody as a novel tumour marker of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, S; Wada, H; Kawada, J; Kawabata, R; Takahashi, T; Fujita, J; Hirao, T; Shibata, K; Makari, Y; Iijima, S; Nishikawa, H; Jungbluth, A A; Nakamura, Y; Kurokawa, Y; Yamasaki, M; Miyata, H; Nakajima, K; Takiguchi, S; Nakayama, E; Mori, M; Doki, Y

    2013-03-19

    NY-ESO-1 antibodies are specifically observed in patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing tumours. We analysed whether the NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response is a useful tumour marker of gastric cancer. Sera from 363 gastric cancer patients were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect NY-ESO-1 antibodies. Serial serum samples were obtained from 25 NY-ESO-1 antibody-positive patients, including 16 patients with curative resection and 9 patients who received chemotherapy alone. NY-ESO-1 antibodies were detected in 3.4% of stage I, 4.4% of stage II, 25.3% of stage III, and 20.0% of stage IV patients. The frequency of antibody positivity increased with disease progression. When the NY-ESO-1 antibody was used in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9 to detect gastric cancer, information gains of 11.2% in stages III and IV, and 5.8% in all patients were observed. The NY-ESO-1 immune response levels of the patients without recurrence fell below the cutoff level after surgery. Two of the patients with recurrence displayed incomplete decreases. The nine patients who received chemotherapy alone continued to display NY-ESO-1 immune responses. When combined with conventional tumour markers, the NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response could be a useful tumour marker for detecting advanced gastric cancer and inferring the post-treatment tumour load in seropositive patients.

  2. PET/MRI and PET/CT in advanced gynaecological tumours: initial experience and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A.; Schulthess, Gustav von; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Freiwald-Chilla, Bianka [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Hauser, Nik [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Gynaecology, Baden (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Guerbet AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI and PET/CT for staging and re-staging advanced gynaecological cancer patients as well as identify the potential benefits of each method in such a population. Twenty-six patients with suspicious or proven advanced gynaecological cancer (12 ovarian, seven cervical, one vulvar and four endometrial tumours, one uterine metastasis, and one primary peritoneal cancer) underwent whole-body imaging with a sequential trimodality PET/CT/MR system. Images were analysed regarding primary tumour detection and delineation, loco-regional lymph node staging, and abdominal/extra-abdominal distant metastasis detection (last only by PET/CT). Eighteen (69.2 %) patients underwent PET/MRI for primary staging and eight patients (30.8 %) for re-staging their gynaecological malignancies. For primary tumour delineation, PET/MRI accuracy was statistically superior to PET/CT (p < 0.001). Among the different types of cancer, PET/MRI presented better tumour delineation mainly for cervical (6/7) and endometrial (2/3) cancers. PET/MRI for local evaluation as well as PET/CT for extra-abdominal metastases had therapeutic consequences in three and one patients, respectively. PET/CT detected 12 extra-abdominal distant metastases in 26 patients. PET/MRI is superior to PET/CT for primary tumour delineation. No differences were found in detection of regional lymph node involvement and abdominal metastases detection. (orig.)

  3. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  4. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  5. MUC1 mucin as a tumour marker in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, M S; Hughes, O D; Limb, M; Price, M R; Bishop, M C

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate serum MUC1 levels (a high molecular weight glycoprotein which is upregulated and abnormally glycosylated in bladder cancer and other carcinomas) in patients with a variety of stages and grades of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, to assess its potential as a tumour marker. Blood samples were taken before treatment in 87 patients with TCC of the bladder and in 31 controls undergoing cystoscopy for benign conditions. Serum MUC1 levels were estimated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the C595 monoclonal antibody. Of patients with T4 tumours, 47% had MUC1 levels above the normal range (Psensitivity was only 24% for all tumours when the upper limit of normal was defined as 4.8 U/mL; the specificity was 97%. Serum MUC1 is not as useful tumour marker for screening, as it has a low sensitivity. However, MUC1 levels are high in advanced disease and serum MUC1 levels may be useful for disease monitoring.

  6. Effects of Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Earlier Lactating Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Manji; SHAN Anshan

    2008-01-01

    A total of 12 mature healthy Holstein dairy cows of the nearly body weight (580±30) kg, milk yield (22.5±2.8) kg in the early stages of lactation were selected in this experiment. The cows were randomly divided into 2 groups, every group had 6 cows, every group had 6 repeats, and every repeat had I cow. Added 20 g protected methionine in earlier lactating cow food every day. The results showed that protected methionine increased milk yield by 10.83%, testing group milk yield was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);protected methionine increased milk fat by 5.98%, testing group milk fat was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);Milk protein increased by 2.15%, but had insignificantly different (P>0.05);dry matter of milk had the tendency of decrease, but had insignificant difference (P>0.05).

  7. Nonlinear modelling of cancer: bridging the gap between cells and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowengrub, J S; Frieboes, H B; Jin, F; Chuang, Y-L; Li, X; Macklin, P; Wise, S M; Cristini, V

    2010-01-01

    Despite major scientific, medical and technological advances over the last few decades, a cure for cancer remains elusive. The disease initiation is complex, and including initiation and avascular growth, onset of hypoxia and acidosis due to accumulation of cells beyond normal physiological conditions, inducement of angiogenesis from the surrounding vasculature, tumour vascularization and further growth, and invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis. Although the focus historically has been to study these events through experimental and clinical observations, mathematical modelling and simulation that enable analysis at multiple time and spatial scales have also complemented these efforts. Here, we provide an overview of this multiscale modelling focusing on the growth phase of tumours and bypassing the initial stage of tumourigenesis. While we briefly review discrete modelling, our focus is on the continuum approach. We limit the scope further by considering models of tumour progression that do not distinguish tumour cells by their age. We also do not consider immune system interactions nor do we describe models of therapy. We do discuss hybrid-modelling frameworks, where the tumour tissue is modelled using both discrete (cell-scale) and continuum (tumour-scale) elements, thus connecting the micrometre to the centimetre tumour scale. We review recent examples that incorporate experimental data into model parameters. We show that recent mathematical modelling predicts that transport limitations of cell nutrients, oxygen and growth factors may result in cell death that leads to morphological instability, providing a mechanism for invasion via tumour fingering and fragmentation. These conditions induce selection pressure for cell survivability, and may lead to additional genetic mutations. Mathematical modelling further shows that parameters that control the tumour mass shape also control its ability to invade. Thus, tumour morphology may serve as a predictor of

  8. Interphase cytogenetics of multicentric renal cell tumours confirm associations of specific aberrations with defined cytomorphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Takyi, B K; Mittermayer, C; Günther, K; Handt, S

    2000-01-01

    To demonstrate associations of certain chromosomal aberrations with defined renal cell tumour (RCT) subtypes, we analysed 239 tumour nephrectomy cases for specimens with multicentric tumours. Chromosomal in situ hybridization was then performed on 15 cases with 34 foci (16 conventional renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and 18 papillary RCTs (11 carcinomas and seven adenomas) for specific chromosomal aberrations, using α-satellite probes for chromosomes 3, 7 or 17. Particular preference was given to cases which had separate foci with different cytomorphologies. Furthermore, we compared aberrations in relation to tumour size, stage, grade and between different foci in a specimen. Thirty-four cases had multiple tumours. Forty-seven per cent of the multicentric tumours were conventional RCCs and 53% papillary RCTs (against 83% solitary conventional RCCs and 5% solitary papillary RCTs). Three conventional RCCs sized 8 mm (G3), 13 cm (pT2, G2) and 15 cm (pT3b, G3), respectively, revealed monosomy 3, and 13 were disomic. Seventeen papillary RCTs (11 carcinomas and six adenomas) displayed trisomy 17, irrespective of size or grade. Four papillary carcinomas and six papillary adenomas had trisomy 7, and the rest (seven papillary carcinomas and one papillary adenoma) revealed disomy 7. In conclusion, papillary RCTs were tendentially multicentric. Although specific for conventional RCCs heedless of size, monosomy 3 was only observed in high-grade and/or advanced tumours. Trisomy 17 was only detectable in papillary RCTs irrespective of tumour state, showing increased copies with tumour growth. Papillary RCTs also appeared to lose some copies of chromosome 7 with tumour progress, possibly reflecting malignancy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10780519

  9. Asphericity of pretherapeutic tumour FDG uptake provides independent prognostic value in head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Steffen, Ingo G. [Charite University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Otto-von-Guericke University Clinic Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Wedel, Florian; Buchert, Ralph; Brenner, Winfried [Charite University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Lougovski, Alexandr; Hofheinz, Frank [Helmholtz Center Dresden Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Dresden (Germany); Marnitz, Simone [Charite University Medical Center, Department of Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Amthauer, Holger [Otto-von-Guericke University Clinic Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    To propose a novel measure, namely the 'asphericity' (ASP), of spatial irregularity of FDG uptake in the primary tumour as a prognostic marker in head-and-neck cancer. PET/CT was performed in 52 patients (first presentation, n = 36; recurrence, n = 16). The primary tumour was segmented based on thresholding at the volume-reproducible intensity threshold after subtraction of the local background. ASP was used to characterise the deviation of the tumour's shape from sphere symmetry. Tumour stage, tumour localisation, lymph node metastases, distant metastases, SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were also considered. The association of overall (OAS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with these parameters was analysed. Cox regression revealed high SUV{sub max} [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.4/7.4], MTV (HR = 4.6/5.7), TLG (HR = 4.8/8.9) and ASP (HR = 7.8/7.4) as significant predictors with respect to PFS/OAS in case of first tumour manifestation. The combination of high MTV and ASP showed very high HRs of 22.7 for PFS and 13.2 for OAS. In case of recurrence, MTV (HR = 3.7) and the combination of MTV/ASP (HR = 4.2) were significant predictors of PFS. ASP of pretherapeutic FDG uptake in the primary tumour improves the prediction of tumour progression in head-and-neck cancer at first tumour presentation. (orig.)

  10. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  11. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshingkar S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT is a biologically controversial entity that was originally described as non-neoplastic lesion in the lungs and designated initially as inflammatory pseudotumour. The lesion has recently been recognized to occur at various sites but rarely affects head and neck region. Controversies still exist regarding its reactive versus neoplastic nature. The lesion has a potential for recurrence, persistent local growth, progression to frank sarcoma and metastasis. Hence IMT can best be regarded as a low-grade sarcoma. A case of a 30-year-old female with swelling in the right maxilla and associated ophthalmic manifestations is discussed here. Contribution of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of IMT is emphasized. Additional cytogenetic studies of this highly enigmatic and minimally studied tumour are warranted.

  12. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, J. [Paediatric Oncology, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krauss, J. [Paediatric Neurosurgery, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural enhancement after posterior cranial fossa neurosurgery in children. We reviewed 53 postoperative spinal MRI studies performed for staging of paediatric malignant brain tumours, mainly infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours 2-40 days after surgery. There was contrast enhancement in the spinal subdural space in seven cases. This was not seen in any of eight patients who had been operated upon for a supratentorial tumour. After resection of 45 posterior cranial fossa tumours the frequency of subdural enhancement was 15.5%. MRI showing subdural enhancement was obtained up to 25 days postoperatively. No patient with subdural enhancement had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations positive for tumour cells or developed dissemination of disease in the CSF. Because the characteristic appearances of subdural contrast enhancement, appropriate interpretation is possible; diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis should rarely be impeded. Because of the striking similarity to that in patients with a low CSF-pressure syndrome and in view of the fact that only resection of tumours of the posterior cranial fossa, usually associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, was followed by this type of enhancement one might suggest that rapid changes in CSF pressure are implicated, rather the effects of blood introduced into the spinal canal at surgery. (orig.)

  13. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.H.L. [North District Hospital, Fanling, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Radiology Department; Ong, K.L. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Accident and Emergency Department; Au, Y.M.C. [Princess Margarete Hospital, Kowloon, (Hong Kong). Department of Radiology

    1998-11-01

    The present report describes a rare case of primary desmoplastic small cell tumour of the recto-sigmoid colon with hepatic metastases and lymphadenopathy. There are no pathognomonic radiological features and often their features overlap with other diseases including lymphoma. Histology is necessary to confirm this diagnosis. Unfortunately despite aggressive therapy, the prognosis for this disease is poor. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 8 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Notch as a tumour suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Craig S; Radtke, Freddy

    2017-03-01

    The Notch signalling cascade is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that has a crucial role in regulating development and homeostasis in various tissues. The cellular processes and events that it controls are diverse, and continued investigation over recent decades has revealed how the role of Notch signalling is multifaceted and highly context dependent. Consistent with the far-reaching impact that Notch has on development and homeostasis, aberrant activity of the pathway is also linked to the initiation and progression of several malignancies, and Notch can in fact be either oncogenic or tumour suppressive depending on the tissue and cellular context. The Notch pathway therefore represents an important target for therapeutic agents designed to treat many types of cancer. In this Review, we focus on the latest developments relating specifically to the tumour-suppressor activity of Notch signalling and discuss the potential mechanisms by which Notch can inhibit carcinogenesis in various tissues. Potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring or augmenting Notch-mediated tumour suppression will also be highlighted.

  15. Intra-tumour signalling entropy determines clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R S Banerji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample's genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers.

  16. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Jao, Chii-Wen; Soong, Bing-Wen; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Wang, Po-Shan; Wu, Yu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and electroencephalography (EEG), are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD) method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  17. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yun Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3 have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and electroencephalography (EEG, are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  18. Angiopoietin-Like-4, a Potential Target of Tacrolimus, Predicts Earlier Podocyte Injury in Minimal Change Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Si; Chen, Xiao; Peng, Lei; Wei, Shi-Yao; Zhao, Shi-Lei; Diao, Tian-Tian; He, Yi-Xin; Liu, Fang; Wei, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Qing-Fang; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Podocyte injury plays central roles in proteinuria and kidney dysfunction, therefore, identifying specific biomarker to evaluate earlier podocyte injury is highly desirable. Podocyte-secreted angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4) mediates proteinuria in different types of podocytopathy. In the present study, we established an experimental minimal change disease (MCD) rat model, induced by adriamycin (ADR) and resulted in definite podocyte injury, to identify the dynamic changes in Angptl4 expression. We also investigated the direct effects of tacrolimus on Angptl4 and podocyte repair. We determined that the glomerular Angptl4 expression was rapidly upregulated and reached a peak earlier than desmin, an injured podocyte marker, in the ADR rats. Furthermore, this upregulation occurred prior to heavy proteinuria and was accompanied by increased urinary Angptl4. We observed that the Angptl4 upregulation occurred only when podocyte was mainly damaged since we didn't observe little Angptl4 upregulation in MsPGN patients. In addition, we observed the glomerular Angptl4 mainly located in injured podocytes rather than normal podocytes. Moreover, we found that tacrolimus treatment significantly promoted podocyte repair and reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4 expression at an earlier stage with a significant serum Angptl4 upregulation. And similar results were confirmed in MCD patients. In conclusion, this study represents the first investigation to demonstrate that Angptl4 can predict podocyte injury at earlier stages in MCD and the identification of earlier podocyte injury biomarkers could facilitate the prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients with podocytopathy, as well as determination of the prognosis and treatment efficacy in these diseases.

  19. Surgical decision criteria: Bednar tumour of the foot in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Rainer; Weidner, Katrin; Bruder, Elisabeth; Kalbermatten, Daniel F; Haug, Martin

    2011-12-01

    An 8-year-old boy was admitted for excision of a putative 'blue nevus' on the left foot. Histological examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a Bednar tumour, the pigmented variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Surgical options considered by a multidisciplinary team included wide local excision, Mohs micrographic surgery or a staged excision with examination of several histological sections. The third alternative procedure was chosen after consideration of tumour and patient factors to achieve the best possible clinical, cosmetic and functional outcome. After the final surgical procedure with resection of the third metatarsal bone, all peripheral margins were free of tumour, and the interdigital space was reconstructed with a pedicled pulpa flap. Three years after surgery, there was no tumour recurrence, and further long-term follow-up for this patient will be provided. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2012-07-01

    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  1. Movement disorders caused by brain tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatoe H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders are uncommon presenting features of brain tumours. Early recognition of such lesions is important to arrest further deficit. We treated seven patients with movement disorders secondary to brain tumours over a period of seven years. Only two of these were intrinsic thalamic tumours (astrocytomas while the rest were extrinsic tumours. The intrinsic tumours were accompanied by hemichorea. Among the extrinsic tumours, there was one pituitary macroadenoma with hemiballismus and four meningiomas with parkinsonism. Symptoms were unilateral in all patients except one with anterior third falcine meningioma who had bilateral rest tremors. There was relief in movement disorders observed after surgery. Imaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory in the evaluation of movement disorders, especially if the presentation is atypical, unilateral and/or accompanied by long tract signs.

  2. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, Anne M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology G1, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kraker, Jan de [Paediatric Oncology-Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  3. Clinical relevance of intermittent tumour blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Ralph E.; Aquino-Parsons, Christina [British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-12-01

    One of the goals of translational cancer research is to understand basic 'phenomena' so that tumour response to therapy can be improved. One such phenomenon is intermittent tumour blood flow. The impact of the transient hypoxia that results from decreased tumour blood flow is now beginning to be appreciated in preclinical systems, and also receiving some attention in clinical practise. Thus in this article we review the nature and frequency of microregional blood flow changes in preclinical and clinical tumours and examine the impact of those changes on response to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Additionally, the implications of non-constant blood flow for both the growth of the unperturbed tumour and the regrowth of surviving tumour clonogens during and after therapy are examined.

  4. [Solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gres, Pascal; Avances, Christophe; Ben Naoum, Kamel; Chapuis, Héliette; Costa, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are mesenchymal tumours that usually arise from the pleura. Renal SFT are exceptional (9 cases reported in the literature). The authors report a new case discovered during assessment of HT and treated by radical right nephrectomy. The histological appearance is characteristic: a tumour with a fibrous centre, composed of a monomorphic proliferation of spindle cells, with positive CD 34, CD 99, and bcl 2 labelling. The prognosis after complete resection is generally favourable.

  5. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  6. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, A.J.; Fellows, G.A.; Griffiths, J.R.; Wilson, M.; Bell, B.A.; Howe, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our inter

  7. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, A.J.; Fellows, G.A.; Griffiths, J.R.; Wilson, M.; Bell, B.A.; Howe, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our inter

  8. Earlier migration timing, decreasing phenotypic variation, and biocomplexity in multiple salmonid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Kovach

    Full Text Available Climate-induced phenological shifts can influence population, evolutionary, and ecological dynamics, but our understanding of these phenomena is hampered by a lack of long-term demographic data. We use a multi-decade census of 5 salmonid species representing 14 life histories in a warming Alaskan stream to address the following key questions about climate change and phenology: How consistent are temporal patterns and drivers of phenology for similar species and alternative life histories? Are shifts in phenology associated with changes in phenotypic variation? How do phenological changes influence the availability of resource subsidies? For most salmonid species, life stages, and life histories, freshwater temperature influences migration timing--migration events are occurring earlier in time (mean = 1.7 days earlier per decade over the 3-5 decades, and the number of days over which migration events occur is decreasing (mean = 1.5 days per decade. Temporal trends in migration timing were not correlated with changes in intra-annual phenotypic variation, suggesting that these components of the phenotypic distribution have responded to environmental change independently. Despite commonalities across species and life histories, there was important biocomplexity in the form of disparate shifts in migration timing and variation in the environmental factors influencing migration timing for alternative life history strategies in the same population. Overall, adult populations have been stable during these phenotypic and environmental changes (λ ≈ 1.0, but the temporal availability of salmon as a resource in freshwater has decreased by nearly 30 days since 1971 due to changes in the median date of migration timing and decreases in intra-annual variation in migration timing. These novel observations advance our understanding of phenological change in response to climate warming, and indicate that climate change has influenced the ecology of

  9. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications.

  10. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  11. Prognosis of Brain Tumours with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The prognosis of 560 patients with a clinical and CT diagnosis of intrinsic supratentorial brain tumour was examined retrospectively at the Department of Neurosciences, Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England.

  12. Diagnostic utility of Wilms′ tumour-1 protein (WT-1 immunostaining in paediatric renal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: WT1 helps to differentiate Wilms′ tumour from other paediatric renal tumours. It may help in differentiating the two subgroups of Wilms′ tumour which have distinct molecular pathogenesis and biological behaviour, however, further prospective studies are required for validation of this hypothesis.

  13. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  14. Combining in Vitro Diagnostics with in Vivo Imaging for Earlier Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeseke, Paul F; Chen, Ru; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Brentnall, Teresa A; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and is associated with a dismal prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an advanced stage. Overall survival is significantly improved if PDAC is detected at an early stage prior to the onset of symptoms. At present, there is no suitable screening strategy for the general population. Available diagnostic serum markers are not sensitive or specific enough, and clinically available imaging modalities are inadequate for visualizing early-stage lesions. In this article, the role of currently available blood biomarkers and imaging tests for the early detection of PDAC will be reviewed. Also, the emerging biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents being developed to improve the specificity of current imaging modalities for PDAC will be discussed. A strategy incorporating blood biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents could lead to improved screening and earlier detection of PDAC in the future. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  15. Surgical treatment of benign parapharyngeal space tumours. Presentation of two clinical cases and revision of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ferro, Martin; Fernández Sanromán, Jacinto; Costas López, Alberto; Sandoval Gutiérrez, Jesús; López de Sánchez, Annahys

    2008-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours, most of them benign, account for some 0.5% of tumours of the head and neck. The importance of these tumours lies mainly in two aspects: on the one hand, the difficulty of early diagnosis, due to the lack of symptoms in the initial stages and, on the other, the extreme complications of performing surgery in the parapharyngeal region. This article discusses two clinical cases of parapharyngeal space tumours: a 45 year old man and a 60 year old woman. We revise the scientific literature and analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used, placing special emphasis on describing the different surgical approaches to the parapharyngeal space: transcervical, transcervical-transparotid, transpalatal or transoral, transmandibular and orbitozygomatic, all of which, used alone or combined with others, allow for complete resection of these tumours with minimum morbidity.

  16. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Methods Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4 in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2 vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. Results High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and

  17. Percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G.F.; Josipovic, Mirjana; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund

    2013-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications.......A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications....

  18. Skull metastasis from rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Pazo-Cid, Roberto Antonio; Felipo, Francesc; Lecumberri, María José; Calderero, Verónica

    2009-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Rectum localisation is infrequent for these neoplasms, accounting for about 5% of all cases. Distant metastases of GIST are also rare. We present a patient with special features: the tumour is localised in rectum and it has an uncommon metastatic site, the skull, implying a complex differential diagnosis approach.

  19. Thermal resistance in a spontaneous murine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, J; Urano, M; Rice, L; Suit, H D

    1981-12-01

    Resistance to subsequent hyperthermia as a result of prior heating was investigated using a spontaneous murine tumour implanted into the feet of C3H/Sed mice. Tumours were treated by immersing the tumour-bearing foot into a constant-temperature hot water bath set at 45.5 degrees C and were given single and split doses of heat. Response was assessed using a tumour-growth time assay. Three aspects of thermally-induced resistance were particularly considered: the time course of development and decay; the importance of the magnitude of the priming dose and the influence of the size of the tumour at the time of treatment. Substantial resistance was induced in this tumour by short priming doses at 45.5 degrees C, rising rapidly 1-2 days after the first treatment and then starting to decay. There was no significant difference in the kinetics of thermal resistance induced in tumours treated at 4mm and those treated at 8 mm in size, although the large tumours were more sensitive to single doses of heat. Increasing the magnitude of the priming dose of heat resulted in an increase in the magnitude of resistance to the second dose. The results of this study are compared with results of similar studies in this and other laboratories using murine normal tissues and cells in culture. Possible clinical implications are considered.

  20. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-06-27

    Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes.

  1. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Material and Methods: Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. Results: The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). Conclusions: LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes. PMID:27489752

  2. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  3. Large benign retroperitoneal tumour in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczi, Csaba; Osvath, Peter; Flasko, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year-old female was in the 13th week of pregnancy when an abdominal ultrasound examination revealed a large retroperitoneal tumour. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out and the imaging described a 10-cm mass in diameter extending from the right kidney. Given that the patient was in her first trimester and that there was a suspicion of malignancy, further surgical exploration of the tumour was warranted. During the operation, the tumour was removed, but nephrectomy was not necessary. Histologic analysis of the resected tumour showed a mucinous cystic adenoma, and no signs of malignancy were present. Following the surgery, the pregnancy was otherwise uneventful and further complications did not occur. This case illustrates that surgery is recommended in patients with a retroperitoneal tumour early during a pregnancy, when a malignancy cannot be excluded.

  4. Hepatic involvement in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: discrepancies between AIDS patients and those with earlier stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer-Krämer, L; Krämer, A; Weigel, R; Rögler, G; Fleige, B; Krause, P H; Hahn, E G; Riecken, E O; Pohle, H D

    1991-04-01

    The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on type and severity of liver disease was studied in 61 HIV-positive patients who did not have AIDS and in 45 AIDS patients. Liver biopsies revealed viral hepatitis in 12 of 18 non-AIDS patients but in only 4 of 34 AIDS patients (P less than .0005, Fisher's exact test). Acute, non-A non-B, and chronic active hepatitis B were seen exclusively in the non-AIDS group; however, chronic persistent hepatitis B was seen in both groups. In 9 of 18 AIDS patients intra vitam liver histopathology established diagnoses of opportunistic infections or tumors. Tissue reaction to certain pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus, mycobacteria, and cryptococci, seems to be milder in AIDS patients than in others who are HIV positive or the expected reaction of the normal host. This is likely because of impaired cell-mediated immunity in patients with advanced HIV disease.

  5. Complex molecular mechanisms cooperate to mediate histone deacetylase inhibitors anti-tumour activity in neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardou Katya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are a new class of promising anti-tumour agent inhibiting cell proliferation and survival in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Neuroblastoma (NB is the second most common solid tumour in children still associated with poor outcome in higher stages and, thus NB strongly requires novel treatment modalities. Results We show here that the HDACi Sodium Butyrate (NaB, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA and Trichostatin A (TSA strongly reduce NB cells viability. The anti-tumour activity of these HDACi involved the induction of cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, followed by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, via the activation of the caspases cascade. Moreover, HDACi mediated the activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and BimEL and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-xL, RIP and survivin, that further enhanced the apoptotic signal. Interestingly, the activity of these apoptosis regulators was modulated by several different mechanisms, either by caspases dependent proteolytic cleavage or by degradation via the proteasome pathway. In addition, HDACi strongly impaired the hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF by NB cells. Conclusion HDACi are therefore interesting new anti-tumour agents for targeting highly malignant tumours such as NB, as these agents display a strong toxicity toward aggressive NB cells and they may possibly reduce angiogenesis by decreasing VEGF production by NB cells.

  6. Thyroid transcription factor-1 immunohistochemistry: diagnostic tool and malignancy marker in canine malignant lung tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, G; Marconato, L; Morini, M; Ferrari, F

    2009-03-01

    Distinguishing primary lung carcinomas (PLCs) from metastases is a challenging task. The diagnostic and prognostic relevance of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), a nuclear protein expressed in follicular cells of the thyroid gland and pneumocytes, was tested in 34 primary and 27 nonprimary canine lung tumours. Normal pneumocytes stained negatively in 14 PLCs because of overfixation or prolonged storage of paraffin blocks and were excluded from the study. Among the 20 immunoreactive PLCs, 17 showed strong nuclear positivity. The three tumours that scored negative were two squamous cell and one papillary carcinoma. Metastatic tumours were always negative. TTF-1 was 100% specific and 85% sensitive for PLCs. There was no significant relationship among the percentage of labelled tumour cells (TTF-1 index) and the considered clinicopathological parameters (age, gender, histological type, tumour grade, TNM stage, node status and MIB-1 index). TTF-1 immunohistochemistry may give useful additional information regarding the origin of canine lung tumours, whereas its prognostic use still needs to be determined.

  7. Evaluation of the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumour–node–metastasis (TNM) staging system for patients undergoing curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: implications for the development of a refined staging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert C Y; Fan, Sheung Tat; Poon, Ronnie T P; Cheung, Tan To; Chok, Kenneth S H; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumour–node–metastasis (TNM) staging system and to compare its efficacy with those of the fifth and sixth editions of the AJCC staging system and the TNM staging system defined by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. Methods Data for 754 patients submitted to hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between 1989 and 2005 were reviewed. Tumour-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared between subgroups using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors for tumour-free survival were identified by multivariable analysis. The accuracy of these staging systems was evaluated using the Cox regression model and a refined staging system was developed based on the drawbacks of the respective systems. Results According to the criteria defined by the seventh AJCC TNM staging system, 5-year survival was 50.6% in patients with T1 tumours, 21.0% in patients with T2 tumours, 14.6% in patients with T3a tumours, 12.1% in patients with T3b tumours, and 12.9% in patients with T4 tumours. There was no survival difference between patients with T3a and T3b tumours (P = 0.073), nor between those with T3b and T4 tumours (P = 0.227). Significant prognostic tumour factors were microvascular invasion, tumour multiplicity, bilobar disease and a tumour size of ≥5.0 cm. The fifth and sixth editions of the AJCC TNM staging system were found to be more accurate in prognosis than the seventh. Conclusions The seventh edition of the AJCC TNM staging system is able to adequately stratify patients with early HCC only. A refined staging system is therefore proposed. PMID:23659567

  8. Carbonic anhydrases in normal gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal tumours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antti J. Kivel(a); Jyrki Kivel(a); Juha Saarnio; Seppo Parkkila

    2005-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyse the hydration of CO2to bicarbonate at physiological pH. This chemical interconversion is crucial since HCO3- is the substrate for several biosynthetic reactions. This review is focused on the distribution and role of CA isoenzymes in both normal and pathological gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues. It has been known for many years that CAs are widely present in the GI tract and play important roles in several physiological functions such as production of saliva, gastric acid, bile, and pancreatic juice as well as in absorption of salt and water in intestine. New information suggests that these enzymes participate in several processes that were not envisioned earlier. Especially, the recent reports on plasma membranebound isoenzymes Ⅸ and Ⅻ have raised considerable interest since they were reported to participate in cancer invasion and spread. They are induced by tumour hypoxia and may also play a role in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated carcinogenesis.

  9. Mechanical induction of the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway by tumour growth pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, María Elena; Barbier, Sandrine; Whitehead, Joanne; Béalle, Gaëlle; Michel, Aude; Latorre-Ossa, Heldmuth; Rey, Colette; Fouassier, Laura; Claperon, Audrey; Brullé, Laura; Girard, Elodie; Servant, Nicolas; Rio-Frio, Thomas; Marie, Hélène; Lesieur, Sylviane; Housset, Chantal; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël; Ménager, Christine; Fre, Silvia; Robine, Sylvie; Farge, Emmanuel

    2015-07-02

    The tumour microenvironment may contribute to tumorigenesis owing to mechanical forces such as fibrotic stiffness or mechanical pressure caused by the expansion of hyper-proliferative cells. Here we explore the contribution of the mechanical pressure exerted by tumour growth onto non-tumorous adjacent epithelium. In the early stage of mouse colon tumour development in the Notch(+)Apc(+/1638N) mouse model, we observed mechanistic pressure stress in the non-tumorous epithelial cells caused by hyper-proliferative adjacent crypts overexpressing active Notch, which is associated with increased Ret and β-catenin signalling. We thus developed a method that allows the delivery of a defined mechanical pressure in vivo, by subcutaneously inserting a magnet close to the mouse colon. The implanted magnet generated a magnetic force on ultra-magnetic liposomes, stabilized in the mesenchymal cells of the connective tissue surrounding colonic crypts after intravenous injection. The magnetically induced pressure quantitatively mimicked the endogenous early tumour growth stress in the order of 1,200 Pa, without affecting tissue stiffness, as monitored by ultrasound strain imaging and shear wave elastography. The exertion of pressure mimicking that of tumour growth led to rapid Ret activation and downstream phosphorylation of β-catenin on Tyr654, imparing its interaction with the E-cadherin in adherens junctions, and which was followed by β-catenin nuclear translocation after 15 days. As a consequence, increased expression of β-catenin-target genes was observed at 1 month, together with crypt enlargement accompanying the formation of early tumorous aberrant crypt foci. Mechanical activation of the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway suggests unexplored modes of tumour propagation based on mechanical signalling pathways in healthy epithelial cells surrounding the tumour, which may contribute to tumour heterogeneity.

  10. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with improved survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongxian; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Haixing; Song, Qi; Sujie, Akesu; Huang, Jie; Xu, Yifan; Zeng, Haiying; Tan, Lijie; Hou, Yingyong; Xu, Chen

    2017-03-21

    We undertook a study of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a large and relatively homogeneous group of patients with completely resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of 235 ESCC tumours were evaluated for density of TILs in intratumoural (iTIL) and stromal compartments (sTIL). Foxp3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in tumoural and stromal areas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Of the 235 tumours, high sTIL (>10%), and iTIL (>10%) were observed in 101 (43.0%) and 98 (41.7%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.0 months (95% CI 29.929-42.071). Univariate analysis revealed that sTIL (>10%), iTIL (>20%), vessels involvement, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were significantly associated with postoperative outcome. In multivariate analysis, high sTIL (HR: 0.664, P = 0.019 for Disease free survival; HR: 0.608, P = 0.005 for Overall survival) was identified as independent better prognostic factor. Further analysis, sTIL was identified as independently prognostic factor in Stage III-IVa disease, which was not found in Stage I-II disease. Our study demonstrated that sTIL was associated with better ESCC patients' survival, especially in Stage III-IVa disease. Assessment of sTIL could be useful to discriminate biological behavior for ESCC patients.

  11. Accelerated regrowth of non-small-cell lung tumours after induction chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Sharouni, SY; Kal, HB; Battermann, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Induction chemotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage III with gemcitabine and cisplatin for downstaging of the tumour with the aim for further treatment with ionising radiation is one of the treatments for lung cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence

  12. Heterogeneity of expression of immunohistochemical tumour markers in testicular carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Kvist, Majbrit; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    directly to either seminoma or nonseminoma; according to the other, seminoma is the intermediate stage between CIS and nonseminoma. CIS cells express several tumour antigens, such as placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), TRA-1-60, or the c-kit proto-oncogene protein product (Kit), which are present...

  13. Estimation of tumour dose enhancement due to gold nanoparticles during typical radiation treatments: a preliminary Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S H [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 94, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    A recent mice study demonstrated that gold nanoparticles could be safely administered and used to enhance the tumour dose during radiation therapy. The use of gold nanoparticles seems more promising than earlier methods because of the high atomic number of gold and because nanoparticles can more easily penetrate the tumour vasculature. However, to date, possible dose enhancement due to the use of gold nanoparticles has not been well quantified, especially for common radiation treatment situations. Therefore, the current preliminary study estimated this dose enhancement by Monte Carlo calculations for several phantom test cases representing radiation treatments with the following modalities: 140 kVp x-rays, 4 and 6 MV photon beams, and {sup 192}Ir gamma rays. The current study considered three levels of gold concentration within the tumour, two of which are based on the aforementioned mice study, and assumed either no gold or a single gold concentration level outside the tumour. The dose enhancement over the tumour volume considered for the 140 kVp x-ray case can be at least a factor of 2 at an achievable gold concentration of 7 mg Au/g tumour assuming no gold outside the tumour. The tumour dose enhancement for the cases involving the 4 and 6 MV photon beams based on the same assumption ranged from about 1% to 7%, depending on the amount of gold within the tumour and photon beam qualities. For the {sup 192}Ir cases, the dose enhancement within the tumour region ranged from 5% to 31%, depending on radial distance and gold concentration level within the tumour. For the 7 mg Au/g tumour cases, the loading of gold into surrounding normal tissue at 2 mg Au/g resulted in an increase in the normal tissue dose, up to 30%, negligible, and about 2% for the 140 kVp x-rays, 6 MV photon beam, and {sup 192}Ir gamma rays, respectively, while the magnitude of dose enhancement within the tumour was essentially unchanged. (note)

  14. Estimation of tumour dose enhancement due to gold nanoparticles during typical radiation treatments: a preliminary Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Hyun

    2005-08-07

    A recent mice study demonstrated that gold nanoparticles could be safely administered and used to enhance the tumour dose during radiation therapy. The use of gold nanoparticles seems more promising than earlier methods because of the high atomic number of gold and because nanoparticles can more easily penetrate the tumour vasculature. However, to date, possible dose enhancement due to the use of gold nanoparticles has not been well quantified, especially for common radiation treatment situations. Therefore, the current preliminary study estimated this dose enhancement by Monte Carlo calculations for several phantom test cases representing radiation treatments with the following modalities: 140 kVp x-rays, 4 and 6 MV photon beams, and 192Ir gamma rays. The current study considered three levels of gold concentration within the tumour, two of which are based on the aforementioned mice study, and assumed either no gold or a single gold concentration level outside the tumour. The dose enhancement over the tumour volume considered for the 140 kVp x-ray case can be at least a factor of 2 at an achievable gold concentration of 7 mg Au/g tumour assuming no gold outside the tumour. The tumour dose enhancement for the cases involving the 4 and 6 MV photon beams based on the same assumption ranged from about 1% to 7%, depending on the amount of gold within the tumour and photon beam qualities. For the 192Ir cases, the dose enhancement within the tumour region ranged from 5% to 31%, depending on radial distance and gold concentration level within the tumour. For the 7 mg Au/g tumour cases, the loading of gold into surrounding normal tissue at 2 mg Au/g resulted in an increase in the normal tissue dose, up to 30%, negligible, and about 2% for the 140 kVp x-rays, 6 MV photon beam, and 192Ir gamma rays, respectively, while the magnitude of dose enhancement within the tumour was essentially unchanged.

  15. Microarray profiles on age-related genes in the earlier postnatal rat visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liu; NIE Yu-hong; ZHOU Li-hua; LIN Shao-chun; WU Kai-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that both innate and adaptive mechanisms are responsible for the postnatal development of the mammalian visual cortex. Most of the studies, including gene expression analysis, were performed on the visual cortex during the critical period; few efforts were made to elucidate the molecular changes in the visual cortex during much earlier postnatal stages. The current study aimed to gain a general insight into the molecular mechanisms in the developmental process of the rat visual cortex using microarray to display the gene expression profiles of the visual cortex on postnatal days.Methods All age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats in various groups including postnatal day 0 (PO, n=20), day 10 (P10,n=15), day 20 (P20, n=15) and day 45 (P45, n=10) were sacrificed respectively. Fresh visual cortex from the binocular area (Area 17) was dissected for extraction of total RNA for microarray analyses. Taking advantage of annotation information from the gene ontology and pathway database, the gene expression profiles were systematically and globally analyzed.Results Of the 31 042 gene sequences represented on the rat expression microarray, more than 4000 of the transcripts significantly altered at days 45,20 or 10 compared to day 0. The most obvious alteration of gene expression occurred in the first ten days of the postnatal period and the genomic activities of the visual cortex maintained a high level from birth to day 45. Compared to the gene expression at birth, there were 2630 changed transcripts that shared in three postnatal periods.The up-regulated genes in most signaling pathways were more than those of the down-regulated genes.Conclusions Analyzing gene expression patterns, we provide a detailed insight into the molecular organization of the developing visual cortex in the earlier postnatal rat. The most obvious alteration of gene expression in visual cortex occurred in the first ten days. Our data were a basis to identify new

  16. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinó P

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pancreatic neoplasms are an uncommon aetiology of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a rare subgroup of pancreatic neoplasms. CASE REPORT: We report on three patients having acute pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, one of them with severe pancreatitis, and review the published cases up to now. Only 22 patients with acute pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours have been reported (including the present cases. Most of these cases were of non-functioning neoplasms and the course of the pancreatitis tended to be mild. In the most recent reports and in the present cases, the initial diagnostic method was CT scan. Less than half had metastases when the tumour was diagnosed and mortality from these neoplasms reached approximately 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours can cause acute pancreatitis even in patients under 50 years of age. On many occasions, the tumours are non-functioning; therefore, acute pancreatitis may be the first clinical symptom. Consequently, faced with acute pancreatitis of unknown origin, a non-functioning neuroendocrine tumour should be ruled out.

  18. Mechanisms of tumour escape from immune surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Urszula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The progressive growth and spread of tumour cells in the form of metastases requires an interaction of healthy host cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other cells of mesenchymal origin with immune cells taking part in innate and adaptive responses within the tumour lesion and entire body. The host cells interact with tumour cells to create a dynamic tumour microenvironment, in which healthy cells can both positively and negatively influence the growth and spread of the tumour. The balance of cellular homeostasis and the effect of substances they secrete on the tumour microenvironment determine whether the tumour has a tendency to grow or disappear, and whether the cells remain within the lesion or are capable of metastasis to other regions of the body. Intercellular interactions also determine the tumour’s susceptibility to radiation or other types of cancer treatment. They may also be a rational explanation for differences in treatment outcomes, in which some metastases regress and others progress in response to the same treatment method.

  19. Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumour progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterina eD'Asti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a frequent site of neoplastic growth, including both primary and metastatic tumours. The clinical intractability of many brain tumours and their distinct biology are implicitly linked to the unique microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS and cellular interactions within. Among the most intriguing forms of cellular interactions is that mediated by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs. Their biogenesis (vesiculation and uptake by recipient cells serves as a unique mechanism of intercellular trafficking of complex biological messages including the exchange of molecules that cannot be released through classical secretory pathways, or that are prone to extracellular degradation. Tumour cells produce EVs containing molecular effectors of several cancer-related processes such as growth, invasion, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and coagulopathy. Notably, tumour-derived EVs (oncosomes also contain oncogenic proteins, transcripts, DNA and microRNA (miR. Uptake of this material may change properties of the recipient cells and impact the tumour microenvironment. Examples of transformation-related molecules found in the cargo of tumour-derived EVs include the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII, tumour suppressors (PTEN and oncomirs (miR-520g. It is postulated that EVs circulating in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of brain tumour patients may be used to decipher molecular features (mutations of the underlying malignancy, reflect responses to therapy or molecular subtypes of primary brain tumours (e.g. glioma or medulloblastoma. It is possible that metastases to the brain may also emit EVs with clinically relevant oncogenic signatures. Thus EVs emerge as a novel and functionally important vehicle of intercellular communication that can mediate multiple biological effects. In addition, they provide a unique platform to develop molecular biomarkers in brain malignancies.

  20. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  1. Pulmonary tumour microembolism clinically mimicking alveolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, A W I; Tse, G M K; Chu, W C W; Chan, A B W

    2003-01-01

    A 56 year old man with previously unsuspected recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus presented with dyspnoea. Bronchoscopy and computed tomography suggested bronchopneumonic changes with an infectious cause. He suffered a rapidly deteriorating course and died despite active treatment, including antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. Necropsy revealed a florid pulmonary tumour microembolism mimicking alveolitis. No bronchopneumonia was seen. The emboli arose from loosely attached tumour vegetations in the tricuspid valve. In a patient with known malignancy, tumour microembolism should be considered as an uncommon cause of rapid respiratory failure, refractory to antibiotic treatment. PMID:14600135

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals as probes to characterize tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Israt S.; Arshad, Mubarik A.; Nguyen, Quang-De; Aboagye, Eric O. [Imperial College London, Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Tumour cells exhibit several properties that allow them to grow and divide. A number of these properties are detectable by nuclear imaging methods. We discuss crucial tumour properties that can be described by current radioprobe technologies, further discuss areas of emerging radioprobe development, and finally articulate need areas that our field should aspire to develop. The review focuses largely on positron emission tomography and draws upon the seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' review article by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011 placing into context the present and future roles of radiotracer imaging in characterizing tumours. (orig.)

  3. STUDY OF THE CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL PATTERN OF GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Prasad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST are a rare mesenchymal malignancy of the Gastrointestinal (GI tract. GISTs originate from Interstitial Cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cell of the gut. Over the last decade, GISTs have gone from a surgical obscurity to a tumour of extreme interest not only to surgeons but also to oncologists. Surgical management is the mainstay of therapy. They can be benign or malignant in nature. This study aims to analyse the clinical spectrum and various histomorphological features. Aims- 1. To study the modes of presentation of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour, 2. To study the sites of lesion in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour, 3. To analyse the stage of presentation of the cases of GIST presenting in Calicut Medical College, 4. To study the pathology (histopathology and immunohistochemistry to prognosticate the disease. Settings- Department of General Surgery and Gastrosurgery, Medical College Kozhikode, Sample Size- 44 cases over a period of 2 years, Study Period- Jan 2011- December 2012 (2 years, Design of Study- Descriptive Study, Design- Case Control Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Detailed history was taken with regard to the age, sex, mode of presentation, site of lesion, pathology (histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Relevant investigations like CBC, RBS, RFT, LFT, SE, PT-INR, USG abdomen, CECT abdomen, histopathology of specimen including the size and the number of mitosis per high power field and study of immunohistochemistry CD117, performed. The operative findings including tumour size and location and postoperative complications were studied for comparative analysis. Statistical Analysis- SPSS 16. RESULTS 1. Predominant male affection with a ratio of 1.4:1; 2. Patients presented predominantly with gastrointestinal haemorrhage, i.e. hematemesis and melaena was found in 65% patients; 3. In this study the most common site was found to be stomach 63.6%, followed by small bowel which comprises 25% and

  4. Odontogenic ghost cell tumour with clear cell components: clear cell odontogenic ghost cell tumour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Sang Gun; Kim, Su Gwan; Kim, Jin

    2004-07-01

    A case of odontogenic ghost cell tumour (OGCT) with clear cell components was encountered in the mandible of a 63-year-old man. The tumour revealed ameloblastomatous-type epithelial components accompanied by clusters of ghost cells and dentinoid juxtaposed to the odontogenic epithelium. In addition, some areas of the tumour tissue showed sheets and islands of clear, glycogen containing epithelial cells, which were separated by a thin fibrous connective tissue stroma. Both ameloblastic and clear cells exhibited positive immunoreactivities for cytokeratin 19 and AE1/3. It is not known whether this tumour represents a clear cell change of a pre-existing OGCT or a separate and distinct neoplasm derived de novo from the odontogenic epithelium. This tumour was given the term 'clear cell OGCT' because it captures the clear cell components, which is one of the most prominent distinguishing features of the tumour.

  5. Association of tobacco and alcohol use with earlier development of colorectal cancer: should we modify screening guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acott, Alison A; Theus, Sue A; Marchant-Miros, Kathyrn E; Mancino, Anne T

    2008-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend initial colorectal cancer screening at age 50 years for average-risk patients. Alcohol and tobacco use can be associated with earlier onset of colorectal cancer. We hypothesized an earlier age at diagnosis and/or more advanced stage in patients with these habits. We queried our tumor registry for colorectal cancer diagnosed between January 1997 and December 2006. Data were analyzed to evaluate effects of alcohol and tobacco use. Of 335 colorectal cancer patients, 81% used tobacco, 51% used alcohol, 45% used both, and 14% used neither. Current tobacco and alcohol use were associated with younger ages at onset of colorectal cancer. Thirteen of 332 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer before age 50 years. All had exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Fifty-four percent (7/13) of these patients presented at stage 3/4 compared with 34% of the overall population. Modification of screening guidelines to include these habits as "high-risk" factors may be indicated.

  6. Symptoms and time to diagnosis in children with brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Nielsen, Rine; Illum, Niels Ove;

    2011-01-01

    Clinical symptoms in brain tumours in children are variable at onset and diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms were investigated with regard to brain tumour localisation, prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and malignancy.......Clinical symptoms in brain tumours in children are variable at onset and diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms were investigated with regard to brain tumour localisation, prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and malignancy....

  7. Interactions of human monocytes with TMVs (tumour-derived microvesicles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Baran, Jarosław; Szatanek, Rafał; Mytar, Bożenna; Siedlar, Maciej; Zembala, Marek

    2013-02-01

    The tumour microenvironment represents a dynamic complex milieu, which includes tumour cells, cells of the immune system and other (cellular and non-cellular) components. The role of these particular 'puzzle pieces' may change substantially due to their mutual interactions. The present review concerns different opinions on interactions that occur between monocytes, tumour cells and TMVs (tumour-derived microvesicles).

  8. Neutron kerma coefficient: Reference tissue for tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.m [National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Basic Sciences Division, Autonomous Metropolitan University (Mexico); Balcazar, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico); Francois, J.L. [Engineering Faculty, Autonomous National University of Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    Neutron kerma coefficients were calculated in different media: 4 malignant tumours, 5 normal tissues and 3 tissue substitute in the range 11 eV-29 MeV. The objective was to identify which is the material that better reproduces the behavior of these tumours and tissues. These tissues have clinical interest in interstitial brachytherapy applications with fast neutron source (Cf-252). The small differences of elemental composition among these tissues produce variation in the neutron kerma coefficients. The results show that the neutron kerma coefficients for malignant tumours are smaller than soft tissue from 6% to 9%. Also, the muscle is the tissue that best represents the dosimetric behavior for the tumours and tissues analyzed in this paper for neutron energies >1 keV, where this coefficients show minor variation.

  9. Molecular genetic analysis of 103 sporadic colorectal tumours in Czech patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vasovcak

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the highest incidences of colorectal cancer (CRC in Europe. To evaluate whether sporadic CRCs in Czech patients have specific mutational profiles we analysed somatic genetic changes in known CRC genes (APC, KRAS, TP53, CTNNB1, MUTYH and BRAF, loss of heterozygosity (LOH at the APC locus, microsatellite instability (MSI, and methylation of the MLH1 promoter in 103 tumours from 102 individuals. The most frequently mutated gene was APC (68.9% of tumours, followed by KRAS (31.1%, TP53 (27.2%, BRAF (8.7% and CTNNB1 (1.9%. Heterozygous germline MUTYH mutations in 2 patients were unlikely to contribute to the development of their CRCs. LOH at the APC locus was found in 34.3% of tumours, MSI in 24.3% and MLH1 methylation in 12.7%. Seven tumours (6.9% were without any changes in the genes tested. The analysis yielded several findings possibly specific for the Czech cohort. Somatic APC mutations did not cluster in the mutation cluster region (MCR. Tumours with MSI but no MLH1 methylation showed earlier onset and more severe mutational profiles compared to MSI tumours with MLH1 methylation. TP53 mutations were predominantly located outside the hot spots, and transitions were underrepresented. Our analysis supports the observation that germline MUTYH mutations are rare in Czech individuals with sporadic CRCs. Our findings suggest the influence of specific ethnic genetic factors and/or lifestyle and dietary habits typical for the Czech population on the development of these cancers.

  10. Simulating tumour removal in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzky, A; Rudolph, M

    2001-12-01

    In this article the software system ROBO-SIM is described. ROBO-SIM is a planning and simulation tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Different to the most other simulation tools, ROBO-SIM is able to use actual patient's datasets for simulation. Same as in real neurosurgery a planning step, which provides more functionality as up-to-date planning systems on the market, is performed before undergoing the simulated operation. The planning steps include the definition of the trepanation point for entry into the skull and the target point within the depth of the brain, checking the surgical track and doing virtual trepanations (virtual craniotomy). For use with an intra-operative active manipulator, which is guided by the surgeon during real surgery (robotic surgery), go- and non-go-areas can be defined. During operation, the robot restricts the surgeon from leaving these go-areas. After planning, an additional simulation system, which is understood as an extension to the planning step, is used to simulate whole surgical interventions directly on the patient's anatomy basing on the planning data and by using the same instruments as for the real intervention. First tests with ROBO-SIM are performed on a phantom developed for this purpose and on actual patient's datasets with ventricular tumours.

  11. Pineal anlage tumour - a rare entity with divergent histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Suri, Vaishali; Sarkar, Chitra; Sharma, B S; Garg, Ajay

    2011-06-01

    Pineal anlage tumour is a rare tumour of the pineal gland that is not listed in the 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Pineal anlage has been defined as a primary pineal tumour with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation but without endodermal differentiation. We report a pineal anlage tumour in a 4-month-old boy, the youngest patient reported with this rare tumour, with a brief review of the literature. Clinicians and neuropathologists should be aware of this entity as it is likely to be misdiagnosed as a teratoma or a melanocytic tumour of the central nervous system.

  12. 'Pseudo-Alzheimer's' and primary brain tumour.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, D; Walsh, J. B.; Coakley, D.

    1992-01-01

    Primary brain tumour may present in the elderly purely as a dementing illness before the onset or detection of sensorimotor neurological symptoms or signs. Although neurological examination may indicate no definite signs, close attention to accepted DSM-IIIR and NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for primary degenerative dementia and 'probable' Alzheimer's disease respectively will suggest a process other than a degenerative one. This was the case in two patients with primary brain tumour prese...

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabaksblat, Elizaveta Mitkina; Langer, Seppo W; Knigge, Ulrich;

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (BP-NET) are a heterogeneous population of neoplasms with different pathology, clinical behaviour and prognosis compared to the more common lung cancers. The management of BP-NET patients is largely based on studies with a low level of evidence and extrapol...... and extrapolation of data obtained from more common types of neuroendocrine tumours. This review reflects our view of the current state of the art of diagnosis and treatment of patients with BP-NET....

  14. Serum tumour markers in malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Pallavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy of the body cavities with dismal prognosis. It has been a diagnostic dilemma for years with many clinical and pathological mimics. Discovery of a reliable tumour marker will definitely be of value in screening individuals with a history of asbestos exposure, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of malignant mesothelioma. Many tumour markers have been studied and speculatively associated with the malignant mesothelioma, but much still needs to be proven.

  15. Medical therapy of advanced malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, N; Parma, G; Bocciolone, L; Franchi, D; Sideri, M; Maggioni, A

    2000-01-01

    quality of life and symptoms; ii. tumour load reduction and survival advantage; iii. evaluation of potentially active new drugs to be included in first-line. Since the goal is palliation in most cases, monotherapy is generally indicated. However, the chances of response are directly related to the treatment-free interval, with a response rate nearly equivalent to that of primary chemotherapy when the treatment-free interval exceeds 24 months. Extension of the platinum-free interval before re-treatment with platinum or taxanes may allow partial reversal of resistance to these agents which can therefore still show significant activity in relapsing patients. Unfortunately, durable response to salvage chemotherapy is rare and cure is almost impossible. The sequential use of the agents currently available for salvage treatment in monotherapy may transform ovarian cancer into a chronic disease and confers long survival to the patients. Perhaps, the most interesting role of second-line chemotherapy is to identify new potentially active drugs, which can be moved up-front. Most of the compounds used in second line (gemcitabine, topotecan, liposomal doxorubicin) are in fact under investigation to develop alternative schedules and sequences of drug administration. A new phase III multi-national randomised study for patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian or primary periperitoneal carcinoma will evaluate the impact of incorporating a new drug within either a platinum-based triplet (new drug + platinum + PTX) or a sequential-doublet (new drug + platinum followed by platinum + PTX) in order to identify one or more experimental regimens able to improve long-term survival with acceptable toxicity.

  16. Consensus on biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumour disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Kjell; Modlin, Irvin M; De Herder, Wouter; Pavel, Marianne; Klimstra, David; Frilling, Andrea; Metz, David C; Heaney, Anthony; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Strosberg, Jonathan; Meyer, Timothy; Moss, Steven F; Washington, Kay; Wolin, Edward; Liu, Eric; Goldenring, James

    2016-01-01

    Management of neuroendocrine neoplasia represents a clinical challenge because of its late presentation, lack of treatment options, and limitations in present imaging modalities and biomarkers to guide management. Monoanalyte biomarkers have poor sensitivity, specificity, and predictive ability. A National Cancer Institute summit, held in 2007, on neuroendocrine tumours noted biomarker limitations to be a crucial unmet need in the management of neuroendocrine tumours. A multinational consensus meeting of multidisciplinary experts in neuroendocrine tumours assessed the use of current biomarkers and defined the perquisites for novel biomarkers via the Delphi method. Consensus (at >75%) was achieved for 88 (82%) of 107 assessment questions. The panel concluded that circulating multianalyte biomarkers provide the highest sensitivity and specificity necessary for minimum disease detection and that this type of biomarker had sufficient information to predict treatment effectiveness and prognosis. The panel also concluded that no monoanalyte biomarker of neuroendocrine tumours has yet fulfilled these criteria and there is insufficient information to support the clinical use of miRNA or circulating tumour cells as useful prognostic markers for this disease. The panel considered that trials measuring multianalytes (eg, neuroendocrine gene transcripts) should also identify how such information can optimise the management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. PMID:26370353

  17. Brain tumour-associated status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonawardena, Janindu; Marshman, Laurence A G; Drummond, Katharine J

    2015-01-01

    We have reviewed the scant literature on status epilepticus in patients with brain tumours. Patients with brain tumour-associated epilepsy (TAE) appear less likely to develop status epilepticus (TASE) than patients with epilepsy in the general population (EGP) are to develop status epilepticus (SEGP). TASE is associated with lesions in similar locations as TAE; in particular, the frontal lobes. However, in contrast to TAE, where seizures commence early in the course of the disease or at presentation, TASE is more likely to occur later in the disease course and herald tumour progression. In marked contrast to TAE, where epilepsy risk is inversely proportional to Word Health Organization tumour grade, TASE risk appears to be directly proportional to tumour grade (high grade gliomas appear singularly predisposed). Whilst anti-epileptic drug (AED) resistance is more common in TAE than EGP (with resistance directly proportional to tumour grade and frontal location), TASE appears paradoxically more responsive to simple AED regimes than either TAE or SEGP. Although some results suggest that mortality may be higher with TASE than with SEGP, it is likely that (as with SEGP) the major determinant of mortality is the underlying disease process. Because all such data have been derived from retrospective studies, because TASE and SEGP are less common than TAE and EGP, and because TASE and SEGP classification has often been inconsistent, findings can only be considered preliminary: multi-centre, prospective studies are required. Whilst preliminary, our review suggests that TASE has a distinct clinical profile compared to TAE and SEGP.

  18. Myeloid cells in tumour-immune interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Berezovskaya, Faina; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Despite highly developed specific immune responses, tumour cells often manage to escape recognition by the immune system, continuing to grow uncontrollably. Experimental work suggests that mature myeloid cells may be central to the activation of the specific immune response. Recognition and subsequent control of tumour growth by the cells of the specific immune response depend on the balance between immature (ImC) and mature (MmC) myeloid cells in the body. However, tumour cells produce cytokines that inhibit ImC maturation, altering the balance between ImC and MmC. Hence, the focus of this manuscript is on the study of the potential role of this inhibiting mechanism on tumour growth dynamics. A conceptual predator-prey type model that incorporates the dynamics and interactions of tumour cells, CD8(+) T cells, ImC and MmC is proposed in order to address the role of this mechanism. The prey (tumour) has a defence mechanism (blocking the maturation of ImC) that prevents the predator (immune system) from recognizing it. The model, a four-dimensional nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations, is reduced to a two-dimensional system using time-scale arguments that are tied to the maturation rate of ImC. Analysis shows that the model is capable of supporting biologically reasonable patterns of behaviour depending on the initial conditions. A range of parameters, where healing without external influences can occur, is identified both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  20. Tumour heterogeneity in non-small cell lung carcinoma assessed by CT texture analysis: a potential marker of survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Balaji; Miles, Ken [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Division of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, Brighton, East Sussex (United Kingdom); Panayiotou, Elleny; Burnand, Kate [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    To establish the potential for tumour heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as assessed by CT texture analysis (CTTA) to provide an independent marker of survival for patients with NSCLC. Tumour heterogeneity was assessed by CTTA of unenhanced images of primary pulmonary lesions from 54 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT for staging of NSCLC. CTTA comprised image filtration to extract fine, medium and coarse features with quantification of the distribution of pixel values (uniformity) within the filtered images. Receiver operating characteristics identified thresholds for PET and CTTA parameters that were related to patient survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median (range) survival was 29.5 (1-38) months. 24, 10, 14 and 6 patients had tumour stages I, II, III and IV respectively. PET stage and tumour heterogeneity assessed by CTTA were significant independent predictors of survival (PET stage: Odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence limits 0.9-8.09, P = 0.002; CTTA: Odds ratio 56.4, 95% confidence limits 4.79-666, p = 0.001). SUV was not a significantly associated with survival. Assessment of tumour heterogeneity by CTTA of non-contrast enhanced images has the potential for to provide a novel, independent predictor of survival for patients with NSCLC. (orig.)

  1. Tumour Relapse Prediction Using Multiparametric MR Data Recorded during Follow-Up of GBM Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Ion-Margineanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We have focused on finding a classifier that best discriminates between tumour progression and regression based on multiparametric MR data retrieved from follow-up GBM patients. Materials and Methods. Multiparametric MR data consisting of conventional and advanced MRI (perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopy were acquired from 29 GBM patients treated with adjuvant therapy after surgery over a period of several months. A 27-feature vector was built for each time point, although not all features could be obtained at all time points due to missing data or quality issues. We tested classifiers using LOPO method on complete and imputed data. We measure the performance by computing BER for each time point and wBER for all time points. Results. If we train random forests, LogitBoost, or RobustBoost on data with complete features, we can differentiate between tumour progression and regression with 100% accuracy, one time point (i.e., about 1 month earlier than the date when doctors had put a label (progressive or responsive according to established radiological criteria. We obtain the same result when training the same classifiers solely on complete perfusion data. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that ensemble classifiers (i.e., random forests and boost classifiers show promising results in predicting tumour progression earlier than established radiological criteria and should be further investigated.

  2. GEP-NETS update: functional localisation and scintigraphy in neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (GEP-NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-05-01

    For patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (GEP) (GEP-NETs), excellent care should ideally be provided by a multidisciplinary team of skilled health care professionals. In these patients, a combination of nuclear medicine imaging and conventional radiological imaging techniques is usually mandatory for primary tumour visualisation, tumour staging and evaluation of treatment. In specific cases, as in patients with occult insulinomas, sampling procedures can provide a clue as to where to localise the insulin-hypersecreting pancreatic NETs. Recent developments in these fields have led to an increase in the detection rate of primary GEP-NETs and their metastatic deposits. Radiopharmaceuticals targeted at specific tumour cell properties and processes can be used to provide sensitive and specific whole-body imaging. Functional imaging also allows for patient selection for receptor-based therapies and prediction of the efficacy of such therapies. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission CT/CT are used to map functional images with anatomical localisations. As a result, tumour imaging and tumour follow-up strategies can be optimised for every individual GEP-NET patient. In some cases, functional imaging might give indications with regard to future tumour behaviour and prognosis.

  3. Circulating tumour cells in patients with lung cancer undergoing endobronchial cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Dimple; Rice, Alexandra; Soppa, Gopal; Anikin, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer still poses a major issue, with a large proportion of patients diagnosed at late stages. Therapeutic options and treatment remain limited in these patients. In most cases only palliative therapies are available to alleviate any severe symptoms. Endobronchial cryotherapy (EC) is one form of palliative treatment offered to patients with obstructive airway tumours. Although successful, the impact on circulating tumour cell (CTCs) spread has not been investigated in detail. This study recruited 20 patients awaiting EC treatment. Baseline and post EC blood samples were analysed for presence of CTCs. Results showed an increase in CTCs following EC in 75% of patients. Significant increases were noticeable in some cases. Although EC is a well-accepted modality of treatment to alleviate symptoms, it may lead to an increase in CTCs, which in turn may have implications for tumour dissemination and metastatic spread.

  4. Exophytic benign mixed epithelial stromal tumour of the kidney: case report of a rare tumour entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küster Jens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST represents a recently described benign composite neoplasm of the kidney, which predominantly affects perimenopausal females. Most tumours are benign, although rare malignant cases have been observed. Case report A 47-year-old postmenopausal female presented to the urologist with flank pain. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 30-mm-in-diameter uniform mass adjacent to the pelvis of the left kidney. Surgical exploration showed a tumour arising from the lower anterior hilus of the left kidney. The tumour could be excised by preserving the kidney. By intraoperative frozen section the tumour showed characteristic features of MEST with epithelial-covered cysts embedded in an "ovarian-like" stroma. Additional immunohistochemistry investigations showed expression for hormone receptors by the stromal component of the tumour. Discussion MEST typically presents in perimenopausal women as a primarily cystic mass. Commonly, the tumour arises from the renal parenchyma or pelvis. The tumour is composed of an admixture of cystic and sometimes more solid areas. The stromal cells typically demonstrate an ovarian-type stroma showing expression for the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Conclusion MEST represents a distinctive benign tumour entity of the kidney, which affects perimenopausal woman. The tumour should be distinguished from other cystic renal neoplasms. By imaging studies it is difficult to distinguish between a benign or malignant nature of the tumour. Thus, intraoperative frozen section is necessary for conservative surgery, since the overall prognosis is favourable and renal function can be preserved in most cases.

  5. Identification of the Sex of Earlier Embryos from Generic Hybrids of Chicken-Quail by Wpkci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ai-jun; MA Wen-xia; LI Da-quan; MENG Qing-mei

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a protocol was deveolped the sex of earlier embryos of chicken(♂)-quail(♀)hybrids and successfully tested the sex proportion of each period (66-120 h). We acquired cross bred eggs by artificial insemination, hatched them in the same batch according to the standard hatching condition of chicken, and collected earlier living embryos at 66,72,78, 84,90,96,102,108,114, and 120 h randomly. We adopted RT-PCR protocol and multiple PCR, made the known sex quail as the external control, employed β-actin as the internal control, and used primers that were designed according to conservative area of gene Wpkci of quail to identify the sex of earlier hybrid embryos. The results indicated that the primer of Wpkci can be used to identify the sex of hybrid embryos accurately; there were more male than female in earlier embryos, the sex proportion of earlier embryos compared with academic numerical value was significantly different (P0.05). In the present study, we concluded that a simple, fast, credible and stable protocol to identify the sex of earlier hybrids embryos had been established by using primer of Wpkci; in earlier embryos, the death rate of female was higher than that of male and there was no fluctuant peak.

  6. Tumour-targeting properties of antibodies specific to MMP-1A, MMP-2 and MMP-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffen, Stefanie; Frey, Katharina; Stutz, Irene; Roesli, Christoph; Neri, Dario [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of more than 20 zinc-containing endopeptidases, are upregulated in many diseases, but several attempts to use radiolabelled MMP inhibitors for imaging tumours have proved unsuccessful in mouse models, possibly due to the limited specificity of these agents or their unfavourable pharmacokinetic profiles. In principle, radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies could be considered for the selective targeting and imaging of individual MMPs. We cloned, produced and characterized high-affinity monoclonal antibodies specific to murine MMP-1A, MMP-2 and MMP-3 in SIP (small immunoprotein) miniantibody format using biochemical and immunochemical methods. We also performed comparative biodistribution analysis of their tumour-targeting properties at three time points (3 h, 24 h, 48 h) in mice bearing subcutaneous F9 tumours using radioiodinated protein preparations. The clinical stage L19 antibody, specific to the alternatively spliced EDB domain of fibronectin, was used as reference tumour-targeting agent for in vivo studies. All anti-MMP antibodies and SIP(L19) strongly stained sections of F9 tumours when assessed by immunofluorescence methods. In biodistribution experiments, SIP(SP3), specific to MMP-3, selectively accumulated at the tumour site 24 and 48 h after intravenous injection, but was rapidly cleared from other organs. By contrast, SIP(SP1) and SIP(SP2), specific to MMP-1A and MMP-2, showed no preferential accumulation at the tumour site. Antibodies specific to MMP-3 may serve as vehicles for the efficient and selective delivery of imaging agents or therapeutic molecules to sites of disease. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of the role of Igf2 in adrenal tumour development in transgenic mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Drelon

    Full Text Available Adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACC are rare but aggressive tumours associated with poor prognosis. The two most frequent alterations in ACC in patients are overexpression of the growth factor IGF2 and constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Using a transgenic mouse model, we have previously shown that constitutive active β-catenin is a bona fide adrenal oncogene. However, although all these mice developed benign adrenal hyperplasia, malignant progression was infrequent, suggesting that secondary genetic events were required for aggressive tumour development. In the present paper, we have tested IGF2 oncogenic properties by developing two distinct transgenic mouse models of Igf2 overexpression in the adrenal cortex. Our analysis shows that despite overexpression levels ranging from 7 (basal to 87 (ACTH-induced fold, Igf2 has no tumour initiating potential in the adrenal cortex. However, it induces aberrant accumulation of Gli1 and Pod1-positive progenitor cells, in a hedgehog-independent manner. We have also tested the hypothesis that Igf2 may cooperate with Wnt signalling by mating Igf2 overexpressing lines with mice that express constitutive active β-catenin in the adrenal cortex. We show that the combination of both alterations has no effect on tumour phenotype at stages when β-catenin-induced tumours are benign. However, there is a mild promoting effect at later stages, characterised by increased Weiss score and proliferation. Formation of malignant tumours is nonetheless a rare event, even when Igf2 expression is further increased by ACTH treatment. Altogether these experiments suggest that the growth factor IGF2 is a mild contributor to malignant adrenocortical tumourigenesis.

  8. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro;

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine...... tumours. These guidelines essentially cover basic knowledge in the diagnosis and management of the different forms of neuroendocrine tumour. We have, however, tried to give more updated information about the epidemiology and histopathology, which is essential for the clinical management of these tumours....

  9. Specific chalone inhibition of the regeneration of the JB-1 ascites tumour studied by flow microfluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichel, P; Barfod, N M

    1977-03-01

    The variation in the DNA distribution in the JB-1 and the Lla2 ascites tumour was investigated by means of flow microfluorometry (FMF) in the plateau stage and during the initiation of the regenerative growth induced by percutaneous aspiration. The study showed that a considerable influx of cells with G1DNA content into the S phase occurred in both tumours about 10 hr after aspiration. In the JB-1 tumour, these initial regenerative changes could be reversibly blocked by injections of cell-free plateau JB-1 ascitic fluid or an ultrafiltrate of this ascites. In contrast to these observations no delay in the regenerative changes was observed in the L1a2 tumour after treatment with JB-1 ascites or the ultrafiltrate. The study supports the assumption of a specific growth regulation of the JB-1 ascites tumour and emphasizes the suitability of FMF analyses in cell-kinetic studies in which short-term fluctuations take place in the distribution of cells with different DNA content.

  10. Positron emission tomography (PET) and pancreatic tumours; Tomographie par emission de positons (TEP) et tumeurs pancreatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montravers, F.; Kerrou, K.; Grahek, D.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Talbot, J.N. [Hopital Tenon, Service de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-15

    Neoplasms of the pancreas may originate front both exocrine and endocrine cells but in 90% of the cases, they correspond to ductal adenocarcinomas. For adenocarcinomas, the major indication of FDG-PET corresponds to the pre-operative staging because unexpected distant metastases can be detected by FDG-PET in about 20 to 40% of the cases, which results in avoidance of unnecessary surgical procedures. FDG PET is also useful in evaluation of the treatment effect, monitoring after the operation and detection of recurrent pancreatic cancers. For the characterisation of the pancreatic tumour, the performance of FDG-PET is sometimes limited due to poor cellularity, hyperglycemia or inflammatory processes. especially for large tumours and is indicated only in cases of doubtful results of CT or MRI. For endocrine pancreatic tumours, FDG-PET is useful only in case of poorly-differentiated and aggressive tumours. F-DOPA PET can he useful, complementary to pentetreotide scintigraphy, in well-differentiated endocrine tumours. (authors)

  11. An audit of MRI for bone and soft-tissue tumours performed at referral centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A.; Twinn, P.; Emanuel, R.; Cannon, S.R

    2000-07-01

    AIM: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential in the pre-operative staging of suspected primary bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. Such lesions are ideally managed in specialist centres but it is becoming increasingly common for patients to undergo MRI before referral. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of such studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients (30 men, 20 women; mean age 39 years, range 9-89 years) were included over a 1-year period. Tumours included 31 suspected primary bone tumours and 19 soft-tissue tumours. RESULTS: The total number of sequences used was 225 (mean 4, range 2-8). Enhancement was used in 19 cases. The commonest mistake was the failure to image the whole bone for 'skip' metastases in 50% of appropriate cases (high-grade malignant lesions of bone). Reports were available in 40 cases. Specific information regarding precise intraosseous and extraosseous extent of tumour and relationship to the neurovascular bundle and adjacent joint was commonly not included. CONCLUSIONS: This audit indicates that a greater awareness is needed amongst general radiologists of the MR imaging and reporting requirements for musculoskeletal tumours. In particular, all important axial imaging is sometimes omitted. Saifuddin, A. (2000)

  12. An integrated on-chip platform for negative enrichment of tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty, Sajay; Chang, Chia-Pin; Poenar, Daniel Puiu

    2016-08-15

    The study of cancer cells in blood, popularly called circulating tumour cells (CTCs), has exceptional prospects for cancer risk assessment and analysis. Separation and enrichment of CTCs by size-based methods suffer from a well-known recovery/purity trade-off while methods targeting certain specific surface proteins can lead to risk of losing CTCs due to Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and thus adversely affect the separation efficiency. A negative selection approach is thus preferred for tumour cell isolation as it does not depend on biomarker expression or defines their physical property as the separation criteria. In this work, we developed a microfluidic chip to isolate CTCs from whole blood samples without targeting any tumour specific antigen. This chip employs a two-stage cell separation: firstly, magnetophoresis depletes the white blood cells (WBCs) from a whole blood sample and is then followed by a micro-slit membrane that enables depleting the red blood cells (RBCs) and retaining only the tumour cells. By creating strong magnetic field gradients along with customized antibody complexes to target WBCs, we are able to remove >99.9% of WBCs from 1:1 diluted blood at a sample processing rate of 500μL/min. This approach achieves an average of >80% recovery of spiked tumour cells from 2mL of whole blood in a total assay processing time of 50min without multiple processing steps.

  13. Influence of tumours on protective anti-tumour immunity and the effects of irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ann Foulds

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innate and adaptive immunity play important roles in the development and progression of cancer and it is becoming apparent that tumours can influence the induction of potentially protective responses in a number of ways. The prevalence of immunoregulatory T cell populations in the circulation and tumours of patients with cancer is increased, and the presence of these cells appears to present a major barrier to the induction of tumour immunity. One aspect of tumour-mediated immunoregulation which has received comparatively little attention is that which is directed towards natural killer (NK cells, although evidence that the phenotype and function of NK cell populations are modified in patients with cancer is accumulating.Although the precise mechanisms underlying these localised and systemic immunoregulatory effects remain unclear, tumour-derived factors appear, in part at least, to be involved. The effects could be manifested by an altered function and/or via an influence on the migratory properties of individual cell subsets. A better insight into endogenous immunoregulatory mechanisms and the capacity of tumours to modify the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells might assist the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches and improve the management of patients with cancer.This article reviews current knowledge relating to the influence of tumours on protective anti-tumour immunity and considers the potential influence that radiation-induced effects might have on the prevalence, phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells in patients with cancer.

  14. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

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    Neha Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs, are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools.

  15. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumours and nested stromal epithelial tumours of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sunayana; Bihari, Chhagan

    2016-04-01

    Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumour of liver (DNSTL), nested stromal-epithelial tumour (NSET) and calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumour (CNSET) are recently described entities with similar morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics. These are rare entities with only three large case series described till date. These tumours commonly present in the paediatric age group. NSETs, in addition have been described to be associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and Cushingoid features. It is important to discuss this rare group of tumours with a low malignant potential as the most common radiological differential diagnosis is hepatoblastoma, which has a relatively poorer prognosis. Thus, a pathologist needs to keep this entity in mind, so as to offer a correct histological diagnosis.

  17. Skeletal muscle metastases: primary tumours, prevalence, and radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Behrmann, Curd [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); Hainz, Michael; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Pathology, Halle (Germany); Arnold, Dirk [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Haematology/Oncology, Halle (Germany); Katzer, Michaela [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Urology, Halle (Germany); Schmidt, Joerg [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Medical Statistics and Controlling, Halle (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Although skeletal muscles comprise nearly 50% of the total human body mass and are well vascularised, metastases in the musculature are rare. The reported prevalence of skeletal muscle metastases from post-mortem studies of patients with cancer is inconstant and ranges from 0.03 to 17.5%. Of 5,170 patients with metastasised cancer examined and treated at our institution during the period from January 2000 to December 2007, 61 patients with muscle metastases (80 lesions) were identified on computed tomography (CT). Genital tumours (24.6%) were the most frequent malignancies metastasising into the skeletal musculature, followed by gastrointestinal tumours (21.3%), urological tumours (16.4%), and malignant melanoma (13.1%). Other primary malignancies were rarer, including bronchial carcinoma (8.2%), thyroid gland carcinoma (4.9%), and breast carcinoma (3.3%). In 8.2%, carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed. Skeletal muscle metastases (SMM) were located in the iliopsoas muscle (27.5%), paravertebral muscles (25%), gluteal muscles (16.3%), lower extremity muscles (12.5%), abdominal wall muscles (10%), thoracic wall muscles (5%), and upper extremity muscles (3.8%). Most (76.3%) of the 80 SMM were diagnosed incidentally during routine staging CT examinations, while 23.7% were symptomatic. Radiologically, SMM presented with five different types of lesions: focal intramuscular masses (type I, 52.5% of SMM), abscess-like intramuscular lesions (type II, 32.5%), diffuse metastatic muscle infiltration (type III, 8.8%), multifocal intramuscular calcification (type IV, 3.7%) and intramuscular bleeding (type V, 2.5%). (orig.)

  18. Synergic anti-tumour effect of B7.1 gene modified tumour vaccine combined with allicin for murine bladder tumour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; LIN Li-guo; LIU Jian-jun; LIU Xin-guang; HE Cheng-wei; HE Hui-juan; WU ping; HUANG Ping-ping; CHEN Xiao-wen; DONG Zhong; WU Xiu-dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ In the previous study, we found that B7.1 gene transduction failed to induce sufficient anti-tumour response when it is used as a tumour vaccine. It is necessary to develop immunity by a combination of appropriate cytokines to stimulate effective tumour immunity in a therapeutic setting.

  19. Testosterone regulates cell proliferation in aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumour)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, H; Nadesan, P; Poon, R; Alman, B A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumour) is a locally invasive tumour caused by mutations resulting in β-catenin protein stabilisation. Apc1638N mice are predisposed to developing aggressive fibromatosis tumours, and male mice develop greater numbers of tumours than female mice, suggesting a role for androgens in this tumour type. Methods: Human aggressive fibromatosis tumours were examined for the expression of the androgen receptor, and primary human tumour cell cultures were treated with testosterone. Orchidectomised Apc1638N mice were investigated for the development of tumours, and were treated with testosterone to study the effect of tumour formation and the level of β-catenin. Results: Androgen receptors are universally expressed in human aggressive fibromatosis tumours. Testosterone increased the proliferation rate and β-catenin protein level in a dose-dependent manner in human aggressive fibromatosis tumours. Orchiectomy reduced the number and size of tumours that formed in male Apc1638N mice to a similar level as observed in female mice. Testosterone treatment increased the number of tumours that formed in orchidectomised male mice, and resulted in a marked increase in β-catenin protein levels. Conclusion: Testosterone regulates β-catenin protein level and proliferation rate in this mesenchymal tumour. This work identifies the therapeutic use of testosterone blockade in aggressive fibromatosis as an area for further investigation. PMID:21468052

  20. Cancer Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor is to grow and spread The TNM Staging System The TNM system is the most widely used cancer staging system. Most hospitals and medical centers use the TNM system as their main method for cancer reporting. ...

  1. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K

    2016-03-01

    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy.

  2. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  3. Hepatic mitochondrial function and brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Daniel L

    2007-07-01

    Therapeutic advances remain modest for patients with malignant brain tumours, due in part to inadequate ability of in-vitro models to mimic the consequences of tumour progression in vivo, which include profound immunosuppression, cytokine dysregulation and microvascular proliferation. This review summarizes recent findings on the wasting consequences of glioma growth, including changes in hepatic metabolism caused by the tumour. Release of proinflammatory cytokines by gliomas leads to anorexia, a sensation of tiredness and fatigue associated with sleep deprivation. The cachexia and associated decrease in relative liver mass that are observed in rats with the most aggressive gliomas may be accounted for by increased activity of the Cori cycle, with the intermediary metabolism of the glioma-influenced liver being directed toward energy utilization rather than energy storage. In these conditions, liver mitochondria exhibit abnormal biogenesis, together with modifications to water dynamics and ion content. Improved patient care will result from better understanding of the interactions between brain tumour cells and the immune system, and use of nutritional metabolic therapy to protect tumour-influenced hepatocytes and their mitochondria may improve outcomes.

  4. Tumour-host dynamics under radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placeres Jimenez, Rolando, E-mail: rpjcu@yahoo.com [Departamento de Fi' sica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Ortiz Hernandez, Eloy [Centre of Medicine and Complexity, Medical University Carlos J. Finlay, Carretera Central s/n, Camagueey (Cuba)

    2011-09-15

    Highlight: > Tumour-host interaction is modelled by Lotka-Volterra equations. > A brief review of the motion integral and analysis of linear stability is presented. > Radiotherapy is introduced into the model, using a periodic Dirac delta function. > A two-dimensional logistic map is derived from the modified Lotka-Volterra model. > It is shown that tumour can be controlled by a correct selection of therapy strategy. - Abstract: Tumour-host interaction is modelled by the Lotka-Volterra equations. Qualitative analysis and simulations show that this model reproduces all known states of development for tumours. Radiotherapy effect is introduced into the model by means of the linear-quadratic model and the periodic Dirac delta function. The evolution of the system under the action of radiotherapy is simulated and parameter space is obtained, from which certain threshold of effectiveness values for the frequency and applied doses are derived. A two-dimensional logistic map is derived from the modified Lotka-Volterra model and used to simulate the effectiveness of radiotherapy in different regimens of tumour development. The results show the possibility of achieving a successful treatment in each individual case by employing the correct therapeutic strategy.

  5. A STUDY OF PITUITARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rame

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary gland is known as the “Master Gland” of the body as it controls majority of the endocrine glands of the body. Embryologically, they are formed by two parts. There are two types of malignancies encountered namely adenomas and carcinomas. Vast majority of the neoplasms located in the sella turcica are benign pituitary adenomas derived from adenohypophyseal cells. The aim is to study the pituitary malignancies. METHODS The sample size included 100 cases of intra-cranial neoplasms that turned in the Department of Medicine in KVG Medical College, Sullia and different local private hospitals of Sullia and Mangalore. RESULTS Pituitary tumours comprised 6(6% of all the tumour studies. They occurred maximally in the age above 14 years. Tumours showed a male predominance. All the tumours were located in pituitary fossa. Principal presenting complaint was visual disturbance. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of small polyhedral to round cells with a uniform darkly staining round nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The cells formed papillary structures or were arranged in a trabecular pattern. CONCLUSION There is a male predominance in this study and the percentage of cases was found to be less in this region of Karnataka

  6. [Tumours of the upper cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández García, Borja Jesús; Isla Guerrero, Alberto; Castaño, Ana; Alvarez Ruiz, Fernando; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral tumours arising in the upper cervical spine are rare. We present our experience in managing these neoplasms. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of patients treated at our institution between January 2000 and June 2011. There were 9 patients with tumours in C1-C2-C3: 2metastases, 3chordomas, 2plasmocytomas, 1chondrosarcoma and 1osteochondroma. All patients complained of neck pain at the time of diagnosis. Three patients underwent an anterior and posterior approach, 3 an exclusively posterior approach and 3 an exclusively anterior surgical approach. Tumour resection was intralesional in 7 cases. Chemo-radiotherapy was used as adjuvant therapy in patients with malignant tumours. Vertebral tumours in the upper cervical spine are usually malignant. Achieving en bloc resection is particularly challenging and is technically unfeasible in many cases. This worsens the prognosis and makes adjuvant treatment very important. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. A STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMOURS : CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study incidence age distribution of benign and malignant ovarian tu mours in general population. METHODS AND MATERIAL : To study 120 patients with ovarian tumours in Govt . general hospital during June 2003 and June 2005. RESULTS: Clinical and pathological evaluation of all ovarian tumours was done and incidence, age distrib ution of various benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were tabulated and compared with other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Most common ovarian tumours are benign tumours and serous cystadenoma is the commonest benign tumour and S erous cystadeno carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour.

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis mimicking Klatskin tumour on radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Yousaf Bashir; Sohail, Abdul Malik Amir Humza; Haider, Zishan

    2015-04-09

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is categorised into two distinct types, AIP type 1 and 2. Although there can be multisystem involvement, rarely, the cholangitis associated with AIP can present radiologically in a manner similar to that of Klatskin tumour. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who was almost misdiagnosed with a Klatskin tumour because of the similarity in radiological features of the two aforementioned clinical entities. The patient presented with a history of jaundice, pruritus and abdominal pain, and work up showed deranged liver function tests, elevated cancer antigen 19-9 levels and positive antinuclear antibodies. CT scan of the abdomen showed findings suggestive of Klatskin tumour but due to diffuse enlargement of the pancreas and surrounding low-attenuation halo found on a closer review, a diagnosis of AIP was performed. The patient was started on standard corticosteroid therapy and responded well, with complete resolution of the radiological findings.

  9. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Uozumi, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Mukada, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Arita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Sugiyama, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Onda, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Satoh, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Migita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  10. [Pigmented ciliary body tumours: benign or malignant?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Vicente, E; Saornil-Álvarez, M A; López-Lara, F; García-Álvarez, C; de Frutos-Baraja, J M; Díez-Andino, P

    2013-12-01

    We report the cases of 2 women with a pigmented tumour in the ciliary body, one a melanocytoma and the other a melanoma, with different clinical manifestations. The first one presented with decreased visual acuity associated with recent growth of the tumour, as well as sectorial opacities of the lens and subluxation. The second one is asymptomatic and has been kept under observation for more than 30 years. Although the definitive diagnosis of a pigmented tumour of the ciliary body is only achieved by the histopathology study, the group of clinical features is a determining factor when a conservative treatment is indicated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our interpretation of HRMAS data and the translation of NMR tumour biomarkers to in-vivo studies. Results 1D and 2D 1H HRMAS NMR was used to determine that 29 small molecule metabolites, along with 8 macromolecule signals, account for the majority of the HRMAS spectrum of the main types of brain tumour (astrocytoma grade II, grade III gliomas, glioblastomas, metastases, meningiomas and also lymphomas. Differences in concentration of 20 of these metabolites were statistically significant between these brain tumour types. During the course of an extended 2D data acquisition the HRMAS technique itself affects sample analysis: glycine, glutathione and glycerophosphocholine all showed small concentration changes; analysis of the sample after HRMAS indicated structural damage that may affect subsequent histopathological analysis. Conclusions A number of small molecule metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of tumour type that may enable development of more selective in-vivo 1H NMR acquisition methods for diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumours.

  12. Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2012-03-22

    Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated haematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells - macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes - are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour microenvironment alters myeloid cells and can convert them into potent immunosuppressive cells. Here, we consider myeloid cells as an intricately connected, complex, single system and we focus on how tumours manipulate the myeloid system to evade the host immune response.

  13. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))

    1981-11-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  14. How to express tumours using membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Naranjo; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez; Agustín Riscos-Nú(n)ez; Francisco J. Romero-Campero

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential usefulness of membrane systems as tools for modelling tumours. The approach is followed both from a macroscopic and a microscopic point of view. In the first case, one considers the tumour as a growing mass of cells,focusing on its external shape. In the second case, one descends to the microscopic level, studying molecular signalling pathways that are crucial to determine if a cell is cancerous or not. In each of these approaches we work with appropriate variants of membrane systems.

  15. Stochastic Gompertz model of tumour cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C F

    2007-09-21

    In this communication, based upon the deterministic Gompertz law of cell growth, a stochastic model in tumour growth is proposed. This model takes account of both cell fission and mortality too. The corresponding density function of the size of the tumour cells obeys a functional Fokker--Planck equation which can be solved analytically. It is found that the density function exhibits an interesting "multi-peak" structure generated by cell fission as time evolves. Within this framework the action of therapy is also examined by simply incorporating a therapy term into the deterministic cell growth term.

  16. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremmer Felix

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA, and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335

  17. Whole tumour perfusion of peripheral lung carcinoma: evaluation with first-pass CT perfusion imaging at 64-detector row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Yang, Z.-G. [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)], E-mail: yangzg1117@yahoo.com.cn; Chen, T.-w.; Deng, Y.-p.; Yu, J.-q.; Li, Z.-l. [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility of a whole-tumour perfusion technique using 64-detector row computed tomography (CT) and to analyse the variation of CT perfusion parameters in different histological types, sizes, and metastases in patients with peripheral lung carcinoma. Methods and materials: Ninety-seven pathologically proved peripheral lung carcinomas (less than 5 cm in largest diameter) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced CT using a 64-detector row CT machine. Small amounts of iodinated contrast medium with a sharp bolus profile (50 ml, 6-7 ml/s), and 12 repeated fast acquisitions encompassing the entire tumour lesion were adopted to quantify perfusion of the whole-tumour during first-pass of contrast medium. Four kinetic parameters, including perfusion, peak enhancement intensity (PEI), time to peak (TTP), and blood volume (BV), were measured and statistically compared among different histological types, sizes, and metastases. Results: Mean values for perfusion, PEI, TTP, and BV of the 97 lung carcinomas were 57.5 {+-} 45.4 ml/min/ml (range 5.9-243 ml/min/ml), 53.4 {+-} 40.6 HU (range 10.3-234.4 HU), 34 {+-} 11 s (range 11-60 s), and 30.1 {+-} 21.7 ml/100 g (range 3.9-113.4 ml/100 g), respectively. No statistical differences were found between the histological types regarding the perfusion parameters (p > 0.05). Perfusion, PEI, and BV of stage T2 tumours were significantly lower than those of stage T1 tumours (all p < 0.05), whereas no statistically significant differences was found between other stages of tumours (all p > 0.05). Perfusion of the tumours with distant metastasis was significantly higher than that of the tumours without distant metastasis (p < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between nodal metastasis positive and negative groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The present study of first-pass perfusion imaging using 64-detector row CT could provide a feasible method for assessment of whole-tumour perfusion. CT

  18. The extent of tumour fat invasion affects survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumour thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Roberto; Roscigno, Marco; Freschi, Massimo; Angiolilli, Diego; Strada, Elena; Petralia, Giovanni; Sozzi, Francesco; Capitanio, Umberto; Cremonini, Anna; Rigatti, Patrizio

    2011-09-01

    • To investigate the effect of presence and extent of tumour fat invasion (TFI) - perinephric invasion (PFI), renal sinus fat invasion (RSFI) or both PFI and RSFI - on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and venous tumour thrombus (VTT). • We examined 184 consecutive patients with RCC with VTT treated with nephrectomy between 1987 and 2007. Associations with CSM were evaluated by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. • Median follow up was 21 months. The 5-year CSM-free survival estimates were 75%, 36% and 20% in patients with VTT without TFI, those with VTT with PFI or RSFI, and those with VTT with both PFI and RSFI, respectively (P VTT-only cases. • The inclusion of the variable describing the presence and extent of TFI in a base model including pT stage, Fuhrman grade and presence of nodal disease and metastatic disease significantly increased the accuracy in predicting CSM (+2.1%; P VTT. • Patients affected by RCC with VTT and TFI have a higher risk of CSM relative to cases with VTT only. Patients with both PFI and RSFI showed increased CSM compared with patients with either PFI or RSFI. • Our results suggest TFI should be accurately evaluated and included in routine pathological reports to provide better patient risk stratification. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of parametrial tumour spread and regression patterns in adaptive cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Maximilian P.; Fidarova, Elena [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)], e-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at; Poetter, Richard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)] [and others

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-morphologic differences in parametrial infiltration on tumour response during primary radio chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Material and methods: Eighty-five consecutive cervical cancer patients with FIGO stages IIB (n = 59) and IIIB (n = 26), treated by external beam radiotherapy ({+-}chemotherapy) and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy, underwent T2-weighted MRI at the time of diagnosis and at the time of brachytherapy. MRI patterns of parametrial tumour infiltration at the time of diagnosis were assessed with regard to predominant morphology and maximum extent of parametrial tumour infiltration and were stratified into five tumour groups (TG): 1) expansive with spiculae; 2) expansive with spiculae and infiltrating parts; 3) infiltrative into the inner third of the parametrial space (PM); 4) infiltrative into the middle third of the PM; and 5) infiltrative into the outer third of the PM. MRI at the time of brachytherapy was used for identifying presence (residual vs. no residual disease) and signal intensity (high vs. intermediate) of residual disease within the PM. Left and right PM of each patient were evaluated separately at both time points. The impact of the TG on tumour remission status within the PM was analysed using {chi}2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 170 PM were analysed. The TG 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were present in 12%, 11%, 35%, 25% and 12% of the cases, respectively. Five percent of the PM were tumour-free. Residual tumour in the PM was identified in 19%, 68%, 88%, 90% and 85% of the PM for the TG 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The TG 3 - 5 had significantly higher rates of residual tumour in the PM in comparison to TG 1 + 2 (88% vs. 43%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: MRI-morphologic features of PM infiltration appear to allow for prediction of tumour response during external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A predominantly infiltrative tumour spread at the

  20. Distribution of p53 expression in tissue from 774 Danish ovarian tumour patients and its prognostic significance in ovarian carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.S.; Christensen, L.; Frederiksen, K.;

    2008-01-01

    The clinical roles played by normal and altered p53 in cancer are under intensive investigation, but larger studies describing the pattern as well as the prognostic value are still needed. The aim of this study was, using tissue array (TA), to examine the overexpression of p53 protein in 774...... tissue expression were examined. Overall, p53 was expressed in 24/189 (13%) low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP) and in 278/585 (48%) ovarian cancers (OC). No significant difference in frequency of p53 tissue expression in LMP tissue was noted with increasing tumour stage (p=0.98). By contrast...... epithelial ovarian tumour tissues from Danish women and to evaluate whether p53 tissue expression levels correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. The distribution of p53 expression levels at different stages of disease, in different histological subtypes, and the prognostic value of p53...

  1. Coupled modeling of tumour angiogenesis, tumour growth,and blood perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a more realistic mathematical simulation method to investigate the dynamic process of tumour angio-genesis by fully coupling the vessel growth,tumour growth and associated blood perfusion.The tumour growth and angiogenesis are coupled by the chemical microenvironment and the cell-matrix interaction.The haemodynamic calculation is carried out on the new vasculature,and an estimation of vessel collapse is made according to the wall shear stress criterion.The results are consistent with phy...

  2. The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Gina M; Pitarresi, Jason R; Balakrishnan, Subhasree; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism. This Review discusses these different mechanisms of ETS activation and subsequent oncogenic implications, as well as the clinical utility of ETS factors.

  3. tumours and cancers in graeco-roman times 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Graeco-Roman times all tumours (Greek: onkoi, abnormal swellings) were consi- dered to be of ... of tumours is a more recent concept, barely two centuries old. In Hippocratic litera- ..... Ancient and medieval chemotherapy for cancer.

  4. Ovarian hilus-cell tumour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, T N; Valkov, I M; Dokumov, S I

    1980-01-01

    A case of hilus-cell tumour of the ovary, associated with polycystic ovarian disease is reported. The authors discuss the data from hormonal investigations, the morphological picture and the genesis of the tumour.

  5. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  6. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and biomarkers for tumour angiogenesis in early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, Ashley M.; Shastry, Manu; Endozo, Raymondo; Ell, Peter J. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel [University College London, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Malhotra, Anmol; Davidson, Timothy; Kelleher, Tina; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. [Breast Unit, Royal Free Hospital, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A. [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Tumour angiogenesis is an independent and strong prognostic factor in early breast carcinoma. We performed this study to investigate the ability of {sup 18}F-FDG to detect angiogenesis in early breast carcinoma using PET/CT. Twenty consecutive patients with early (T1-T2) breast carcinoma were recruited prospectively for 18F-FDG PET/CT. The PET/CT data were used to calculate whole tumour maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub mean}). All patients underwent subsequent surgery without prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The excised tumour underwent immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD105 and glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1). The SUV{sub max} showed the following correlation with tumour histology: CD105: r = 0.60, p = 0.005; GLUT1: r = 0.21, p = 0.373; VEGF: r = -0.16, p = 0.496. The SUV{sub mean} showed the following correlation with tumour histology: CD105: r = 0.65, p = 0.002; GLUT1: r = 0.34, p = 0.144; VEGF: r = -0.18, p = 0.443 {sup 18}F-FDG uptake is highly significantly associated with angiogenesis as measured by the immunohistochemistry with CD105 for new vessel formation. Given that tumour angiogenesis is an important prognostic indicator and a predictor of treatment response, {sup 18}F-FDG PET may have a role in the management of primary breast cancer patients even in early-stage disease. (orig.)

  7. An enhanced heterologous virus-like particle for human papillomavirus type 16 tumour immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairunadwa Jemon

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk, cancer-causing human papillomaviruses (HPV and is the second highest cause of cancer deaths in women globally. The majority of cervical cancers express well-characterized HPV oncogenes, which are potential targets for immunotherapeutic vaccination. Here we develop a rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccine designed for immunotherapy against HPV16 positive tumours. An RHDV-VLP, modified to contain the universal helper T cell epitope PADRE and decorated with an MHC I-restricted peptide (aa 48-57 from the HPV16 E6, was tested for its immunotherapeutic efficacy against the TC-1 HPV16 E6 and E7-expressing tumour in mice. The E6-RHDV-VLP-PADRE was administered therapeutically for the treatment of a pre-existing TC-1 tumour and was delivered with antibodies either to deplete regulatory T cells (anti-CD25 or to block T cell suppression mediated through CTLA-4. As a result, the tumour burden was reduced by around 50% and the median survival time of mice to the humane endpoint was almost doubled the compared to controls. The incorporation of PADRE into the RHDV-VLP was necessary for an E6-specific enhancement of the anti-tumour response and the co-administration of the immune modifying antibodies contributed to the overall efficacy of the immunotherapy. The E6-RHDV-VLP-PADRE shows immunotherapeutic efficacy, prolonging survival for HPV tumour-bearing mice. This was enhanced by the systemic administration of immune-modifying antibodies that are commercially available for use in humans. There is potential to further modify these particles for even greater efficacy in the path to development of an immunotherapeutic treatment for HPV precancerous and cancer stages.

  8. Well staged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, Godfrey

    2011-06-15

    Packers Plus Energy Services Inc. has commercially launched QuickFRAC, a multi-stage completition system which can fracture four to five isolated stages in one treatment and set up a record of 23-stage slickwater frac in less than 10 hours. It could take up to 40 days to do 100 fracture treatments with other systems. This technology makes it possible to distribute fluid at each port thanks to the limited entry system. In order to make multiple isolated stages within one treatment zone, each zone includes multiple QuickPORT sleeves with packers on either side. The other technology which made this possible is the repeater port system, it allows them to perform more frac stages. This technology could be useful in the future since the need for stages will be doubling soon with microdarcy shale oil extraction which is more difficult than gas.

  9. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  10. Postoperative renormalization of C-reactive protein with adjuvant lienal polypeptide and its association with tumour recurrence in T1 clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yijun; Hu, Qingfeng; Sun, Chuanyu; Gu, Bin; Xu, Ke; Xia, Guowei

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre- and postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on tumour recurrence following curative nephrectomy in patients with stage T1 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). Patients with stage T1 CCRCC were recruited. CRP was quantified 3 days before and 4 weeks after surgery. Patients were followed-up for clinical outcome every 3 months. A subset of patients received lienal polypeptide as adjuvant treatment. Patients with elevated preoperative CRP levels (≥8.2 mg/l; n = 61) had higher grade tumours, were more likely to require radical nephrectomy and were more likely to experience recurrence than those with normal CRP levels. Non-normalization of elevated preoperative CRP was associated with tumour recurrence, but elevated CRP was not an independent risk factor of tumour recurrence. Postoperative renormalization of elevated CRP is associated with decreased risk of recurrence in CCRCC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: MRI supports the diagnosis of malignant plexiform neurofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautner, V.F. [Department of Neurology, Klinikum Nord Hamburg, Langenhorner Chaussee 560, 22419, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, R.E. [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Deimling, A. von [Department of Neuropathology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Hagel, C. [Department of Neuropathology, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Korf, B. [Center for Human Genetics, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Knoefel, M.T. [Department of Surgery, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Wenzel, R.; Fuensterer, C. [MRI-Institute Hamburg Othmarschen, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) is a typical feature of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). About 10% of patients with NF1 develop malignant peripheral nerve-sheath tumours (MPNST), usually arising from PNF, and this is the major cause of poor survival. A better prognosis can be achieved if the tumours are diagnosed at an early stage. Our objective was to establish MRI criteria for MPNST and to test their usefulness in detecting early malignant change in PNF. MRI was performed on 50 patients with NF1 and nerve-sheath tumours, of whom seven had atypical pain, tumour growth or neurological deficits indicative of malignancy; the other 43 were asymptomatic. On MRI all seven symptomatic patients had inhomogeneous lesions, due to necrosis and haemorrhage and patchy contrast enhancement. In one patient, the multiplicity of confluent tumours with inhomogeneous areas in addition to central lesions did not allow exclusion of malignancy. Only three of the 43 asymptomatic patients had comparable changes; the other 40 patients had tumours being of relatively homogeneous structure on T1- and T2-weighted images before and after contrast enhancement. All three asymptomatic patients with inhomogeneous lesions were shown to have MPNST. (orig.)

  12. Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression is associated with infiltrative tumour growth and lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Mai; Nishihara, Reiko; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Li, Tingting; Yasunari, Mika; Morikawa, Teppei; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Zhang, Xuehong; Ogino, Shuji; Qian, Zhi Rong

    2016-01-19

    Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression in cancer cells may promote cell migration and invasion. Therefore, we hypothesised that loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with aggressive features and clinical outcome. Utilising molecular pathological epidemiology database of 689 rectal and colon cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we assessed tumour CDH1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess association of CDH1 loss with tumour growth pattern (expansile-intermediate vs infiltrative) and lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and PIK3CA, BRAF and KRAS mutations. Mortality according to CDH1 status was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Loss of tumour CDH1 expression was observed in 356 cases (52%), and associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern (odds ratio (OR), 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-3.34; P=0.006) and higher pN stage (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.23-2.43; P=0.001). Tumour CDH1 expression was not significantly associated with distant metastasis or prognosis. Loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal cancer is associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern and lymph node metastasis.

  13. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  14. Carcinoid Klatskin tumour: A rare cause of obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuroo, Suhail; Rashid, Arshad; Bali, Rajandeep Singh; Mushtaque, Majid; Khuroo, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours of the extrahepatic biliary ducts represent an extremely rare cause of bile duct obstruction. We report a case of obstructive jaundice secondary to carcinoid tumour arising at the hilar confluence. Resection of the primary tumour was done and the patient is doing well on follow-up. This case demonstrated that surgery offers the only potential cure for biliary carcinoid and aggressive surgical therapy should be the preferred treatment in cases of potentially resectable biliary tumours.

  15. [Biotherapy of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Knigge, U.

    2008-01-01

    Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth...... is less convincing although a stabilization of disease is recorded in almost 50% of patients. Interferon treatment should mainly be considered for tumours with a low proliferation index Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  16. PHOSPHATURIC MESENCHYMAL TUMOUR ASSOCIATED WITH OSTEOMALACIA : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour is a tumour that can involve bone or soft tissue. This is a rare tumour and is known to be associated with osteomalasia. This is caused by tumour induced expression of fibroblastic growth factor (FGF23. We present a case of PMT in a 72 year old female patient who was diagnosed with osteomalasia due to nutritional deficiency of vitamin D and was appropriately treated but later presented with a mass in her foot.

  17. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    of the lacrimal gland, displacement of the eyeball, reduced eye motility and diplopia. Pain and symptoms of short duration before the first ophthalmic consultation are characteristic of malignant tumours. The histological diagnosis determines the subsequent treatment regimen and provides important clues regarding...

  18. Platinum compounds with anti-tumour activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooy, A.C.M.; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ten platinum (Pt) coordination complexes with different ligands, comprising both Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes of which the cis-compounds all possessed at least some anti-tumour activity and the trans-compounds were inactive, were tested as to their effect on cell survival and the induction and repair

  19. Molecular mechanisms for tumour resistance to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Li, Zhi-Ling; He, Zhi-Xu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the prevailing methods used to treat malignant tumours, but the outcome and prognosis of tumour patients are not optimistic. Cancer cells gradually generate resistance to almost all chemotherapeutic drugs via a variety of distinct mechanisms and pathways. Chemotherapeutic resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, is caused and sustained by reduced drug accumulation and increased drug export, alterations in drug targets and signalling transduction molecules, increased repair of drug-induced DNA damage, and evasion of apoptosis. In order to better understand the mechanisms of chemoresistance, this review highlights our current knowledge of the role of altered drug metabolism and transport and deregulation of apoptosis and autophagy in the development of tumour chemoresistance. Reduced intracellular activation of prodrugs (e.g. thiotepa and tegafur) or enhanced drug inactivation by Phase I and II enzymes contributes to the development of chemoresistance. Both primary and acquired resistance can be caused by alterations in the transport of anticancer drugs which is mediated by a variety of drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance associated proteins, and breast cancer resistance protein. Presently there is a line of evidence indicating that deregulation of programmed cell death including apoptosis and autophagy is also an important mechanism for tumour resistance to anticancer drugs. Reversal of chemoresistance is likely via pharmacological and biological approaches. Further studies are warranted to grasp the full picture of how each type of cancer cells develop resistance to anticancer drugs and to identify novel strategies to overcome it.

  20. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  1. Childhood ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-12

    May 12, 2012 ... years old of age. We describe a case ... Juvenile granulosa cell tumour a subtype of ovarian stro- mal cell ... A more serious estrogen effects can occur in various end ... usually behave in a benign manner despite having histo-.

  2. Cystic lesions accompanying extra-axial tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohle, PNM; Wurzer, HAL; Seelen, PJ; Kingma, LM; Go, KG

    1999-01-01

    We examined the mechanism of cyst formation in extra-axial tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). Cyst fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma were analysed in eight patients with nine peritumoral cysts: four with meningiomas, two with intracranial and two spinal intradural schwannom

  3. Bone scintigraphy (B S) in testicle tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, F.J.H.N.; Arbex, M.A.; Souza, J.F.; Haddad, J. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Testicle tumours are not very frequent and radiotherapy has an important role in the cure of many patients. The detection of metastases is not an easy task and we do not know any study concerning B S in the search for bone metastases in such cases. We studied 28 patients (8-52 years old) with proven testicle tumours by means of 99 m Tc-M D P (750 MBq intravenously). Images were obtained 2 h after. B S was normal in 21 studies. In 7 evaluations the only abnormality we found was variable but diffuse involvement of the iliac bone on the same side as the affected testicle. Five out of these patients showed important uptake of M D P (4 seminoma and 1 epididymoma) and the 2 others showed moderate uptake of the radio pharmaceutical (2 seminoma). Metastases were confirmed by biopsy. Testicle tumour metastases are known to occur through the lymphatic drainage which goes to the iliac lymph node chain and this makes our findings very logical. The scintigraphic aspect of the affected iliac bone is characteristic and makes it possible to imagine an `iliac sign` for such cases. Early detection of metastases is very important because of radiotherapy efficacy and B S may play an important role in such cases. Testicle tumour metastases should be thought of when this scintigraphic aspect is seen. Differential diagnosis is Paget`s Disease

  4. MR diffusion imaging of human intracranial tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Gideon, P; Wagn, P;

    1997-01-01

    We used MRI for in vivo measurement of brain water self-diffusion in patients with intracranial tumours. The study included 28 patients (12 with high-grade and 3 with low-grade gliomas, 7 with metastases, 5 with meningiomas and 1 with a cerebral abscess). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) wer...

  5. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Terkivatan (Türkan); M. Kliffen (Mike); J.H.W. de Wilt (Johannes); A.N. van Geel (Albert); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); C. Verhoef (Kees)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that most frequently affects the pleura, although it has been reported with increasing frequency in various other sites such as in the peritoneum, pericardium and in non-serosal sites such as lung parenchyma,

  6. Analysis of nanoparticle delivery to tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Stefan; Tavares, Anthony J.; Dai, Qin; Ohta, Seiichi; Audet, Julie; Dvorak, Harold F.; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-05-01

    Targeting nanoparticles to malignant tissues for improved diagnosis and therapy is a popular concept. However, after surveying the literature from the past 10 years, only 0.7% (median) of the administered nanoparticle dose is found to be delivered to a solid tumour. This has negative consequences on the translation of nanotechnology for human use with respect to manufacturing, cost, toxicity, and imaging and therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we conduct a multivariate analysis on the compiled data to reveal the contributions of nanoparticle physicochemical parameters, tumour models and cancer types on the low delivery efficiency. We explore the potential causes of the poor delivery efficiency from the perspectives of tumour biology (intercellular versus transcellular transport, enhanced permeability and retention effect, and physicochemical-dependent nanoparticle transport through the tumour stroma) as well as competing organs (mononuclear phagocytic and renal systems) and present a 30-year research strategy to overcome this fundamental limitation. Solving the nanoparticle delivery problem will accelerate the clinical translation of nanomedicine.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumour of the vagus nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholsem, Martin; Scholtes, Felix

    2012-04-01

    We describe the complete removal of a foramen magnum solitary fibrous tumour in a 36-year-old woman. It originated on a caudal vagus nerve rootlet, classically described as the 'cranial' accessory nerve root. This ninth case of immunohistologically confirmed cranial or spinal nerve SFT is the first of the vagus nerve.

  8. The role of methylation in urological tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation have been described in human cancer for more than thirty years now. Since the last decade DNA methylation gets more and more important in cancer research. In this review the different alterations of DNA methylation are discussed in testicular germ cell tumours, Wilms't

  9. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  10. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  11. Uterine leiomyomas/fibroids are the most common pelvic tumors of the female genital tract. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF β family members are multi-functional cytokines that play a key role in cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TGF β1 - 509 C/T polymorphism could be used as a susceptibility marker in Uterine fibroids pathogenesis. ARMS PCR was carried out for controls and patients (n=103 to identify the specific genotypes. Genotypes and allelic frequencies in both groups were compared. Proportions of C homozygote, heterozygote and T homozygote for TGF β1gene polymorphisms were 37.9%, 44.7%, 17.5% in the control individuals and 37%, 51.5%, 11.7% in the uterine fibroid patients. There was no significant difference between the controls and the patients thus indicating the tumor suppressor effect of TGF β1 in the early stages of tumor pathogenesis. The study was found to be in association with the earlier reported data wherein TGF β1 acts as tumor suppressor in the early stages and as a tumor promoter in the later stages of tumor pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Veronica

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyomas/fibroids are the most common pelvic tumors of the female genital tract. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF β family members are multi-functional cytokines that play a key role in cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TGF β1 - 509 C/T polymorphism could be used as a susceptibility marker in Uterine fibroids pathogenesis. ARMS PCR was carried out for controls and patients (n=103 to identify the specific genotypes. Genotypes and allelic frequencies in both groups were compared. Proportions of C homozygote, heterozygote and T homozygote for TGF β1gene polymorphisms were 37.9%, 44.7%, 17.5% in the control individuals and 37%, 51.5%, 11.7% in the uterine fibroid patients. There was no significant difference between the controls and the patients thus indicating the tumor suppressor effect of TGF β1 in the early stages of tumor pathogenesis. The study was found to be in association with the earlier reported data wherein TGF β1 acts as tumor suppressor in the early stages and as a tumor promoter in the later stages of tumor pathogenesis

  12. Prognostic impact of tumour burden assessed by metabolic tumour volume on FDG PET/CT in anal canal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthe, Mathieu [Institut Curie, Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Hopital Tenon, Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Richard-Molard, Marion [Institut Curie, Radiotherapie, Saint-Cloud (France); Fayard, Juliette; Cacheux, Wulfran [Institut Curie, Oncologie Medicale, Saint-Cloud (France); Alberini, Jean-Louis [Institut Curie, Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Lievre, Astrid [Institut Curie, Oncologie Medicale, Saint-Cloud (France); CHU Pontchaillou, Service des Maladies de l' Appareil Digestif, Rennes (France); Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to confirm the prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume (MTV) at the primary site on initial work-up FDG PET/CT in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal. Patients with a recent diagnosis of SCC of the anal canal without metastases undergoing PET/CT for initial work-up and treated with (chemo)radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Computer-aided MTV and SUVmax were determined. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate prognostic variables of progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). The study group comprised 75 patients who had an initial work-up PET/CT. Five patients (6.7 %) had stage I disease, 22 (29.3 %) stage II disease, 20 (26.7 %) stage IIIA disease, and 28 (37.3 %) stage IIIB disease. Median follow-up was 51 months (range 10 - 117 months). Global 4-year OS was 82.7 %, ranging from 100 % in patients with stage I disease to 75 % in patients with stage IIIB disease. MTV at the primary site was significantly and independently correlated with OS (p < 0.05), as patients with MTV less than 7 cm{sup 3} had a better prognosis. SUVmax was not correlated with survival parameters. Metabolic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes was also correlated with a poor outcome in the univariate analysis (p < 0.05). MTV at the primary site is a prognostic biomarker in anal canal cancer. Hypermetabolic inguinal lymph nodes also appear to be correlated with survival. (orig.)

  13. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  14. The mechanical microenvironment in cancer: How physics affects tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerke, Anika; Bussink, Johan; Rowan, Alan E; Span, Paul N

    2015-12-01

    The tumour microenvironment contributes greatly to the response of tumour cells. It consists of chemical gradients, for example of oxygen and nutrients. However, a physical environment is also present. Apart from chemical input, cells also receive physical signals. Tumours display unique mechanical properties: they are a lot stiffer than normal tissue. This may be either a cause or a consequence of cancer, but literature suggests it has a major impact on tumour cells as will be described in this review. The mechanical microenvironment may cause malignant transformation, possibly through activation of oncogenic pathways and inhibition of tumour suppressor genes. In addition, the mechanical microenvironment may promote tumour progression by influencing processes such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing cell survival through autophagy, but also affects sensitivity of tumour cells to therapeutics. Furthermore, multiple intracellular signalling pathways prove sensitive to the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. It appears the increased stiffness is unlikely to be caused by increased stiffness of the tumour cells themselves. However, there are indications that tumours display a higher cell density, making them more rigid. In addition, increased matrix deposition in the tumour, as well as increased interstitial fluid pressure may account for the increased stiffness of tumours. Overall, tumour mechanics are significantly different from normal tissue. Therefore, this feature should be further explored for use in cancer prevention, detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relevance of high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P; de Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH; van der Graaf, WTA

    2005-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of solid tumours. Based on a steep dose-response relationship for especially alkylating agents on tumour cell survival, high-dose chemotherapy was considered of interest for the treatment of solid tumours. Results of phase 1 and 2 studies with high

  16. [Malignant germinal tumours of the mediastinum: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, E

    2004-11-01

    Mediastinal germinal tumours are composed of tissues resembling those that follow one another during embryo development, by differentiation of the primordial and extraembryonic layers. Such practice separates the mature teratomas (benign), seminomas and non-seminomatous germinal tumours (NSGT). Platin-based chemotherapy has shattered the prognosis of such tumours.

  17. Tumour suppressor genes in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Ganesan, Trivadi S

    2002-01-01

    of the evolution of tumour progression. A major focus of research has been to identify tumour suppressor genes implicated in sporadic ovarian cancer over the past decade. Several tumour suppressor genes have been identified by strategies such as positional cloning and differential expression display. Further...

  18. Improved classification, diagnosis and prognosis of canine round cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cangul, Taci

    2001-01-01

    As the name suggests, canine round cell tumour (RCTs) are composed of cells with a round morphology. There is some discrepancy amongst authors as to which tumours belong to this category, but most designate lymphomas, melanomas, plasmacytomas, transmissible venereal tumours (TVTs), histiocytomas, an

  19. Orbital tumours and tumour-like lesions: exploring the armamentarium of multiparametric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bela S; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Ailianou, Angeliki; Merlini, Laura; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Delattre, Bénédicte M; Rager, Olivier; Burkhardt, Karim; Becker, Minerva

    2016-02-01

    Although the orbit is a small anatomical space, the wide range of structures present within it are often the site of origin of various tumours and tumour-like conditions, both in adults and children. Cross-sectional imaging is mandatory for the detection, characterization, and mapping of these lesions. This review focuses on multiparametric imaging of orbital tumours. Each tumour is reviewed in relation to its clinical presentation, compartmental location, imaging characteristics, and its histological features. We herein describe orbital tumours as lesions of the globe (retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma), optic nerve sheath complex (meningioma, optic nerve glioma), conal-intraconal compartment (hemangioma), extraconal compartment (dermoid/epidermoid, lacrimal gland tumours, lymphoma, rhabdomysarcoma), and bone and sinus compartment (fibrous dysplasia). Lesions without any typical compartmental localization and those with multi-compartment involvement (veno-lymphatic malformation, plexiform neurofibroma, idiopathic orbital pseudotumour, IgG4 related disease, metastases) are also reviewed. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, such as MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography CT (FDG-PET CT), and positron emission tomography MRI (MRI PET) as problem-solving tools in the evaluation of those orbital masses that present with non-specific morphologic imaging findings. Main messages/Teaching points • A compartment-based approach is essential for the diagnosis of orbital tumours. • CT and MRI play a key role in the work-up of orbital tumours. • DWI, PET CT, and MRI PET are complementary tools to solve diagnostic dilemmas. • Awareness of salient imaging pearls and diagnostic pitfalls avoids interpretation errors.

  20. In vivo tumour extracellular pH monitoring using electron paramagnetic resonance: the effect of X-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Jonathan; Yachi, Katsuya; Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Miyake, Yusuke; Inanami, Osamu; Bobko, Andrey A; Khramtsov, Valery V; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The in vivo quantification of extracellular pH (pHe ) in tumours may provide a useful biomarker for tumour cell metabolism. In this study, we assessed the viability of continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) spectroscopy with a pH-sensitive nitroxide for the measurement of extracellular tumour pH in a mouse model. CW-EPR spectroscopy (750 MHz) of C3H HeJ mice hind leg squamous cell tumour was performed after intravenous tail vein injection of pH-sensitive nitroxide (R-SG, 2-(4-((2-(4-amino-4-carboxybutanamido)-3-(carboxymethylamino)-3-oxoproylthio)methyl)phenyl)-4-pyrrolidino-2,5,5-triethyl-2,5-dihydro-1Н-imidazol-1-oxyl) during stages of normal tumour growth and in response to a single 10-Gy dose of X-ray irradiation. An inverse relationship was observed between tumour volume and pHe value, whereby, during normal tumour growth, a constant reduction in pHe was observed. This relationship was disrupted by X-ray irradiation and, from 2-3 days post-exposure, a transitory increase in pHe was observed. In this study, we demonstrated the viability of CW-EPR spectroscopy using R-SG nitroxide to obtain high-sensitivity pH measurements in a mouse tumour model with an accuracy of <0.1 pH units. In addition, the measured changes in pHe in response to X-ray irradiation suggest that this may offer a useful method for the assessment of the physiological change in response to existing and novel cancer therapies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Phase i and pharmacological study of pazopanib in combination with oral topotecan in patients with advanced solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerklaan, B. Milojkovic; Lolkema, M. P J; Devriese, L. A.; Voest, E. E.; Nol-Boekel, A.; Mergui-Roelvink, M.; Langenberg, M.; Mykulowycz, K.; Stoebenau, J.; Lane, S.; Legenne, P.; Wissel, P.; Smith, D. A.; Giantonio, B. J.; Schellens, J. H M; Witteveen, P. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of two dosing schedules of oral topotecan in combination with pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumours. Methods: Stage I of this study was to determine whether there was an i

  2. PET-CT offers accurate assessment of tumour length in oesophageal malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, K.E., E-mail: james.catton@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lucas, E. [University of Nottingham, Derby Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Tewari, N. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); James, E. [Department of Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Catton, J.A. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We examine the accuracy of staging modalities in estimating tumour length of oesophageal malignancy. • PET CT correlates most strongly with histopathological length of resected specimen. • Better measure than EUS with OGD correlating poorly. • Potential impact in radiotherapy and surgical resection planning. - Abstract: Introduction: Radiotherapy is increasingly used for both curative and palliative treatment of oesophageal malignancy. Accurate treatment depends on determining tumour location and length. This study assessed the value of PET-CT versus other staging modalities in determining tumour length. Materials and methods: Oesophageal cancer patients who underwent staging with PET/CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in addition to their diagnostic upper GI endoscopy and subsequent surgical resection were assessed. PET/CT length was obtained retrospectively by using Hermes Hybrid Viewer™ with a 1–5 Standardised Uptake Value grey scale. An SUV of 5 was used as the cut off for determining length. Direct measurement by EUS and OGD were determined. Results: 53 patients underwent PET-CT, EUS, OGD and surgical resection for oesophageal cancer. Overall the correlation between PET-CT and histopathological length was strongest (Pearson r = 0.5977, 95% CI 0.390–0.747) versus EUS (Pearson R = 0.5365, 95% CI 0.311–0.705) and OGD (Pearson r = 0.1574, 95% CI −0.118 to 0.410). After excluding tumours with a significant chemotherapy response, PET-CT length correlated significantly with histopathological length (R = 0.5651, p = 0.0005). In comparison, the correlation between histological length and EUS (R = 0.4637, p = 0.0057) measurement was less significant and this did not correlate with OGD (R = −0.1084, p = 0.5417). Conclusion: Tumour length estimated by PET-CT correlated most strongly with histopathological length of oesophageal malignancy and is the most accurate determinant of tumour length of all the staging modalities. This suggests a

  3. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, P.A. [Depts. of Oncology and Clinical Neurosciences, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Weaver, S. [Depts. of Neurology and Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York (United States); Fulton, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and Dept. of Medicine/Neurology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need {>=}900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  4. Fractionated Radiotherapy with 3 x 8 Gy Induces Systemic Anti-Tumour Responses and Abscopal Tumour Inhibition without Modulating the Humoral Anti-Tumour Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H P M Habets

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that fractionated radiotherapy (RT can result in distant non-irradiated (abscopal tumour regression. Although preclinical studies indicate the importance of T cells in this infrequent phenomenon, these studies do not preclude that other immune mechanisms exhibit an addition role in the abscopal effect. We therefore addressed the question whether in addition to T cell mediated responses also humoral anti-tumour responses are modulated after fractionated RT and whether systemic dendritic cell (DC stimulation can enhance tumour-specific antibody production. We selected the 67NR mammary carcinoma model since this tumour showed spontaneous antibody production in all tumour-bearing mice. Fractionated RT to the primary tumour was associated with a survival benefit and a delayed growth of a non-irradiated (contralateral secondary tumour. Notably, fractionated RT did not affect anti-tumour antibody titers and the composition of the immunoglobulin (Ig isotypes. Likewise, we demonstrated that treatment of tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with DC stimulating growth factor Flt3-L did neither modulate the magnitude nor the composition of the humoral immune response. Finally, we evaluated the immune infiltrate and Ig isotype content of the tumour tissue using flow cytometry and found no differences between treatment groups that were indicative for local antibody production. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the 67NR mammary carcinoma in Balb/C mice is associated with a pre-existing antibody response. And, we show that in tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with abscopal tumour regression such pre-existing antibody responses are not altered upon fractionated RT and/or DC stimulation with Flt3-L. Our research indicates that evaluating the humoral immune response in the setting of abscopal tumour regression is not invariably associated with therapeutic effects.

  5. Small peripheral lung carcinomas with five-year post-surgical follow-up: assessment by semi-automated volumetric measurement of tumour size, CT value and growth rate on TSCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Shusuke [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Nagano Health Promotion Corporation, Inasato, Nagano (Japan); Hanaoka, Takaomi [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Department of Chest Surgery, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Ogata, Hiroyuki [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Division of Clinical Laboratory and Pathology, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Takayama, Fumiyoshi [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Ichinose Neurosurgery Hospital, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, Tomofumi [Iida Municipal Hospital, Iida, Nagano (Japan); Haniuda, Masayuki [Aichi Medical University, Division of Chest Surgery, Aichi (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuhiko [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Matsumoto (Japan); Okaya-Enrei Hospital, Okaya, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, Ryoichi [National Chushin Matsumoto Hospital, Matsumoto (Japan); Yoshida, Kazuo [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Matsumoto (Japan); Honda, Takayuki [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    To retrospectively assess the utility of semi-automated measurements by stratification of CT values of tumour size, CT value and doubling time (DT) using thin-section computed tomography (CT) images. The post-surgical outcomes of favourable and problematic tumours (more advanced p stage than IA, post-surgical recurrence or mortality from lung cancer) were compared using the measured values. The computed DTs were compared with manually measured values. The study subjects comprised 85 patients (aged 33-80 years, 48 women, 37 men), followed-up for more than 5 years postoperatively, with 89 lung lesions, including 17 atypical adenomatous hyperplasias and 72 lung cancers. DTs were determined in 45 lesions. For problematic lesions, whole tumour diameter and density were >18 mm and >-400 HU, respectively. The respective values for the tumour core (with CT values of -350 to 150 HU) were >15 mm and >-70 HU. Analysis of tumour core DTs showed interval tumour progression even if little progress was seen by standard tumour volume DT (TVDT). Software-based volumetric measurements by stratification of CT values provide valuable information on tumour core and help estimate tumour aggressiveness and interval tumour progression better than standard manually measured 2D-VDTs. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  7. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Donal J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). RESULTS: Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. CONCLUSION: HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  8. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher William M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC on tissue microarrays (TMA consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS. Results Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46 of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93; p = 0.03 when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. Conclusion HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  9. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Donal J

    2010-04-01

    Abstract Background Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). Results Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. Conclusion HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  10. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilborg, T.C. van; Broekmans, F.J.; Pijpe, A.; Schrijver, L.H.; Mooij, T.M.; Oosterwijk, J.C; Verhoef, S.; Gomez Garcia, E.B.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Adank, M.A.; Asperen, C.J. van; Doorn, H.C. van; Os, T.A. van; Bos, A.M.; Rookus, M.A.; Ausems, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. METHOD

  11. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H.; Mooij, Thea M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Verhoef, Senno; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Adank, Muriel A.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Os, Theo A.; Bos, Anna M.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ausems, Margreet G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Method

  12. 75 FR 47316 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice) The... National Science Board business and other matters specified, as follows: Date and Time: August 12, 2010, at 3 p.m. EDT. Subject Matter: Review and Discussion of Current Mid-Scale Research Funding Support...

  13. Use of metformin earlier in pregnancy predicts supplemental insulin therapy in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rachel T; Glastras, Sarah J; Hocking, Samantha; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2016-06-01

    The use of metformin in gestational diabetes is safe and effective, yet some women require additional insulin therapy to achieve glycaemic targets. We found a significant association between earlier gestational age at initiation of metformin therapy and the necessity for supplemental insulin in women treated with metformin during pregnancy.

  14. The impact of newborn screening and earlier intervention on the clinical course of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F. Nicole; Fitzgerald, Dominic A.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting condition which is readily diagnosed in the vast majority of cases on newborn screening [NBS]. A diagnosis made on newborn screening translates into earlier initiation of therapies, improved growth, better lung function into the adult years and culminates in better

  15. RNF43 is a tumour suppressor gene mutated in mucinous tumours of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Georgina L; Hunter, Sally M; Doyle, Maria A; Rowley, Simone M; Christie, Michael; Allan, Prue E; Bowtell, David D L; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2013-02-01

    Mucinous carcinomas represent a distinct morphological subtype which can arise from several organ sites, including the ovary, and their genetic characteristics are largely under-described. Exome sequencing of 12 primary mucinous ovarian tumours identified RNF43 as the most frequently somatically mutated novel gene, secondary to KRAS and mutated at a frequency equal to that of TP53 and BRAF. Further screening of RNF43 in a larger cohort of ovarian tumours identified additional mutations, with a total frequency of 2/22 (9%) in mucinous ovarian borderline tumours and 6/29 (21%) in mucinous ovarian carcinomas. Seven mutations were predicted to truncate the protein and one missense mutation was predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. Six tumours had allelic imbalance at the RNF43 locus, with loss of the wild-type allele. The mutation spectrum strongly suggests that RNF43 is an important tumour suppressor gene in mucinous ovarian tumours, similar to its reported role in mucinous pancreatic precancerous cysts.

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of tumour cell proliferation and intratumoural microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennazli Gulbin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between different histological types and grades of canine malignant mammary tumours, tumour cell proliferation and their angiogenic activity using immunohistochemical markers. Mammary tissue samples from 47 bitches with mammary cancer were evaluated. The expression of cellular proliferation marker Ki-67 and endothelial marker Von Willebrand’s factor (vWF were immunohistochemically demonstrated. The tumours with the highest Ki-67 and vWF expressions were found to share similar histomorphological features. Simple solid carcinoma had the highest levels of Ki-67, vWF, and higher histological grade while complex carcinomas, osteosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas had the lowest ones. The differences between the expressions of Ki-67 and vWF in different tumour types were considered to be of great importance in determination of biological behaviour and prognosis of these tumours. This study is one of the few studies that evaluate these differences among the subtypes of malignant canine mammary tumours

  17. FGFR4 Arg388 allele correlates with tumour thickness and FGFR4 protein expression with survival of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, S; Mestel, D S; Schmidt, M; Ullrich, A; Berking, C

    2006-06-19

    A single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene for FGFR4 (-Arg388) has been associated with progression in various types of human cancer. Although fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) belong to the most important growth factors in melanoma, expression of FGF receptor subtype 4 has not been investigated yet. In this study, the protein expression of this receptor was analysed in 137 melanoma tissues of different progression stages by immunohistochemistry. FGFR4 protein was expressed in 45% of the specimens and correlated with pTNM tumour stages (UICC, P = 0.023 and AJCC, P = 0.046), presence of microulceration (P = 0.009), tumour vascularity (P = 0.001), metastases (P = 0.025), number of primary tumours (P = 0.022), overall survival (P = 0.047) and disease-free survival (P = 0.024). Furthermore, FGFR4 Arg388 polymorphism was analysed in 185 melanoma patients by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Arg388 allele was detected in 45% of the melanoma patients and was significantly associated with tumour thickness (by Clark's level of invasion (P = 0.004) and by Breslow in mm (P = 0.02)) and the tumour subtype nodular melanoma (P = 0.002). However, there was no correlation of the FGFR4 Arg388 allele with overall and disease-free survival. In conclusion, the Arg388 genotype and the protein expression of FGFR4 may be potential markers for progression of melanoma.

  18. Use of diagnostic dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for targeting of soft tissue tumour biopsies at 3T: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Amann, Gabriele [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute for Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Krssak, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vienna (Austria); Panotopoulos, Joannis; Funovics, Philipp; Windhager, Reinhard [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopaedics, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Nemec, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Breitenseher, Martin [Landesklinikum Waldviertel Horn, Horn (Austria); Grabner, Guenther; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Dominkus, Martin [Orthopaedics Hospital Speising, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of MR-guided soft tissue tumour biopsy at 3T, using the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) information from staging MRI for intralesional targeting. After obtaining written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 53 patients with suspected soft tissue tumours prospectively underwent preoperative staging MRI at 3T, including DCE, and subsequent MR-guided core needle biopsy. In 44/53 cases, DCE was heterogeneous and was used for intralesional biopsy targeting. Surgical, whole-specimen histology was used as the gold standard in 43/44 patients and revealed 42 soft tissue tumours (24 men; 18 women; mean age, 52 years; range, 19 - 84). Final surgical histology revealed eight benign lesions, six tumours of intermediate dignity, and 28 malignancies. All malignancies had shown heterogeneous DCE. The diagnostic yield of the biopsies was 100 % (42/42). Histological accuracy rates of biopsy were 100 % in predicting the dignity (42/42; 95 % CI [0.916 - 1.000]), 95.2 % for the tissue-specific entity (40/42; 95 % CI [0.847 - 0.987]), and 90.5 % for the tumour grade (38/42; 95 % CI [0.779 - 0.962]). Our preliminary study indicates that biopsy of soft tissue tumours can be performed accurately and safely with DCE targeted MR-guidance at 3T, using a combined staging/biopsy MRI protocol. (orig.)

  19. Influence of electrical and thermal properties on RF ablation of breast cancer: is the tumour preferentially heated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandstedt Bengt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Techniques based on radio frequency (RF energy have many applications in medicine, in particular tumour ablation. Today, mammography screening detects many breast cancers at an early stage, facilitating treatment by minimally invasive techniques such as radio frequency ablation (RFA. The breast cancer is mostly surrounded by fat, which during RFA-treatment could result in preferential heating of the tumour due to the substantial differences in electrical parameters. The object of this study was to investigate if this preferential heating existed during experimental in vitro protocols and during computer simulations. Methods Excised breast material from four patients with morphologically diagnosed breast cancers were treated with our newly developed RFA equipment. Subsequently, two finite element method (FEM models were developed; one with only fat and one with fat and an incorporated breast cancer of varying size. The FEM models were solved using temperature dependent electrical conductivity versus constant conductivity, and transient versus steady-state analyses. Results Our experimental study performed on excised breast tissue showed a preferential heating of the tumour, even if associated with long tumour strands. The fat between these tumour strands was surprisingly unaffected. Furthermore, the computer simulations demonstrated that the difference in electrical and thermal parameters between fat and tumour tissue can cause preferential heating of the tumour. The specific absorption rate (SAR distribution changed significantly when a tumour was present in fatty tissue. The degree of preferential heating depended on tissue properties, tumour shape, and placement relative to the electrode. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity increased the thermal lesion volume, but did not change the preferential heating. Transient solutions decreased the thermal lesion volume but increased the preferential heating of the tumour

  20. Carotid body tumours. A 20-year single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalainas, Ilias; Nano, Giovanni; Casana, Renato; Bianchi, Paolo; Stegher, Silvia; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this single-institution retrospective study was to review the surgical outcomes of resection of carotid body tumours over the last 20 years in our hospital. From January 1985 to December 2004, 17 patients were admitted to our institution with carotid body tumours. All patients were treated by surgical resection of the tumour. No perioperative deaths occurred. Perioperative comorbidities were more frequent in patients with large carotid body tumours intimately associated with the carotid vessels. Surgical excision of carotid body tumours is safe and effective even in the long term.

  1. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified. A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup.

  2. Using tumour phylogenetics to identify the roots of metastasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naxerova, Kamila; Jain, Rakesh K

    2015-05-01

    In cancer, much uncertainty remains regarding the origins of metastatic disease. Models of metastatic progression offer competing views on when dissemination occurs (at an early or late stage of tumour development), whether metastases at different sites arise independently and directly from the primary tumour or give rise to each other, and whether dynamic cell exchange occurs between synchronously growing lesions. Although it is probable that many routes can lead to the establishment of systemic disease, clinical observations suggest that distinct modes of metastasis might prevail in different tumour types. Gaining a more-comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary processes that underlie metastasis is not only relevant from a basic biological perspective, but also has profound clinical implications. The 'tree of life' of metastatic cancer contains answers to many outstanding questions about the development of systemic disease, but has only been reconstructed in a limited number of patients. Here we review available data on the phylogenetic relationships between primary solid tumours and their metastases, and examine to what degree they support different models of metastatic progression. We provide a description of experimental methods for lineage tracing in human cancer, ranging from broad DNA-sequencing approaches to more-targeted techniques, and discuss their respective benefits and caveats. Finally, we propose future research questions in the area of cancer phylogenetics.

  3. Influence of femtosecond laser radiation on cells of the transplantable tumour Krebs-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkin, Yu P.; Popova, N. A.; Nikolin, V. P.; Kaledin, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Pestryakov, Efim V.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of femtosecond radiation of a titaniumsapphire laser on cells of the transplantable ascitic tumour Krebs-2 was studied. After in vitro irradiation by the pulsed fundamentalharmonic radiation with the wavelength 800 nm, pulse duration 30 fs, repetition rate 1 kHz, mean power 100 and 300 mW and exposure time 3 min, as well as by the second-harmonic radiation (40 nm, 50 fs, 120 mW), all cells were diffusely stained by the vital stain trypan blue, which may be an evidence of their death or abnormalities of membrane permeability. However, implantation of such cells to experimental animals led to formation of tumours at the transplantation site with the kinetics slightly different from the control one. In the group of mice to which the cells were inoculated after irradiation with second harmonic pulses of titanium-sapphire laser the inhibition of tumour growth was observed due to partial death of cells under the action of UV spectral components. To explain the mechanism of the observed phenomenon the possibility of pore formation (photoporation) in the cell membrane, described earlier in the papers on foreign DNA transfection into cells, is considered.

  4. Influence of femtosecond laser radiation on cells of the transplantable tumour Krebs-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshalkin, Yu P; Popova, N A; Nikolin, V P; Kaledin, V I; Kirpichnikov, A V; Pestryakov, Efim V

    2012-06-30

    The influence of femtosecond radiation of a titaniumsapphire laser on cells of the transplantable ascitic tumour Krebs-2 was studied. After in vitro irradiation by the pulsed fundamentalharmonic radiation with the wavelength 800 nm, pulse duration 30 fs, repetition rate 1 kHz, mean power 100 and 300 mW and exposure time 3 min, as well as by the second-harmonic radiation (40 nm, 50 fs, 120 mW), all cells were diffusely stained by the vital stain trypan blue, which may be an evidence of their death or abnormalities of membrane permeability. However, implantation of such cells to experimental animals led to formation of tumours at the transplantation site with the kinetics slightly different from the control one. In the group of mice to which the cells were inoculated after irradiation with second harmonic pulses of titanium-sapphire laser the inhibition of tumour growth was observed due to partial death of cells under the action of UV spectral components. To explain the mechanism of the observed phenomenon the possibility of pore formation (photoporation) in the cell membrane, described earlier in the papers on foreign DNA transfection into cells, is considered.

  5. Prognostic significance of novel {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT defined tumour variables in patients with oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Kieran G., E-mail: kfoley@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Fielding, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Fielding@wales.nhs.uk [Department of Wales Research and Diagnostic Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Centre (PETIC), University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Lewis, Wyn G., E-mail: Wyn.Lewis4@wales.nhs.uk [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Karran, Alex, E-mail: alex_karran@hotmail.co.uk [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Chan, David, E-mail: dcsy23@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Blake, Paul, E-mail: pblake76@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Roberts, S. Ashley, E-mail: Ashley.Roberts@wales.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as a routine staging investigation of oesophageal cancer (OC). The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic significance of PET/CT defined tumour variables including maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax), tumour length (TL), metastatic length of disease (MLoD), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and total local nodal metastasis count (PET/CT LNMC). Materials and methods: 103 pre-treatment OC patients (76 adenocarcinoma, 25 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 poorly differentiated and 1 neuroendocrine tumour) were staged using PET/CT. The prognostic value of the measured tumour variables were tested using log-rank analysis of the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards method. Primary outcome measure was survival from diagnosis. Results: Univariate analysis showed all variables to have strong statistical significance in relation to survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated three variables that were significantly and independently associated with survival; MLoD (HR 1.035, 95% CI 1.008–1.064, p = 0.011), TLG (HR 1.002, 95% CI 1.000–1.003, p = 0.018) and PET/CT LNMC (HR 0.048–0.633, 95% CI 0.005–2.725, p = 0.015). Conclusion: MLoD, TLG, and PET/CT LNMC are important prognostic indicators in OC. This is the first study to demonstrate an independent statistical association between TLG, MLoD and survival by multivariable analysis, and highlights the value of staging OC patients with PET/CT using functional tumour variables.

  6. Oral and maxillofacial tumours in children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Tanaka, N; Sato, T; Amagasa, T

    1997-04-01

    This retrospective review presents our experience of oral and maxillofacial tumours in children. The subjects were 250 children under the age of 15 years (out of a total of 2747 patients with oral and maxillofacial tumours), who were treated after histopathological confirmation of their diagnoses during the 28 years 1965-92. Diagnosis, incidence, and age at presentation were the main outcome measures and the results showed that 232 patients (93%) had benign tumours and 18 (7%) were malignant. The most common benign tumour was haemangioma (n = 69) and the most common malignant tumour sarcoma (n = 14). The most common odontogenic tumour was odontoma (n = 47) and non-odontogenic tumour ossifying fibroma (n = 5). The most common site of soft tissue tumours was the tongue (n = 65) and of bony tumours the mandible (n = 62). About a third of the tumours developed in patients between the ages of 6 and 11 years. Most of the angiomas developed in patients less than 6 years old, and most of the ameloblastomas in those over 12 years of age. Children accounted for 55% of patients with lymphangoma, 41% of those with odontoma, and 22% of those with haemangioma. It is concluded that most of these lesions were probably developmental malformations rather than neoplasms, and that the definition of oral and maxillofacial tumours in children should be reconsidered.

  7. GPR Investigation of an Earlier Romanesque Foundation Beneath the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, Villeveyrac, South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Paul, V. L.; Warden, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used in archeology as it is a very high resolution and nondestructive geophysical method. Information obtained from GPR provides detailed images of near-surface buried objects. GPR or other nondestructive imaging techniques are essential to permit minimal excavation of a historically sensitive building for which archeological investigation is planned. A 3-D GPR survey with 500- and 800-MHz antennas was performed on the fine gravel floor of the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, near Montpellier, south of France. The whole floor area of the abbey including aisle, choir, transept, and nave was surveyed. Processed 2-D GPR profiles and time slice images of both 500- and 800-MHz data on a known buried limestone pier of earlier Romanesque construction within the survey area show distinct anomalies corresponding to the location of the object. The Romanesque pier abuts a present-day Gothic pillar inside the transept of the abbey. Several other GPR anomalies were also found. For example, n intriguing row of periodically-spaced buried objects can be seen down the center of nave which may be related to an earlier Romanesque wall. Imaging the foundations is very challenging due to low dielectric constant between foundations and host soil. Therefore the next stage is to attempt to apply 3-D seismic coherency techniques to the 3-D GPR data to better image the near subsurface structures inside the abbey. Our results shall be used to guide archeological ground-truthing and provide constraints on architectural historical models of Cistercian abbey construction.

  8. Giant Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumour: An Enigma of Surgical Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurayub Mohd; Azizan, Nornazirah; Zakaria, Andee Dzulkarnaen; Rahman, Mohd Ramzisham Abdul

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of 16-year-old male, who was referred from private centre for dyspnoea, fatigue, and orthopnea. The chest radiograph revealed complete opacification of left chest which was confirmed by computed tomography as a large left mediastinal mass measuring 14 × 15 × 18 cm. The diagnostic needle core biopsy revealed mixed germ cell tumour with possible combination of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac, and teratoma. After 4 cycles of neoadjuvant BEP regime, there was initial response of tumour markers but not tumour bulk. Instead of classic median sternotomy or clamshell incision, posterolateral approach with piecemeal manner was chosen. Histology confirmed mixed germ cell tumour with residual teratomatous component without yolk sac or embryonal carcinoma component. Weighing 3.5 kg, it is one of the largest mediastinal germ cell tumours ever reported. We describe this rare and gigantic intrathoracic tumour and discuss the spectrum of surgical approach and treatment of this exceptional tumour.

  9. Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaj, Leonora; Lessard, Ryan; Dai, Lixin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Skog, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Tumour cells release an abundance of microvesicles containing a selected set of proteins and RNAs. Here, we show that tumour microvesicles also carry DNA, which reflects the genetic status of the tumour, including amplification of the oncogene c-Myc. We also find amplified c-Myc in serum microvesicles from tumour-bearing mice. Further, we find remarkably high levels of retrotransposon RNA transcripts, especially for some human endogenous retroviruses, such as LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposon elements, in tumour microvesicles and these transposable elements could be transferred to normal cells. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of tumour microvesicles to include: elevated levels of specific coding and non-coding RNA and DNA, mutated and amplified oncogene sequences and transposable elements. Thus, tumour microvesicles contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer. PMID:21285958

  10. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  11. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment.

  12. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments......In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed...... and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  13. Earlier detection can help avoid many serious complications of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, James D

    2013-11-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) has a remarkable potential for recovery. It may be within our capability to help almost all women with PPCM not only to survive, but also to completely recover heart function. Time-of-diagnosis left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥0.35 is associated with better survival rates and higher full recovery rates. Increased mortality, chronic cardiomyopathy, thromboembolic complications and serious ventricular tachyarrhythmias are associated with diagnostic LVEF <0.30. Delays in diagnosis may result in lower LVEF at diagnosis and subsequent lower recovery rates. Greater awareness of the possibility of heart failure developing in previously healthy young women, with no history of heart disease, will contribute to earlier diagnosis, with potentially better preserved heart function. Women of African descent may be at higher risk for poorer outcomes. Recent investigations suggest newer biomarkers may help with earlier detection of PPCM.

  14. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  15. Optimal HIV testing and earlier care: the way forward in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenen, T; Lundgren, J; Lazarus, Jeff;

    2008-01-01

    representing advocacy, clinical and policy areas of the HIV field, was convened in an effort to gain a common understanding on the role of HIV testing and counselling in optimizing diagnosis and the need for earlier care. Key topics discussed at the conference and described in the following articles include......The articles in this supplement were developed from a recent pan-European conference entitled 'HIV in Europe 2007: Working together for optimal testing and earlier care', which took place on 26-27 November in Brussels, Belgium. The conference, organized by a multidisciplinary group of experts......: current barriers to HIV testing across Europe, trends in the epidemiology of HIV in the region, problems associated with undiagnosed infection and the psychosocial barriers impacting on testing. The supplement also provides a summary of the World Health Organization's recommendations for HIV testing...

  16. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: C...

  18. A review of quality of life after predictive testing for and earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Panegyres, Peter K; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K

    2013-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these "patient reported outcomes" for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance toward predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health-related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care.

  19. A Review of Quality of Life after Predictive Testing for and Earlier Identification of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231

  20. In-utero cigarette smoke exposure and the risk of earlier menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Talita C; Haadsma, Maaike L; Land, Jolande A; Boezen, Marike H; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk

    2017-08-28

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for earlier menopause. Animal studies show that in-utero smoke exposure is toxic to developing ovaries. Our aim was to evaluate whether in-utero smoke exposed women reach menopause earlier compared with nonexposed women. This is a cohort study within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Participants included in this study were followed from 1991/1992 until 2010. Participant characteristics for the current analysis were obtained from obstetric records and from annual follow-up questionnaires. When not available, age at natural menopause was estimated by age at filling in the questionnaire minus 1 year. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios of menopause for in-utero exposed and nonexposed women. There were 695/2,852 postmenopausal women, of whom 466 had natural menopause, 117 had hormonal therapy, and 112 had surgical menopause. Age at natural menopause was 50.6 ± 3.7 years. Of all participants, 20.2% (577/2,852) were exposed to smoke in-utero. Participants who were in-utero exposed but were not smokers did not have higher hazards of menopause (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.72-1.18), whereas participants who were ever smokers (current or previous) and were in-utero exposed (adjusted HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.95) or were ever smokers but not exposed (adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.53) did have higher hazards of earlier menopause. In-utero smoke exposure was not associated with earlier menopause, but the effect of in-utero smoke exposure was modified by the smoking habits of the participants themselves increasing the risk for smokers who were in-utero exposed.

  1. Locoregional tumour evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck area: a comparison between MRI, PET/CT and integrated PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Heusch, Philipp; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Ruhlmann, Marcus; Ruhlmann, Verena [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Bergmann, Christoph [University Hospital Essen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Essen (Germany); Schlamann, Marc [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen, Department of Neuroradiology, Marburg (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Wetter, Axel [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of integrated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging for locoregional tumour evaluation compared to {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MR imaging in initial tumour and recurrence diagnosis in histopathologically confirmed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and integrated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging were performed for initial tumour staging or recurrence diagnosis in 25 patients with HNSCC. MR, fused {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and fused {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR images were analysed by two independent readers in separate sessions in random order. In initial tumour staging, T and N staging was performed while individual lesions were analysed in patients with suspected cancer recurrence. In T and N staging, histopathological results after tumour resection served as the reference standard while histopathological sampling as well as cross-sectional and clinical follow-up were accepted in cancer recurrence diagnosis. The diagnostic accuracy of each modality was calculated separately for T and N staging as well as for tumour recurrence, and compared using McNemar's test. Values of p <0.017 were considered statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. In 12 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR for initial tumour staging, T staging was accurate in 50 % with MRI, in 59 % with PET/CT and in 75 % with PET/MR while N staging was accurate in 75 % with MRI, in 77 % with PET/CT and in 71 % with PET/MR in relation to the reference standard. No significant differences were observed in T and N staging among the three modalities (p > 0.017). In 13 patients undergoing hybrid imaging for cancer recurrence diagnosis, diagnostic accuracy was 57 % with MRI and in 72 % with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR, respectively. Again, no significant differences were found among the three modalities (p > 0.017). In this initial study, no significant differences were found among {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR, {sup 18}F

  2. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies.

  3. Metastatic carcinoid tumour with spinal cord compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Si; Antwi-Yeboah, Y; Bucur, Sd

    2012-07-01

    Carcinoid tumours are rare with an incidence of 5.25/100,000. They predominantly originate in the gastrointestinal tract (50-60%) or bronchopulmonary system (25-30%). Common sites of metastasis are lymph nodes, liver, lungs and bone. Spinal metastasis are rare, but has been reported in patients with symptoms of spinal cord compression including neurological deficits. We report a rare case of carcinoid metastasis with spinal cord compression, in a 63-year-old man, presenting with a one-year history of back pain without any neurological symptoms. The patient underwent a two-level decompressive laminectomy of T10 and T11 as well as piecemeal tumour resection. Post-operatively the patient made a good recovery without complications.

  4. Endometrial stromal sarcoma: a rare tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Pal Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS are rare endometrial tumours arising from stroma of endometrium i.e. connective tissue of endometrium rather than glands. Usually a pre-operative diagnosis is difficult. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is main line of treatment. Adjuvant hormone therapy in the form of progesterones, GnRH analogues, aromatase inhibitors are effective for prevention of recurrences as these tumours are invariably positive for oestrogen & progesterone receptors. Surgical excision, radiotherapy, hormone therapy are recommended for recurrences. We report a 52 yrs widow with undifferentiated endometrial stromal sarcoma weighing 3.75 kg with a short history of 3 months diagnosed only after histopathology. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 276-278

  5. Electrochemotherapy for rat implanted liver tumour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The most common interventional therapies for liver cancer at present include transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE),1 percutaneous ethanol injection2 and radiofrequency ablation,3 but all these therapies have some intrinsic disadvantages. Since the advent of electrochemo- therapy (EChT), it has been accepted as a safe and effective therapy for malignant tumors4,5 There are only a few experimental studies reporting the use of EChT in the treatment of liver cancer in the foreign medical literature.6-8 However, there have been some clinical studies, and even fewer reports of experimental studies on EChT for liver cancer in China. We used a rat implanted liver cancer animal model to monitor changes in tumour size, tumour necrosis, cellular apoptosis, expression of peripheral immunological markers (IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6 and TNF-α) and survival.

  6. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, J; Madan, R; Singh, L; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K; Roy, S

    2015-04-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare variety of soft tissue sarcoma that originates from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. They have historically been difficult tumours to diagnose and treat. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a goal to achieve negative margins. Despite aggressive surgery and adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of patients with MPNST remains poor. MPNST arising from penis is a very rare entity; thus, it presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of penile MPNST in a 38-year-old man in the absence of neurofibromatosis treated with surgery followed by post-operative radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray in 30 fractions and adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and adriamycin.

  7. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented as cavernous sinus tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moona, Mohammad Shafi; Mehdi, Itrat

    2011-12-01

    A 32 year Libyan male presented with the complaints of headache and diplopia. He was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma on the basis of MRI findings but no initial biopsy was taken. Depending on the radiologic diagnosis the patient was treated with gamma knife surgery twice, abroad. During follow up he developed left ear deafness and left cervical lymph adenopathy. An ENT evaluation with biopsy from the nasopharynx and cervical lymph node was taken. The histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumour showed a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (poorly differentiated lympho-epithelial carcinoma). The cavernous sinus tumour which was initially treated as a meningioma was in fact metastasis from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma, making this an interesting and rare occurrence.

  8. SPECT/CT and tumour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abikhzer, Gad [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Keidar, Zohar [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-05-15

    Scintigraphic techniques are sensitive imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer patients providing the functional and metabolic activity characteristics of the tumour. Hybrid SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy of these well-established imaging techniques by precise anatomical localization and characterization of morphological findings, differentiation between foci of physiological and pathological tracer uptake, resulting in a significant impact on patient management and more definitive interpretations. The use of SPECT/CT has been studied in a variety of applications in tumour imaging which are reviewed in this article. By combining functional and anatomical information in a single imaging session, SPECT/CT has become a one-stop cancer imaging modality. (orig.)

  9. The hypoxic tumour microenvironment and metastatic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarsky, Patrick; Hill, Richard P

    2003-01-01

    The microenvironment of solid tumours contains regions of poor oxygenation and high acidity. Growing evidence from clinical and experimental studies points to a fundamental role for hypoxia in metastatic progression. Prolonged hypoxia increases genomic instability, genomic heterogeneity, and may act as a selective pressure for tumour cell variants. Hypoxia can also act in an epigenetic fashion, altering the expression of genes. Hypoxia-induced changes in gene expression alter non-specific stress responses, anaerobic metabolism, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and cell-cell contacts. Experimental studies have demonstrated that inhibition of proteins involved in these processes can modify metastasis formation, suggesting a causal role in metastatic progression. Recent advances in high-throughput screening techniques have allowed identification of many hypoxia-induced genes that are involved in the processes associated with metastasis. Here we review the epigenetic control of gene expression by the hypoxic microenvironment and its potential contribution to metastatic progression.

  10. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  11. Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JB; Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Borden, EC;

    2006-01-01

    at different stages of progression. The innate immune response gene, interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa (ISG15, GIP2), was highly expressed at all stages of bladder cancer as compared to normal urothelium. Western blotting revealed a tumour-associated expression of ISG15 protein. ISG15 exhibited a stage...... expression of ISG15 protein in both cancer cells and stromal immune cells. Interestingly, a significant fraction of ISG15 protein was localised to the nuclei of tumour cells, whereas no nuclear ISG15 staining was observed in ISG15-positive stromal cells. Taken together, our findings identify ISG15 as a novel......Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent malignancies, and is characterised by frequent tumour recurrences and localised inflammation, which may promote tissue invasion and metastasis. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in normal bladder urothelium with that in tumours...

  12. [De novo tumours of renal transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétet, J F; Rigaud, J; Dorel-Le Théo, M; Láuté, F; Karam, G; Blanchet, P

    2007-12-01

    Kidney cancer occurs rarely and late in renal transplants. The lack of grafts and the increasing age of the cadaver donors are likely to result in an increasing number of such cancers. To date, the treatment of choice is the transplant removal. Nevertheless partial nephrectomy may be discussed in selected cases. Ultrasonographic screening should allow detection of low volume tumours suitable for partial nephrectomy. Alternative techniques (radiofrequency, cryoablation) are to be assessed in such patients.

  13. Mixed odontogenic tumours and odontomas. Considerations on interrelationship. Review of the literature and presentation of 134 new cases of odontomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, H P; Reichart, P A; Praetorius, F

    1997-03-01

    Based on a world-wide literature survey of published cases of "mixed odontogenic tumours" (ameloblastic fibroma, fibrodentinoma and fibro-odontoma) and complex/compound odontomas (including 134 own cases of odontomas) the authors present data showing the complex nature of these lesions. The authors suggest the following work hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis and relationship between the "mixed odontogenic tumours" and the odontomas. The tumours develop along two separate lines: (I) the neoplastic line comprising only one tumour, the ameloblastic fibroma (AF) and the closely related ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (AFD). (II) The hamartomatous (or the developing complex odontoma (DCO) line comprising: (1) The AF (and AFD). Differences in age and biological behaviour indicate that some AF are true benign neoplasms, whereas others are hamartomas presenting the first stage in the DCO-line. (2) The AF-O represents the second stage of the DCO-line developing into (3) the fully mineralized complex odontoma. Lastly, the authors suggest that the compound odontoma should be considered not as an alternative final stage to the complex odontoma but rather as a malformation (with a high degree of histomorphological differentiation) pathogenetically closely related to the process producing hyperodontia, "multiple schizodontia" or locally conditioned hyperactivity of the dental lamina.

  14. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins.

  15. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  16. [Ovarian yolk sac tumour: general review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Caroline; Lhommé, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Morice, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Pautier, Patricia; Troalen, Frédéric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault

    2011-08-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumour (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising most often in young women. Preoperative clinical, biological (alpha-foetoprotein) and radiological findings should help to establish the diagnosis of OYST, in order to propose adequate surgical treatment. The aim of surgery is to remove the primary tumour, to obtain an accurate histological diagnosis and to assess the disease extent. In young women, fertility-sparing surgery should be performed, in order to preserve the possibility of pregnancy later on. Chemotherapy has substantially modified the prognosis of these tumours, and practically all patients will be cured. The overall 5-year survival rate is 94% when patients are treated with BEP chemotherapy. Depending on the clinical situation, two to four cycles of the BEP regimen should be administered after surgery. Identification of prognostic factors may help to propose risk-adapted treatment in order to increase the cure rate in patients with a poor prognosis and to decrease toxicity in patients with a low risk of relapse. Fertility preservation represents a major objective in women treated for OYSTs.

  17. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen as a tumour marker in patients with endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y.; Kasai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Ichimura, T.; Yasui, T.; Sumi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background No potential tumour markers have been validated for prognosis in endometrial cancer. However, carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) is one of the most widely used tumour markers in various types of cancer. Although cea expression in endometrial cancer has been investigated, its prognostic value remains controversial, and no studies have investigated serum cea levels in large case series. In the present study, we investigated diagnostic and prognostic applications of serum cea for endometrial cancer. Methods This prospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Between January 2006 and December 2012, serum cea was measured prospectively in 215 patients with endometrial cancer and was subsequently measured during treatment and at scheduled follow-up examinations in patients with elevated baseline serum cea. Results During the study period, 215 patients (142 stage i, 19 stage ii, 32 stage iii, 22 stage iv) were treated for endometrial cancer. By the time of last follow-up, 52 had relapsed (24.2%), and the median follow-up duration was 45 months (range: 1–95 months). Elevated serum cea was identified in 25 patients (11.6%) and was associated with histologic type (p = 0.04), histologic grade (p = 0.03), and myometrial invasion depth (p = 0.01). Elevated serum cea was not related to clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, age, menopausal status, or body mass index. Relapse of disease was related to elevated serum cea (p = 0.006). Conclusions Serum cea is a potential prognostic indicator for endometrial cancer. PMID:27803603

  18. Relapse and disease specific survival in 1143 Danish women diagnosed with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Nikoline Marie Schou; Karlsen, Mona Aarenstrup; Høgdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of relapse as well as disease-free, overall, and disease-specific survival in women with borderline ovarian tumour (BOT). Furthermore, the study aims to identify the clinical parameters correlated to relapse. METHODS: National clinical data...... of women diagnosed with BOT from January 2005 to January 2013 constituted the basis for our study population. The prognostic influence of clinical variables was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1143 women were eligible for analysis, with 87.9% in FIGO stage I and 12.......1% in FIGO stages II-IV. Relapse of BOT was detected in 3.7%, hereof 40.5% with malignant transformation. The five-year disease-free survival was 97.6% in FIGO stage I and 87.3% in FIGO stages II-IV. Younger age, laparoscopic surgical approach, fertility sparing surgery, FIGO stages II-IV, bilateral tumour...

  19. Evaluating the agreement between tumour volumetry and the estimated volumes of tumour lesions using an algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubender, Ruediger P. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lynghjem, Julia; D' Anastasi, Melvin; Graser, Anno [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker; Modest, Dominik P. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Department of Medical Oncology, Munich (Germany); Mansmann, Ulrich R. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); Sartorius, Ute; Schlichting, Michael [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the agreement between tumour volume derived from semiautomated volumetry (SaV) and tumor volume defined by spherical volume using longest lesion diameter (LD) according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or ellipsoid volume using LD and longest orthogonal diameter (LOD) according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Twenty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the CIOX trial were included. A total of 151 target lesions were defined by baseline computed tomography and followed until disease progression. All assessments were performed by a single reader. A variance component model was used to compare the three volume versions. There was a significant difference between the SaV and RECIST-based tumour volumes. The same model showed no significant difference between the SaV and WHO-based volumes. Scatter plots showed that the RECIST-based volumes overestimate lesion volume. The agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume, evaluated by intraclass correlation, showed nearly perfect agreement. Estimating the volume of metastatic lesions using both the LD and LOD (WHO) is more accurate than those based on LD only (RECIST), which overestimates lesion volume. The good agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume enables a reasonable approximation of three-dimensional tumour burden. (orig.)

  20. Tumour-derived microvesicles (TMV) mimic the effect of tumour cells on monocyte subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Baran, Jaroslaw; Weglarczyk, Kazimierz; Szatanek, Rafal; Szaflarska, Anna; Siedlar, Maciej; Zembala, Marek

    2010-09-01

    Monocytes/macrophages may be affected by tumour cells via cell-to-cell contact, soluble factors and by tumour-derived microvesicles (TMV). Previous observations indicate that TMV interact with monocytes and alter their immunophenotype and activity. This study was designed to determine interactions of TMV with subpopulations (CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(++)) of human monocytes. Engulfment of TMV by subsets of monocytes was analysed by flow cytometry. Moreover cytokine release and production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) by CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(++) cells after TMV stimulation was determined. It was found that TMV are engulfed more efficiently by CD14(++)CD16(-) than CD14(+)CD16(++) cells. TMV-activated CD14(++)CD16(-) cells produce more ROI and interleukin -10 (IL-10) than CD14(++)CD16(+). CD14(+)CD16(++) cells following TMV stimulation showed an increased release of tumour necrosis factor alpha, IL-12p40 and RNI. TMV significantly modulate biological activity of monocyte subsets with a pattern similar to tumour cells. Therefore, TMV mimic the activating effect of tumour cells on monocytes as assessed by release of cytokines, ROI and RNI.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and circulating tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, Johannes; Gröbe, Alexander; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2014-05-10

    Due to a lack of substantial improvement in the outcome of patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) during the past decades, current staging methods need to be revised. This disease is associated with poor survival rates despite considerable advances in diagnosis and treatment. The early detection of metastases is an important indicator of survival, prognosis and relapse. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastasis is crucial. Exploring alternative measures apart from common procedures is needed to identify new prognostic markers. Similar to previous findings predominantly for other solid tumours, recently published studies demonstrate that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) might serve as prognostic markers and could supplement routine staging in OSCC. Thus, the detection of CTCs/DTCs is a promising tool to determine the individual need for therapeutic intervention. Encouraging results and new approaches point to the future use of targeted therapies for OSCC, an exceedingly heterogeneous subgroup of head and neck cancer. This review focuses on summarising technologies currently used to detect CTCs/DTCs. The translational relevance for OSCC is highlighted. The inherent challenges in detecting CTCs/DTCs will be emphasised.

  2. Variation, "evolution", immortality and genetic instabilities in tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignold, L P

    2007-08-18

    The pathological characteristics of tumour cells often include variation of their histopathological features (i.e. "degrees of de-differentiation") between cases of the same tumour type and between different foci within individual tumours. Usually, only a few cell lines from tumours are immortal. Currently, somatic mutation, replicative infidelity of DNA and aneuploidy are suggested as alternative mechanisms of genomic disturbance underlying tumours. Nevertheless, apart from Hansemann's ideas of "anaplasia" and "de-differentiation" (proposed in the 1890s), and supposed "evolutionary themes" in cancer cell biology, little has been published concerning how histopathologic variation and immortality in tumour cells might arise. This paper reviews applications of the concepts of "variation" to tumours, including concepts of "evolution" and "cellular Darwinism". It is proposed that combinations of somatic mutation, DNA replicative infidelity and aneuploidy may explain the variabilities in tumours, and provide immortality in occasional tumour cells. A possible model involves (i) an initial somatic mutation causing reduced replicative fidelity of DNA, which could be variable in intensity, and thus give rise to variations between cases; (ii) a phase of replicative infidelity of DNA causing daughter cells lines to develop various abnormalities to different degrees, and hence provide for variation between areas of the same tumour. As a last event (iii) occasional asymmetric chromosomal distributions (aneuploidy) might "refresh" the ability of a daughter cell to replicate DNA faithfully causing them to become immortal. Thus extensively mutant and variable, hyperploid, and occasionally immortal cells might arise.

  3. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Saunders, Dawn E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  4. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luize G; Monteiro, Robson Q

    2013-09-04

    Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies.

  5. Nanoparticle-blood interactions: the implications on solid tumour targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovits, James; Chen, Yih Yang; Sykes, Edward A; Chan, Warren C W

    2015-02-18

    Nanoparticles are suitable platforms for cancer targeting and diagnostic applications. Typically, less than 10% of all systemically administered nanoparticles accumulate in the tumour. Here we explore the interactions of blood components with nanoparticles and describe how these interactions influence solid tumour targeting. In the blood, serum proteins adsorb onto nanoparticles to form a protein corona in a manner dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. These serum proteins can block nanoparticle tumour targeting ligands from binding to tumour cell receptors. Additionally, serum proteins can also encourage nanoparticle uptake by macrophages, which decreases nanoparticle availability in the blood and limits tumour accumulation. The formation of this protein corona will also increase the nanoparticle hydrodynamic size or induce aggregation, which makes nanoparticles too large to enter into the tumour through pores of the leaky vessels, and prevents their deep penetration into tumours for cell targeting. Recent studies have focused on developing new chemical strategies to reduce or eliminate serum protein adsorption, and rescue the targeting potential of nanoparticles to tumour cells. An in-depth and complete understanding of nanoparticle-blood interactions is key to designing nanoparticles with optimal physicochemical properties with high tumour accumulation. The purpose of this review article is to describe how the protein corona alters the targeting of nanoparticles to solid tumours and explains current solutions to solve this problem.

  6. Local tumour hyperthermia as immunotherapy for metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya-Brown, Seiko; Fiering, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Local tumour hyperthermia for cancer treatment is currently used either for ablation purposes as an alternative to surgery or less frequently, in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to enhance the effects of those traditional therapies. As it has become apparent that activating the immune system is crucial to successfully treat metastatic cancer, the potential of boosting anti-tumour immunity by heating tumours has become a growing area of cancer research. After reviewing the history of hyperthermia therapy for cancer and introducing methods for inducing local hyperthermia, this review describes different mechanisms by which heating tumours can elicit anti-tumour immune responses, including tumour cell damage, tumour surface molecule changes, heat shock proteins, exosomes, direct effects on immune cells, and changes in the tumour vasculature. We then go over in vivo studies that provide promising results showing that local hyperthermia therapy indeed activates various systemic anti-tumour immune responses that slow growth of untreated tumours. Finally, future research questions that will help bring the use of local hyperthermia as systemic immunotherapy closer to clinical application are discussed.

  7. Early prognosis of metastasis risk in inflammatory breast cancer by texture analysis of tumour microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarevic, Daniela; Tomasevic, Zorica; Dzodic, Radan; Kanjer, Ksenija; Vukosavljevic, Dragica Nikolic; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of microscopic tumour histomorphology texture for prognosis of local and systemic recurrence at the time of initial IBC diagnosis. This retrospective study included a group of 52 patients selected on the basis of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Gray-Level-Co-Occurrence-Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Obtained values were categorized by use of both data- and outcome-based methods. All five acquired GLCM texture features significantly associated with metastasis outcome. By accuracies of 69-81% and AUCs of 0.71-0.81, prognostic performance of GLCM parameters exceeded that of standard major IBC clinical prognosticators such as tumour grade and response to induction chemotherapy. Furthermore, a composite score consisting of tumour grade, contrast and correlation as independent features resulted in further enhancement of prognostic performance by accuracy of 89%, discrimination efficiency by AUC of 0.93 and an outstanding hazard ratio of 71.6 (95%CI, 41.7-148.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the model is generalizable. This study indicates for the first time the potential use of primary breast tumour histology texture as a highly accurate, simple and cost-effective prognostic indicator of metastasis risk in IBC. Clinical relevance of the obtained results rests on the role of prognosis in decisions on induction chemotherapy and the resulting impact on quality of life and survival.

  8. [Morbidity of the tumours of the sphere head and neck in Bamako].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, M; Kampo, M I; Timbo, S K; Traoré, C B; Diallo, M; Doumbia-Singaré, K; Ag Mohamed, A

    2009-01-01

    This work reports the results of one year (November 2004-October 2005) descriptive study of tumours located in the head and neck areas in the ENT department of the University-Hospital of Gabriel Toure in Bamako. Were included in the study patients whose files showed epidemiology data: age, sex, profession, residence and period of the medical checking, and exposition factors: anatomic location, results of histology and image data of the tumours. Where excluded from the study the patients whose file were not completed and those that have had eye and brain tumours From the data base of the department, a total of 60 cases of tumours were monitored and 25 others cases were excluded according to the criteria. Among the 60 cases, 24 tumours (40%) were malign and 36 were benign. Goiter was the most found benign tumor according to the results of the hystology analysis. In most cases (15 out of 36, 41.67%) the histology analysis showed an colloid adenoma Other rare tumors like rhinoscleroma (5 cases out of 36, 13.89%), nose invertus papilloma (2 cases out of 36, 5.55%) where found. These were easily diagnosed and treated. In the group of malign tumors, the pharyngolaryngeal cancer was the most found (11 cases out of 24) and the most predominant histology of these cancers was the epidermoid carcinoma. Two of these cancers were found in patients below fifteen years of age, but no other risk factors like expositions was noted in the files of these two patients. Other malign tumors have been found: nose and sinusal cancers and thyroid carcinoma. In most cases these tumors were diagnosed at an advanced stage.

  9. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogue treatment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: factors associated with response and suggestions for therapeutic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Davide; Nori, Francesca; Cacciari, Giulia; Tomassetti, Paola [University of Bologna, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Capurso, Gabriele; Panzuto, Francesco; Delle Fave, Gianfranco [University of Rome, Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Rome (Italy); Partelli, Stefano [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Department of Surgery, Negrar (Italy); University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy); Tamburrino, Domenico; Falconi, Massimo [University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). The aim of this study was to determine the time to progression of patients treated with PRRT and to identify the prognostic factors related to treatment response. Patients with sporadic GEP NETs prospectively treated with PRRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 69 patients (37 men and 32 women; 45 with pancreatic and 24 with gastrointestinal lesion; 22 NET G1 and 41 NET G2) were treated with {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu. The objective response rate was 27.5 % (partial response, PR), while 50.7 % had stable disease and 23.2 % had progressive disease. Significant differences in PFS were observed in relationship to the stage of the disease (44 months for stage III, 23 months for stage IV), the evidence of a PR 6 months after the end of the PRRT (39 months in patients with a PR, 22 months in patients without a PR) and previous transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, yes 13 months vs no 31 months). Stage IV, NET G2 and previous TACE were found to be significant factors for tumour progression at multivariate analysis. Low tumour burden and a low proliferation index represent independent prognostic factors for long PFS, while previous chemoembolization techniques represent independent prognostic factors for early tumour progression and shorter PFS. Our data suggest that chemoembolization techniques to reduce the hepatic tumour burden should be avoided. (orig.)

  10. Borderline tumours of the ovary: A cohort study of the Arbeitsgmeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO) Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois, Andreas; Ewald-Riegler, Nina; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Reuss, Alexander; Mahner, Sven; Fotopoulou, Christina; Kommoss, Friedrich; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Hilpert, Felix; Fehm, Tanja; Burges, Alexander; Meier, Werner; Hillemanns, Peter; Hanker, Lars; Hasenburg, Annette; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Hellriegel, Martin; Wimberger, Pauline; Keyver-Paik, Mignon-Denise; Baumann, Klaus; Canzler, Ulrich; Wollschlaeger, Kerstin; Forner, Dirk; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Schröder, Willibald; Münstedt, Karsten; Richter, Barbara; Kommoss, Stefan; Hauptmann, Steffen

    2013-05-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) are recognised as a unique entity of ovarian tumours that do not exert infiltrative destructive growth or stromal invasion. Prognosis of BOT is much better compared to the more common invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Information regarding prognostic factors is inconclusive and no prospective studies exist that evaluate therapeutic strategies. We therefore started a retrospective-prospective cohort study to better understand BOT and identify scenarios in which future studies could be developed. Consecutive patients with BOT treated between 1998 and 2008 in 24 German centres were analysed. The retrospective part of the study retrieved patients' data from hospital records and clinical tumour registries while active follow-up and an independent central pathology review were carried out prospectively. BOT was confirmed in 950 patients, two thirds had serous BOT and 30.5% mucinous BOT. Most were diagnosed in stage I (82.3%); 7.6% and 10.1% had stages II and III, respectively. Overall, 74 patients (7.8%) experienced relapse and 43 (4.5%) died within the observation period. Multivariate analysis revealed higher stage, incomplete staging, tumour residuals, and organ preservation as independent prognostic factors for disease recurrence. Neither microinvasion nor micropapillary growth pattern showed any significant impact. Of 74 relapsed patients, 30% had malignant transformation to invasive ovarian cancer with five-year progression-free survival and overall survival of 12% and 50%, respectively. Prognosis of BOT correlates with tumour-related as well as surgery-related factors. The balance between recurrence risk and organ preservation and fertility-sparing surgery is an important issue deserving further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extended cervico-thoracic metastasectomy for testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumour masses through an inverse T and combined collar incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Thomas; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Klepetko, Walter

    2015-05-01

    Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) are the most common malignancy from testicular origin in young males. They are characterized by early formation of metastases along retroperitoneal and subsequent mediastinal lymph node stations. Following cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy, residual tumour masses should be removed surgically, although this implies the need for extended procedures. Such an approach can result in cure rates of over 70%. Herein, we report 2 cases of maximally extended surgery for metastatic malignant germ cell tumour of the testis. In both patients, diagnostic work-up revealed a NSGCT with retroperitoneal, mediastinal and cervical lymph node metastases. Multimodal protocols including induction chemotherapy and surgical removal of all primary and secondary tumour masses with curative intent were applied. An 'inverse T' incision in combination with a collar incision was chosen to approach the excessive supra-diaphragmatic tumour spread. This large-scaled surgical access offered an excellent exposure and allowed complete resection of all cervical and thoracic metastases in both patients. Abdominal tumour masses were resected through a standard median laparotomy. These 2 cases illustrate that complete tumour resection is feasible even in stages of NSGCT with generalized lymphatic spread. Metastasectomy should be offered to NSGCT patients despite the necessity of extended surgical approaches.

  12. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  13. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, B;

    1996-01-01

    proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine...... tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing...... development, gradually disappeared from these cells and became restricted to insulin-producing beta cells. Throughout development FA1 was not detected in endocrine glucagon, somatostatin or pancreatic polypeptide cells. Moreover, developing insulin cells that coexpressed glucagon were negative for FA1. Thus...

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumour presenting as a parasagittal brain tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibebuike, K E; Pather, S; Emereole, O; Ndolo, P; Kajee, A; Gopal, R; Naidoo, S

    2012-11-01

    Dural-based brain tumours, apart from meningiomas, are rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumor (SMT) is a documented but rare disease that occurs in immunocompromized patients. These tumours may be located at unusual sites including the brain. We present a 37-year-old patient, positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), who was admitted after generalized tonic-clonic seizures. MRI and CT scan revealed a dural-based brain tumour, intraoperatively thought to be a meningioma, but with an eventual histological diagnosis of EBV-SMT. Clinically the patient was well postoperatively with a Glasgow coma scale score of 15/15 and no focal neurologic deficit. This case confirms the association between EBV and SMT in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It also highlights the need to include EBV-SMT in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  15. The differential impact of microsatellite instability as a marker of prognosis and tumour response between colon cancer and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Pil; Min, Byung So; Kim, Tae Il; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Won Ho

    2012-05-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a distinct molecular phenotype of colorectal cancer related to prognosis and tumour response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. We investigated the differential impact of MSI between colon and rectal cancers as a marker of prognosis and chemotherapeutic response. PCR-based MSI assay was performed on 1125 patients. Six hundred and sixty patients (58.7%) had colon cancer and 465 patients (41.3%) had rectal cancer. Among 1125 patients, 106 (9.4%) had high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) tumours. MSI-H colon cancers (13%) had distinct phenotypes including young age at diagnosis, family history of colorectal cancer, early Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) stage, proximal location, poor differentiation, and high level of baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), while MSI-H rectal cancers (4.3%) showed similar clinicopathological characteristics to MSS/MSI-L tumours except for family history of colorectal cancer. MSI-H tumours were strongly correlated with longer disease free survival (DFS) (P=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.009) than MSS/MSI-L tumours in colon cancer, while these positive correlations were not observed in rectal cancers. The patients with MSS/MSI-L tumours receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy showed good prognosis (P=0.013), but this positive association was not observed in MSI-H (P=0.104). These results support the use of MSI status as a marker of prognosis and response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with colon cancers. Further study is mandatory to evaluate the precise role of MSI in patients with rectal cancers and the effect of 5-FU-based chemotherapy in MSI-H tumours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sonoporation with Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT®) induces transient tumour volume reduction in a subcutaneous xenograft model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotopoulis, Spiros; Stigen, Endre; Popa, Mihaela; Safont, Mireia Mayoral; Healey, Andrew; Kvåle, Svein; Sontum, Per; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Gilja, Odd Helge; McCormack, Emmet

    2017-01-10

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the deadliest cancers with survival averaging only 3months if untreated following diagnosis. A major limitation in effectively treating PDAC using conventional and targeted chemotherapeutic agents, is inadequate drug delivery to the target location, predominantly due to a poorly vascularised, desmoplastic tumour microenvironment. Ultrasound in combination with ultrasound contrast agents, i.e., microbubbles, that flow through the vasculature and capillaries can be used to disrupt such mechanical barriers, potentially allowing for a greater therapeutic efficacy. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as sonoporation. In an attempt to improve the efficacy of sonoporation, novel microbubble formulations are being developed to address the limitation of commercially produced clinical diagnostic ultrasound contrast agents. In our work here we evaluate the ability of a novel formulation; namely Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT®) to improve the therapeutic efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, longitudinally in a xenograft model of PDAC. Results indicated that ACT® bubbles alone demonstrated no observable toxic effects, whilst ACT® in combination with paclitaxel can transiently reduce tumour volumes significantly, three days posttreatment (p=0.0347-0.0458). Quantitative 3D ultrasound validated the calliper measurements. Power Doppler ultrasound imaging indicated that ACT® in combination with paclitaxel was able to transiently sustain peak vasculature percentages as observed in the initial stages of tumour development. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in tumour vasculature percentage at the end of treatment. The high vascular percentage correlated to the transient decrease and overall inhibition of the tumour volumes. In conclusion, ACT® improves the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel in a PDAC xenograft model allowing for transient tumour volume reduction and sustained tumour vasculature

  17. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumour suppressor genes in benign and malignant mixed odontogenic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Clarice F; Gomes, Carolina C; Diniz, Marina G; Vargas, Pablo A; de Paula, Alfredo M B; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Loyola, Adriano M; Gomez, Ricardo S

    2012-05-01

    Although molecular alterations are reported in different types of odontogenic tumours, their pathogenesis remains to be established. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies allow the identification of minimal regions of deletions of known or putative tumour suppressor genes, the losses of which may promote neoplastic growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate LOH in a set of odontogenic mixed tumours. Tumour suppressor gene loci on 3p, 9p, 11p, 11q and 17p chromosomes were analysed in five samples of ameloblastic fibroma (AF), three samples of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) and three samples of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS). The most frequently lost genetic loci were p53 (17p13, 62%) and CHRNB1 (17p13, 55%). LOH at the chromosome regions 3p24.3, 9p22 and 9p22-p21 was identified only in AFS. No sample showed LOH at the chromosomal loci 3p21.2 and 11q13.4. For the region 9p22-p13, LOH occurred in one sample of AFO. The fractional allelic loss (FAL) was calculated for each sample. The mean FAL of the benign lesions (i.e. AF and AFO) was 22%, whereas the mean FAL of the malignant lesions (i.e. AFS) was 74.6%. In conclusion, our results show a higher FAL in AFS compared to its benign counterparts and reveal a different pattern of LOH of tumour suppressor genes in AFS, which may regulate changes in tumour behaviour. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Baseline metabolic tumour volume is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, Salim; Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Dygai-Cochet, Inna; Cochet, Alexandre; Humbert, Olivier; Toubeau, Michel; Brunotte, Francois [Centre G.F. Leclerc, Medecine nucleaire, Dijon (France); Rossi, Cedric; Ferrant, Emmanuelle [Hopital Le Bocage - CHU Dijon, Hematologie Clinique, Dijon Cedex (France); Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Hopital Le Bocage - CHU Dijon, Hematologie Clinique, Dijon Cedex (France); Universite de Bourgogne, Inserm U866, Labex team, Faculte de medecine, Dijon (France)

    2014-09-15

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a predictor of a poor outcome. The total metabolic tumour volume at baseline (TMTV0) computed on PET may improve the evaluation of tumour burden. To explore the clinical usefulness of TMTV0, we compared the prognostic value of TMTV0, tumour bulk and interim PET response in a retrospective single-centre study. From 2007 to 2010, 59 consecutive patients with a first diagnosis of HL were treated in our institution. PET was done at baseline (PET0) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (PET2), and treatment was not modified according to the PET2 result. TMTV0 was measured with a semiautomatic method using a 41 % SUVmax threshold. SUVmax reduction between PET0 and PET2 (ΔSUVmaxPET0-2) was also computed. Based on ROC analysis, patients with a ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 >71 % were considered good responders and a TMTV0 >225 ml was considered to represent hypermetabolic bulky disease. Median TMTV0 was 117 ml and 17 patients (29 %) had a TMTV0 >225 ml. TMTV0 (>225 ml vs. ≤225 ml) and tumour bulk (<10 cm vs. ≥10 cm) were predictive of 4-year PFS: 42 % vs. 85 % (p = 0.001) and 44 % vs. 79 % (p < 0.03), respectively. In multivariate analysis, using ΔSUVmaxPET0-2, TMTV0 and bulky tumour as covariates, only ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 (p = 0.0005, RR 6.3) and TMTV0 (p < 0.006, RR 4.4) remained independent predictors of PFS. Three prognosis groups were thus identified: ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 >71 % and TMTV0 ≤225 ml (n = 37, 63 %), ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 = <71 % or TMTV0 >225 ml (n = 17, 29 %), and ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 = <71 % and TMTV0 >225 ml (n = 5, 8 %). In these three groups the 4-year PFS rates were 92 %, 49 %, and 20 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. TMTV0 is more relevant than tumour bulk for predicting the outcome in patients with HL, and adds a significant prognostic insight to interim PET response assessment. The combination of TMTV0 and ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 made it possible to identify three subsets of HL patients with different outcomes. This may

  19. Molecular-based tumour subtypes of canine mammary carcinomas assessed by immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarli Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human breast cancer is classified by gene expression profile into subtypes consisting of two hormone (oestrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive types (luminal-like A and luminal-like B and three hormone receptor-negative types [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-expressing, basal-like, and unclassified ("normal-like"]. Immunohistochemical surrogate panels are also proposed to potentially identify the molecular-based groups. The present study aimed to apply an immunohistochemical panel (anti-ER, -PR, -ERB-B2, -CK 5/6 and -CK14 in a series of canine malignant mammary tumours to verify the molecular-based classification, its correlation with invasion and grade, and its use as a prognostic aid in veterinary practice. Results Thirty-five tumours with luminal pattern (ER+ and PR+ were subgrouped into 13 A type and 22 B type, if ERB-B2 positive or negative. Most luminal-like A and basal-like tumours were grade 1 carcinomas, while the percentage of luminal B tumours was higher in grades 2 and 3 (Pearson Chi-square P = 0.009. No difference in the percentage of molecular subtypes was found between simple and complex/mixed carcinomas (Pearson Chi-square P = 0.47. No significant results were obtained by survival analysis, even if basal-like tumours had a more favourable prognosis than luminal-like lesions. Conclusion The panel of antibodies identified only three tumour groups (luminal-like A and B, and basal-like in the dog. Even though canine mammary tumours may be a model of human breast cancer, the existence of the same carcinoma molecular subtypes in women awaits confirmation. Canine mammary carcinomas show high molecular heterogeneity, which would benefit from a classification based on molecular differences. Stage and grade showed independent associations with survival in the multivariate regression, while molecular subtype grouping and histological type did not show associations. This suggests that caution should be

  20. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Ciro BS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170. These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT and B16F10 melanoma. Methods Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained

  1. Factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection and missed opportunities for earlier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission.

  2. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Severe hypofractionation: Non-homogeneous tumour dose delivery can counteract tumour hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Ruggero; Naccarato, Stefania (Medical Physics Dept., Inst. Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Meldola, FC (Italy)), E-mail: ruggieri.ruggero@gmail.com; Nahum, Alan E. (Physics Dept., Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington CH63 4JY (United Kingdom))

    2010-11-15

    Background. The current rationale for severely hypofractionated schedules (3-5 fractions) used in stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the small size of the irradiated volumes. Being the dose prescribed to the 60-80% isodose line enclosing the PTV, a non-homogeneous tumour-dose-delivery results which might impact on tumour hypoxia. A comparison between homogeneous and SBRT-like non-homogeneous tumour-dose-delivery is then proposed here, using severe hypofractionation on large tumour volumes where both dose prescription strategies are applicable. Materials and methods. For iso-NTCP hypofractionated schedules (1f/d5d/w) with respect to standard fractionation (d=2Gy), computed from the individual DVHs for lungs, oesophagus, heart and spinal cord (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman NTCP-model), TCP values were calculated (a-averaged Poissonian-LQ model) for homogeneous and SBRT-like non-homogeneous plans both with and without tumour hypoxia. Two different estimates of the oxygen-enhancement-ratio (OER) in combination with two distinct assumptions on the kinetics of reoxygenation were considered. Homogeneous and SBRT-like non-homogeneous plans were finally compared in terms of therapeutic ratio (TR), as the product of TCP and the four (1-NTCPi) values. Results. For severe hypofractionation (3-5 fractions) and for any of the hypotheses on the kinetics of reoxygenation and the OER, there was a significant difference between the computed TRs with or without inclusion of tumour hypoxia (anova, p=0.01) for homogeneous tumour-dose-delivery, but no significant difference for the SBRT-like non-homogeneous one. Further, a significantly increased mean TR for the group of SBRT-like non-homogeneous plans resulted (t-test, p=0.05) with respect to the group with homogeneous target-dose-coverage. Conclusions. SBRT-like dose-boosting seems to counterbalance the loss of reoxygenation within a few fractions. For SBRT it then seems that, in addition to the high

  4. Thoracic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour mimicking a pleural tumour: a rare pedunculated appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, 3-1-1 Notame, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 811-1395 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Munakata Medical Association Hospital, 1201-1 Taguma, Munakata 811-3431 (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Kuroiwa, Toshiro [Department of Radiology, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, 3-1-1 Notame, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 811-1395 (Japan); Nagatoshi, Yoshihisa [Department of Paediatrics, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, Fukuoka (Japan); Ichinose, Yukito [Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, Fukuoka (Japan); Hachitanda, Yoichi [Department of Pathology, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) generally occurs in adults and often in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). We present a rare case of a huge thoracic MPNST arising from the intercostal nerve in a 12-year-old girl without NF-1. In addition to the unusual occurrence in a child without NF-1, MRI demonstrated a unique pedunculated appearance mimicking a pleural tumour. In this report, we present the CT and MRI findings of our case, together with the histopathological findings, and review previous reports. (orig.)

  5. Gene Expression Analysis for the Identification of Genes Involved in Early Tumour Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Stefano; Scarpulla, Salvatore; Lagana, Alessandro; Memeo, Lorenzo; Gulisano, Massimo

    Prostatic tissues can undergo to cancer insurgence and prostate cancer is one of the most common types of malignancies affecting adult men in the United States. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesi-cles (SVCA) is a very rare neoplasm with only 48 histologically confirmed cases reported in the European and United States literature. Prostatic tissues, seminal vesicles and epididymis belongs all to the same microenvironment, shows a very close morphology and share the same embryological origin. Despite these common features the rate of cancer occurrence is very different. The understanding of molecular differences between non neoplastic prostatic tissues and non neoplastic epididymis or seminal vesicles may suggest potential mechanisms of resistance to tumour occurrence. The comparison of expression patterns of non neoplastic prostatic and seminal vesicles tissues to identify differentially expressed genes can help researchers in the identification of biological actors involved in the early stages of the tumour development.

  6. Postoperative irradiation of laryngeal carcinoma--the prognostic value of tumour-free surgical margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudé, J; Dobrowsky, W

    1997-01-01

    Between 1972 and 1987, two hundred and five carcinoma patients were treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The histological confirmation of tumour-free margins was only predictive of significant differences in locoregional control in locally advanced disease. In addition, macroscopically assessed margins in advanced cases were predictive of survival probability. We suggest that the adjuvant radiotherapy was able to reduce the incidence of locoregional recurrence in the early stage microscopic positive group, hence the lack of a significant difference in the control rates. The effect on survival is therefore indirect. The advanced cases showed significantly reduced locoregional control rates and disease-specific survival times after macroscopic assessment of positive margins, possibly a sign of tumour extension beyond the margins of the radiation field. We compare our results with published reports of cases not receiving adjuvant therapy.

  7. Family history of atrial fibrillation is associated with earlier-onset and more symptomatic atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease ......, and had more severe AF-related symptoms. No differences were found between the 2 groups in the risk of AF progression (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.14), stroke, non-central nervous system embolism, or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.67-1.34), all...

  8. Cultivated walnut trees showed earlier but not final advantage over its wild relatives in competing for seed dispersers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Chu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about seeding regeneration of cultivated trees compared to wild relatives in areas where seed dispersers are shared. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J. mandshurica under both enclosure and field conditions to assess differences in competing for seed dispersers of the two co-occurring tree species of the same genus. We found that rodents preferred to harvest, eat and scatter-hoard seeds of J. regia as compared to those of J. mandshurica. Seeds of J. regia were removed and scatter-hoarded faster than those of J. mandshurica. Caches of J. regia were more likely to be rediscovered by rodents than those of J. mandshurica. These results suggest that J. regia showed earlier dispersal fitness but not the ultimate dispersal fitness over J. mandshurica in seeding regeneration under rodent mediation, implying that J. regia has little effect on seeding regeneration of J. mandshurica in the field. The effects of seed traits on seed dispersal fitness may vary at different dispersal stages under animal mediation.

  9. Can prion disease suspicion be supported earlier? Clinical, radiological and laboratory findings in a series of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Medina, Zaira; Balaguer, Rainier Rodriguez; Calleja, Jesus Higuera

    2011-01-01

    The subacute spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases characterized by acute and rapid neurodegeneration that lead to the death of the patient within months to a few years. The epidemiology of CJD is complicated and the frequency in Mexico is unknown. We aim to describe the cases of prion disease in Mexico. Consecutive patients who met the diagnostic criteria by the WHO were enrolled. We describe 26 patients with clinical manifestations, imaging and laboratory studies compatible with prion disease. The mean age at onset was 52 years old. The main clinical manifestations were cognitive alterations (69%) followed by extrapyramidal movements (50%), abnormal cerebellar function (46%), behavioral alterations (46%), myoclonus (46%), and mood depression (23%), among other features. Half of the patients progressed rapidly to a state of akinetic mutism (53%). Only 2 (7.6%) patients had a family history of a similar disease. Time interval between onset and diagnosis varied between 71 days to 24 months, with a median of 6 months. The classical bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities were present in the very early stage of the disease. Protein 14-3-3 immuneassay in the CSF was positive in all measured cases. Bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities was the most important early finding, while protein 14-3-3 was a late finding and the results were usually obtained after the patient was discharged. Around 1.5 cases of CJD cases per year are reported in our country. When suspected, MRI can support the diagnosis earlier than other studies.

  10. Lymphoid tumours and breast cancer in ataxia telangiectasia; substantial protective effect of residual ATM kinase activity against childhood tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, A; Srinivasan, V; Barone, G; Last, J I; Wootton, L L; Davies, E G; Verhagen, M M; Willemsen, M A; Weemaes, C M; Byrd, P J; Izatt, L; Easton, D F; Thompson, D J; Taylor, A M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Immunodeficiency in ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is less severe in patients expressing some mutant or normal ATM kinase activity. We, therefore, determined whether expression of residual ATM kinase activity also protected against tumour development in A-T. Methods: From a total of 296 consecutive genetically confirmed A-T patients from the British Isles and the Netherlands, we identified 66 patients who developed a malignant tumour; 47 lymphoid tumours and 19 non-lymphoid tumours were diagnosed. We determined their ATM mutations, and whether cells from these patients expressed any ATM with residual ATM kinase activity. Results: In childhood, total absence of ATM kinase activity was associated, almost exclusively, with development of lymphoid tumours. There was an overwhelming preponderance of tumours in patients <16 years without kinase activity compared with those with some residual activity, consistent with a substantial protective effect of residual ATM kinase activity against tumour development in childhood. In addition, the presence of eight breast cancers in A-T patients, a 30-fold increased risk, establishes breast cancer as part of the A-T phenotype. Conclusion: Overall, a spectrum of tumour types is associated with A-T, consistent with involvement of ATM in different mechanisms of tumour formation. Tumour type was influenced by ATM allelic heterogeneity, residual ATM kinase activity and age. PMID:21792198

  11. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.

  12. Imaging metastatic testicular germ cell tumours with {sup 18}FDG positron emission tomography: prospects for detection and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.B. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Young, H.E. [Joint Dept. of Physics, Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Ott, R.J. [Joint Dept. of Physics, Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Flower, M.A. [Joint Dept. of Physics, Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Cronin, B.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Pratt, B.E. [Joint Dept. of Physics, Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); McCready, V.R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Horwich, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of positron emission tomography (PET) with [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) in metastatic testicular germ cell tumours. Twenty-one patients with stage II-IV testicular germ cell tumours were imaged by PET with a multiwire proportional chamber PET system and {sup 18}FDG. Avid {sup 18}FDG uptake was seen in metastatic disease from primary seminoma and malignant teratoma. Normal tissue uptake was seen in differentiated teratoma or necrotic, fibrotic tissue. {sup 18}FDG standard uptake values and tumour to normal tissue ratios were 6.0{+-}1.4 and 1.7{+-}0.4 (mean {+-} 1SD), respectively, for malignant tissue. Reduction of {sup 18}FDG tumour to normal tissue ratios from pre-treatment to on-treatment scans was predictive of response (n=3). No significant reduction in {sup 18}FDG uptake was seen in patients not responding to therapy (n=2). These results suggest a role for {sup 18}FDG PET in the detection and management of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours. (orig.)

  13. Intra-Abdominal Localisation of a Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour: Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Wester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant condyloma acuminatum or Buschke-Lowenstein tumour is a very rare disease which usually is located in the genital, anorectal, and perianal regions. It is regarded as a type of verrucous carcinoma occurring on anogenital mucosal surfaces where it is locally invasive but displays a benign cytology. We describe a case of a 24-year-old woman with persisting condyloma acuminata progressing to a large intra-abdominal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour. To our knowledge such an advanced stage has only been reported once before. The severity and extent of the tumour both determine the treatment and patient outcome. Treatment was impeded by cachexia, an immunosuppressive state after kidney transplantation and difficulties in establishing a reliable diagnose. Interferon treatment was started which initially led to tumour reduction but was complicated by an interferon-induced pancreatitis, pneumonia, and fasciitis necroticans resulting in death. We present a literature overview on the treatment options for a Buschke-Lowenstein tumour, with emphasis on interferon therapy, with all the advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Pulsation-limited oxygen diffusion in the tumour microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, Edoardo; Stella, Sabrina; Chignola, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is central to tumour evolution, growth, invasion and metastasis. Mathematical models of hypoxia based on reaction-diffusion equations provide seemingly incomplete descriptions as they fail to predict the measured oxygen concentrations in the tumour microenvironment. In an attempt to explain the discrepancies, we consider both the inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen-consuming cells in solid tumours and the dynamics of blood flow in the tumour microcirculation. We find that the low-frequency oscillations play an important role in the establishment of tumour hypoxia. The oscillations interact with consumption to inhibit oxygen diffusion in the microenvironment. This suggests that alpha-blockers-a class of drugs used to treat hypertension and stress disorders, and known to lower or even abolish low-frequency oscillations of arterial blood flow -may act as adjuvant drugs in the radiotherapy of solid tumours by enhancing the oxygen effect.

  15. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  16. Audio-Visual Perception of Gender by Infants Emerges Earlier for Adult-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoz, Anne-Raphaëlle; Quinn, Paul C.; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Berger, Carole; Loevenbruck, Hélène; Lewkowicz, David J.; Lee, Kang; Dole, Marjorie; Caldara, Roberto; Pascalis, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Early multisensory perceptual experiences shape the abilities of infants to perform socially-relevant visual categorization, such as the extraction of gender, age, and emotion from faces. Here, we investigated whether multisensory perception of gender is influenced by infant-directed (IDS) or adult-directed (ADS) speech. Six-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants saw side-by-side silent video-clips of talking faces (a male and a female) and heard either a soundtrack of a female or a male voice telling a story in IDS or ADS. Infants participated in only one condition, either IDS or ADS. Consistent with earlier work, infants displayed advantages in matching female relative to male faces and voices. Moreover, the new finding that emerged in the current study was that extraction of gender from face and voice was stronger at 6 months with ADS than with IDS, whereas at 9 and 12 months, matching did not differ for IDS versus ADS. The results indicate that the ability to perceive gender in audiovisual speech is influenced by speech manner. Our data suggest that infants may extract multisensory gender information developmentally earlier when looking at adults engaged in conversation with other adults (i.e., ADS) than when adults are directly talking to them (i.e., IDS). Overall, our findings imply that the circumstances of social interaction may shape early multisensory abilities to perceive gender. PMID:28060872

  17. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world.

  18. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  19. Higher Sensitivity and Earlier Identification of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity by a Nonradioactive Assay for Transglutaminase Autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher sensitive transglutaminase autoantibody (TGA assay will detect the onset of celiac disease (CD autoimmunity earlier. In developing a nonradioactive assay for TGA, we utilized electrochemiluminescence (ECL technology and compared it to a high-performance radioimmunoassay (RIA currently being used to screen patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and genetically at-risk individuals for CD. We selected 183 T1D patients with 60 patients having received biopsy and analyzed 396 sequential samples from 73 young children longitudinally followed up with TGA seroconversion, with 27 undergoing biopsy. In addition, 112 age-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. With the 99th percentile of specificity, the ECL assay detected significantly more TGA positivity among patients with T1D (133/183 than RIA (114/183 and more of the sequential samples (34% from 73 children than RIA (18%. The TGA assay performed by ECL was positive in all 59 subjects with villous atrophy. Among 73 longitudinally followed up children, ECL assay had earlier detection of TGA on 34 children by a mean of 2.5 years. In conclusion, the new TGA assay by ECL has a higher sensitivity than the current RIA assay and may better predict the onset of CD.

  20. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Mohammad Amin; Safaei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients' demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME.

  1. The challenges of detecting circulating tumour cells in sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tellez-Gabriel, M.; Brown, H K; Young, R.; Heymann, M. F.; Heymann, D

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of malignant neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, many of which have a propensity to develop distant metastases. Cancer cells that have escaped from the primary tumour are able to invade into surrounding tissues, to intravasate into the bloodstream to become Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs), and are responsible for the generation of distant metastases. Due to the rarity of these tumours and the absence of specific markers expressed by sarco...

  2. Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome

    OpenAIRE

    Poskurica Mileta; Petrović Dejan; Poskurica Mina

    2016-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure. The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, alt...

  3. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and ECM changes were investigated. We found that the myofibroblast is the most common stromal cell in canine GIT epithelial tumours and most likely originated from pre-existing fibroblast...

  4. Local tumour hyperthermia as immunotherapy for metastatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Toraya-Brown, Seiko; Fiering, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Local tumour hyperthermia for cancer treatment is currently used either for ablation purposes as an alternative to surgery or less frequently, in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to enhance the effects of those traditional therapies. As it has become apparent that activating the immune system is crucial to successfully treat metastatic cancer, the potential of boosting anti-tumour immunity by heating tumours has become a growing area of cancer research. After reviewing t...

  5. Earlier spring snowmelt in northern Alaska as an indicator of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert S.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Harris, Joyce M.; Longenecker, David

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of global circulation models (GCMs) that account for increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere show that warming in the Arctic will be amplified in response to the melting of sea ice and snow cover. There is now conclusive evidence that much of the Arctic has warmed in recent decades. Northern Alaska is one region where significant warming has occurred, especially during winter and spring. We investigate how the changing climate of northern Alaska has influenced the annual cycle of snow cover there and in turn, how changes in snow cover perturb the region's surface radiation budget and temperature regime. The focus is on Barrow, Alaska, for which comprehensive data sets exist. A review of earlier studies that documented a trend toward an earlier disappearance of snow in spring is given. Detection and monitoring activities at Barrow are described, and records of snow disappearance from other sites in the Alaskan Arctic are compared. Correlated variations and trends in the date of final snowmelt (melt date) are found by examining several independent time series. Since the mid-1960s the melt date in northern Alaska has advanced by ~8 days. The advance appears to be a consequence of decreased snowfall in winter, followed by warmer spring conditions. These changes in snowfall and temperature are attributed to variations in regional circulation patterns. In recent decades, there has been a higher frequency of northerly airflow during winter that tends to diminish snowfall over northern Alaska. During spring, however, intrusions of warm moist air from the North Pacific have become more common, and these tend to accelerate the ablation of snow on the North Slope of Alaska. One result of an earlier melt date is an increase in the net surface radiation budget. At Barrow, net radiative forcing can exceed 150 W m-2 on a daily basis immediately following the last day of snowmelt, and as a result of an 8-day advance in this event

  6. Radiological diagnosis of Klatskin's tumour; Radiologische Diagnostik von Klatskin-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, S.; Juchems, M.S.; Brambs, H.-J. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-11-01

    Patients with Klatskin's tumour present clinically unspecific symptoms such as painless jaundice and cholangitic discomfort. The only curative treatment is R0 resection of the tumour. To allow stage-specific therapy, accurate tumour staging is indispensable, the first step of which is abdominal sonography. If there is a suspect finding, cross-sectional imaging techniques like MRI or MDR-CT are used to clarify or stage the lesion, respectively. To estimate resectability, MRI together with MRC and MRI angiography are superior to MDR-CT. Biopsy using ERC is required before starting any specific treatment. If therapeutically relevant peritoneal carcinosis is clinically suspected although not radiologically confirmed, PET should also be performed. The value of PET/CT has to be evaluated in further studies. For optimal treatment, close cooperation between clinicians and radiologists is necessary. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit Klatskin-Tumoren werden klinisch durch unspezifische Symptome wie z. B. schmerzloser Ikterus oder cholangitische Beschwerden auffaellig. Eine R0-Resektion ist der einzige kurative Therapieansatz. Um eine stadiengerechte Therapie zu ermoeglichen, muss ein moeglichst exaktes Tumorstaging erfolgen. Primaer kommt die abdominelle Sonographie zum Einsatz. Zur Abklaerung eines unklaren Sonographiebefundes sowie zum Staging eines suspizierten Tumors werden Schnittbildverfahren MRT und MDR-CT benoetigt. Zur Beurteilung der lokalen Tumorresektabilitaet ist die MRT in Zusammenschau mit der MRC sowie MR-Angiographie der MDR-CT ueberlegen. Vor Einleitung einer Therapie sollte auf jeden Fall die Verdachtsdiagnose eines Klatskin-Tumors bioptisch mittels ERC gesichert werden. Wird klinisch trotz negativem Nachweis einer Peritonealkarzinose eine solche suspiziert, sollte bei Therapierelevanz (z. B. bei ansonsten fehlendem Nachweis einer Fernmetastasierung) eine PET ergaenzend durchgefuehrt werden. Der zukuenftige Stellenwert der PET/CT muss in weiteren Studien

  7. The expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) in the human ovary in vivo: specific increase in C/EBPβ during epithelial tumour progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfeldt, K; Ivarsson, K; Carlsson, M; Enerbäck, S; Janson, P O; Brännström, M; Hedin, L

    1999-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors is involved in metabolism and differentiation of cells, especially in rodent liver cells and adipocytes. Their roles in vivo and in particular during pathophysiological conditions in humans are largely unknown. We have investigated the presence of C/EBPα, -β, -δ and -ζ in normal ovaries and in epithelial ovarian tumours of different stages. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated that C/EBPα and C/EBPβ were preferentially expressed in epithelial/tumour cells irrespective of stage or grade of the tumour. C/EBPβ was located in the nuclei of the cells, in contrast to C/EBPα, which was present only in the cytoplasm of these cells. The nuclear localization of C/EBPβ indicates an active role of this transcription factor in tumour cells, whereas the cytoplasmic distribution suggests a more passive function of C/EBPα. C/EBPδ and -ζ demonstrated a more diverse distribution with predominant localization to epithelial cells, but stromal distribution was also noted. The intracellular distribution was confined to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm for C/EBPδ and -ζ. Western blotting demonstrated that C/EBPα, -β, -δ and -ζ were present in a majority of the samples. The amount of C/EBPβ increased markedly with malignancy, i.e. with degree of dedifferentiation, while the other members of the C/EBP family displayed a more constant expression level. These results demonstrate an association between the expression of members of the C/EBP family and the formation of epithelial ovarian tumours, with C/EBPβ as a potential marker for these tumours. As C/EBPβ is known to be expressed during proliferation of cells in vitro, it may participate in the proliferative process of ovarian epithelial tumour cells in vivo and play a central role in tumour progression. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098766

  8. Activation of tumour cell ECM degradation by thrombin-activated platelet membranes: potentially a P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, J H; Coupland, L A; Freeman, C; Chong, B H; Parish, Christopher R

    2015-06-01

    The promotion of tumour metastasis by platelets may occur through several mechanisms including the induction of a more metastatic phenotype in tumour cells and assisted extravasation of circulating tumour cells. Whilst the mechanisms underlying platelet-assisted extravasation have been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the mechanisms underlying platelet promotion of an aggressive phenotype within a tumour cell population. Herein, we demonstrate in vitro that MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells incubated with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes adopt a Matrigel-degrading phenotype in a dose- and contact time-dependent manner. The same phenotypic change was observed with three other human tumour cell lines of diverse anatomical origin. Moreover, tumour cell lines that had been cultured with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes had a greater metastatic capacity when injected into mice. This in vivo effect was reliant upon a co-incubation period of >2 h implying a mechanism involving more than platelet membrane binding that occurred within 5 min. Upon further investigation it was found that simultaneous blocking of the platelet-membrane proteins P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa prevented interactions between platelet membranes and MDA-MB-231 cells but also significantly reduced the ability of tumour cells to degrade Matrigel. These results confirm that platelets induce a more aggressive phenotype in tumour cells but also identify the platelet proteins involved in this effect. P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa also play a role in assisting tumour cell extravasation and, thus, are ideal targets for the therapeutic intervention of both stages of platelet-assisted metastasis.

  9. Stem cell pluripotency factor NANOG is expressed in human fetal gonocytes, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Almstrup, K; Nielsen, J E

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: NANOG is a key regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pluripotency. Our recent genome-wide gene expression profiling study of the precursor of testicular germ cell tumours, carcinoma in situ testis (CIS), showed close similarity between ESC and CIS, including high NANOG...... earlier than for OCT-4. We detected no expression at the protein level in normal testis. CONCLUSIONS: NANOG is a new marker for testicular CIS and germ cell tumours and the high level of NANOG along with OCT-4 are determinants of the stem cell-like pluripotency of the preinvasive CIS cell. Timing of NANOG......; seminoma and embryonal carcinoma were strongly positive, differentiated somatic elements of teratoma were negative. We provide evidence for the fetal origin of testicular cancer as we detected strong expression of NANOG in fetal gonocytes up to gestational week 20, with subsequent down-regulation occurring...

  10. B-1 cells and concomitant immunity in Ehrlich tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, M C; Palos, M C; Osugui, L; Laurindo, M F; Masutani, D; Nonogaki, S; Bachi, A L L; Melo, F H M; Mariano, M

    2014-05-01

    Concomitant immunity is a phenomenon in which a tumour-bearing host is resistant to the growth of an implanted secondary tumour. Metastases are considered to be secondary tumours that develop spontaneously during primary tumour growth, suggesting the involvement of concomitant immunity in controlling the rise of metastases. It has been demonstrated that B-1 cells, a subset of B-lymphocytes found predominantly in pleural and peritoneal cavities, not only increase the metastatic development of murine melanoma B16F10, but also are capable of differentiating into mononuclear phagocytes, modulating inflammatory responses in wound healing, in oral tolerance and in Paracoccidiose brasiliensis infections. Here, we studied B-1 cells' participation in concomitant immunity during Ehrlich tumour progression. Our results show that B-1 cells obtained from BALB/c mice previously injected with Ehrlich tumour in the footpad were able to protect BALB/c and BALB/Xid mice against Ehrlich tumour challenge. In addition, it was demonstrated that BALB/Xid show faster tumour growth and have lost concomitant immunity, and that this state can be partially restored by reconstituting these animals with B-1 cells. However, further researches are required to establish the mechanism involving B-1 cells in Ehrlich tumour growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  12. Life history, immunity, Peto's paradox and tumours in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J; Soler, J J

    2017-05-01

    Cancer and tumours may evolve in response to life-history trade-offs between growth and duration of development on one hand, and between growth and maintenance of immune function on the other. Here, we tested whether (i) bird species with slow developmental rates for their body size experience low incidence of tumours because slow development allows for detection of rapid proliferation of cell lineages. We also test whether (ii) species with stronger immune response during development are more efficient at detecting tumour cells and hence suffer lower incidence of tumours. Finally, we tested Peto's paradox, that there is a positive relationship between tumour incidence and body mass. We used information on developmental rates and body mass from the literature and of tumour incidence (8468 birds) and size of the bursa of Fabricius for 7659 birds brought to a taxidermist in Denmark. We found evidence of the expected negative relationship between incidence of tumours and developmental rates and immunity after controlling for the positive association between tumour incidence and body size. These results suggest that evolution has modified the incidence of tumours in response to life history and that Peto's paradox may be explained by covariation between body mass, developmental rates and immunity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma) associated bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India), and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  14. Tumour Heterogeneity: The Key Advantages of Single-Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Ory, Benjamin; Lamoureux, Francois; Heymann, Marie-Francoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tumour heterogeneity refers to the fact that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation and metastatic potential. This phenomenon occurs both between tumours (inter-tumour heterogeneity) and within tumours (intra-tumour heterogeneity), and it is caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. The heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in using molecular prognostic markers as well as for classifying patients that might benefit from specific therapies. Thus, research efforts for characterizing heterogeneity would be useful for a better understanding of the causes and progression of disease. It has been suggested that the study of heterogeneity within Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) could also reflect the full spectrum of mutations of the disease more accurately than a single biopsy of a primary or metastatic tumour. In previous years, many high throughput methodologies have raised for the study of heterogeneity at different levels (i.e., RNA, DNA, protein and epigenetic events). The aim of the current review is to stress clinical implications of tumour heterogeneity, as well as current available methodologies for their study, paying specific attention to those able to assess heterogeneity at the single cell level. PMID:27999407

  15. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  16. Lower limb salvage surgery: modular endoprosthesis in bone tumour treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, D; Smerdelj, M; Kolundzic, R; Bergovec, M

    2006-12-01

    We retrospectively analysed 90 patients who underwent "en bloc" resection and modular endoprosthesis reconstruction in the lower limbs between 1987-2003. After proximal femur resection, reconstruction was performed with a modular endoprosthesis by Howmedica (KFTR, designed by Kotz) and modular revision endoprosthesis by W. Link or Lima-Lto (Revision system, designed by Wagner). The knee joint was reconstructed with a modular endoprosthesis (Howmedica, KFTR designed by Kotz) after distal femur or proximal tibia resection. Malignant bone tumours were present in 58 patients (64.5%), benign tumours in 16 (17.8%), metastases in 8 (8.9%), tumour-like lesions in 4 (4.4 %) and non-tumour-related destruction of the femur in 4 patients (4.4%). High-grade tumours were found in the majority of malignant bone tumours (70.7%). Treatment complications, which occurred in 26 patients, were: local recurrence of the tumour, deep infection, acetabular destruction following hemiarthroplasty, recurrent dislocations of endoprosthesis, periprosthetic fracture and hardware problems. In total, 23 patients (25.6%) died due to tumours. Endoprostheses should be considered as a treatment of choice for bone tumours in the hip and knee joint region. Advances in limb salvage surgery are, and will long continue to be, a great challenge for orthopaedic oncologists of the 21st century.

  17. Changing incidence of oral and maxillofacial tumours in East Java, Indonesia, 1987-1992. Part 2: Malignant tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhy, T I; Soenarto, S D; Yaacob, H B; Ngeow, W C

    2001-12-01

    A total of 2193 tumours of the mouth and jaw diagnosed at the Laboratorium Patologi Anatomi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia from 1987 to 1992, inclusive, was studied. Malignant tumours constituted 45.3% of the lesions. Almost 71% of the malignant tumours were squamous cell carcinomas. The remainder were salivary gland tumours (21.5%) and sarcomas (4.5%). The male to female ratio for malignant tumours was 5.1:4.7. The incidence of malignant tumours per 100,000 population over the 6-year study period was 2.64. The yearly incidence seemed to increase except in 1990, when it dropped. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma over the 6 years was 2.1. Calculation of the odds ratio suggested that people aged 40 and over are 5.8 times more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  18. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...

  19. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muehlenweg Bernd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA. WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of tumour cells to invade in vitro. Methods In the present study, effects of combinations of WX-UK1 with matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMP, galardin® and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, celecoxib® inhibitors on tumour cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis induction were evaluated. Matrigel invasion chambers and a spheroid co-cultivation model with human fibroblast served to determine the invasive potential of both FaDu (SCCHN and HeLa (cervical carcinoma cells, each treated with combinations of Celecoxib®, Galardin®, and WX-UK1. Results Blocking of single protease systems resulted in a significant 50% reduction of tumour cell invasion using WX-UK1, while the triple combination was even more effective with 80% reduction of invasion. Additionally, a sprouting assay with HUVEC was used to test the anti-angiogenetic potential of the triple combination, resulting in a 40% decrease in the sprouting rate. Conclusions A combined approach targeting different families of proteases and cyclooxygenases represents a promising adjuvant therapy.

  20. The asphericity of the metabolic tumour volume in NSCLC: correlation with histopathology and molecular markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Ego, Kilian; Steffen, Ingo G. [University Hospital, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Buchert, Ralph [University Medicine Charite, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Wertzel, Heinz; Achenbach, H.J. [Lung Clinic Lostau GmbH, Lostau (Germany); Riedel, Sandra; Schreiber, Jens [University Hospital, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Clinic of Pneumology, Magdeburg (Germany); Schultz, Meinald [Institute of Pathology Stendal, Stendal (Germany); Furth, Christian; Amthauer, Holger [University Hospital, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); University Medicine Charite, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Hofheinz, Frank [Helmholtz-Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kalinski, Thomas [University Hospital Magdeburg, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Pathology, Magdeburg (Germany); Institute for Pathology Lademannbogen, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Asphericity (ASP) is a tumour shape descriptor based on the PET image. It quantitates the deviation from spherical of the shape of the metabolic tumour volume (MTV). In order to identify its biological correlates, we investigated the relationship between ASP and clinically relevant histopathological and molecular signatures in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study included 83 consecutive patients (18 women, aged 66.4 ± 8.9 years) with newly diagnosed NSCLC in whom PET/CT with {sup 18}F-FDG had been performed prior to therapy. Primary tumour resection specimens and core biopsies were used for basic histopathology and determination of the Ki-67 proliferation index. EGFR status, VEGF, p53 and ALK expression were obtained in a subgroup of 44 patients. The FDG PET images of the primary tumours were delineated using an automatic algorithm based on adaptive thresholding taking into account local background. In addition to ASP, SUVmax, MTV and some further descriptors of shape and intratumour heterogeneity were assessed as semiquantitative PET measures. SUVmax, MTV and ASP were associated with pathological T stage (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.001, p < 0.0005 and p < 0.0005, respectively) and N stage (p = 0.017, p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). Only ASP was associated with M stage (p = 0.026). SUVmax, MTV and ASP were correlated with Ki-67 index (Spearman's rho = 0.326/p = 0.003, rho = 0.302/p = 0.006 and rho = 0.271/p = 0.015, respectively). The latter correlations were considerably stronger in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas. ASP, but not SUVmax or MTV, showed a tendency for a significant association with the extent of VEGF expression (p = 0.058). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, ASP (p < 0.0005) and the presence of distant metastases (p = 0.023) were significantly associated with progression-free survival. ASP (p = 0.006), the presence of distant metastases (p = 0.010), and Ki-67 index (p = 0.062) were significantly associated with

  1. A Rare Case of Concomitant Maxilla and Mandible Brown Tumours, Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, Parathyroid Adenoma, and Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Borguezan Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The brown tumour of hyperparathyroidism is a result of a metabolic disorder caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. Report. We described a case of a 37-year-old female patient presenting bimaxillary intraoral lesions and swelling in the neck. Incisional biopsy of the oral lesion was performed and histopathological examination revealed a central giant cell lesion composed by intense haemorrhagic exudate, abundant presence of giant cells, and areas with hemosiderin pigment. The patient also presented high levels of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone, hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue, bilateral parenchymal nephropathy, and densitometry lower than expected, showing an advanced stage of osteitis fibrosa cystica. Synchronous parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma were confirmed by imaging exams and histopathologically. Conclusion. The composition of all the clinical, pathological, and imaging findings led to the final diagnosis of brown tumour of hyperparathyroidism. The occurrence of parathyroid adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and brown tumours of hyperparathyroidism in their late stage (osteitis fibrosa cystica associated with oral brown tumours involving the mandible and maxilla is extremely rare.

  2. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan

    2010-01-01

    of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also......HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment...... consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific...

  3. Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer with Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Lutz, Amelie M.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Tranquart, Francois; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2013-01-01

    While there is an increasing role of ultrasound for breast cancer screening in patients with dense breast, conventional anatomical-ultrasound lacks sensitivity and specificity for early breast cancer detection. In this study we assessed the potential of molecular-ultrasound imaging, using clinically-translatable vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2)-targeted microbubbles (MBVEGFR2), to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in earlier detection of breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a transgenic mouse model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul). In vivo binding specificity studies (n=26 tumors) showed that ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P95% of cases and highly agreed between each other (ICC=0.98; 95% CI, 97, 99). These results suggest that VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging allows highly accurate detection of DCIS and breast cancer in transgenic mice and may be a promising approach for early breast cancer detection in women. PMID:23328585

  4. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment...... of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also...... consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific...

  5. Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Review with Special Emphasis on Earlier Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Allison; Manian, Farrin A

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is an uncommon but serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of SEA is highly dependent on the timeliness of its diagnosis before neurological deficits develop. Unfortunately, often due to its nonspecific presentation, such as back pain, the diagnosis of SEA may be delayed in up to 75% of cases. Although many risk factors for SEA can be found in the published literature, their utility is limited by their frequent lack of objective evidence, numerousness, and absence in a significant proportion of cases. In this review, we call for a more discriminate evidence-based use of the term "risk factor" when discussing SEA and explore several approaches to its earlier diagnosis, including a simple algorithm based on its pathophysiology and serum C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  6. Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Review with Special Emphasis on Earlier Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Bond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is an uncommon but serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of SEA is highly dependent on the timeliness of its diagnosis before neurological deficits develop. Unfortunately, often due to its nonspecific presentation, such as back pain, the diagnosis of SEA may be delayed in up to 75% of cases. Although many risk factors for SEA can be found in the published literature, their utility is limited by their frequent lack of objective evidence, numerousness, and absence in a significant proportion of cases. In this review, we call for a more discriminate evidence-based use of the term “risk factor” when discussing SEA and explore several approaches to its earlier diagnosis, including a simple algorithm based on its pathophysiology and serum C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  7. Decreasing the required lumbar extensor moment induces earlier onset of flexion relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwambag, Derek P; De Carvalho, Diana E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-10-01

    Flexion relaxation (FR) is characterized by the lumbar erector spinae (LES) becoming myoelectrically silent near full trunk flexion. This study was designed to: (1) determine if decreasing the lumbar moment during flexion would induce FR to occur earlier; (2) characterize thoracic and abdominal muscle activity during FR. Ten male participants performed four trunk flexion/extension movement conditions; lumbar moment was altered by attaching 0, 5, 10, or 15lb counterweights to the torso. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from eight trunk muscles. Lumbar moment, lumbar flexion and trunk inclination angles were calculated at the critical point of LES inactivation (CPLES). Results demonstrated that counterweights decreased the lumbar moment and lumbar flexion angle at CPLES (pactive throughout flexion. Abdominal muscles activated at the same instant as CPLES, except in the 15lb condition where abdominal muscles activated before CPLES resulting in a period of increased co-contraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Warming and earlier spring increase Western U.S. forest wildfire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A.L.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Cayan, D.R.; Swetnam, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, yet neither the extent of recent changes nor the degree to which climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire has been systematically documented. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused instead on the effects of 19th- and 20th-century land-use history. We compiled a comprehensive database of large wildfires in western United States forests since 1970 and compared it with hydroclimatic and land-surface data. Here, we show that large wildfire activity increased suddenly and markedly in the mid-1980s, with higher large-wildfire frequency, longer wildfire durations, and longer wildfire seasons. The greatest increases occurred in mid-elevation, Northern Rockies forests, where land-use histories have relatively little effect on fire risks and are strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.

  9. Colorectal cancer staging using TNM 7: is it time to use this new staging system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, V J; Bateman, A C

    2012-04-01

    The authors audited pathological colorectal cancer staging according to tumour node metastasis (TNM) 7 and using TNM 5 as a gold standard. 144 consecutive colorectal cancer resection specimens were staged prospectively using both TNM 5 and TNM 7 criteria during routine reporting by specialist gastrointestinal pathologists within a single institution. The pN stage remained the same under both systems apart from the required subclassification of pN1 and pN2 under TNM 7. The TNM 7 pN1c category was used in only 3% of cases. All cases staged as pT4 underwent reversal of pT4 subclassification using TNM 7 compared with TNM 5. A previous study revealed stage migration from pN1 to pN2 in 32.6% of cases under TNM 7 compared with TNM 5. The difference in frequency of pN stage migration between this study and our audit suggests that the application of TNM 7 to the assessment of discontinuous/satellite tumour foci is subject to significant inter-observer variability.

  10. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Hartman, Nathan W; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

  11. Earlier age of smoking initiation may not predict heavier cigarette consumption in later adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E R; Song, Anna V; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that earlier cigarette smoking initiation in adolescence predicts greater cigarette consumption later in adolescence or adulthood. Results from these studies have been used to inform interventions for adolescent smoking. However, previous studies suffer from several important methodological limitations. The objective of the present study was to address these limitations by longitudinally and prospectively examining whether and how age of initiation of smoking among adolescents predicts cigarette consumption by age 16 or 17. Participants completed an in-class survey every 6 months for 2-3 school years. Participants included 395 adolescents (Mean age=14 years at baseline; 53.2% female) from two public high schools in Northern California (Schools A and B) who completed self-report measures of smoking initiation, number of friends who smoke, and number of whole cigarettes smoked by the final survey time point. Adolescents who were older when they first smoked one whole cigarette were 5.3 to 14.6 times more likely in School A and 2.9 to 4.3 times more likely in School B to have smoked a greater number of cigarettes by age 16 or 17. Results suggested that earlier smoking initiation may not lead to heavier cigarette consumption later in time, as has been previously shown. There may be a period of heightened vulnerability in mid- or late adolescence where smoking experimentation is more likely to lead to greater cigarette consumption. Targeting prevention efforts to adolescents aged 14 to 17 years may further reduce smoking initiation among youth, thus limiting subsequent smoking-related morbidity and mortality in adulthood.

  12. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahls, Terry L; Peleg, Ika

    2009-01-01

    Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years), or colonoscopy (within 10 years); delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI), who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW). Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91); 99 (66%) were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46%) had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total) had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10%) had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65%) of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38%) had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management, focusing on following

  13. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahls Terry L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years, or colonoscopy (within 10 years; delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI, who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW. Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91; 99 (66% were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46% had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10% had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65% of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38% had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management

  14. Kidney biopsy in patients with glomerulonephritis: is the earlier the better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Dominik G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventional diagnostic procedures are established for several diseases in medicine. Despite the KDOQI guideline recommendation for histological diagnosis of kidney disease to enable risk stratification, its optimal time point has not been evaluated. We have therefore analyzed whether histological diagnosis of glomerulonephritis (GN at an early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with different outcome compared to diagnosis at a more advanced stage. Methods A cohort of 424 consecutive patients with histological diagnosis of GN were included in a retrospective data analysis. Kidney function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR estimation at the time point of kidney biopsy and after consecutive immunosuppressive therapy. Censored events were death, initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation, or progression of disease, defined as deterioration of CKD stage ≥1 from kidney biopsy to last available kidney function measurement. Results Occurrence of death, dialysis/transplantation or progression of disease were associated with GFR and CKD stage at the time of kidney biopsy (p p  Conclusion Kidney function at the time point of histological GN diagnosis is associated with clinical outcome, likely due to early initiation of specific drug treatment. This suggests that selection of therapy yields greatest benefit before renal function is impaired in GN.

  15. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We analysed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, messenger RNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein-expression-defined subgroups, possibly produced by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signalling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/phosphorylated HER2/EGFR/phosphorylated EGFR signature within the HER2-enriched expression subtype. Comparison of basal-like breast tumours with high-grade serous ovarian tumours showed many molecular commonalities, indicating a related aetiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biological finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biological subtypes of breast cancer.

  16. Targeted therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish Jakhetiya; Pankaj Kumar Garg; Gaurav Prakash; Jyoti Sharma; Rambha Pandey; Durgatosh Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours(GISTs) are mesen-chymal neoplasms originating in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine, and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. The malignant potential of GISTs is variable ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. The majo-rity of the tumours stain positively for the CD-117(KIT) and discovered on GIST-1(DOG-1 or anoctamin 1) expression, and they are characterized by the presence of a driver kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Although surgery is the primary modality of treatment, almost half of the patients have disease recurrence following surgery, which highlights the need for an effective adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, GISTs are considered chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant. With the advent of targeted therapy(tyrosine kinase inhibitors), there has been a paradigm shift in the management of GISTs in the last decade. We present a comprehensive review of targeted therapy in the management of GISTs.

  17. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.; Korogi, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Ikushima, I.; Shigematsu, Y.; Okuda, T.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine (Japan); Kochi, M.; Ushio, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kumamoto University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  18. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten; Andersen, Vagn

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation......-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period....

  19. [Mandibular tumours: epidemology, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects concerning 91 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpemissi, E; Amana, B; Tchandana, K

    2009-01-01

    Oro-facial tumours are frequent and raise post-operational functional and aesthetic problems. What might be the situation of the mandibular tumours at CHU Tokoin-Lome (University Hospital Centre of Lome-Tokion). The aim of this study was to determined epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects concerning the mandibular tumours. This retrospective study concerning 91 colligated files from January 1988 to December 2006 at the Oto-rhino-laryngologic and Cervico-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service of the University Hospital Centre ( CHU) of Lome-Tokoin. The main inclusion criteria was the anatomopathological examination of the tumour. The mandibular tumours represented 19.95% of the Oto-rhino-laryngological and Cervico-Maxillo-Facial tumours. They were diagnosed with annual average of 5 cases. The most affected age bracket was one going from 10 to 39 years , or the equivalent of 68.13% of the patients. The spreading of these tumours in both sexes was equal. 80.21% of patients were examined after a development period going from 0 to 4 years. The major circumstances of findings were the mandibular tumefaction (98.9%) dental or mandibular pains (48.35%). The favourite seat of these mandibular tumours was the hemi mandible (48.35%). The odontologic tumours were the predominant histological types or the equivalent of 64.84% of the mandibular tumours. The benign forms were the most frequent (72.88%), the ameloblastoma in particular. The treatment was a surgical one. The partial resection of the mandibular bone was the surgical technique that was the most used (67.03%). The short-term development was preferred (69%). The long-term follow-up was difficult. The mandibular tumours were relatively frequent and predominated by the ameloblastoma. The findings circumstances were predominated by the mandibular tumefaction. The treatment was the preservative surgery as advocated by the majority of authors.

  20. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) predicts tumour recurrence and unfavourable outcome in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Tero; Pirinen, Risto; Böhm, Jan; Johansson, Risto; Kosma, Veli-Matti

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to evaluate their significance to predict tumour behaviour. The study consists of 212 patients treated by the resection of the tumour. Tumour samples were stained immunohistochemically, and the expression of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN was evaluated both in tumour cells and in peritumoural stromal tissue. The results were compared with clinicopathological factors and survival of the patients. High expression of MMP-2 in tumour cells was found in 83 out of 191 cases (44%). Adenocarcinomas showed more often high expression of MMP-2 as compared with squamous cell or large cell carcinomas (p=0.001). High cancer cell associated MMP-2 expression was associated with increased tumour recurrence (p=0.001). Tumour stroma showed positive staining in 162 (98%) cases and was considered highly stained in 120 (72%) cases. The high stromal MMP-2 expression was noticed more often among large cell carcinomas as compared with other histological types (p=0.007). High cancer cell associated EMMPRIN expression was found in 115 (61%) cases and was associated only with high MMP-2 expression in tumour cells (p=0.006). In overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) analyses, type of tumour (p=0.001 and p=0.0004), advanced stage (p=0.001 and p=0.013) and high MMP-2 expression in tumour cells (p=0.018 and p=0.001) were associated with poor survival. Also, high stromal MMP-2 expression was related to poor outcome in both OS and DFS analyses (p=0.010 and 0.045, respectively). In multivariate analysis, stromal MMP-2 expression retained its prognostic value to predict OS and DFS (p=0.028 and p=0.039, respectively), together with tumour type and stage (p=0.017, p=0.001 and p=0.021, p=0.008, respectively). The present study shows the significant prognostic value of MMP-2 in NSCLC suggesting that the

  1. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  2. p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Pre- malignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth.

  3. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial.

  4. Somatic mutations of KIT in familial testicular germ cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapley, EA; Hockley, S; Warren, W; Johnson, L; Huddart, R; Crockford, G; Forman, D; Leahy, MG; Oliver, DT; Tucker, K; Friedlander, M; Phillips, KA; Hogg, D; Jewett, MAS; Lohynska, R; Daugaard, G; Richard, S; Heidenreich, A; Geczi, L; Bodrogi, [No Value; Olah, E; Ormiston, WJ; Daly, PA; Looijenga, LHJ; Guilford, P; Aass, N; Fossa, SD; Heimdal, K; Tjulandin, SA; Liubchenko, L; Stoll, H; Weber, W; Einhorn, L; Weber, BL; McMaster, M; Greene, MH; Bishop, DT; Easton, D; Stratton, M

    2004-01-01

    Somatic mutations of the KIT gene have been reported in mast cell diseases and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Recently, they have also been found in mediastinal and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), particularly in cases with bilateral disease. We screened the KIT coding sequence ( except exo

  5. [A tumour of the transverse mesocolon (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruelle, R; Serhane, A; Mambrini, A

    1977-01-01

    The authors report a case of mesenchymoma of the transverse mesocolon and analyse 50 cases of tumour of the transverse mesocolon found in the literature. They emphasise the diagnostic difficulties, the pathological characteristics and consider the surgical problems raised by these tumours.

  6. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, hi

  7. A rare case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Harry, Nirankumar Samuel, Vigil TD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours are tumours of ectomesenchymal origin often originating from major nerves or their nerve sheaths, they are commonly found in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 though sporadic cases have been reported. We report a rare sporadic case of MPNST in a 20 year old patient arising from the spinal accessory nerve.

  8. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumours in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otten BJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, histological, biochemical, and clinical features of TART and discuss treatment options.

  9. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this