WorldWideScience

Sample records for earlier activities including

  1. Warming and earlier spring increase Western U.S. forest wildfire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A.L.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Cayan, D.R.; Swetnam, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, yet neither the extent of recent changes nor the degree to which climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire has been systematically documented. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused instead on the effects of 19th- and 20th-century land-use history. We compiled a comprehensive database of large wildfires in western United States forests since 1970 and compared it with hydroclimatic and land-surface data. Here, we show that large wildfire activity increased suddenly and markedly in the mid-1980s, with higher large-wildfire frequency, longer wildfire durations, and longer wildfire seasons. The greatest increases occurred in mid-elevation, Northern Rockies forests, where land-use histories have relatively little effect on fire risks and are strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.

  2. Comparison of the LUNA 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be activation results with earlier measurements and model calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gyurky, Gy; Confortola, F; Costantini, H; Formicola, A; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Laubenstein, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Lozza, V; Marta, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the LUNA collaboration has carried out a high precision measurement on the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction cross section with both activation and on-line gamma-detection methods at unprecedented low energies. In this paper the results obtained with the activation method are summarized. The results are compared with previous activation experiments and the zero energy extrapolated astrophysical S factor is determined using different theoretical models.

  3. Response to the Dorsal Anterior Gradient of EGFR Signaling in Drosophila Oogenesis Is Prepatterned by Earlier Posterior EGFR Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fregoso Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially restricted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity plays a central role in patterning the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. In midoogenesis, localized EGFR activation is achieved by the graded dorsal anterior localization of its ligand, Gurken. Graded EGFR activity determines multiple dorsal anterior fates along the dorsal-ventral axis but cannot explain the sharp posterior limit of this domain. Here, we show that posterior follicle cells express the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, which render cells unable to adopt a dorsal anterior fate in response to EGFR activation. The posterior expression of Midline and H15 is itself induced in early oogenesis by posteriorly localized EGFR signaling, defining a feedback loop in which early induction of Mid and H15 confers a molecular memory that fundamentally alters the outcome of later EGFR signaling. Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response.

  4. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    to environmental contamination massive changes are reported due to various anthropogenic problem due to environmental contamination massive cahnges are reported due to various anthropogenic activities such as changes in temperatures regime and radioactive...

  5. Wideband CMOS low noise amplifier including an active balun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    An inductorless LNA with active balun is proposed for multi-standard radio applications between 100MHz and 6GHz [1]. It exploits a combination of a common-gate (CG) stage and an common-source (CS) stage with replica biasing to maximize balanced operation, while simultaneously canceling the noise and

  6. Classifying Cereal Data (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  7. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today Major Milestones Treatment Horizon Earlier Diagnosis Prevention Alzheimer’s and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis What if we could diagnose Alzheimer's before symptoms started? The hope is, future treatments ...

  8. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal cancers ... the only way to diagnose esophageal cancer or stomach cancer is with endoscopy. This method is expensive, invasive ...

  9. Euthanasia: why people want to die earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1994-09-01

    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The incidence of people saying they wanted to die sooner, and of requests for euthanasia are reported. Excluding a proportion who did not wish to express a view, or did not know the answer, about a quarter of both respondents and the people who died expressed the view that an earlier death would be, or would have been, preferable. 3.6% of people in the 1990 study were said to have asked for euthanasia at some point in the last year of life. The extent to which such views were determined by the experience of pain, other distressing symptoms, dependency and social and cultural factors such as religious belief and social class is explored. The finding that dependency was important in causing the feeling that an earlier death would have been better, as well as requests for euthanasia, is related to the public debate about euthanasia, which often contains the assertion that fear of pain is a dominant factor. Pain was found to be a significant factor in death from cancer, but not as important for other causes of death. Social class, place of residence of the deceased, and strength and type of religious faith were found to be largely insignificant in influencing feelings about an earlier death and requests for euthanasia.

  10. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  11. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertising. 981.441 Section 981.441 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant...

  12. Can prion disease suspicion be supported earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Zaira; Balaguer, Rainier Rodriguez; Calleja, Jesus Higuera

    2011-01-01

    The subacute spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases characterized by acute and rapid neurodegeneration that lead to the death of the patient within months to a few years. The epidemiology of CJD is complicated and the frequency in Mexico is unknown. We aim to describe the cases of prion disease in Mexico. Consecutive patients who met the diagnostic criteria by the WHO were enrolled. We describe 26 patients with clinical manifestations, imaging and laboratory studies compatible with prion disease. The mean age at onset was 52 years old. The main clinical manifestations were cognitive alterations (69%) followed by extrapyramidal movements (50%), abnormal cerebellar function (46%), behavioral alterations (46%), myoclonus (46%) and mood depression (23%), among other features. Half of the patients progressed rapidly to a state of akinetic mutism (53%). Only 2 (7.6%) patients had a family history of a similar disease. Time interval between onset and diagnosis varied between 71 days to 24 months, with a median of 6 months. The classical bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities were present in the very early stage of the disease. Protein 14-3-3 immuneassay in the CSF was positive in all measured cases. Bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities was the most important early finding, while protein 14-3-3 was a late finding and the results were usually obtained after the patient was discharged. Around 1.5 cases of CJD cases per year are reported in our country. When suspected, MRI can support the diagnosis earlier than other studies. PMID:21869605

  13. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  14. Triple Active Antiretroviral Regimen Including Enfuvirtide Via the Biojector is Effective and Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient’s new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector proved effective.

  15. Microcomputers in Education: Why Is Earlier Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, Harriet K.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers are not necessarily a desirable teaching/learning tool for young children. Learning styles of the preschool child are not often compatible with computer assisted instruction techniques. An examination of the types of available programing activities and software is presented. (DF)

  16. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  18. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  19. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  20. A universal scaling law of black hole activity including gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.

    2017-09-01

    Previous works showed a correlation among radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity and black hole (BH) mass from stellar-mass BHs in X-ray binaries to supermassive BHs in active galactic nuclei, which leads to the so-called Fundamental Plane of BH activity. However, there are two competing explanations for this Fundamental Plane, including the jet-dominated model and the disc-jet model. Thus, the physical origin of this Fundamental Plane remains unknown. In this paper, we show that the X-ray luminosities, radio luminosities and BH masses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and M82 X-1 also show a similar distribution. The universal scaling law among stellar-mass, intermediate and supermassive BH systems, together with the fact that the radio and X-ray emission of GRBs originates from relativistic jets, reveals that the Fundamental Plane of BH activity is controlled by a jet, i.e. the radio and X-ray emission is mainly from the jet. Our work also suggests that the jets are scale-invariant with respect to the BH mass.

  1. Glycemic management in ESRD and earlier stages of CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark E; Garg, Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    The management of hyperglycemia in patients with kidney failure is complex, and the goals and methods regarding glycemic control in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not clearly defined. Although aggressive glycemic control seems to be advantageous in early diabetic nephropathy, outcome data supporting tight glycemic control in patients with advanced CKD (including end-stage renal disease [ESRD]) are lacking. Challenges in the management of such patients include therapeutic inertia, monitoring difficulties, and the complexity of available treatments. In this article, we review the alterations in glucose homeostasis that occur in kidney failure, current views on the value of glycemic control and issues with its determination, and more recent approaches to monitor or measure glycemic control. Hypoglycemia and treatment options for patients with diabetes and ESRD or earlier stages of CKD also are addressed, discussing the insulin and noninsulin agents that currently are available, along with their indications and contraindications. The article provides information to help clinicians in decision making in order to provide individualized glycemic goals and appropriate therapy for patients with ESRD or earlier stages of CKD.

  2. Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164003.html Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People Study found ... News) -- Overweight and obese people tend to develop heart disease at an earlier age, living with chronic illness ...

  3. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the prote

  4. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the

  5. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  6. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  7. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  8. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  9. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  10. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  11. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  12. Absence of a Classically Activated Macrophage Cytokine Signature in Peripheral Spondylarthritis, Including Psoriatic Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Vandooren; T. Noordenbos; C. Ambarus; S. Krausz; T. Cantaert; N. Yeremenko; M. Boumans; R. Lutter; P.P. Tak; D. Baeten

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Peripheral spondylarthritis (SpA) is characterized by macrophages that express CD163, a marker of alternative activation (M2). The purpose of this study was to assess whether this differential infiltration with macrophage subsets was associated with a different local inflammatory milieu i

  13. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  14. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  15. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  16. Phytophthora infestans has a plethora of phospholipase D enzymes including a subclass that has extracellular activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J G Meijer

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol.

  17. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  18. Lipid peroxidation generates biologically active phospholipids including oxidatively N-modified phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sean S; Guo, Lilu

    2014-07-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts "inert" phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.

  19. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  20. FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... disease.” back to top New Paths for New Alzheimer’s Drugs FDA’s draft guidance aims to encourage research ...

  1. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  2. This contribution follows an earlier attempt to show that many ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    of longevity in large squid should be revised upwards. * Fisheries Centre, 2204 .... can be assumed to trigger reproduction in squid as well (see text) ..... and the ageing bias mentioned earlier), the second phase, however, is ... and senescence ...

  3. Human blood basophils display a unique phenotype including activation linked membrane structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, C; Stockinger, H; Scharf, M; Jäger, U; Gössinger, H; Lechner, K; Bettelheim, P

    1987-12-01

    To evaluate the membrane marker profile of human basophils a panel of well-established monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs, n = 60) was used for a combined toluidine/immunofluorescence staining procedure. Myeloid-associated MoAbs (particularly MoAbs against the LFA-1 family (CD11, CDw18), MoAbs directed against lactosylceramide (CDw17), anti-glycoprotein (gp) 150 MoAbs MCS 2 and MY 7 (CDw13), anti-gp 67 MoAb MY 9, anti Fc gamma-receptor (mol wt 40 kd) MoAb CIKM5, anti-CR 1 MoAb E 11, and the antiglycolipid MoAb VIM-2) were reactive with basophils, indicating a close relationship to other mature myeloid cells. Under normal conditions, basophils surprisingly express at least three activation-linked structures not detectable on mature neutrophils, ie, the p45 structure defined by MoAbs OKT-10 and VIP-2b, the p24 structure identified by the CD9 MoAb BA-2, and the receptor for interleukin 2 (IL 2) recognized by three different MoAbs (anti-TAC, IL2RI, anti-IL 2). Moreover, under short-term culture conditions basophils both in mononuclear cell (MNC) suspension and as purified fractions display the HLA-DR and T4 antigens. The neutrophilic/eosinophilic structure 3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine is expressed on basophils only after neuraminidase treatment. Basophils were not stained at all by CD 16 MoAbs directed against the Fc gamma-receptor (mol wt 50 to 70 kd) of neutrophils, by the MoAb 63D3 (CDw12) recognizing the monocyte/granulocyte-associated p 200 antigen, and by the CDw 14 antibodies (VIM-13, Mo 2) defining the monocyte-specific structure p 55. Enriched basophils freshly obtained from chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) patients yielded identical results in FACS analyses. In summary, these data indicate that basophils generate a unique combination of surface determinants and possibly represent an activated cell population.

  4. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  5. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  6. Synthesis and catalytic activity of Ln(III) complexes with an unsymmetrical Schiff base including multigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Kemin; (

    2003-01-01

    [1]Elder, R. C., Tridentate and unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base ligands from salicylaldehydes and dimeric nickel(II) complexes, Aust. J. Chem., 1978, 31:35-45.[2]Atkins, R., Brewer, G., Kokot, G. et al., Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexesof unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base ligand, Inorg. Chem., 1985, 24: 127-134.[3]Meng Qingjin, Wang Ruixue, Bu Xiuren et al., New Ni (II) complexes with mixedtrimeric double Schiff ligands, Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities (in Chinese), 1990, 10: 1126-1130.[4]Yao Kemin, Zhou Wen, Lu Gui et al., Synthesis, mechanism and NMR spectra of lanthanide complexes with a novel unsymmetrical Schiff base, Science in China, Series B, 1999, 42(2): 164-169.[5]Yao Kemin, Li Ning, Huang Qiaohong et al., Synthesis and catalytic activity of novel heteronuclear Ln(III)-Cu(II) complexes with noncyclic polyether-amino acid Schiff base, Science in China, Series B, 1999, 42 (1) : 54-81.[6]Li Ning, Yao Kemin, Lou Kaiyan, Synthesis of La(III), Y(III) complexes with polyglycol aldehyde-amino acid Schiff base and their high resolution solid state 13C NMR spectra, Science in China, Series B, 1999, 42(6): 599-604.[7]Lam Berf, J. B., Shurvell, H. F., Verbet, L. et al., Organic Structural Analysis, New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., 1975, 234-250.[8]Yao Kemin, Cai Lezhen, Shen Liangfang et al., Synthesis and characterization of lanthanide perchlorates with noncyclic polyethylene glycols and their 13C-NMRspectra, Polyhedron, 1992,11(7): 2245-2251.[9]Dewar, M. J. S., Zoebisch, E. G., Healy, E. F., AM1: A new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107: 3902-3909.[10]Feifer, P., Avnjr, D., Chemistry in noninteger dimensions between two and three, I. Fractal theory of heterogeneous surfaces, J. Chem. Phys., 1983, 79(7): 3558-3565.[11]Yang Haifeng, Wang Hui, Duan Jinxia et al., Ab initio research of organic ligand Schiff base 4-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) imine]-2

  7. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  8. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  9. [Actual state of medical activities as "home pharmacy" including preventive medicine in community pharmacy and their regional differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junzo; Ohtsu, Yumiko; Hashimoto, Miwako; Kaiho, Fusao

    2008-12-01

    To determine the "home pharmacy" activities including preventive medicine in community pharmacies and their regional differences, we conducted two questionnaire surveys of pharmacies belonging to the pharmacists' association in four areas, two metropolitan areas (Kita-tama area and Minato-ku in Tokyo) and two rural areas (Ueda-shi in Nagano and Aira-gun in Kagoshima) in 1998 and 2007. The questionnaire consisted of 42 questions including the scale and characteristics of the pharmacy, the offering of information to patients and information collection from patients, and activities related to home care medicine, environmental sanitation, and healthcare. Based on 14 factors in the questionnaire, an index of "Community Medicine Contributed by Home Pharmacies" was evaluated to represent the extent of activity including preventive medicine in pharmacy. The median of the indexes in the four areas rose in 2007, and was the highest in Ueda-shi. However, the increase in the index was found to result from increases in activity related to clinical medicine such as the use of "Medication Notebooks" and the circulation of "Pharmaceutical Instructions" and did not result from increased activity related to preventive medicine. Factors to promote preventive medicine activity are discussed based on the data from Aira-gun where the greatest home care medicine activity occurred and from Ueda-shi where the greatest environmental sanitation and healthcare activities occurred.

  10. Radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorow, R.G.; Seidler, J.; Schneider, H.H. (Schering A.G., Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-04-01

    A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1mg lormetazepam (Noctamid(R)), 2mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(R)), and 10mg diazepam (Valium(R)), and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154h after treatment. Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r=0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8+-1 ng/ml at 2h after lormetazepam, 7.2+-1.8 ng/ml at 8h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9+-2.7 ng/ml at 15h after diazepam. Plasma elimination halflives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63h, respectively. Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites.

  11. Modern human settlement in East Asia earlier than thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Tracing through human migration history with the help of genes, Dr. SU Bing and coworkers from the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) lately revealed the evidence of a much earlier modem human settlement in East Asia than people previously thought.

  12. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods: Prospecti

  13. Implementation of the Project ‘Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploch Leszek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author’s research from the experiences of the implementation of the project ‘Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015’. The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper place in science and practice. In the situation of a painful lack of initiatives, the Foundation for Propagation of Disability Art and Culture of the in Warsaw, as the only institution for promoting creative activity of the disabled in Poland, undertook a number of activities in order to include this social group in the world of culture and art. It appears that participation in creative initiatives has a very positive effect on the quality of the social functioning of disabled senior citizens in their isolation from their own families.

  14. Do ICF core sets for low back pain include patients' self-reported activity limitations because of back problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygren, Hildegunn; Strand, Liv Inger; Anderson, Bodil; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate content validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for low back pain (LBP), by examining whether common activities reported as difficult to perform are included in the Core Sets. A cross-sectional design was used. Ninety-eight patients with long-lasting back pain (>3 months) between 18 and 65 years of age were consecutively recruited from a Multidisciplinary Outpatient Spine Clinic. Difficulties with daily life and work task activities because of back pain were examined by asking the patients two questions: 1) can you specify activities that are difficult to perform because of your back pain? and 2) are there specific work tasks that you are unable to do because of your back pain? Two raters independently classified the written responses according to the ICF Core Sets' component Activities and Participation. Activities and work tasks were linked to 15 of 29 categories (52%) in the Comprehensive Core Set, and 9 of 12 (75%) in the Brief Core Set, and the initial agreement between the two raters in coding the answers according to the Core Sets was (83%, k = 0.80) and (93%, k = 0.9), respectively, before consensus was reached. The Comprehensive Core Set for LBP to a large degree contains daily life and work-related activities frequently reported as difficult to perform by patients with long-lasting LBP. The categories, however, are very broad and do not provide specified descriptions of the most frequently reported activity limitations such as sitting, standing and walking. The Brief Core Set does not include categories for frequently reported activities such as pulling/pushing and leisure/recreation activities. ICF Core Sets for LBP seem suitable for obtaining a gross overview of the patients' functional limitations, but do not give sufficient information from a therapeutic point of view. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, Activity of Yttrium(Ⅲ) Antibacterial and Antifungal Complexes Including 1,10-P henanth roli ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡梦军; 陈建定; Taha, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Two rare metal coordination complexes of yttrium(Ⅲ) including 1,10-phenanthroline, Y(phen)2(NO3)3 and (phenH)2[Y2(pydc)3(NO3)2.6H2O] (phen= 1,10-phenanthroline, pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate), and a proton transfer compound (phenH+)2(pydc2-) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, infrared spectra (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermal analysis. The proposed structures of yttrium complexes were exhibited. The in vitro biological activities of the newly synthesized complexes have also been investigated against Bacillus coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The results showed that yttrium(Ⅲ) complexes including 1,10-phenanthroline exhibited better antibacterial/antifungal activity than their ligands and corresponding compounds.

  17. Effective activity of cytokine-induced killer cells against autologous metastatic melanoma including cells with stemness features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammaitoni, Loretta; Giraudo, Lidia; Leuci, Valeria; Todorovic, Maja; Mesiano, Giulia; Picciotto, Franco; Pisacane, Alberto; Zaccagna, Alessandro; Volpe, Maria Giuseppa; Gallo, Susanna; Caravelli, Daniela; Giacone, Elena; Venesio, Tiziana; Balsamo, Antonella; Pignochino, Ymera; Grignani, Giovanni; Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Aglietta, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the unknown tumor-killing activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against autologous metastatic melanoma and the elusive subset of putative cancer stem cells (mCSC). We developed a preclinical autologous model using same patient-generated CIK cells and tumor targets to consider the unique biology of each patient/tumor pairing. In primary tumor cell cultures, we visualized and immunophenotypically defined a putative mCSC subset using a novel gene transfer strategy that exploited their exclusive ability to activate the promoter of stemness gene Oct4. The CIK cells from 10 patients with metastatic melanoma were successfully expanded (median, 23-fold; range, 11-117). Primary tumor cell cultures established and characterized from the same patients were used as autologous targets. Patient-derived CIK cells efficiently killed autologous metastatic melanoma [up to 71% specific killing (n = 26)]. CIK cells were active in vivo against autologous melanoma, resulting in delayed tumor growth, increased necrotic areas, and lymphocyte infiltration at tumor sites. The metastatic melanoma cultures presented an average of 11.5% ± 2.5% putative mCSCs, which was assessed by Oct4 promoter activity and stemness marker expression (Oct4, ABCG2, ALDH, MITF). Expression was confirmed on mCSC target molecules recognized by CIK cells (MIC A/B; ULBPs). CIK tumor killing activity against mCSCs was intense (up to 71%, n = 4) and comparable with results reported against differentiated metastatic melanoma cells (P = 0.8). For the first time, the intense killing activity of CIK cells against autologous metastatic melanoma, including mCSCs, has been shown. These findings move clinical investigation of a new immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma, including mCSCs, closer. ©2013 AACR.

  18. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  19. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Mario Helder [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  20. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  1. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  2. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  3. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant activity against pathogenic bacteria including multidrug-resistant clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJAY GHOSH CHALASANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cell free modified trypticase soya broth (pH 7.4+0.2 of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reverse-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined for 11 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1 µg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100µg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule.

  4. Microarray profiles on age-related genes in the earlier postnatal rat visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liu; NIE Yu-hong; ZHOU Li-hua; LIN Shao-chun; WU Kai-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that both innate and adaptive mechanisms are responsible for the postnatal development of the mammalian visual cortex. Most of the studies, including gene expression analysis, were performed on the visual cortex during the critical period; few efforts were made to elucidate the molecular changes in the visual cortex during much earlier postnatal stages. The current study aimed to gain a general insight into the molecular mechanisms in the developmental process of the rat visual cortex using microarray to display the gene expression profiles of the visual cortex on postnatal days.Methods All age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats in various groups including postnatal day 0 (PO, n=20), day 10 (P10,n=15), day 20 (P20, n=15) and day 45 (P45, n=10) were sacrificed respectively. Fresh visual cortex from the binocular area (Area 17) was dissected for extraction of total RNA for microarray analyses. Taking advantage of annotation information from the gene ontology and pathway database, the gene expression profiles were systematically and globally analyzed.Results Of the 31 042 gene sequences represented on the rat expression microarray, more than 4000 of the transcripts significantly altered at days 45,20 or 10 compared to day 0. The most obvious alteration of gene expression occurred in the first ten days of the postnatal period and the genomic activities of the visual cortex maintained a high level from birth to day 45. Compared to the gene expression at birth, there were 2630 changed transcripts that shared in three postnatal periods.The up-regulated genes in most signaling pathways were more than those of the down-regulated genes.Conclusions Analyzing gene expression patterns, we provide a detailed insight into the molecular organization of the developing visual cortex in the earlier postnatal rat. The most obvious alteration of gene expression in visual cortex occurred in the first ten days. Our data were a basis to identify new

  5. Activation cross-section measurement of a sort of nuclide produced with a target including two isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-Qun; TIAN Ming-Li; SONG Yue-Li; LAN Chang-Lin; KONG Xiang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Based on a formula used to calculate the activation cross-section sum of two reactions producing a sort of nuclide with a target including two isotopes,the related problems in some references have been analyzed and discussed.It is pointed out that the calculation methods of the cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in some references are improper and usually it is impossible to obtain the correct cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in the case of using natural samples.At the same time,the related concepts are clarified and the correct processing method and representation are given.The comparison with the experimental results show that the theoretical analysis results are right.

  6. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  7. Earlier speech exposure does not accelerate speech acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Marcela; Werker, Janet F; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-08-15

    Critical periods in language acquisition have been discussed primarily with reference to studies of people who are deaf or bilingual. Here, we provide evidence on the opening of sensitivity to the linguistic environment by studying the response to a change of phoneme at a native and nonnative phonetic boundary in full-term and preterm human infants using event-related potentials. Full-term infants show a decline in their discrimination of nonnative phonetic contrasts between 9 and 12 months of age. Because the womb is a high-frequency filter, many phonemes are strongly degraded in utero. Preterm infants thus benefit from earlier and richer exposure to broadcast speech. We find that preterms do not take advantage of this enriched linguistic environment: the decrease in amplitude of the mismatch response to a nonnative change of phoneme at the end of the first year of life was dependent on maturational age and not on the duration of exposure to broadcast speech. The shaping of phonological representations by the environment is thus strongly constrained by brain maturation factors.

  8. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  9. Predicting the Peritoneal Absorption of Icodextrin in Rats and Humans Including the Effect of α-Amylase Activity in Dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonur, Alp; Holmes, Clifford J; Leypoldt, John K

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to ultrafiltration, the three-pore model predictions of icodextrin absorption from the peritoneal cavity have not yet been reported likely, in part, due to difficulties in estimating the degradation of glucose-polymer chains by α-amylase activity in dialysate. We incorporated this degradation process in a modified three-pore model of peritoneal transport to predict ultrafiltration and icodextrin absorption simultaneously in rats and humans. Separate three-pore models were constructed for humans and rats. The model for humans was adapted from PD Adequest 2.0 including a clearance term out of the peritoneal cavity to account for the absorption of large molecules to the peritoneal tissues, and considering patients who routinely used icodextrin by establishing steady-state plasma concentrations. The model for rats employed a standard three-pore model in which human kinetic parameters were scaled for a rat based on differences in body weight. Both models described the icodextrin molecular weight (MW) distribution as five distinct MW fractions. First order kinetics was applied using degradation rate constants obtained from previous in-vitro measurements using gel permeation chromatography. Ultrafiltration and absorption were predicted during a 4-hour exchange in rats, and 9 and 14-hour exchanges in humans with slow to fast transport characteristics with and without the effect of amylase activity. In rats, the icodextrin MW profile shifted towards the low MW fractions due to complete disappearance of the MW fractions greater than 27.5 kDa. Including the effect of amylase activity (60 U/L) resulted in 21.1% increase in ultrafiltration (UF) (7.6 mL vs 6.0 mL) and 7.1% increase in icodextrin absorption (CHO) (62.5% with vs 58.1%). In humans, the shift in MW profile was less pronounced. The fast transport (H) patient absorbed more icodextrin than the slow transport (L) patient during both 14-hour (H: 47.9% vs L: 40.2%) and 9-hour (H: 37.4% vs L: 31.7%) exchanges

  10. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  12. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  13. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quesada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a * was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  14. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  15. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  16. Optimal HIV testing and earlier care: the way forward in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenen, T; Lundgren, J; Lazarus, Jeff;

    2008-01-01

    representing advocacy, clinical and policy areas of the HIV field, was convened in an effort to gain a common understanding on the role of HIV testing and counselling in optimizing diagnosis and the need for earlier care. Key topics discussed at the conference and described in the following articles include......The articles in this supplement were developed from a recent pan-European conference entitled 'HIV in Europe 2007: Working together for optimal testing and earlier care', which took place on 26-27 November in Brussels, Belgium. The conference, organized by a multidisciplinary group of experts......: current barriers to HIV testing across Europe, trends in the epidemiology of HIV in the region, problems associated with undiagnosed infection and the psychosocial barriers impacting on testing. The supplement also provides a summary of the World Health Organization's recommendations for HIV testing...

  17. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  19. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  20. A review of quality of life after predictive testing for and earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Panegyres, Peter K; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K

    2013-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these "patient reported outcomes" for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance toward predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health-related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care.

  1. A Review of Quality of Life after Predictive Testing for and Earlier Identification of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231

  2. In-utero cigarette smoke exposure and the risk of earlier menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Talita C; Haadsma, Maaike L; Land, Jolande A; Boezen, Marike H; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk

    2017-08-28

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for earlier menopause. Animal studies show that in-utero smoke exposure is toxic to developing ovaries. Our aim was to evaluate whether in-utero smoke exposed women reach menopause earlier compared with nonexposed women. This is a cohort study within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Participants included in this study were followed from 1991/1992 until 2010. Participant characteristics for the current analysis were obtained from obstetric records and from annual follow-up questionnaires. When not available, age at natural menopause was estimated by age at filling in the questionnaire minus 1 year. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios of menopause for in-utero exposed and nonexposed women. There were 695/2,852 postmenopausal women, of whom 466 had natural menopause, 117 had hormonal therapy, and 112 had surgical menopause. Age at natural menopause was 50.6 ± 3.7 years. Of all participants, 20.2% (577/2,852) were exposed to smoke in-utero. Participants who were in-utero exposed but were not smokers did not have higher hazards of menopause (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.72-1.18), whereas participants who were ever smokers (current or previous) and were in-utero exposed (adjusted HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.95) or were ever smokers but not exposed (adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.53) did have higher hazards of earlier menopause. In-utero smoke exposure was not associated with earlier menopause, but the effect of in-utero smoke exposure was modified by the smoking habits of the participants themselves increasing the risk for smokers who were in-utero exposed.

  3. Resource Gleaning, From Earlier Times to the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Bostock

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the film documentary The Gleaners and I, the paper defines two senses of gleaning: (1 generally, the collection of items in small quantities, and (2 more specifically, the collection of items missed or rejected during previous harvesting. As an activity, gleaning in both senses is a neglected but essential activity in the solving of problems of lack of resource, especially now in the Information Age. A classic example of the gleaning process is provided by psychoanalysis, which gleans information which would normally be seen as trivial or unacceptable, to be used in the analysis and treatment of a personality disorder. The need to glean information to break secret codes in World War II provided the impetus to create the world's first programmable electronic computer, the Colossus. The invention of the computer has brought in the Information Age, but in so doing, it has created a need for information gleaning. The publishing of research findings on the Internet is discussed and the current status of some gleaning software is commented upon.

  4. Novel semisynthetic derivative of antibiotic Eremomycin active against drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens including Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Kirk R; Wheeler, Conrad; Ip, Emily; Plattner, Jacob J; Chu, Daniel; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N; Printsevskaya, Svetlana S; Solovieva, Svetlana E; Olsufyeva, Evgenia N; Heine, Henry; Lovchik, Julie; Lyons, C Richard

    2007-07-26

    Five adamantyl-containing carboxamides of eremomycin or vancomycin were synthesized and their antibacterial activities against some Gram-positive clinical isolates were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The adamantyl-2 amide of glycopeptide antibiotic eremomycin (1a in Chart 1, AN0900) was the most active compound and showed high activity against several Gram-positive pathogens: vancomycin-susceptible staphylococci and enterococci, glycopeptide-intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci. Compound 1a was equally active in vitro against both Ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant Bacillus anthracis strains (MICs 0.25-0.5 microg/mL). It was distinguished by having a 2.8 h half-life (t1/2) in mice and a volume of distribution of 2.18 L/kg. Compound 1a was active against Staphylococcus aureus in mice (iv) and provided complete protection against a lethal intravenous challenge with vegetative B. anthracis bacilli and also in a murine pulmonary anthrax model in which mice were challenged with Bacillus anthracis spores.

  5. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in activities and provide services to create jobs and economic opportunities for its participants...) Self-employment; (4) Self-initiated training that leads a client to improved job opportunities and employment; (5) Economic development projects that lead to jobs, improved employment opportunities, or...

  6. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in vitro of organic extracts from fourteen seaweeds, eleven sponges, two ascidians, one bryozoan, and one sea anemone species collected along the Brazilian and Spanish coast, as well as the isolation of the diterpene (4R, 9S, 14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 and halogenated sesquiterpene elatol (2. The most promising antimicrobial results for cell wall bacteria were obtained by extracts from seaweeds Laurencia dendroidea and Sargassum vulgare var. nanun (MIC 250 μg/ml, and by the bryozoan Bugula neritina (MIC 62.5 μg/ml, both against Staphylococcus aureus. As for antimollicutes, extracts from seaweeds showed results better than the extracts from invertebrates. Almost all seaweeds assayed (92% exhibited some antimicrobial activity against mollicutes strains (Mycoplasma hominis,Mycoplasma genitalium,Mycoplasma capricolum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH. From these seaweeds, A1 (Canistrocarpus cervicornis, A11 (Gracilaria sp. and A4 (Lobophora variegata showed the best results for M. pneumoniae strain FH (MIC 250 μg/ml. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were also assayed against mollicutes strains M. hominis,M. genitalium,M. capricolum,M. pneumoniae strain 129 and M. pneumoniae strain FH, which showed MIC > 100 μg/ml. Antioxidant activities of extracts from these marine organisms were inactive, except for E7 (from sponge Ircinia sp., which exhibited moderated antioxidant activities for two methods assayed (IC50 83.0 ± 0.1 μg/ml, and 52.0 ± 0.8 mg AA/g, respectively. Finally, for the anticholinesterase activity, all the 29 samples evaluated (100% exhibited some level of activity, with IC50 < 1000 μg/ml. From these, seaweeds extracts were considered more promising than marine invertebrate extracts [A10 (IC50 14.4 ± 0.1 μg/ml, A16 (IC50 16.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml and A8 (IC50 14.9 ± 0.5 μg/ml]. The findings of this work are useful

  7. Decreasing the required lumbar extensor moment induces earlier onset of flexion relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwambag, Derek P; De Carvalho, Diana E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-10-01

    Flexion relaxation (FR) is characterized by the lumbar erector spinae (LES) becoming myoelectrically silent near full trunk flexion. This study was designed to: (1) determine if decreasing the lumbar moment during flexion would induce FR to occur earlier; (2) characterize thoracic and abdominal muscle activity during FR. Ten male participants performed four trunk flexion/extension movement conditions; lumbar moment was altered by attaching 0, 5, 10, or 15lb counterweights to the torso. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from eight trunk muscles. Lumbar moment, lumbar flexion and trunk inclination angles were calculated at the critical point of LES inactivation (CPLES). Results demonstrated that counterweights decreased the lumbar moment and lumbar flexion angle at CPLES (pactive throughout flexion. Abdominal muscles activated at the same instant as CPLES, except in the 15lb condition where abdominal muscles activated before CPLES resulting in a period of increased co-contraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    neck and the anterior left shoulder . Subjects were instructed to wear the recorders for their waking hours and disconnect them prior to sleeping. They...myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  9. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  10. Study protocol: rehabilitation including social and physical activity and education in children and teenagers with cancer (RESPECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Halse, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis

    2013-01-01

    Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years n...

  11. ARC (NSC 188491 has identical activity to Sangivamycin (NSC 65346 including inhibition of both P-TEFb and PKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollingshead Melinda G

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleoside analog, ARC (NSC 188491 is a recently characterized transcriptional inhibitor that selectively kills cancer cells and has the ability to perturb angiogenesis in vitro. In this study, the mechanism of action of ARC was further investigated by comparing in vitro and in vivo activity with other anti-neoplastic purines. Methods Structure-based homology searches were used to identify those compounds with similarity to ARC. Comparator compounds were then evaluated alongside ARC in the context of viability, cell cycle and apoptosis assays to establish any similarities. Following this, biological overlap was explored in detail using gene-expression analysis and kinase inhibition assays. Results Results demonstrated that sangivamycin, an extensively characterized pro-apoptotic nucleoside isolated from Streptomyces, had identical activity to ARC in terms of 1 cytotoxicity assays, 2 ability to induce a G2/M block, 3 inhibitory effects on RNA/DNA/protein synthesis, 4 transcriptomic response to treatment, 5 inhibition of protein kinase C, 6 inhibition of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, 7 inhibition of VEGF secretion, and 8 activity within hollow fiber assays. Extending ARC activity to PKC inhibition provides a molecular basis for ARC cancer selectivity and anti-angiogenic effects. Furthermore, functional overlap between ARC and sangivamycin suggests that development of ARC may benefit from a retrospective of previous sangivamycin clinical trials. However, ARC was found to be inactive in several xenograft models, likely a consequence of rapid serum clearance. Conclusion Overall, these data expand on the biological properties of ARC but suggest additional studies are required before it can be considered a clinical trials candidate.

  12. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  13. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of non-living, heat-killed form of lactobacilli including Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yuji; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2017-06-15

    Some strains of lactic acid bacteria are reported to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori and proposed to be useful to support so-called triple therapy for H. pylori. Although most strains must be alive to exert their anti-H. pylori activity, some lactobacilli strains are effective even when dead. One possible underlying mechanism of such an activity of non-living lactobacilli is reportedly co-aggregation with H. pylori. In this study, we found that a non-living heat-killed form of Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088 (HK-LJ88) and also that of some other lactobacilli inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Furthermore, the number of H. pylori in the infected stomach of germ-free mice was significantly decreased by the repeated oral administration of HK-LJ88. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that no co-aggregation had occurred between H. pylori and HK-LJ88; instead, deformations of H. pylori (e.g. disappearance of spiral, bending of cell body, coccoid formation, degradations, etc.) appeared after incubation for 24 h with HK-LJ88. These results suggest that HK-LJ88 inhibited H. pylori activity probably not by co-aggregation but by some unknown mechanism involving HK-LJ88's cell surface molecules and that even non-living lactobacilli are possibly useful to support H. pylori eradication therapy. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Iwasaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity.

  15. An evidence-based approach to earlier initiation of dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, D N

    1997-12-01

    The objective was to review evidence addressing the optimal time to initiate dialysis treatment. The database was derived from an evidence-based review of the medical literature and from the Canada-United States peritoneal dialysis study. The publications were divided into (1) those addressing the clinical impact of early versus late referral to a dialysis program; (2) those evaluating the association between residual renal function at initiation of dialysis and the concurrent nutritional status; (3) those evaluating the association between residual renal function at initiation of dialysis and subsequent clinical outcomes, including patient survival. There were five studies evaluating early versus late referral, three cohort design and two case-control design. Late referrals had worse outcomes than early referrals. The former had more serious comorbidity and many had been noncompliant with follow-up. The latter were more likely to have hereditary renal disease. Renal function was slightly worse at initiation among those referred late. Three studies addressed the association between renal function at initiation of dialysis and concurrent nutritional status. Two showed decreased protein intake with diminished glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Poor nutritional status is associated with decreased patient survival among both incident and prevalent dialysis patients. The third study reported excellent patient survival among patients with late initiation of dialysis. These patients had received a supplemented low-protein diet and were not malnourished at initiation of dialysis. Three groups have studied the association between GFR at initiation of dialysis and clinical outcomes. Decreased GFR at initiation of dialysis is associated with a increased probability of hospitalization and death. None of these studies has used the rigorous randomized clinical trial design, and they are therefore subject to bias. Referral time bias, comorbidity, patient compliance, and starting

  16. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  17. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  18. Adsorption of gaseous hydrocarbons on activated carbon: characteristic kinetic curve. [Includes effect of surface migration on kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E.; Calleja, G.; Domingo, F.

    1985-06-01

    The internal diffusion coefficients, D /sub i/ , of pure methane, ethane and ethylene as well as some of their binary and ternary mixtures, have been calculated at 20/sup 0/C for solid particles of a commercial activated carbon. It has been observed that the contribution of the surface migration mechanism to the global mass transfer process inside the adsorbent particles can be as much as 70-80%. Values for the surface migration coefficient D /sub s/ have also been calculated from the relation D /sub i/ = D /sub g/ + KD /sub s/ , where K is a dimensionless mean slope factor. Values found for both coefficients are of the same order of magnitude as those reported in the literature for similar systems. All the values for the internal diffusion coefficients of these pure components and their mixtures fit into a single correlation curve, the characteristic kinetic curve of the adsorbent.

  19. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  20. Acute effects of a warm-up including active, passive, and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Felipe L P; Carvalho, Mauro C G A; Simão, Roberto; Gomes, Thiago M; Costa, Pablo B; Neto, Ludgero B; Carvalho, Rodrigo L P; Dantas, Estélio H M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of 3 different stretching methods combined with a warm-up protocol on vertical jump performance. Sixteen young tennis players (14.5 ± 2.8 years; 175 ± 5.6 cm; 64.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 different experimental conditions on 4 successive days. Each session consisted of a general and specific warm-up, with 5 minutes of running followed by 10 jumps, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions: (a) Control Condition (CC)-5 minutes of passive rest; (b) Passive Stretching Condition (PSC)-5 minutes of passive static stretching; (c) Active Stretching Condition (ASC)-5 minutes of active static stretching; and (d) Dynamic Stretching Condition (DC)-5 minutes of dynamic stretching. After each intervention, the subjects performed 3 squat jumps (SJs) and 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs), which were measured electronically. For the SJ, 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance (CC × PSC × ASC × DC) revealed significant decreases for ASC (28.7 ± 4.7 cm; p = 0.01) and PSC (28.7 ± 4.3 cm; p = 0.02) conditions when compared with CC (29.9 ± 5.0 cm). For CMJs, there were no significant decreases (p > 0.05) when all stretching conditions were compared with the CC. Significant increases in SJ performance were observed when comparing the DC (29.6 ± 4.9 cm; p = 0.02) with PSC (28.7 ± 4.3 cm). Significant increases in CMJ performance were observed when comparing the conditions ASC (34.0 ± 6.0 cm; p = 0.04) and DC (33.7 ± 5.5 cm; p = 0.03) with PSC (32.6 ± 5.5 cm). A dynamic stretching intervention appears to be more suitable for use as part of a warm-up in young athletes.

  1. Angiogenesis, Proliferative Activity and DNA Ploidy in Oral Verrucous Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Including Verrucous Hyperplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Breta, Monika; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Mohanty, Biddhu K; Singh, Manoj K

    2015-09-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare and distinct clinicopathologic variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study aims to evaluate the histomorphology, proliferative activity, level of angiogenesis, and DNA ploidy of these pathological entities. This was a retrospective-prospective study of 18 cases of verrucous hyperplasia (VH), 41 cases of VC, and 44 cases of SCC. Immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 (MIB-1) and CD34 were performed. The tumor proliferative index, endothelial proliferative index and microvascular density were calculated. DNA ploidy was determined using image cytometry. The age range and gender ratio were similar in all three groups. The differences in MIB-1 labeling index (p = 0.0001), microvascular density (p = 0.01), and endothelial proliferative index (p = 0.001) between VC and SCC were found to be statistically significant. A non-significant increasing trend was observed in all of these parameters between VH and VC. On ploidy analysis, 100 % of SCC cases were aneuploid, compared to 39 % of VH and 86 % of VC cases. Our study demonstrates a significant difference in tumor proliferation, microvessel density, and ploidy between VC and SCC while increasing trend between VH and VC. These parameters, along with morphological findings, may be useful in differentiating these entities in small mucosal biopsies.

  2. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  3. MODIFIED DISEASE-ACTIVITY SCORES THAT INCLUDE 28-JOINT COUNTS - DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION IN A PROSPECTIVE LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PREVOO, MLL; VANTHOF, MA; KUPER, HH; VANLEEUWEN, MA; VANDEPUTTE, LBA; VANRIEL, PLCM

    1995-01-01

    Objective. The development and validation of Modified Disease Activity Scores (DAS) the include different 28-joint counts. Methods. These scores were developed by canonical discriminant analyses and validated for criterion, correlational, and construct validity. The influence of disease duration on

  4. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan

    2010-01-01

    of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also......HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment...... consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific...

  5. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment...... of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also...... consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific...

  6. Higher Sensitivity and Earlier Identification of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity by a Nonradioactive Assay for Transglutaminase Autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher sensitive transglutaminase autoantibody (TGA assay will detect the onset of celiac disease (CD autoimmunity earlier. In developing a nonradioactive assay for TGA, we utilized electrochemiluminescence (ECL technology and compared it to a high-performance radioimmunoassay (RIA currently being used to screen patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and genetically at-risk individuals for CD. We selected 183 T1D patients with 60 patients having received biopsy and analyzed 396 sequential samples from 73 young children longitudinally followed up with TGA seroconversion, with 27 undergoing biopsy. In addition, 112 age-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. With the 99th percentile of specificity, the ECL assay detected significantly more TGA positivity among patients with T1D (133/183 than RIA (114/183 and more of the sequential samples (34% from 73 children than RIA (18%. The TGA assay performed by ECL was positive in all 59 subjects with villous atrophy. Among 73 longitudinally followed up children, ECL assay had earlier detection of TGA on 34 children by a mean of 2.5 years. In conclusion, the new TGA assay by ECL has a higher sensitivity than the current RIA assay and may better predict the onset of CD.

  7. Type A-B scores and insomnia among college students: a replication and extension of earlier studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, C A; Hicks, R A

    1993-12-01

    In an attempt to rationalize conflicting sets of data from earlier studies, groups of Type A- and Type B-classified university students were asked to respond to a sleep habits questionnaire that included the items of the Coren Insomnia Scale. As was the case in two earlier studies, we found significant but weak evidence from the Coren scale only that Type A-scoring students experience more sleep problems than Type B scorers. We also found, as in a recent study, a sharp increase in sleep problems among all the students sampled from the frequencies reported by similar groups in 1982.

  8. Earlier spring snowmelt in northern Alaska as an indicator of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert S.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Harris, Joyce M.; Longenecker, David

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of global circulation models (GCMs) that account for increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere show that warming in the Arctic will be amplified in response to the melting of sea ice and snow cover. There is now conclusive evidence that much of the Arctic has warmed in recent decades. Northern Alaska is one region where significant warming has occurred, especially during winter and spring. We investigate how the changing climate of northern Alaska has influenced the annual cycle of snow cover there and in turn, how changes in snow cover perturb the region's surface radiation budget and temperature regime. The focus is on Barrow, Alaska, for which comprehensive data sets exist. A review of earlier studies that documented a trend toward an earlier disappearance of snow in spring is given. Detection and monitoring activities at Barrow are described, and records of snow disappearance from other sites in the Alaskan Arctic are compared. Correlated variations and trends in the date of final snowmelt (melt date) are found by examining several independent time series. Since the mid-1960s the melt date in northern Alaska has advanced by ~8 days. The advance appears to be a consequence of decreased snowfall in winter, followed by warmer spring conditions. These changes in snowfall and temperature are attributed to variations in regional circulation patterns. In recent decades, there has been a higher frequency of northerly airflow during winter that tends to diminish snowfall over northern Alaska. During spring, however, intrusions of warm moist air from the North Pacific have become more common, and these tend to accelerate the ablation of snow on the North Slope of Alaska. One result of an earlier melt date is an increase in the net surface radiation budget. At Barrow, net radiative forcing can exceed 150 W m-2 on a daily basis immediately following the last day of snowmelt, and as a result of an 8-day advance in this event

  9. Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Review with Special Emphasis on Earlier Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Allison; Manian, Farrin A

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is an uncommon but serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of SEA is highly dependent on the timeliness of its diagnosis before neurological deficits develop. Unfortunately, often due to its nonspecific presentation, such as back pain, the diagnosis of SEA may be delayed in up to 75% of cases. Although many risk factors for SEA can be found in the published literature, their utility is limited by their frequent lack of objective evidence, numerousness, and absence in a significant proportion of cases. In this review, we call for a more discriminate evidence-based use of the term "risk factor" when discussing SEA and explore several approaches to its earlier diagnosis, including a simple algorithm based on its pathophysiology and serum C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  10. Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Review with Special Emphasis on Earlier Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Bond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is an uncommon but serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of SEA is highly dependent on the timeliness of its diagnosis before neurological deficits develop. Unfortunately, often due to its nonspecific presentation, such as back pain, the diagnosis of SEA may be delayed in up to 75% of cases. Although many risk factors for SEA can be found in the published literature, their utility is limited by their frequent lack of objective evidence, numerousness, and absence in a significant proportion of cases. In this review, we call for a more discriminate evidence-based use of the term “risk factor” when discussing SEA and explore several approaches to its earlier diagnosis, including a simple algorithm based on its pathophysiology and serum C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  11. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Hartman, Nathan W; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

  12. 开塞露纳肛及尽早活动法对剖宫产术后肛门排气的临床效果观察%Clinical observation the effect of glycerine enema and activity earlier in the anus exhaust after cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫云娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨开塞露纳肛及尽早活动法对剖宫产术后缩短肛门排气时间的效果。方法:将150例剖宫产术后产妇随机分为A、B、C三组。A组术后6小时给予开塞露纳肛;B组术后6~8小时给予开塞露纳肛及开始活动;C组为对照组,不施加任何因素。观察各组肛门排气时间。结果:A、B、C组术后肛门平均排气时间分别为24.32小时、16.92小时、33.76小时。B组肛门排气时间短于A组、明显短于C组,(P<0.01)。结论:剖宫产术后产妇采用开塞露纳肛及尽早活动,明显缩短肛门排气时间,消除腹胀,有利于产后身体康复。%Objective:To explore the effects of glycerine enema and activity as early as possible on anal exhaust time after cesarean section. Methods:150 cases of lying-in women after cesarean section were randomly divided into A, B, C three groups. group A use glycerine enema After 6 hours. ±Group B use glycerine enema after 6 ~ 8 hours and start activities. As the control group, group C not exert any factors. Observe each group anal exhaust time. Results:That A, B, C group of postoperative anal exhaust the average time is 24.32 hours, 16.92 hours and 33.76 hours respectively. Anal exhaust time of group B is shorter than, significantly shorter than group C ﹙P<0.01﹚. Conclusions:Maternal anus uses glycerine enema after cesarean section and activities as soon as possible, obviously shorten the anus exhaust time, eliminate abdominal distension, postpartum body rehabilitation.

  13. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proposed to contribute to insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates nutrient metabolism and is reported to have anti-inflammatory actions in adipose tissue, yet the m...

  14. Earlier age of smoking initiation may not predict heavier cigarette consumption in later adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E R; Song, Anna V; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that earlier cigarette smoking initiation in adolescence predicts greater cigarette consumption later in adolescence or adulthood. Results from these studies have been used to inform interventions for adolescent smoking. However, previous studies suffer from several important methodological limitations. The objective of the present study was to address these limitations by longitudinally and prospectively examining whether and how age of initiation of smoking among adolescents predicts cigarette consumption by age 16 or 17. Participants completed an in-class survey every 6 months for 2-3 school years. Participants included 395 adolescents (Mean age=14 years at baseline; 53.2% female) from two public high schools in Northern California (Schools A and B) who completed self-report measures of smoking initiation, number of friends who smoke, and number of whole cigarettes smoked by the final survey time point. Adolescents who were older when they first smoked one whole cigarette were 5.3 to 14.6 times more likely in School A and 2.9 to 4.3 times more likely in School B to have smoked a greater number of cigarettes by age 16 or 17. Results suggested that earlier smoking initiation may not lead to heavier cigarette consumption later in time, as has been previously shown. There may be a period of heightened vulnerability in mid- or late adolescence where smoking experimentation is more likely to lead to greater cigarette consumption. Targeting prevention efforts to adolescents aged 14 to 17 years may further reduce smoking initiation among youth, thus limiting subsequent smoking-related morbidity and mortality in adulthood.

  15. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  16. Can we expand active surveillance criteria to include biopsy Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer? A multi-institutional study of 2,323 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Briganti, A.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Salomon, L.; Freschi, M.; Mirvald, C.; Poel, H.G. van der; Jenkins, A.; Ost, P.; Oort, I.M. van; Yossepowitch, O.; Giannarini, G.; Bergh, R.C. van den

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the expandability of active surveillance (AS) to Gleason score 3+4 cancers by assessing the unfavorable disease risk in a large multi-institutional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis including 2,323 patients with localized Gleason score 3+4 prosta

  17. Identification of the Sex of Earlier Embryos from Generic Hybrids of Chicken-Quail by Wpkci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ai-jun; MA Wen-xia; LI Da-quan; MENG Qing-mei

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a protocol was deveolped the sex of earlier embryos of chicken(♂)-quail(♀)hybrids and successfully tested the sex proportion of each period (66-120 h). We acquired cross bred eggs by artificial insemination, hatched them in the same batch according to the standard hatching condition of chicken, and collected earlier living embryos at 66,72,78, 84,90,96,102,108,114, and 120 h randomly. We adopted RT-PCR protocol and multiple PCR, made the known sex quail as the external control, employed β-actin as the internal control, and used primers that were designed according to conservative area of gene Wpkci of quail to identify the sex of earlier hybrid embryos. The results indicated that the primer of Wpkci can be used to identify the sex of hybrid embryos accurately; there were more male than female in earlier embryos, the sex proportion of earlier embryos compared with academic numerical value was significantly different (P0.05). In the present study, we concluded that a simple, fast, credible and stable protocol to identify the sex of earlier hybrids embryos had been established by using primer of Wpkci; in earlier embryos, the death rate of female was higher than that of male and there was no fluctuant peak.

  18. Missed opportunities for earlier HIV testing and diagnosis at the health facilities of Dessie town, North East Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feleke Amsalu D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients in all health-care settings HIV screening is recommended after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines. The nation's physicians and other health care providers should assume a much more active role in promoting HIV testing. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which missed opportunities for earlier HIV testing and diagnosis occur in the health facilities of north east Ethiopia. Methods A confidential client exit interview and medical record review was made on 427 clients who attended health facilities of Dessie town between November-December 2008. Data collection was done by counselors trained on Provider Initiated Counseling and Testing (PICT and data collection tool included demographics, reason for visit to health facilities, HIV test initiation by service providers, clients self risk perception, clients willingness and acceptance of HIV test, HIV test result and review of client medical records. Results Among 427 clients, missed opportunities for HIV testing were found in 76.1% (325 of clients. HIV test initiation was made by data collecting counselors during interview period and 80.0% (260 of clients not initiated by service providers were found to be willing to have HIV test. Large number, 43.0% (112, of the willing clients actually tested for HIV. Of the tested clients, 13.4% (15 were found to be HIV positive. Most, 60% (9, of HIV positive clients who lost the opportunities of diagnosis felt themselves as having no risk for HIV infection. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis of 51.7% (15, overall HIV test acceptance rate of 36.5% (154 and positivity rate of 6.9% (29 were found. Conclusions The missed opportunities for earlier HIV test and diagnosis of patients attending health facilities were found to be high and frequent. Testing only clients with HIV risk misses large number of HIV positive patients. Asking clients' willingness for HIV

  19. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Liposomal pegylated doxorubicin and oxaliplatin as salvage chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Guerriero, Gabriele; Piazze, Juan; Desideri, Giovambattista; Necozione, Stefano; Rea, Silvio

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity and safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and oxaliplatin (LOHP) as salvage chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) who had earlier been treated with docetaxel, capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin. Treatment consisted of PLD (40 mg/m(2)) and LOHP (120 mg/m(2)) administered over 2 days, every 3 weeks. Response to therapy was assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors; toxicity was evaluated by the National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria (version 2.0). Thirty-six patients with pretreated MGC and a mean age of 66 years were recruited for the study. After a median follow-up of 11 months and 202 courses of chemotherapy administered (median, five courses per patient), the overall response rate in the 36 evaluable patients was estimated to be 28%. Grades 3 and 4 hematological toxicities were neutropenia in 44% of patients, grade 2-3 diarrhea in 14% of patients, and grade 2 neuropathy in 12 patients. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.8 and 9.2 months, respectively, with 1-year survival rate of 36%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 21-54%]. Median survival time from the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 31.5 months. Seventy-two percent of patients (n=26) (95% CI: 58-88%) obtained a clinical benefit from this chemotherapy regimen. PLD and LOHP is an active regimen, able to give palliation in a substantial percentage of MCG patients who have been pretreated with taxanes.

  1. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. Verrucous carcinomas of the head and neck, including those with associated squamous cell carcinoma, lack transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kalyani R; Chernock, Rebecca D; Zhang, Tian R; Wang, Xiaowei; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

    2013-11-01

    Most oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and histologic variants harbor transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV). While HPV DNA can be found in many non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas, transcriptionally active HPV is rare. Verrucous carcinoma is a variant with bland cytology, warty appearance, locally destructive growth, and lack of metastasis when lacking a frankly invasive carcinoma component. Studies have shown variable rates of HPV DNA and p16 protein expression in such tumors but still have not clearly addressed if the virus has biological activity or clinical relevance in the positive cases. Department files were searched for verrucous neoplasms, including pure verrucous carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma with dysplasia or minimal invasion, and SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma (ie, having a major component of frankly invasive carcinoma). p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and E6/E7 mRNA reverse transcription PCR for high-risk HPV types were performed. Of the 49 cases, 6 (12.2%) showed strong (>50%) staining for p16. HPV DNA was detected in 7/49 (14.3%) cases, but only one case was positive for both p16, and HPV DNA. A total of 36 cases yielded sufficient RNA for RT-PCR (18 verrucous carcinomas, 13 atypical verrucous carcinomas, and 5 SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma). All 36 were negative, including the four p16-positive and three HPV DNA-positive tumors tested. Although a minority of verrucous carcinoma lesions are p16 and HPV DNA positive, transcriptionally active high-risk HPV is uniformly absent. These findings argue that verrucous carcinoma and its related squamous cell carcinomas are not HPV-driven tumors.

  4. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  5. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  6. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008-0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%-100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%-100.0% among Aspergillus spp. The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  7. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-06-27

    Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes.

  8. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Material and Methods: Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. Results: The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). Conclusions: LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes. PMID:27489752

  9. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  10. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  11. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewin Tencomnao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L. Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity.

  12. Rhinacanthus nasutus extracts prevent glutamate and amyloid-β neurotoxicity in HT-22 mouse hippocampal cells: possible active compounds include lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimson, James M; Brimson, Sirikalaya J; Brimson, Christopher A; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity.

  13. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  14. Ceftobiprole: a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, April; Schmidt, Stephan; Rand, Kenneth H; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2009-07-01

    Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including several resistant species such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ceftobiprole is administered intravenously as the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, which is almost immediately converted to the active form. It is currently under review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is approved in Canada under the trade name Zeftera. The pharmacokinetics of ceftobiprole are non-complex as it displays a two-compartment model, dose proportionality, linear plasma protein binding and negligible accumulation. The volume of distribution is approximately equal to the extracellular fluid volume and it is cleared primarily by glomerular filtration, resulting in a half-life of approximately 3-4h. Ceftobiprole displays a low plasma protein binding of approximately 22%. The efficacy of ceftobiprole was demonstrated in two pivotal studies in patients with complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs) that compared ceftobiprole with vancomycin in Gram-positive infections in one study and ceftobiprole with vancomycin plus ceftazidime in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections in the other. The clinical cure rates were similar for ceftobiprole vs. comparator treatments: 93.3% vs. 93.5% with vancomycin only and 90.5% vs. 90.2% with vancomycin plus ceftazidime. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile supports the use of ceftobiprole to treat a wide range of cSSSIs.

  15. Earlier reperfusion in patients with ST-elevation Myocardial infarction by use of helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudsen Lars

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. Material and methods A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. Results The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26–50 km., 51–75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport

  16. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  17. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilborg, T.C. van; Broekmans, F.J.; Pijpe, A.; Schrijver, L.H.; Mooij, T.M.; Oosterwijk, J.C; Verhoef, S.; Gomez Garcia, E.B.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Adank, M.A.; Asperen, C.J. van; Doorn, H.C. van; Os, T.A. van; Bos, A.M.; Rookus, M.A.; Ausems, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. METHOD

  18. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H.; Mooij, Thea M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Verhoef, Senno; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Adank, Muriel A.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Os, Theo A.; Bos, Anna M.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ausems, Margreet G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Method

  19. 75 FR 47316 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice) The... National Science Board business and other matters specified, as follows: Date and Time: August 12, 2010, at 3 p.m. EDT. Subject Matter: Review and Discussion of Current Mid-Scale Research Funding Support...

  20. Use of metformin earlier in pregnancy predicts supplemental insulin therapy in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rachel T; Glastras, Sarah J; Hocking, Samantha; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2016-06-01

    The use of metformin in gestational diabetes is safe and effective, yet some women require additional insulin therapy to achieve glycaemic targets. We found a significant association between earlier gestational age at initiation of metformin therapy and the necessity for supplemental insulin in women treated with metformin during pregnancy.

  1. The impact of newborn screening and earlier intervention on the clinical course of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F. Nicole; Fitzgerald, Dominic A.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting condition which is readily diagnosed in the vast majority of cases on newborn screening [NBS]. A diagnosis made on newborn screening translates into earlier initiation of therapies, improved growth, better lung function into the adult years and culminates in better

  2. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  3. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees.

  4. Earlier detection can help avoid many serious complications of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, James D

    2013-11-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) has a remarkable potential for recovery. It may be within our capability to help almost all women with PPCM not only to survive, but also to completely recover heart function. Time-of-diagnosis left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥0.35 is associated with better survival rates and higher full recovery rates. Increased mortality, chronic cardiomyopathy, thromboembolic complications and serious ventricular tachyarrhythmias are associated with diagnostic LVEF <0.30. Delays in diagnosis may result in lower LVEF at diagnosis and subsequent lower recovery rates. Greater awareness of the possibility of heart failure developing in previously healthy young women, with no history of heart disease, will contribute to earlier diagnosis, with potentially better preserved heart function. Women of African descent may be at higher risk for poorer outcomes. Recent investigations suggest newer biomarkers may help with earlier detection of PPCM.

  5. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  6. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: C...

  7. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (pfasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further high quality trials are needed to confirm this evidence, especially beyond weight loss. PMID:25830342

  8. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  9. Effect Of Five Proteases Including Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain, Proteinase K And Trypsin On Antioxidative Activities Of Casein Hydrolysate From Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-chelating activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The results showed as follows: the DH of proteinase K, Alcalase, and trypsin were higher significantly than those of papain and flavourzyme. The Fe2+-chelation activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of casein hydrolysates from goat milk by Alcalase was higher than the others, the DPPH scavenging activities of casein hydrolysates by Alcalase and papain was higher than the others and the DPPH scavenging activities by Alcalase and papain had no significant diffierence (p<0.05, so the optimal proteinase for hydrolysis casein from goat milk to produce antioxidant peptide was Alcalase.

  10. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A.; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S.; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Here, HY-133 showed in vitro activity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus lineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active against Staphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of the S. aureus complex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. PMID:26833148

  11. Association of tobacco and alcohol use with earlier development of colorectal cancer: should we modify screening guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acott, Alison A; Theus, Sue A; Marchant-Miros, Kathyrn E; Mancino, Anne T

    2008-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend initial colorectal cancer screening at age 50 years for average-risk patients. Alcohol and tobacco use can be associated with earlier onset of colorectal cancer. We hypothesized an earlier age at diagnosis and/or more advanced stage in patients with these habits. We queried our tumor registry for colorectal cancer diagnosed between January 1997 and December 2006. Data were analyzed to evaluate effects of alcohol and tobacco use. Of 335 colorectal cancer patients, 81% used tobacco, 51% used alcohol, 45% used both, and 14% used neither. Current tobacco and alcohol use were associated with younger ages at onset of colorectal cancer. Thirteen of 332 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer before age 50 years. All had exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Fifty-four percent (7/13) of these patients presented at stage 3/4 compared with 34% of the overall population. Modification of screening guidelines to include these habits as "high-risk" factors may be indicated.

  12. Plant adaptogens. III. Earlier and more recent aspects and concepts on their mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    1999-10-01

    Stimulus-response coupling systems responsible for defence and adaptation of organism to stressors are multi-target and very complicated pharmacological systems, including the neuroendocrine (stress) and immune system. The mode of action of adaptogens is basically associated with the stress-system (neuroendocrine-immune complex) and can be directed on the various targets of the system involved in regulation (activation and inhibition) of stimulus-response coupling. However, clinical studies performed according to the most modern standards are quite limited. On the other hand there is an extensive amount of clinical experience and also established use in self care etc. These aspects are planned to be dealt within a subsequent article which will be devoted to the application in three areas: self care, adjuvants in medicine and curative action in some diseases. At this stage, nevertheless, it seems possible to define some most important "stress-markers" for evaluation of efficiency of adaptogens in experimental and clinical pharmacological studies. They can be both activating (catecholamines, LT-s, cytokines, NO, etc.--"switch on" system--which activates energetic and other resources of the organism), and deactivating (corticosteroids and PGE2-endogenous mediators of cellular communications, which protect cells and whole organism from overreacting to the activating messengers--"switch off" system) stress-messengers. The balance between the activities of the "switch on" and "switch off" systems reflects the well being of the organism. It could be established on different levels of the homeostasis (heterostasis) with different levels of the sensitivity to stressors (Figure 8). The response of stress system--"reactivity" is different at the various levels of heterostasis and depends on adaptation--capacity of the organism (or a cell) to protect itself. In the process of adaptation to stressor's effects the basal levels mediators of switch on (e.g. NO) and switch of (e

  13. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  14. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  15. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  16. Factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection and missed opportunities for earlier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission.

  17. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2006-12-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal yielded conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in an RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single-dose and multiple-dose activated charcoal (SDAC and MDAC, respectively) compared with no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated with a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups by determining the area under the curve for each patient in the 24 hours following admission, the 24-hour mean residence time, and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points, adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9 hours. There was a reduction in 24-hour mean residence time and in the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal, versus the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favorably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning and may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, these mechanistic data support the need for further studies to determine whether a particular subgroup

  19. Family history of atrial fibrillation is associated with earlier-onset and more symptomatic atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease ......, and had more severe AF-related symptoms. No differences were found between the 2 groups in the risk of AF progression (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.14), stroke, non-central nervous system embolism, or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.67-1.34), all...

  20. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance.

  1. Self-reported activity in tortured refugees with long-term sequelae including pain and the impact of foot pain from falanga - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Karen; Persson, Ann L; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    , among them pain and mobility problems. All had been subjected to various forms of physical and psychological torture and 71 victims had also suffered falanga. Main outcome measures used were: the Disability Rating Index (DRI; 12 items) to assess self-reported capacity to carry out daily activities......; for falanga victims, a specific foot assessment of sensory function in the feet. Results. All patients perceived clear activity limitations according to the DRI. The falanga victims' feet were categorised according to the type of foot pain: stimulus-independent pain; stimulus-evoked pain; no pain. The two...... of victims who had chronic pain for at least 5 years after torture, all perceived activity limitations, but pain from falanga had a greater overall impact on disability assessed in terms of daily activities....

  2. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted seven samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. The values of the activity submitted were between about 1 MBq and 18 MBq. The primary standardization result for the LNE-LNHB, France, replaces their earlier result of 2002 and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated. In the frame of the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F18 comparison, the NPL updated their result in the KCDB. Consequently there are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Audio-Visual Perception of Gender by Infants Emerges Earlier for Adult-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoz, Anne-Raphaëlle; Quinn, Paul C.; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Berger, Carole; Loevenbruck, Hélène; Lewkowicz, David J.; Lee, Kang; Dole, Marjorie; Caldara, Roberto; Pascalis, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Early multisensory perceptual experiences shape the abilities of infants to perform socially-relevant visual categorization, such as the extraction of gender, age, and emotion from faces. Here, we investigated whether multisensory perception of gender is influenced by infant-directed (IDS) or adult-directed (ADS) speech. Six-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants saw side-by-side silent video-clips of talking faces (a male and a female) and heard either a soundtrack of a female or a male voice telling a story in IDS or ADS. Infants participated in only one condition, either IDS or ADS. Consistent with earlier work, infants displayed advantages in matching female relative to male faces and voices. Moreover, the new finding that emerged in the current study was that extraction of gender from face and voice was stronger at 6 months with ADS than with IDS, whereas at 9 and 12 months, matching did not differ for IDS versus ADS. The results indicate that the ability to perceive gender in audiovisual speech is influenced by speech manner. Our data suggest that infants may extract multisensory gender information developmentally earlier when looking at adults engaged in conversation with other adults (i.e., ADS) than when adults are directly talking to them (i.e., IDS). Overall, our findings imply that the circumstances of social interaction may shape early multisensory abilities to perceive gender. PMID:28060872

  4. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world.

  5. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  6. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Mohammad Amin; Safaei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients' demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME.

  7. Validation of the Japanese version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire that includes physician-based assessments in a large observational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, Y; Baba, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Gono, T; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2016-04-01

    The Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) is a patient-reported outcome for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to translate it into Japanese and further investigate its validity and reliability. The English version of the SLAQ was translated into Japanese and administered to Japanese SLE patients at our university clinic. Physicians assessed disease activity using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). The patients were prospectively followed for repeat assessment a year later. Ultimately, 255 patients participated. The patients' 10-point ratings of disease activity and SLAQ scores were significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.53). The SLAQ score was weakly correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)-nolab (omitting laboratory items; ρ = 0.18) but not with the SLEDAI-2K (ρ = 0.02). These results suggested its convergent and discriminant validity. The SLAQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80), and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). The effect sizes and the standardized response means of the SLAQ were as follows: clinical worsening, 0.26 and 0.31, and improvement, -0.39 and -0.41, respectively, which indicated a small but significant responsiveness. The Japanese version of the SLAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity; its performance was comparable to that of the original version. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Carol B.; Lorentzen, Brita; Barjamovic, Gojko; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kromer, Bernd; Wild, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    500 years of ancient Near Eastern history from the earlier second millennium BCE, including such pivotal figures as Hammurabi of Babylon, Šamši-Adad I (who conquered Aššur) and Zimrilim of Mari, has long floated in calendar time subject to rival chronological schemes up to 150+ years apart. Texts preserved on clay tablets provide much information, including some astronomical references, but despite 100+ years of scholarly effort, chronological resolution has proved impossible. Documents linked with specific Assyrian officials and rulers have been found and associated with archaeological wood samples at Kültepe and Acemhöyük in Turkey, and offer the potential to resolve this long-running problem. Here we show that previous work using tree-ring dating to place these timbers in absolute time has fundamental problems with key dendrochronological crossdates due to small sample numbers in overlapping years and insufficient critical assessment. To address, we have integrated secure dendrochronological sequences directly with radiocarbon (14C) measurements to achieve tightly resolved absolute (calendar) chronological associations and identify the secure links of this tree-ring chronology with the archaeological-historical evidence. The revised tree-ring-sequenced 14C time-series for Kültepe and Acemhöyük is compatible only with the so-called Middle Chronology and not with the rival High, Low or New Chronologies. This finding provides a robust resolution to a century of uncertainty in Mesopotamian chronology and scholarship, and a secure basis for construction of a coherent timeframe and history across the Near East and East Mediterranean in the earlier second millennium BCE. Our re-dating also affects an unusual tree-ring growth anomaly in wood from Porsuk, Turkey, previously tentatively associated with the Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano. This tree-ring growth anomaly is now directly dated ~1681–1673 BCE (68.2% highest posterior density range), ~20

  9. Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturt W Manning

    Full Text Available 500 years of ancient Near Eastern history from the earlier second millennium BCE, including such pivotal figures as Hammurabi of Babylon, Šamši-Adad I (who conquered Aššur and Zimrilim of Mari, has long floated in calendar time subject to rival chronological schemes up to 150+ years apart. Texts preserved on clay tablets provide much information, including some astronomical references, but despite 100+ years of scholarly effort, chronological resolution has proved impossible. Documents linked with specific Assyrian officials and rulers have been found and associated with archaeological wood samples at Kültepe and Acemhöyük in Turkey, and offer the potential to resolve this long-running problem. Here we show that previous work using tree-ring dating to place these timbers in absolute time has fundamental problems with key dendrochronological crossdates due to small sample numbers in overlapping years and insufficient critical assessment. To address, we have integrated secure dendrochronological sequences directly with radiocarbon (14C measurements to achieve tightly resolved absolute (calendar chronological associations and identify the secure links of this tree-ring chronology with the archaeological-historical evidence. The revised tree-ring-sequenced 14C time-series for Kültepe and Acemhöyük is compatible only with the so-called Middle Chronology and not with the rival High, Low or New Chronologies. This finding provides a robust resolution to a century of uncertainty in Mesopotamian chronology and scholarship, and a secure basis for construction of a coherent timeframe and history across the Near East and East Mediterranean in the earlier second millennium BCE. Our re-dating also affects an unusual tree-ring growth anomaly in wood from Porsuk, Turkey, previously tentatively associated with the Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano. This tree-ring growth anomaly is now directly dated ~1681-1673 BCE (68.2% highest posterior density

  10. Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Sturt W; Griggs, Carol B; Lorentzen, Brita; Barjamovic, Gojko; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kromer, Bernd; Wild, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    500 years of ancient Near Eastern history from the earlier second millennium BCE, including such pivotal figures as Hammurabi of Babylon, Šamši-Adad I (who conquered Aššur) and Zimrilim of Mari, has long floated in calendar time subject to rival chronological schemes up to 150+ years apart. Texts preserved on clay tablets provide much information, including some astronomical references, but despite 100+ years of scholarly effort, chronological resolution has proved impossible. Documents linked with specific Assyrian officials and rulers have been found and associated with archaeological wood samples at Kültepe and Acemhöyük in Turkey, and offer the potential to resolve this long-running problem. Here we show that previous work using tree-ring dating to place these timbers in absolute time has fundamental problems with key dendrochronological crossdates due to small sample numbers in overlapping years and insufficient critical assessment. To address, we have integrated secure dendrochronological sequences directly with radiocarbon (14C) measurements to achieve tightly resolved absolute (calendar) chronological associations and identify the secure links of this tree-ring chronology with the archaeological-historical evidence. The revised tree-ring-sequenced 14C time-series for Kültepe and Acemhöyük is compatible only with the so-called Middle Chronology and not with the rival High, Low or New Chronologies. This finding provides a robust resolution to a century of uncertainty in Mesopotamian chronology and scholarship, and a secure basis for construction of a coherent timeframe and history across the Near East and East Mediterranean in the earlier second millennium BCE. Our re-dating also affects an unusual tree-ring growth anomaly in wood from Porsuk, Turkey, previously tentatively associated with the Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano. This tree-ring growth anomaly is now directly dated ~1681-1673 BCE (68.2% highest posterior density range), ~20

  11. Complementary functions of the two brain hemispheres: comparisons with earlier conceptions and implications for individual and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, H

    1989-07-01

    The concept of different functions for the left and right cerebral hemispheres coincides in an astonishing way with earlier philosophical and psychological work which divided the human mind into two complementary functions without having a neurophysiological explanation. Representative are the ideas of Fichte, Hegel and Jung. The latter postulated the two subsystems Ego and Self and associated the conscious functions of the Ego with the intellect, the capacity for rational thought, and the Self with the mind, which also includes the emotional feelings. For the harmonic development and self-realization of man the functions of both systems in complementary interaction are required. Therefore, the current overaccentuation of the intellect and of progress directed technical-scientific thinking should be corrected by making better use of the much neglected functions of the right hemisphere.

  12. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  13. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca(2+) and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  15. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide 222Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Cassette, P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of 222Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  16. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antarctica is the planet's fifth largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)]; it contains the Earth's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets; it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report is the introduction to a series that covers 60 years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientific activity in Antarctica. It will concentrate primarily on three major topics:

  18. Mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, derived from mefloquine and arenecarbaldehydes: In vitro activity including against the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strain T113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Lourenço, Maria C S; Bezerra, Flavio A F M; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Henriques, Maria das Graças M de O; Costa, Thadeu

    2012-01-01

    Ten new mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(aryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1: aryl=substituted phenyl) and 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(heteroaryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline [2: heteroaryl=5-nitrothien-2-yl (2a); 5-nitrofuran-2-yl (2b) and 4H-imidazol-2-yl) (2c)], have been synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1f (aryl=3-ethoxyphenyl), 1g (Ar=3,4,5-(MeO)(3)-C(6)H(2)) and 2c were slightly more active than mefloquine (MIC=33μM) with MICs=24.5, 22.5 and 27.4, respectively, whereas compounds 1e (aryl=3,4-(MeO)(2)-C(6)H(3)) and 2a (MICs=11.9 and 12.1μM, respectively) were ca. 2.7 times more active than mefloquine, with a better tuberculostatic activity than the first line tuberculostatic agent ethambutol (MIC=15.9). The compounds were also assayed against the MDR strain T113 and the same MICs were observed. Thus the new derivatives have advantages over such anti-TB drugs as isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin, for which this strain is resistant. The most active compounds were not cytotoxic to Murine Macrophages Cells in a concentration near their MIC values.

  19. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Serapio-Palacios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS, but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v caspase-9 activation, (vi cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii PARP proteolysis, and (ix nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC.

  20. Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer with Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Lutz, Amelie M.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Tranquart, Francois; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2013-01-01

    While there is an increasing role of ultrasound for breast cancer screening in patients with dense breast, conventional anatomical-ultrasound lacks sensitivity and specificity for early breast cancer detection. In this study we assessed the potential of molecular-ultrasound imaging, using clinically-translatable vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2)-targeted microbubbles (MBVEGFR2), to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in earlier detection of breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a transgenic mouse model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul). In vivo binding specificity studies (n=26 tumors) showed that ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P95% of cases and highly agreed between each other (ICC=0.98; 95% CI, 97, 99). These results suggest that VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging allows highly accurate detection of DCIS and breast cancer in transgenic mice and may be a promising approach for early breast cancer detection in women. PMID:23328585

  1. Effects of Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Earlier Lactating Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Manji; SHAN Anshan

    2008-01-01

    A total of 12 mature healthy Holstein dairy cows of the nearly body weight (580±30) kg, milk yield (22.5±2.8) kg in the early stages of lactation were selected in this experiment. The cows were randomly divided into 2 groups, every group had 6 cows, every group had 6 repeats, and every repeat had I cow. Added 20 g protected methionine in earlier lactating cow food every day. The results showed that protected methionine increased milk yield by 10.83%, testing group milk yield was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);protected methionine increased milk fat by 5.98%, testing group milk fat was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);Milk protein increased by 2.15%, but had insignificantly different (P>0.05);dry matter of milk had the tendency of decrease, but had insignificant difference (P>0.05).

  2. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  3. Pollinia-borne chemicals that induce early postpollination effects in Dendrobium flowers move rapidly into agar blocks and include ACC and compounds with auxin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promyou, Surassawadee; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2014-11-15

    The early visible effects of pollination in orchids are likely due to pollinia-borne chemicals. In Dendrobium we tested whether such compounds were water soluble and would diffuse in solid-aqueous phase, and determined both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentrations and auxin activity. Following pollination, the flower peduncle showed epinastic movement, followed by yellowing of the flower lip, flower senescence and ovary growth. Placing pollinia on agar blocks for 3, 6, 9 or 12h, prior to transferring them to the stigma, increased the time to these early postpollination effects or prevented them. Placing agar blocks that had been used for contact with the pollinia on the stigma also induced the early postpollination effects. The concentrations of ACC, the direct precursor of ethylene, in pollinia was lower the longer the pollinia had been in contact with the agar blocks, whilst the ACC content in the agar blocks increased with the period of contact. The auxin activity of the agar blocks also increased with the time of contact with pollinia. It is concluded that chemicals in the pollinia are responsible for the early visible postpollination effects, and that these (a) rapidly diffuse in aqueous media, and (b) comprise at least ACC and compounds with auxin activity. The idea is discussed that ACC plus auxin is adequate for the production of the early postpollination effects.

  4. Earlier migration timing, decreasing phenotypic variation, and biocomplexity in multiple salmonid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Kovach

    Full Text Available Climate-induced phenological shifts can influence population, evolutionary, and ecological dynamics, but our understanding of these phenomena is hampered by a lack of long-term demographic data. We use a multi-decade census of 5 salmonid species representing 14 life histories in a warming Alaskan stream to address the following key questions about climate change and phenology: How consistent are temporal patterns and drivers of phenology for similar species and alternative life histories? Are shifts in phenology associated with changes in phenotypic variation? How do phenological changes influence the availability of resource subsidies? For most salmonid species, life stages, and life histories, freshwater temperature influences migration timing--migration events are occurring earlier in time (mean = 1.7 days earlier per decade over the 3-5 decades, and the number of days over which migration events occur is decreasing (mean = 1.5 days per decade. Temporal trends in migration timing were not correlated with changes in intra-annual phenotypic variation, suggesting that these components of the phenotypic distribution have responded to environmental change independently. Despite commonalities across species and life histories, there was important biocomplexity in the form of disparate shifts in migration timing and variation in the environmental factors influencing migration timing for alternative life history strategies in the same population. Overall, adult populations have been stable during these phenotypic and environmental changes (λ ≈ 1.0, but the temporal availability of salmon as a resource in freshwater has decreased by nearly 30 days since 1971 due to changes in the median date of migration timing and decreases in intra-annual variation in migration timing. These novel observations advance our understanding of phenological change in response to climate warming, and indicate that climate change has influenced the ecology of

  5. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahls, Terry L; Peleg, Ika

    2009-01-01

    Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years), or colonoscopy (within 10 years); delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI), who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW). Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91); 99 (66%) were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46%) had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total) had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10%) had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65%) of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38%) had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management, focusing on following

  6. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahls Terry L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years, or colonoscopy (within 10 years; delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI, who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW. Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91; 99 (66% were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46% had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10% had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65% of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38% had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management

  7. Wind Magnetic Clouds for 2010-2012: Model Parameter Fittings, Associated Shock Waves, and Comparisons to Earlier Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Szabo, A.

    2015-01-01

    We fitted the parameters of magnetic clouds (MCs) as identified in the Wind spacecraft data from early 2010 to the end of 2012 using the model of Lepping, Jones, and Burlaga (J. Geophys. Res. 95, 1195, 1990). The interval contains 48 MCs and 39 magnetic cloud-like (MCL) events. This work is a continuation of MC model fittings of the earlier Wind sets, including those in a recent publication, which covers 2007 to 2009. This period (2010 - 2012) mainly covers the maximum portion of Solar Cycle 24. Between the previous and current interval, we document 5.7 years of MCs observations. For this interval, the occurrence frequency of MCs markedly increased in the last third of the time. In addition, over approximately the last six years, the MC type (i.e. the profile of the magnetic-field direction within an MC, such as North-to-South, South-to-North, all South) dramatically evolved to mainly North-to-South types when compared to earlier years. Furthermore, this evolution of MC type is consistent with global solar magnetic-field changes predicted by Bothmer and Rust (Coronal Mass Ejections, 139, 1997). Model fit parameters for the MCs are listed for 2010 - 2012. For the 5.7 year interval, the observed MCs are found to be slower, weaker in estimated axial magnetic-field intensity, and shorter in duration than those of the earlier 12.3 years, yielding much lower axial magnetic-field fluxes. For about the first half of this 5.7 year period, i.e. up to the end of 2009, there were very few associated MC-driven shock waves (distinctly fewer than the long-term average of about 50 % of MCs). But since 2010, such driven shocks have increased markedly, reflecting similar statistics as the long-term averages. We estimate that 56 % of the total observed MCs have upstream shocks when the full interval of 1995 - 2012 is considered. However, only 28 % of the total number of MCLs have driven shocks over the same period. Some interplanetary shocks during the 2010 - 2012 interval are seen

  8. Voxel-Wise Time-Series Analysis of Quantitative MRI in Relapsing-Remitting MS: Dynamic Imaging Metrics of Disease Activity Including Prelesional Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden...for the project, summarized as follows: (1) myelin water mapping based on the mcDESPOT pulse sequence as originally reported by Deoni et al [1] and

  9. Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro activity of 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline against environmental relevant bacteria, including tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Sengeløv, Gitte; Cornett, Claus;

    2004-01-01

    2-Acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline (ADOTC) is a major impurity of oxytetracycline (OTC) produced as a side product during fermentation. ADOTC was isolated from OTC and other impurities using preparative HPLC. The preparative column was an Xterra MS. C-18 chromatographic column (100 mm x 19 ...... sludge bacteria was deter-mined giving a potency of only 3% of that of OTC. With tetracycline-resistant bacteria, no anti-microbial activity was observed, indicating a mode of action similar to that of OTC....

  10. Reduction of Glucose Metabolism in Olfactory Bulb is an Earlier Alzheimer's Disease-related Biomarker in 5XFAD Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-An Xiao; Jing Zhang; Meng Zhou; Zhen Wei; Xi-Lin Wu; Xiao-Man Dai; Yuan-Gui Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Early diagnosis assumes a vital role in an effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Most of the current studies can only make anAD diagnosis after the manifestation of typical clinical symptoms.The present study aimed to investigate typical and other biomarkers of AD to find a possible early biomarker.Methods:A total of 14 5XFAD mice (at 3 and 6 months old),with 14 age-matched wild-type (WT) mice as control,were enrolled in this case-control study.Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the cognitive function;buried food pellet test and olfactory maze test were employed to investigate the olfactory function;immunofluorescence to detect amyloid deposition and positron emission tomography to examine 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) uptake in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.Results:With the increasing age,cognitive performance (P =0.0262) and olfactory function were significantly deteriorated (day 1 P =0.0012,day 2 P =0.0031,day 3 P =0.0160,respectively) and the (18F)-FDG uptake was markedly decreased in multi-cerebral regions including the olfactory bulb (P < 0.0001),hippocampus (P =0.0121),and cerebral cortex (P < 0.0001).Of note,in 3-month-old 5XFAD mice,a significant decline of (18F)-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb was found when compared with that of age-matched WT mice (P =0.023) while no significant difference was present when the uptakes in other cerebral regions were compared.Conclusions:The decline of (18F)-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb occurs earlier than other incidents,serving as an earlier in vivo biological marker of AD in 5XFAD mice and making early diagnosis of AD possibly.

  11. GPR Investigation of an Earlier Romanesque Foundation Beneath the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, Villeveyrac, South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Paul, V. L.; Warden, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used in archeology as it is a very high resolution and nondestructive geophysical method. Information obtained from GPR provides detailed images of near-surface buried objects. GPR or other nondestructive imaging techniques are essential to permit minimal excavation of a historically sensitive building for which archeological investigation is planned. A 3-D GPR survey with 500- and 800-MHz antennas was performed on the fine gravel floor of the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, near Montpellier, south of France. The whole floor area of the abbey including aisle, choir, transept, and nave was surveyed. Processed 2-D GPR profiles and time slice images of both 500- and 800-MHz data on a known buried limestone pier of earlier Romanesque construction within the survey area show distinct anomalies corresponding to the location of the object. The Romanesque pier abuts a present-day Gothic pillar inside the transept of the abbey. Several other GPR anomalies were also found. For example, n intriguing row of periodically-spaced buried objects can be seen down the center of nave which may be related to an earlier Romanesque wall. Imaging the foundations is very challenging due to low dielectric constant between foundations and host soil. Therefore the next stage is to attempt to apply 3-D seismic coherency techniques to the 3-D GPR data to better image the near subsurface structures inside the abbey. Our results shall be used to guide archeological ground-truthing and provide constraints on architectural historical models of Cistercian abbey construction.

  12. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF R&D ACTIVITIES AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMIES INCLUDING REPUBLIC OF BELARUS WITH STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates efficiency of R&D activities based on the stochastic frontier analysis across 69 counties with developed and developing economies. Gross domestic expenditures on R&D in purchasing power parity, researchers per million inhabitants, technicians per million inhabitants are treated as inputs while patents granted to residents and scientific and technical journal articles are considered as outputs. According to the analysis results Costa Rica, Israel and Singapore are the most efficient in terms of transformation of available resources into the R&D results. What concerns Belarus it is necessary that additional investments in R&D go together with increasing efficiency of available resources’ usage. 

  14. New entrants to HIV care are presenting only at marginally earlier stages of disease but may increasingly represent groups perceived at lower risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupa, Chariclia V; Lederman, Michael M; Valdez, Hernán; Salata, Robert A; McComsey, Grace A; Gripshover, Barbara; Fulton, Scott; Lisgaris, Michelle V; Kucia, Michelle; Asaad, Robert; Cline, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Benigno

    2005-06-01

    Treatment has improved HIV infection prognosis, but whether risk and health care seeking behavior have improved is unclear. New entrants to HIV care at University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio, between 1995 and 2002, with no history of AIDS-defining illnesses or antiretroviral exposure were included. Of new patients, 806 (80%) met the inclusion criteria. Median age increased during the study period(35.2 to 38.6 years; P < .001); proportions of females and non-whites increased nonsignificantly. Prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses decreased from 1995 to 1996 (25.0% to 14.2%; P <.001) but remained stable thereafter. Category B conditions and sexually transmitted diseases decreased significantly(31.7% to 9.1%; P = .039 and 22.5% to 8.0%; P = .003), as did hepatitis B and C seroprevalence (8.3% to 3.6%; P = .05 and 26.2% to 14.3%; P = .003). Median CD4 counts and HIV RNA did not change significantly. Prevalence of Category B conditions, sexually transmitted diseases, and hepatitis B and C declined significantly in this study. Prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses decreased early in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era only, whereas markers of HIV disease stage remained stable, suggesting a need for earlier recognition of infection. Decreasing sexually transmitted diseases and hepatitis coinfections suggest that HIV infection is increasingly seen in populations previously perceived at lower risk.

  15. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Salazar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-beta and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1beta in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1beta, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-beta and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs.

  16. Synthesis and catalytic activity of Ln(III) complexes with an unsymmetrical Schiff base including multi()C = N-groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚克敏; 李宁; 沈联芳

    2003-01-01

    A synthetic method for a new unsymmetrical Schiff base and its Ln (III) complexes including multi C == N- groups is reported. The complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, 1H and 13C NMR, especially 2D-COSY1H, 1H NMR spectra. The general formula of the obtained complexes is [Ln3(TBLY)(NO3)3]@nH2O (Ln = La, n = 3; Ln = Nd, n = 5; Ln = Gd, Dy, Yb, Y, n = 7), whereTBLY = tetraglycol aldehyde-2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde bis-lysine Schiff base. In addition, the evidence for existence of C == CH-NH- group is supported bythe AM1 method. The complexes obtained may be used as a catalyst. Conversion rate of 80% with the viscosity-average molecular weight 220000 for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) without addition of any cocatalyst has been obtained.

  17. Response of the Martian Ionosphere to Solar Activity including SEPs and ICMEs in a two week period starting on 25 February 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Duru, F; Morgan, D D; Halekas, J; Frahm, R A; Lundin, R; Dejong, W; Ertl, C; Venable, A; Wilkinson, C; Fraenz, M; Nemec, F; Connerney, J E P; Espley, J R; Larson, D; Winningham, J D; Plaut, J; Mahaffy, P R

    2016-01-01

    In a two-week period between February and March of 2015, a series of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and (solar energetic particles) SEPs made contact with Mars. The interactions were observed by several spacecraft, including Mars Express (MEX), Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), and Mars Odyssey (MO). The ICME disturbances were characterized by an increase in ion speed, plasma temperature, magnetic field magnitude, and energetic electron flux. Furthermore, increased solar wind density and speeds, unusually high local electron densities and high flow velocities were detected on the nightside at high altitudes during the March 8th event. These effects are thought to be due to the transport of ionospheric plasma away from Mars. The peak electron density at periapsis shows a substantial increase, reaching number densities about 2.7 x 104 cm-3 during the second ICME in the deep nightside, which corresponds to an increase in the MOHigh-Energy Neutron Detector flux, suggesting an ...

  18. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  19. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  20. On the Effect of Aspect Ratio of Open Heated Channel Including an Active Obstacle upon the Turbulent Characteristics of a Thermal Plume: Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Naffouti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental investigation of aspect ratio effect of open vertical channel on turbulent characteristics of a thermal plume. The physical configuration is constituted essentially by a prallelepipedic channel and an obstacle of a rectangular section. The thermal plume is generated by a rectangular obstacle heated uniformly at the upper surface. This active source is placed at the entry of a vertical channel open at the ends. The symmetrical heating of channel walls by joule effect and by thermal radiation emitted by the plume, causes the appearance of a thermosiphon flow which interacts with this one. To investigate the flow fluctuations, an anemometer at constant current (CCA is used. The results carried out with air (Pr = 0.71 are performed for Rayleigh number equal to 0.63 107 over a wide range of aspect ratio 1.25 ≤ A ≤ 30. Effects of this pertinent parameter are displayed upon thermal and dynamic turbulent fields. Using Taylor hypothesis, time and length scales of turbulent thermal field are studied. It is found that the turbulent characteristics of the flow are significantly influenced by the variation of aspect ratio. An optimum aspect ratio of channel characterized by a strong homogenization of turbulence of the flow is observed. The fine analysis of temperature fluctuations spectra shows the evolution of the vortices in energy cascade owing to the strong effect of thermosiphon flow which favours the vortex stretching.

  1. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity Worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT Analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (WBMT) including the global survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Baldomero, Helen; Szer, Jeff; Gratwohl, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Confer, Dennis; Greinix, Hildegard; Horowitz, Mary; Iida, Minako; Lipton, Jeff; Mohty, Mohamad; Novitzky, Nicolas; Nunez, José; Passweg, Jakob; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Apperley, Jane; Seber, Adriana; Gratwohl, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Data on 68,146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCT were registered from unrelated 16,433 than related 15,493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared to 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCT/team). An increase of 67% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A SWOT analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four WHO regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood. PMID:26901703

  2. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  3. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  4. Arctic lakes show strong decadal trend in earlier spring ice-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Tereza; Edwards, Mary E.; Dash, Jadunandan

    2016-12-01

    The timing of the seasonal freeze-thaw cycle of arctic lakes affects ecological processes and land-atmosphere energy fluxes. We carried out detailed ice-phenology mapping of arctic lakes, based on daily surface-reflectance time series for 2000-2013 from MODIS at 250 m spatial resolution. We used over 13,300 lakes, area >1 km2, in five study areas distributed evenly across the circumpolar Arctic — the first such phenological dataset. All areas showed significant trends towards an earlier break-up, stronger than previously reported. The mean shift in break-up start ranged from -0.10 days/year (Northern Europe) to -1.05 days/year (central Siberia); the shift in break-up end was between -0.14 and -0.72 days/year. Finally, we explored the effect of temperature on break-up timing and compared results among study areas. The 0 °C isotherm shows the strongest relationship (r = 0.56-0.81) in all study areas. If the trend in early break-up continues, rapidly changing ice phenology will likely generate significant, arctic-wide impacts.

  5. Controlling Laser-Driven Hohlraums-Clues from Experiments with Earlier Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruer, William; Thomas, Cliff

    2015-11-01

    Better characterized and controlled hohlraums are very important for both implosion and science experiments on NIF. A brief review of some hohlraum and related experiments with earlier lasers is given to search for lessons learned and clues for better understanding NIF hohlraums. For example, surprises associated with heat transport inhibition and improved models for radiation generation have been a recurring theme in indirect drive experiments. In Shiva experiments, the hohlraum filling with plasma with density near quarter-critical was only calculated after inhibited heat transport and improved radiation models were adopted in the design code. Early NIF experiments also led to a change in the heat transport and radiation models. In this case, the heat transport model was changed from one with modest inhibition (which had been used to model Nova experiments) to near classical transport. Most recently, a design model invoking very inhibited transport (at various times and locations) has been proposed by C. Thomas for NIF hohlraums. Other recurring themes will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Jao, Chii-Wen; Soong, Bing-Wen; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Wang, Po-Shan; Wu, Yu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and electroencephalography (EEG), are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD) method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  7. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yun Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3 have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and electroencephalography (EEG, are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  8. Falling through the cracks? Missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis in a New York City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Jolene H; Wiener, Dan E; Newman, David H; Sharp, Victoria L; Egan, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Summary Newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients have frequent health care encounters prior to diagnosis representing missed opportunities for diagnosis. This study determines the proportion of patients with new HIV diagnoses with encounters in the 3 years prior to diagnosis. We describe the characteristics of newly diagnosed patients and of "late testers" (CD4 diagnosis). We identified all newly diagnosed with HIV in emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient settings between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009. Data abstractors searched hospital records to identify all emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient visits for the 3 years prior to diagnosis. In all, 23,271 HIV tests were performed and 253 persons were newly diagnosed (1.1%); 152 new positives (60.1%) made at least one prior visit. Of patients with CD4 counts available, 104/175 (59.4%) had CD4 HIV-positive patients had multiple encounters prior to diagnosis. Many of these patients presented with CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm(3), indicating true missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis.

  9. Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Band, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates associations between adult attachment style, relationships with significant others during childhood, traumatic life-events and schizotypy. Relationships between attachment and hypothesized correlates were investigated in a cross-sectional design using an analogue sample. The reliability of the attachment and trauma measures was investigated using a test-retest design. Three hundred and four students completed the self-report version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), maternal and paternal versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Attachment History Questionnaire, a measure of trauma and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences scale through an internet website. As predicted, there were statistically significant associations between insecure attachment in adult relationships and experiences of negative interpersonal events. Both earlier interpersonal experiences and adult attachment style predicted schizotypy, and adult attachment style emerged as an independent predictor of positive schizotypal characteristics. The findings support associations between adult attachment style and previous interpersonal experiences and between adult attachment and schizotypy. The PAM is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to explore attachment styles in analogue samples and associations between attachment styles and psychotic symptoms in clinical samples.

  10. Nutrition factors predict earlier acquisition of motor and language milestones among young children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora; Jean Louis Dulience, Sherlie; Wolff, Patricia; Cox, Katherine; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Kohl, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Earlier Age of Breast Cancer Onset in Israeli BRCA Carriers-Is it a Real Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranat, Sivan; Baris, Hagit; Kedar, Inbal; Shochat, Mordechai; Rizel, Shulamith; Perry, Shlomit; Margel, David; Sulkes, Aaron; Yerushalmi, Rinat

    2016-11-01

    Data on genetic anticipation in breast cancer are sparse. We sought to evaluate age at diagnosis of breast cancer in daughters with a BRCA mutation and their mothers. A review of all carriers of the BRCA mutation diagnosed with breast cancer at the Genetics Institute of a tertiary medical center in 2000-2013 yielded 80 women who could be paired with a mother with breast cancer who was either a carrier of the BRCA mutation or an obligate carrier according to pedigree analysis. Age at diagnosis, type of mutation (BRCA1, BRCA2), year of birth, and ethnicity were recorded. Paired t-test was used to analyze differences in age at cancer diagnosis between groups and subgroups. Mean age at diagnosis of breast cancer was 50.74 years (range 22-88) in the mothers and 43.85 years (range 24-75) in the daughters. The difference was statistically significant (p BRCA mutation, ethnicity, or mother's year of birth. However, on separate analysis of pairs in which the mother was diagnosed before the age of 50 years, there was no significant difference in mean age at diagnosis between mothers and daughters (~42 years for both). Daughters who carry a BRCA mutation are diagnosed with breast cancer at an earlier age than their carrier mothers, with the exception of pairs in which the mother was diagnosed before the age of 50 years. Future breast-screening guidelines may need to target specific subpopulations of BRCA mutation carriers.

  12. Does menopause start earlier in smokers? Evidence from the Pro-Saude Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Holanda Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: cigarette smoking has been the modifiable risk factor most consistently associated with earlier menopause. This preliminary study based on cross-sectional data aimed to analyze the association between smoking status and age of onset of menopause in a Brazilian population. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,222 female employees of Rio de Janeiro university campuses aged over 35 years who were at risk of natural menopause. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between smoking status and age at the onset of menopause, adjusting for education, parity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: current smokers showed a 56% increase in the risk of menopause, being 1.8 years younger at menopause onset compared with women who had never smoked. However, no differences were observed between former smokers and women who had never smoked. The adjusted median age at menopause was 49.5 years for current smokers and 51.3 years for women who had never smoked (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: the results suggest a deleterious but potentially reversible effect of smoking on the age of onset of menopause, which should receive greater attention in tobacco control efforts. Longitudinal analyses of this association will be carried out in the future in a follow-up study of this population.

  13. Response of the Martian ionosphere to solar activity including SEPs and ICMEs in a two-week period starting on 25 February 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Morgan, D. D.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R. A.; Lundin, R.; Dejong, W.; Ertl, C.; Venable, A.; Wilkinson, C.; Fraenz, M.; Nemec, F.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Larson, D.; Winningham, J. D.; Plaut, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-10-01

    In a two-week period between February and March of 2015, a series of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and solar energetic particle (SEP) events encountered Mars. The interactions were observed by several spacecraft, including Mars Express (MEX), Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), and Mars Odyssey (MO). The ICME disturbances were characterized by an increase in ion speed, plasma temperature, magnetic field magnitude, and energetic electron flux. Furthermore, increased solar wind density and speeds, as well as unusually high local electron densities and high flow velocities were detected on the nightside at high altitudes during the March 8 event. These effects are thought to be due to the transport of ionospheric plasma away from Mars. In the deep nightside, the peak ionospheric electron density at the periapsis of MEX shows a substantial increase, reaching number densities about 2.7 × 104 cm-3 during the second ICME in the deep nightside. This corresponds to an increase in the MO High-Energy Neutron Detector flux suggesting an increase in the ionization of the neutral atmosphere due to the high intensity of charged particles. Measurements of the SEP fluxs show a substantial enhancement before the shock of a fourth ICME causing impact ionization and absorption of the surface echo intensity which drops to the noise levels, below 10-15 V2m-2 Hz-1 from values of about 2 × 10-14 V2m-2 Hz-1. Moreover, the peak ionospheric density exhibits a discrete enhancement over a period of about 30 h around the same location, which may be due to impact ionization. Ion escape rates at this time are estimated to be in the order of 1025 to 1026 s-1.

  14. Effects of lifestyle changes including specific dietary intervention and physical activity in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C--a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Emilia; Jinga, Mariana; Enache, Georgiana; Rusu, Florin; Dragomir, Andreea Diana; Ancuta, Ioan; Draguţ, Ramona; Parpala, Cristina; Nan, Raluca; Sima, Irina; Ateia, Simona; Stoica, Victor; Cheţa, Dan Mircea; Radulian, Gabriela

    2013-08-14

    dietary intervention and physical activity) for 1-year had significant improvements in body weight, lipid and hepatic profile. PNCI2-3343/41008/2007.

  15. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  16. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  17. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  18. Earlier infantile immune maturation is related to higher DTP vaccine responses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-03-01

    There are large inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in children. We sought to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and/or adaptive immune maturation were related to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine-specific antibody levels at 18 months of age. In the prospective FARMFLORA birth-cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with DTP vaccine at 3, 5 and 12 months of age. DTP vaccine-induced antibody levels were measured in plasma at 18 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days, 4, 18 and 36 months and at 8 years of age were analyzed for total CD4(+) T- and B-cell counts, proportions of naïve and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells by flow cytometry. Multivariate factor analysis was used to examine associations between immune variables and vaccine responses. The most apparent multivariate pattern was that higher anti-DTP antibody titers at 18 months of age were associated with lower infantile total counts of T and B cells in the blood. Furthermore, lower infantile total T- and B-cell blood counts were associated with higher proportions of circulating CD45RO(+) memory T cells and to lower proportions of α4β7(+) naïve T cells later in childhood. The multivariate findings were corroborated in univariate correlation analyses. Sex, delivery mode and dairy farm exposure were unrelated to the magnitude of DTP-specific antibody responses. Our results thus suggest that children with a more mature/activated infantile adaptive immunity respond with higher vaccine-induced anti-DTP antibody levels at 18 months of age.

  19. Selection for earlier flowering crop associated with climatic variations in the Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Vigouroux

    Full Text Available Climate changes will have an impact on food production and will require costly adaptive responses. Adapting to a changing environment will be particularly challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where climate change is expected to have a major impact. However, one important phenomenon that is often overlooked and is poorly documented is the ability of agro-systems to rapidly adapt to environmental variations. Such an adaptation could proceed by the adoption of new varieties or by the adaptation of varieties to a changing environment. In this study, we analyzed these two processes in one of the driest agro-ecosystems in Africa, the Sahel. We performed a detailed study in Niger where pearl millet is the main crop and covers 65% of the cultivated area. To assess how the agro-system is responding to recent recurrent drought, we analyzed samples of pearl millet landraces collected in the same villages in 1976 and 2003 throughout the entire cultivated area of Niger. We studied phenological and morphological differences in the 1976 and 2003 collections by comparing them over three cropping seasons in a common garden experiment. We found no major changes in the main cultivated varieties or in their genetic diversity. However, we observed a significant shift in adaptive traits. Compared to the 1976 samples, samples collected in 2003 displayed a shorter lifecycle, and a reduction in plant and spike size. We also found that an early flowering allele at the PHYC locus increased in frequency between 1976 and 2003. The increase exceeded the effect of drift and sampling, suggesting a direct effect of selection for earliness on this gene. We conclude that recurrent drought can lead to selection for earlier flowering in a major Sahelian crop. Surprisingly, these results suggest that diffusion of crop varieties is not the main driver of short term adaptation to climatic variation.

  20. Analysis of radioactive corrosion test specimens by means of ICP-MS. Comparison with earlier methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Roy [Forsyth Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-07-01

    In June 1992, an ICP-MS instrument (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) was commissioned for use with radioactive sample solutions at Studsvik Nuclear`s Hot Cell Laboratory. For conventional environmental samples the instrument permits the simultaneous analysis of many trace elements, but the software used in evaluation of the mass spectra is based on a library of isotopic compositions relevant only for elements in the lithosphere. Fission products and actinides, however, have isotopic compositions which are significantly different from the natural elements, and which also vary with the burnup of the nuclear fuel specimen. Consequently, a spread-sheet had to be developed which could evaluate the mass spectra with these isotopic compositions. Following these preparations, a large number of samples (about 200) from SKB`s experimental programme for the study of spent fuel corrosion have been analyzed by the ICP-MS technique. Many of these samples were archive solutions of samples which had been taken earlier in the programme. This report presents a comparison of the analytical results for uranium, plutonium, cesium, strontium and technetium by both the ICP-MS technique, and the previously used analytical methods. For three products, a satisfactory agreement between the results from the various methods was obtained, but for uranium and plutonium the ICP-MS method gave results which were 10-20% higher than the conventional methods. The comparison programme has also shown, not unexpectedly, that significant losses of plutonium from solution had occurred, by precipitation and/or absorption, in the archive solutions during storage. It can be expected that such losses also occur for the other actinides, and consequently, all the analytical results for actinides in older archive solutions must be treated with great caution. 9 refs.

  1. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug-related adverse events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Mei Sheng; Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-12-01

    To compare the patient characteristics and the inter-temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor(®) ) and sibutramine (Meridia(®) ) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less-serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  3. Progressively implementation of the new degrees at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering and extinction of the earlier degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, A.; Caniego, J.; Vazquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly

  4. Earlier anal sexarche and co-occurring sexual risk are associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors among an online sample of men who have sex with men in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Doug H; Suharlim, Christian; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2014-12-01

    Studies of heterosexual populations across the globe and men who have sex with men (MSM) in a few developed countries showed that earlier sexual debut (sexarche) was associated with higher levels of co-occurring and subsequent HIV risk behaviors. We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past 6 months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple male sexual partners, having been paid for sex, and increased frequencies of recreational drug use. Unprotected earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past the 6 months. Improved and culturally sensitive sex education at schools should be included in national and regional HIV/AIDS prevention programming and policies in Asia. Such sex education programs should incorporate curriculum that address sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviors beyond those related to reproductive health.

  5. Human olfactory mesenchymal stromal cell transplants promote remyelination and earlier improvement in gait co‐ordination after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Susan L.; Toft, Andrew; Griffin, Jacob; M. M. Emraja, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Autologous cell transplantation is a promising strategy for repair of the injured spinal cord. Here we have studied the repair potential of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from the human olfactory mucosa after transplantation into a rodent model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Investigation of peripheral type remyelination at the injury site using immunocytochemistry for P0, showed a more extensive distribution in transplanted compared with control animals. In addition to the typical distribution in the dorsal columns (common to all animals), in transplanted animals only, P0 immunolabelling was consistently detected in white matter lateral and ventral to the injury site. Transplanted animals also showed reduced cavitation. Several functional outcome measures including end‐point electrophysiological testing of dorsal column conduction and weekly behavioural testing of BBB, weight bearing and pain, showed no difference between transplanted and control animals. However, gait analysis revealed an earlier recovery of co‐ordination between forelimb and hindlimb stepping in transplanted animals. This improvement in gait may be associated with the enhanced myelination in ventral and lateral white matter, where fibre tracts important for locomotion reside. Autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells from the olfactory mucosa may therefore be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of spinal cord injury. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:639–656 PMID:28144983

  6. Childhood Hair Product Use and Earlier Age at Menarche in a Racially Diverse Study Population: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. Methods We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18 and 77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used prior to age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (=12), adjusting for potential confounders. Results African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Conclusions Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. PMID:21421329

  7. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  8. Wisconsin Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor. Report for 1966 and 1967 With a Summary of Earlier Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raushenbush, Elizabeth Brandeis

    A review of State and Federal activities relative to migrant labor problems presents a backdrop for the report of Wisconsin's Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor for the years 1966-67. The review includes summary data on the migrants and the programs provided in Wisconsin since 1945. The current report contains data on migrant population and…

  9. Minilaparotomy to rectal cancer has higher overall survival rate and earlier short-term recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Ming-Jun; Yang, Chuan-Hua; Li, Ka; Li, Li

    2012-10-07

    To report our experience using mini-laparotomy for the resection of rectal cancer using the total mesorectal excision (TME) technique. Consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent anal-colorectal surgery at the authors' hospital between March 2001 and June 2009 were included. In total, 1415 patients were included in the study. The cases were divided into two surgical procedure groups (traditional open laparotomy or mini-laparotomy). The mini-laparotomy group was defined as having an incision length ≤ 12 cm. Every patient underwent the TME technique with a standard operation performed by the same clinical team. The multimodal preoperative evaluation system and postoperative fast track were used. To assess the short-term outcomes, data on the postoperative complications and recovery functions of these cases were collected and analysed. The study included a plan for patient follow-up, to obtain the long-term outcomes related to 5-year survival and local recurrence. The mini-laparotomy group had 410 patients, and 1015 cases underwent traditional laparotomy. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two surgical procedure groups. The overall 5-year survival rate was not different between the mini-laparotomy and traditional laparotomy groups (80.6% vs. 79.4%, P = 0.333), nor was the 5-year local recurrence (1.4% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.544). However, 1-year mortality was decreased in the mini-laparotomy group compared with the traditional laparotomy group (0% vs. 4.2%, P 8 d vs 3.9 ± 2.3 d, P = 0.000) and passing of gas (3.5 ± 1.1 d vs. 4.3 ± 1.8 d, P = 0.000), length of hospital stay (6.4 ± 1.5 d vs 9.7 ± 2.2 d, P = 0.000), anastomotic leakage (0.5% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.000), and intestinal obstruction (2.2% vs 7.3%, P = 0.000) were decreased in the mini-laparotomy group compared with the traditional laparotomy group. The results for other postoperative recovery function indicators, such as days to oral feeding and defecation, were similar, as

  10. Reducing the Clinical and Socioeconomic Burden of Narcolepsy by Earlier Diagnosis and Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpy, Michael; Morse, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The burden of narcolepsy is likely the result of 2 main aspects: the clinical difficulties and disability incurred as a direct effect of the disorder and the socioeconomic burden. The clinical burden includes the symptoms, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, and even mortality that can be associated with narcolepsy. Lifelong therapy is necessary for these patients. Effective treatment results in long-term benefits from both patient and societal perspectives by improving clinical outcomes, potentially enabling improved education and increased employment and work productivity, and quality of life. Thus, reducing the time to appropriate management results in improved outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanostructured surfaces yield earlier: Molecular dynamics study of nanoindentation into adatom islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Gerolf; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2010-04-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation we investigate nanoindentation into an fcc metal surface covered by an adatom island. Small islands are pushed into the solid and transported away by prismatic dislocation loops, and no defects remain under the indenter; thereafter indentation proceeds as for a flat surface. For large islands, the island boundaries do not influence indentation. Most interesting is the intermediate case, where the island size is comparable to the contact radius of the indenter at the onset of plasticity. Here plasticity starts immediately at the surface under the weakest step edges bounding the island. The dislocations are pinned to the step edges and dislocation activity remains localized under the island. For this intermediate case, the surface is weakest and yields earliest.

  12. The Fischa-Dagnitz spring, Southern Vienna Basin: a multi tracer time series study re-assessing earlier conceptual assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Axel; Gerber, Christoph; Kralik, Martin; Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Purtschert, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The gravel aquifer of the Southern Vienna Basin is a very important backup drinking water resource for the city of Vienna. A discharge location, the Fischa-Dagnitz spring in the Southern Vienna Basin, Austria, was re-investigated in 2011, five years after the gas exchange tracer test published in (Stolp et al., 2010), and sampled for stable isotopes 18O/2H, tritium, 3He, SF6 and 85Kr (Gerber et al., 2012). Additionally, new tritium time series data (Davis et al., 1967), previously not considered in Stolp et al. (2010), were included. These show a higher and earlier tritium peak of >300 TU in 1965 in the discharge of the Fischa-Dagnitz spring as compared to 221 TU in 1972 considered in Stolp et al. (2010). The new 3He, SF6 and 85Kr gas tracer data from 2011 confirm the earlier finding for 3He of Stolp et al. (2010) and indicate a more recent equilibration with the atmosphere than the water bound tracers 18O, 2H and tritium. A new modelling attempt using the Lumpy code (Suckow, 2012) confirmed the discrepancy between the tritium data and the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr. No steady-state combination of local recharge (represented by an exponential model) and Schwarza river infiltration flowing through the gravel aquifer (represented by a parallel dispersion model) can equally well explain both the tritium time series and the gas tracer results. A revised conceptual model proposes that a pinching of the aquifer at unconformities in the gravel body or a fault zone known in the gravel body forces groundwater along the flow path closer to the surface and exposes it to the atmosphere. This would tend to reset the "dating" clock for the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr, which can equilibrate quickly with the atmosphere, but not for tritium, which marks the transport behaviour of the water itself. These findings are of importance also for other multi-tracer assessments of groundwater movement in phreatic aquifer systems. References: Davis, G.H., Payne, B.R., Dincer, T

  13. Improved outcomes from HIV/TB co-infection in Singapore following a switch to earlier anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent clinical trials have provided clear evidence to support early anti-retroviral therapy (ART in patients with HIV/TB co-infection and low CD4 counts. We investigated how this has changed treatment and outcomes in Singapore. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed with inpatient and outpatient records for all subjects diagnosed with HIV/TB co-infection from 2006 to 2011 attending the Tuberculosis Control Unit, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Data for subjects with a presenting CD4<200 cell/mm3 were extracted and split into two groups, “Delayed”: ART more than 8/52 after starting TB treatment, and “Early”: ART within 8/52 of starting TB treatment. Results: One hundred thirty-four out of 180 subjects in the database met the inclusion criteria for this study, 89 in the delayed group and 45 in the early. No statistically significant differences in baseline demographics between the two groups were identified. Both groups presented with markedly low CD4 counts, with overall 60% <50cells/mm3. Median CD4 counts were lower in the delayed ART group (37 vs 50, p=0.015. Prevalence of other opportunistic infections at TB diagnosis was not significantly different (20%, but TB in the early ART group was more likely to include extra-pulmonary disease (46% vs 57%, p=0.038. Four cases were culture negative, 2 multi-drug resistant and 10 (7.8% were isoniazid mono-resistant. There was a significant trend to earlier ART with more recent TB diagnosis (p<0.001. In the first 365 days after TB diagnosis, 11 deaths occurred in the delayed ART group, and 0 in the early (p=0.033. A Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis demonstrated a clear separation in the frequency of death or opportunistic infections at eight weeks (Figure 1, p<0.001. Immune reconstitution disease was significantly more likely in the early ART group, but did not result in death (9% vs 38%, p<0.001. Treatment interruptions due to adverse drug events (ADE

  14. Use of a furosemide drip does not improve earlier primary fascial closure in the open abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland H Webb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The furosemide drip (FD, in addition to improving volume overload respiratory failure, has been used to decrease fluid in attempts to decrease intra-abdominal and abdominal wall volumes to facilitate fascial closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the FD and the associated rate of primary fascial closure following trauma damage control laparotomy (DCL. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to September 2008, a retrospective review from a single institution Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons dataset was performed. All DCLs greater than 24 h who had a length of stay for 3 or more days were identified. The study group (FD+ and control group (FD- were compared. Demographic data including age, sex, probability of survival, red blood cell transfusions, initial lactate, and mortality were collected. Primary outcomes included primary fascial closure and primary fascial closure within 7 days. Secondary outcomes included total ventilator days and LOS. Results: A total of 139 patients met inclusion criteria: 25 FD+ and 114 FD-. The 25 FD+ patients received the drug at a median 4 days post DCL. Demographic differences between the groups were not significantly different, except that initial lactate was higher for FD- (1.7 vs 4.0; P=0.03. No differences were noted between groups regarding successful primary fascial closure (FD+ 68.4% vs FD- 64.0%; P=0.669, or closure within 7 days (FD+13.2% vs FD- 28.0%; P=0.066 of original DCL. FD+ patients suffered more open abdomen days (4 [2-7] vs 2 [1-4]; P=0.001. FD+ did not demonstrate an association with primary fascial closure [Odds ratio (OR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.260-8.307; P=0.663]. FD+ patients had more ventilator days and longer Intensive Care Unit (ICU/hospital LOS (P<0.01. Conclusion: FD use may remove excess volume; however, forced diuresis with an FD is not associated with an increased rate of primary closure after DCL. Further studies are warranted to

  15. Snakes elicit earlier, and monkey faces, later, gamma oscillations in macaque pulvinar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan Van; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Le, Van Quang; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Hori, Etsuro; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-02-08

    Gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz) have been suggested to be involved in feedforward visual information processing, and might play an important role in detecting snakes as predators of primates. In the present study, we analyzed gamma oscillations of pulvinar neurons in the monkeys during a delayed non-matching to sample task, in which monkeys were required to discriminate 4 categories of visual stimuli (snakes, monkey faces, monkey hands and simple geometrical patterns). Gamma oscillations of pulvinar neuronal activity were analyzed in three phases around the stimulus onset (Pre-stimulus: 500 ms before stimulus onset; Early: 0-200 ms after stimulus onset; and Late: 300-500 ms after stimulus onset). The results showed significant increases in mean strength of gamma oscillations in the Early phase for snakes and the Late phase for monkey faces, but no significant differences in ratios and frequencies of gamma oscillations among the 3 phases. The different periods of stronger gamma oscillations provide neurophysiological evidence that is consistent with other studies indicating that primates can detect snakes very rapidly and also cue in to faces for information. Our results are suggestive of different roles of gamma oscillations in the pulvinar: feedforward processing for images of snakes and cortico-pulvinar-cortical integration for images of faces.

  16. [Biofeedback and drug-resistant epilepsy: back to an earlier treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Lanteaume, L; Pallanca, O; Vion-Dury, J; Bartolomei, F

    2014-03-01

    Biofeedback is a complementary non-pharmacological and non-surgical therapeutic developed over the last thirty years in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy. Biofeedback allows learning cognitive and behavioral strategies via a psychophysiological feedback loop. Firstly, this paper describes the different types of biofeedback protocols used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and their physiological justifications. Secondly, this paper analyzes the evidence of effectiveness, from a medical point of view, on reducing the numbers of seizures, and from a neurophysiological point of view, on the changing brain activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback) protocol on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) has been investigated in many studies, the main limitation being small sample sizes and lack of control groups. The newer neurofeedback protocol on slow cortical potential (SCP) and galvanic skin response (GSR) biofeedback protocols have been used in a smaller number of studies. But, these studies are more rigorous with larger sized samples, matched control groups, and attempts to control the placebo effect. These protocols also open the way for innovative neurophysiological researches and may predict a renewal of biofeedback techniques. Biofeedback would have legitimacy in the field of clinical drug-resistant epilepsy at the interface between therapeutic and clinical neurophysiology.

  17. In vitro activity of the new fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) against a large collection of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains, including those with high-level antimicrobial resistance: potential treatment option for gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea.

  18. Kidney biopsy in patients with glomerulonephritis: is the earlier the better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Dominik G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventional diagnostic procedures are established for several diseases in medicine. Despite the KDOQI guideline recommendation for histological diagnosis of kidney disease to enable risk stratification, its optimal time point has not been evaluated. We have therefore analyzed whether histological diagnosis of glomerulonephritis (GN at an early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with different outcome compared to diagnosis at a more advanced stage. Methods A cohort of 424 consecutive patients with histological diagnosis of GN were included in a retrospective data analysis. Kidney function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR estimation at the time point of kidney biopsy and after consecutive immunosuppressive therapy. Censored events were death, initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation, or progression of disease, defined as deterioration of CKD stage ≥1 from kidney biopsy to last available kidney function measurement. Results Occurrence of death, dialysis/transplantation or progression of disease were associated with GFR and CKD stage at the time of kidney biopsy (p p  Conclusion Kidney function at the time point of histological GN diagnosis is associated with clinical outcome, likely due to early initiation of specific drug treatment. This suggests that selection of therapy yields greatest benefit before renal function is impaired in GN.

  19. Larger Neural Responses Produce BOLD Signals That Begin Earlier in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eThompson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI analyses commonly rely on the assumption that the temporal dynamics of hemodynamic response functions (HRFs are independent of the amplitude of the neural signals that give rise to them. The validity of this assumption is particularly important for techniques that use fMRI to resolve sub-second timing distinctions between responses, in order to make inferences about the ordering of neural processes. Whether or not the detailed shape of the HRF is independent of neural response amplitude remains an open question, however. We performed experiments in which we measured responses in primary visual cortex (V1 to large, contrast-reversing checkerboards at a range of contrast levels, which should produce varying amounts of neural activity. Ten subjects (ages 22-52 were studied in each of two experiments using 3 Tesla scanners. We used rapid, 250 msec, temporal sampling (repetition time, or TR and both short and long inter-stimulus interval (ISI stimulus presentations. We tested for a systematic relationship between the onset of the HRF and its amplitude across conditions, and found a strong negative correlation between the two measures when stimuli were separated in time (long- and medium-ISI experiments, but not the short-ISI experiment. Thus, stimuli that produce larger neural responses, as indexed by HRF amplitude, also produced HRFs with shorter onsets. The relationship between amplitude and latency was strongest in voxels with lowest mean-normalized variance (i.e., parenchymal voxels. The onset differences observed in the longer-ISI experiments are likely attributable to mechanisms of neurovascular coupling, since they are substantially larger than reported differences in the onset of action potentials in V1 as a function of response amplitude.

  20. Long-term outcome in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a plea for earlier parenteral prostacyclin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Delcroix

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to examine the effect of specific drugs on long-term outcome of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, to critically review the available data, and to derive useful information for daily patient care. PAH is an intrinsic disease of the pulmonary circulation with a malignant evolution as a consequence of progressive right heart failure. Without specific therapy, median survival is only 2.8 yrs. The intravenous prostacyclin analogue epoprostenol is the only treatment with a demonstrated effect on survival, observed during a single 12-week randomised placebo-controlled trial. Three long-term observational studies have also shown that median survival is raised above 6 yrs with this therapy. Subcutaneous treprostinil appears to have similar beneficial effects on survival, as reported in two long-term observational studies. This is not the case for inhaled iloprost, as shown in one study in which a high proportion of patients needed the addition of, or the switch to, another therapy. Among the oral agents, long-term data have only been published for bosentan. The three studies including patients from expert centres also showed very good survival data, but again with a broad use of combination therapy. In less expert hands, with limited access to more complex therapies, reported survival seems much worse. In these studies, baseline New York Heart Association class and 6-min walk distance are repeatedly shown to be important predictors of survival. Finally, there is emerging data that prostanoid therapy results in a tendency to normalise C-reactive protein levels, a factor associated with improved long-term outcomes.

  1. Focus on the spondyloarthritides. Can earlier diagnosis change the course of the disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Galasso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The spondyloarthritides (or spondyloarthropathies (SPAs are chronic, inflammatory, rheumatic diseases of unknown origin, which share certain clinical, epidemiological, and genetic characteristics. They include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis (also known as the Reiter Syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, enteropathic spondyloarthropathy (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis, juvenile spondyloarthritis, and formes frustes such as acute anterior uveitis, spondyloarthritic carditis, and balanitis circinata. In the past, the SPAs were considered variants of rheumatoid arthritis, but it is now clear that they differ from the latter disease in terms of the pattern of articular and extra-articular involvement, their lack of association with seropositivity for rheumatoid factor, and their strong association with sacro-iliac joint bacino= pelvis sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint the class I human leukocyte antigen B27. sacro-iliac joint bacino= pelvis sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint sacro-iliac joint Their general characteristics are axial involvement; enthesitis; peripheral arthritis involving the lower limbs, which is usually asymmetric; dactylitis; extra-articular manifestations involving the skin, eyes, bowel, and genitals. The musculoskeletal manifestations of the SPAs are due to inflammation at the level of the entheses. It is important to distinguish between the numerous clinical SPA variants based on analysis of symptoms, laboratory tests, and instrumental studies. Thanks to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of the SPAs and the widespread availability of highly sensitive imaging modalities for their diagnosis, it is now possible to identify these diseases early and modify their course with effective therapy. This approach offers benefits to patients in terms of reduced morbidity and mortality and

  2. Angiopoietin-Like-4, a Potential Target of Tacrolimus, Predicts Earlier Podocyte Injury in Minimal Change Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Si; Chen, Xiao; Peng, Lei; Wei, Shi-Yao; Zhao, Shi-Lei; Diao, Tian-Tian; He, Yi-Xin; Liu, Fang; Wei, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Qing-Fang; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Podocyte injury plays central roles in proteinuria and kidney dysfunction, therefore, identifying specific biomarker to evaluate earlier podocyte injury is highly desirable. Podocyte-secreted angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4) mediates proteinuria in different types of podocytopathy. In the present study, we established an experimental minimal change disease (MCD) rat model, induced by adriamycin (ADR) and resulted in definite podocyte injury, to identify the dynamic changes in Angptl4 expression. We also investigated the direct effects of tacrolimus on Angptl4 and podocyte repair. We determined that the glomerular Angptl4 expression was rapidly upregulated and reached a peak earlier than desmin, an injured podocyte marker, in the ADR rats. Furthermore, this upregulation occurred prior to heavy proteinuria and was accompanied by increased urinary Angptl4. We observed that the Angptl4 upregulation occurred only when podocyte was mainly damaged since we didn't observe little Angptl4 upregulation in MsPGN patients. In addition, we observed the glomerular Angptl4 mainly located in injured podocytes rather than normal podocytes. Moreover, we found that tacrolimus treatment significantly promoted podocyte repair and reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4 expression at an earlier stage with a significant serum Angptl4 upregulation. And similar results were confirmed in MCD patients. In conclusion, this study represents the first investigation to demonstrate that Angptl4 can predict podocyte injury at earlier stages in MCD and the identification of earlier podocyte injury biomarkers could facilitate the prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients with podocytopathy, as well as determination of the prognosis and treatment efficacy in these diseases.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  4. Radiometric dating of the Earlier Stone Age sequence in excavation I at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, Michael; Ron, Hagai; Matmon, Ari; Porat, Naomi; Goldberg, Paul; Yates, Royden; Avery, Margaret; Sumner, Alexandra; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    2008-07-01

    We present here the results of 44 paleomagnetic measurements, and single cosmogenic burial and optically stimulated luminescence ages for the Earlier Stone Age deposits from Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape, South Africa. The resulting paleomagnetic sequence: N>R>N>R>N constrains the Earlier Stone Age strata in this part of the site to between approximately 0.78-1.96 Ma. A single cosmogenic date of approximately 2.0 Ma from the base of the section offers some corroboration for the paleomagnetic sequence. Preliminary results indicate that the small lithic assemblage from the basal stratum may contain an Oldowan facies. This is overlain by several strata containing Acheulean industries. The preliminary radiometric dates reported here place the onset of the Acheulean at this site to approximately 1.6 Ma, which is roughly contemporaneous with that of East Africa.

  5. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Treweek, S.; Francis, JJ; Bonetti, D; Barnett, K; Eccles, MP; Hudson, J.; Jones, C.; Pitts, NB; Ricketts, IW; Sullivan, F; Weal, M; MacLennan, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic p...

  6. 547 An Earlier, More Severe Presentation of G6pc3 Deficiency in a Male Infant From Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe congenital neutropenia is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by severe neutropenia present from birth. We present a case of G6PC3 deficiency presenting at an earlier age, with a more severe clinical picture than previously reported. Case report A 3-month-old boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents was delivered by C-section at 35 weeks gestation. He was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit for prematurity and poor respiratory effort requiring mechanical ventilat...

  7. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  8. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Francis, Jill J; Bonetti, Debbie; Barnett, Karen; Eccles, Martin P; Hudson, Jemma; Jones, Claire; Pitts, Nigel B; Ricketts, Ian W; Sullivan, Frank; Weal, Mark; MacLennan, Graeme

    2016-12-01

    Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic prescriptions in the management of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to complete an online questionnaire and eight clinical scenarios where an antibiotic might be considered. One hundred twenty-nine GPs completed the questionnaire. GPs receiving the persuasive communication did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.70 more scenarios (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-1.24) than those in the control arm. For the action plan, GPs did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.63 (95% CI = 0.11-1.15) more scenarios than those in the control arm. Unlike the earlier IME, behavioral intention was unaffected by the interventions; this may be due to a smaller sample size than intended. A Web-based IME largely replicated the findings of an earlier paper-based study, providing some grounds for confidence in the IME methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Northern ragweed ecotypes flower earlier and longer in response to elevated CO2: what are you sneezing at?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Kristina A; Albertine, Jennifer M; Hancock, Laura M S; Seidler, Tristram G; Rogers, Christine A

    2016-10-01

    Significant changes in plant phenology and flower production are predicted over the next century, but we know relatively little about geographic patterns of this response in many species, even those that potentially impact human wellbeing. We tested for variation in flowering responses of the allergenic plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). We grew plants originating from three latitudes in the Northeastern USA at experimental levels of CO2 (400, 600, and 800 µL L(-1)). We hypothesized that northern ecotypes adapted to shorter growing seasons would flower earlier than their southern counterparts, and thus disproportionately allocate carbon gains from CO2 to reproduction. As predicted, latitude of origin and carbon dioxide level significantly influenced the timing and magnitude of flowering. Reproductive onset occurred earlier with increasing latitude, with concurrent increases in the number of flowers produced. Elevated carbon dioxide resulted in earlier reproductive onset in all ecotypes, which was significantly more pronounced in the northern populations. We interpret our findings as evidence for ecotypic variation in ragweed flowering time, as well in responses to CO2. Thus, the ecological and human health implications of common ragweed's response to global change are likely to depend on latitude. We conclude that increased flower production, duration, and possibly pollen output, can be expected in Northeastern United States with rising levels of CO2. The effects are likely, however, to be most significant in northern parts of the region.

  10. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 85Sr to include the 2009 result of the POLATOM (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dziel, T.; Listkowska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1975, ten laboratories have submitted 27 samples of known activity of 85Sr to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.2 MBq and 19 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the primary standardization result for the POLATOM, Poland. There are now four results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Evaluation of ceftobiprole activity against a variety of gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (β-lactamase positive and β-lactamase negative), and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in a rabbit meningitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, A; Cottagnoud, M; Acosta, F; Egerman, U; Läuffer, J; Cottagnoud, P

    2012-02-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril, a new cephalosporin, is highly active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. In this study, we tested ceftobiprole against various Gram-negative pathogens in a rabbit meningitis model and determined its penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal model, ceftobiprole produced an antibacterial activity similar to that of cefepime against an Escherichia coli strain, a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, and a β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus influenzae strain. Against a β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strain, ceftobiprole was significantly superior. The penetration of ceftobiprole through inflamed meninges reached about 16% of serum levels compared to about 2% of serum levels through uninflamed meninges.

  12. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students.

  13. Earlier timbre processing of instrumental tones compared to equally complex spectrally rotated sounds as revealed by the mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Corinna A; Lachmann, Thomas; Berti, Stefan

    2014-10-03

    Harmonically rich sounds have been shown to be processed more efficiently by the human brain compared to single sinusoidal tones. To control for stimulus complexity as a potentially confounding factor, tones and equally complex spectrally rotated sounds, have been used in the present study to investigate the role of the overtone series in sensory auditory processing in non-musicians. Timbre differences in instrumental tones with equal pitch elicited a MMN which was earlier compared to that elicited by the spectrally rotated sounds, indicating that harmonically rich tones are processed faster compared to non-musical sounds without an overtone series, even when pitch is not the relevant information.

  14. Transcriptional analysis of micronutrient zinc-associated response for enhanced carbohydrate utilization and earlier solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Wan, Hui-Hui; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-11-20

    The micronutrient zinc plays vital roles in ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In order to elucidate the zinc-associated response for enhanced glucose utilization and earlier solventogenesis, transcriptional analysis was performed on cells grown in glucose medium at the exponential growth phase of 16 h without/with supplementary zinc. Correspondingly, the gene glcG (CAC0570) encoding a glucose-specific PTS was significantly upregulated accompanied with the other two genes CAC1353 and CAC1354 for glucose transport in the presence of zinc. Additionally, genes involved in the metabolisms of six other carbohydrates (maltose, cellobiose, fructose, mannose, xylose and arabinose) were differentially expressed, indicating that the regulatory effect of micronutrient zinc is carbohydrate-specific with respects to the improved/inhibited carbohydrate utilization. More importantly, multiple genes responsible for glycolysis (glcK and pykA), acidogenesis (thlA, crt, etfA, etfB and bcd) and solventogenesis (ctfB and bdhA) of C. acetobutylicum prominently responded to the supplementary zinc at differential expression levels. Comparative analysis of intracellular metabolites revealed that the branch node intermediates such as acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, butyl-CoA, and reducing power NADH remained relatively lower whereas more ATP was generated due to enhanced glycolysis pathway and earlier initiation of solventogenesis, suggesting that the micronutrient zinc-associated response for the selected intracellular metabolisms is significantly pleiotropic.

  15. Placental Isoferritin Action in Pathogenesis of Pre-eclampsia and/or Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Its Earlier Predictive Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 王泽华; 熊桂荣

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of placental isoferritin (PLF) in pathogenesis of preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and its earlier predictive value, a prospective double-blinded study was performed. In 120 initial normal pregnant women at earlier third trimester (from 24 to 34 weeks), plasma placental isoferritin and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrite/nitrate) (NO2-/NO3-) were examined by using ELISA and Criess assay respectively. The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. The receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and predictive values of PLF predicting the outcome of pregnancy with IUGR, pre-eclampsia were analyzed. Results showed that in 120 initial normal pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 15 pregnant women (IUGR group) and pre-eclampsia in 19 (pre-eclampsia group), and the remaining 86 had normal pregnancy (normal group). The levels of plasma placental isoferritin were significantly decreased in IUGR group (260. 01± 58. 95) μg/ml and pre-eclampsia group (285.31± 53.73) μg/ml as compared with those in normal group (775.62± 89.32) μg/ml at earlier third trimester (both P<0. 01). The levels of plasma NO were significantly increased in IUGR group (61.57±46.22) μmol/L and pre-eclampsia group (58. 37± 30. 52) μmol/L as compared with those in the normal group (35. 29±24.46) μmol/L (both P<0. 01). There was no significant difference in plasma placental isoferritin and NO levels between IUGR group and pre-eclampsic group (both P> 0. 05). The plasma placental isoferritin was negatively correlated with NO levels (r= 0. 329,P<0. 01). The areas under ROC of PLF predicting IUGR and pre-eclampsia were 0. 977 and 0. 905 respectively. At the cut point of 400 μg/ml PLF level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index of PLF levels predicting the outcome of pregnancy with pre-eclampsia were 100 %, 85.15 %, 55.88 %, 100 % and 0

  16. Line scanning fMRI reveals earlier onset of optogenetically evoked BOLD response in rat somatosensory cortex as compared to sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Franziska; Schmid, Florian; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Faber, Cornelius

    2016-12-21

    The combination of optogenetic control and fMRI readout in the brain is increasingly used to assess neuronal networks and underlying signal processing. However, how exactly optogenetic activation or inhibition reproduces normal physiological input has not been fully unraveled. To assess details of temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response, temporal resolution in rodent fMRI is often not sufficient. Recent advances in human fMRI using faster acquisition schemes cannot be easily translated to small animals due to smaller dimensions, fast physiological motion, and higher sensitivity to artefacts. Here, we applied a one dimensional line scanning acquisition with 50ms temporal resolution in rat somatosensory cortex. We observed that optogenetic activation reproduces the hemodynamic response upon sensory stimulation, but shows a 160 to 340ms earlier onset of the response. This difference is explained by direct activation of all opsin-expressing and illuminated cortical layers, while hemodynamic response to sensory stimulation is delayed during intracortical transmission between cortical layers. Our results confirm that optogenetic activation is a valid model for physiological neuronal input, and that differences in temporal behavior of only a few hundred milliseconds can be resolved in rodent fMRI.

  17. KEY COMPARISON Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide 99mTc to include new results for the LNE-LNHB and the NPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G.; Moune, M.; Johansson, L.; Keightley, J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008 respectively, the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, submitted ampoules with between 10 MBq and 130 MBq activity of 99mTc to the International Reference System (SIR), to update their results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison. Together with the four other national metrology institutes (NMI) that are participants, thirteen samples have been submitted since 1983. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest primary results of the PTB and the LNE-LNHB as this makes the evaluation more robust. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR are given in the form of a matrix for all six NMIs. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. Earlier Age of Onset of Chronic Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy or Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, Monique W M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bots, Michiel L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2015-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the risk and age of onset of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, independent of hypertension and T2D. Between 1993 and 1997, 22 265 ever-pregnant women were included from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-NL study, aged 20 to 70 years at baseline. Details on complications of pregnancy and known hypertension were obtained by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured at enrollment. Participants were followed for the occurrence of CVD events. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA, multivariable logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard (with HDP and GDM as time-dependent variables for T2D and CVD) models. At enrollment, women with a HDP reported diagnosis of hypertension 7.7 years earlier (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.5) and women with GDM reported diagnosis of T2D 7.7 years earlier (95% CI 5.8-9.6) than women without pregnancy complications. After adjustment for potential confounders, HDP was associated with presence of hypertension at enrollment (odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.98-2.28) and onset of CVD later in life (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.32). After including the intermediates hypertension and T2D in the model, the risk of CVD later in life decreased (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.20). GDM was associated with an increased risk of developing T2D later in life (hazard ratio 3.68, 95% CI 2.77-4.90), but not with risk of CVD. HDP and GDM have a substantial impact on the risk of CVD and are potentially important indicators for preventive cardiovascular risk management. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. What is the impact of obtaining medical clearance to participate in a randomised controlled trial examining a physical activity intervention on the socio-demographic and risk factor profiles of included participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Rebar, Amanda L; Maeder, Anthony J; Tague, Rhys; Savage, Trevor N; van Itallie, Anetta; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-12-07

    Requiring individuals to obtain medical clearance to exercise prior to participation in physical activity interventions is common. The impact this has on the socio-demographic characteristic profiles of participants who end up participating in the intervention is not clear. As part of the multi-component eligibility screening for inclusion in a three-arm randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of a web-based physical activity intervention, individuals interested in participating were required to complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The PAR-Q identified individuals as having lower or higher risk. Higher-risk individuals were required to obtain medical exercise clearance prior to enrolment. Comparisons of the socio-demographic characteristics of the lower- and higher-risk individuals were performed using t tests and chi-square tests (p = 0.05). A total of 1244 individuals expressed interest in participating, and 432 were enrolled without needing to undergo further screening. Of the 251 individuals required to obtain medical clearance, 148 received clearance, 15 did not receive clearance and 88 did not return any form of clearance. A total of 105 individuals were enrolled after obtaining clearance, and the most frequent reason for being required to seek clearance was for using blood pressure/heart condition medication. Higher-risk individuals were significantly older, had a higher body mass index and engaged in more sedentary behaviour than lower-risk individuals. Use of more inclusive participant screening protocols that maintain high levels of participant safety are encouraged. Allowing individuals to obtain medical clearance to participate can result in including a more diverse population likely to benefit most from participation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000157976 ). Registered on 9 February 2011.

  20. Toward the Standard Population Synthesis Model of the X-Ray Background: Evolution of X-Ray Luminosity and Absorption Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei Including Compton-Thick Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hasinger, Guenther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    We present the most up-to-date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5--2 keV) and/or hard ($>2$ keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count-rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broad band spectra of AGNs including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity and redshift dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at $z \\sim 1-3$ is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity dependent density evolution model gives much better description...

  1. Combining in Vitro Diagnostics with in Vivo Imaging for Earlier Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeseke, Paul F; Chen, Ru; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Brentnall, Teresa A; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and is associated with a dismal prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an advanced stage. Overall survival is significantly improved if PDAC is detected at an early stage prior to the onset of symptoms. At present, there is no suitable screening strategy for the general population. Available diagnostic serum markers are not sensitive or specific enough, and clinically available imaging modalities are inadequate for visualizing early-stage lesions. In this article, the role of currently available blood biomarkers and imaging tests for the early detection of PDAC will be reviewed. Also, the emerging biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents being developed to improve the specificity of current imaging modalities for PDAC will be discussed. A strategy incorporating blood biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents could lead to improved screening and earlier detection of PDAC in the future. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  2. Warmer waters in the Northern Territory--herald an earlier onset to the annual Chironex fleckeri Stinger season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacups, Susan P

    2010-08-01

    The discovery that Chironex fleckeri occurs annually in northern Australia occurred long ago, possibly before written records were available by local indigenous people, however, to date the precision of this yearly phenomenon is still not fully understood. Sea surface temperature (SST) appears to be a determining factor signaling the "arrival" of C. fleckeri each year. Anthropogenic climate change modeling predicts global rises in SST. Rises in SST may result in an earlier "arrival" of C. fleckeri during the dry season, possibly necessitating extension of the official Northern Territory stinger season to commence in September (currently October through to June). This short report presents data to support this hypothesis, facilitating policy makers with an environmental cue upon which changes to current stinger season can be based--prior to painful and potentially life-threatening presentations.

  3. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Latham

    Full Text Available Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years. Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented. IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  4. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Westermann, Christine; Kirk, Ian J; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-01-01

    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  5. The View of Teachers of First Graders Regarding Scheduling the Age of Starting School to an Earlier Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Anilan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present the reflections of scheduling the age of starting school to an earlier time related to the experiences inside and outside the classroom, students, problems and solutions experienced in teaching-learning process according to the view of teachers of first graders. The study is a collective case study. Work group was determined according to measurement sampling among purposive sampling methods in qualitative research approaches. 14 primary school teachers working at public primary schools in spring term in 2012-2013 educational term around Turkey attended the research. The data of the study were collected via interview and observation forms developed by the researchers. Descriptive analysis technique was used for the analysis of the data. When analyzing the data, Elo and Kyngas’s (2007 preparation, organization and reporting phases were taken into consideration. To validate the study, the findings were presented detachedly and quotations were taken directly from attendants’ statements. In order to provide the reliability of the research, we followed the way Stemler (2001 called repeatability or single coder reliability. In this research, the reliability was provided by considering the percentage of both single coder and two coders. In the research, we gained such findings that teachers disapprove of scheduling the age of starting school to an earlier time; they think that this affect teaching-learning process negatively; students 69-month-old or younger cannot discharge self-care skills because of their physical inability; and this hampers conduction of Phoneme Based Sentence Method.

  6. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dik Wai Luk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH has been associated with earlier diagnosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD and time to the diagnosis of SCID.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP, and AD were selected for study.ResultsA total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57. A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27 and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine infection (n = 19 were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC was 1.05 × 109/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 109/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002 and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008, but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494. Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008 and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003. BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.ConclusionFH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of

  7. Application of fibrin sealant at the urethrovesical anastomosis in robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: does it enable earlier Foley catheter and Jackson-Pratt drain removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Sarah C; Starnes, Danielle N; Steers, William D

    2008-01-01

    Leakage at the urethrovesical anastomosis in the post-operative period can result in morbidity including ileus. We examined the effectiveness of using a fibrin sealant at the anastomosis to limit urine leakage thereby facilitating earlier Jackson-Pratt drain and Foley catheter removal following robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALRP). Forty consecutive patients underwent RALRP by one surgeon at our institution. The first 20 patients underwent standard operation and served as the control group. The subsequent 20 patients underwent the same operation with addition of fibrin sealant following a running absorbable sutured urethrovesical anastomosis. The two groups were compared for age (60.5 vs. 58.2 years), pre-operative PSA (5.23 vs. 4.71), Gleason score (6.3 vs. 6.5), stage at resection, and prostate size at resection (51.7 vs. 47.7 g). Wilcoxon rank sum test determined no statistically significant differences in the groups. Patients in the fibrin sealant group had 1.3 versus 2.1 days with a Jackson-Pratt drain, 9.75 versus 12.1 days with a catheter, and an average of 38.6 versus 63.2 cc of drainage per shift. Catheters were removed when a cystogram demonstrated no extravasation of contrast. Two patients in the control group and no patients in the fibrin sealant group had large-volume leakage and ileus post-operatively. In patients undergoing RALRP, application of fibrin sealant at the urethrovesical anastomosis appears to facilitate sealing, thereby allowing earlier removal of the JP drain, by 0.8 days, and the Foley catheter, by 2.35 days, than in controls. No patients in the fibrin sealant group suffered post-operative ileus. This adjunct may be especially useful early in the learning process to reduce morbidity.

  8. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akiyama, Masayuki [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Miyaji, Takamitsu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Watson, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  9. Using multiple regression, Bayesian networks and artificial neural networks for prediction of total egg production in European quails based on earlier expressed phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Vivian P S; Silva, Martinho A; Valente, Bruno D; Rosa, Guilherme J M

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of total egg production (TEP) potential in poultry is an important task to aid optimized management decisions in commercial enterprises. The objective of the present study was to compare different modeling approaches for prediction of TEP in meat type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) using phenotypes such as weight, weight gain, egg production and egg quality measurements. Phenotypic data on 30 traits from two lines (L1, n=180; and L2, n=205) of quail were modeled to predict TEP. Prediction models included multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN). Moreover, Bayesian network (BN) and a stepwise approach were used as variable selection methods. BN results showed that TEP is independent from other earlier expressed traits when conditioned on egg production from 35 to 80 days of age (EP1). In addition, the prediction accuracy was much lower when EP1 was not included in the model. The best predictive model was ANN, after feature selection, showing prediction correlations of r=0.792 and r=0.714 for L1 and L2, respectively. In conclusion, machine learning methods may be useful, but reasonable prediction accuracies are obtained only when partial egg production measurements are included in the model.

  10. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Brimson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L. Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity.

  11. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lammi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 secretion.

  12. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses of Deceased Separated Employees A...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses...

  13. Learning for interprofessional and inter-agency practice in the new social work curriculum: evidence from an earlier research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, C; Bell, L

    2001-05-01

    The UK Government's consultation document, A Quality Strategy for Social Care (2000) seeks consistency and excellence in care services and enhanced service partnerships. It states that this requires improved training for social workers and raises the prospect of a new social work curriculum in which learning for interprofessional and inter-agency practice will be strengthened. The document stresses the importance of evidence in decision-making in social care and this principle applies equally to training but there are few recent research findings on interprofessional and inter-agency learning in the social work curriculum. There are, however, findings from an earlier study which contributed to the mid-1990s review of the Diploma in Social Work but which have not previously been published in the mainstream media. These findings are reported and show: the kinds of organisations and professions with whom social work practitioners were in close contact in their jobs; the importance attached by social workers to defined skills in working with them; the perceived usefulness of training in developing relevant knowledge and skills; perceptions of shared training; and marked differences of learning experience reported by practitioners who had taken different training courses. Each set of findings is described and used as the basis of questions for the new social work curriculum.

  14. Psychological health in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilegård, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyberg, Tommy; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term psychological distress in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier, as compared with a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population. During 2009, we conducted a nationwide follow-up study in Sweden by using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. Siblings who had lost a brother or sister to cancer between the years 2000 and 2007 and also a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population were invited to participate. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure psychological distress, and to test for differences in the ordinal outcome responses between the groups, we used Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Among the bereaved siblings, 174/240 (73%) participated and 219/293 (75%) among the non-bereaved. Self-assessed low self-esteem (p = 0.002), difficulties falling asleep (p = 0.005), and low level of personal maturity (p = 0.007) at follow-up were more prevalent among bereaved siblings. However, anxiety (p = 0.298) and depression (p = 0.946), according to HADS, were similar. Bereaved siblings are at increased risk of low self-esteem, low level of personal maturity and difficulties falling asleep as compared with non-bereaved peers. Yet, the bereaved were not more likely to report anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-08-07

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause.

  16. Cultivated walnut trees showed earlier but not final advantage over its wild relatives in competing for seed dispersers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Chu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about seeding regeneration of cultivated trees compared to wild relatives in areas where seed dispersers are shared. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J. mandshurica under both enclosure and field conditions to assess differences in competing for seed dispersers of the two co-occurring tree species of the same genus. We found that rodents preferred to harvest, eat and scatter-hoard seeds of J. regia as compared to those of J. mandshurica. Seeds of J. regia were removed and scatter-hoarded faster than those of J. mandshurica. Caches of J. regia were more likely to be rediscovered by rodents than those of J. mandshurica. These results suggest that J. regia showed earlier dispersal fitness but not the ultimate dispersal fitness over J. mandshurica in seeding regeneration under rodent mediation, implying that J. regia has little effect on seeding regeneration of J. mandshurica in the field. The effects of seed traits on seed dispersal fitness may vary at different dispersal stages under animal mediation.

  17. Can prion disease suspicion be supported earlier? Clinical, radiological and laboratory findings in a series of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Medina, Zaira; Balaguer, Rainier Rodriguez; Calleja, Jesus Higuera

    2011-01-01

    The subacute spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases characterized by acute and rapid neurodegeneration that lead to the death of the patient within months to a few years. The epidemiology of CJD is complicated and the frequency in Mexico is unknown. We aim to describe the cases of prion disease in Mexico. Consecutive patients who met the diagnostic criteria by the WHO were enrolled. We describe 26 patients with clinical manifestations, imaging and laboratory studies compatible with prion disease. The mean age at onset was 52 years old. The main clinical manifestations were cognitive alterations (69%) followed by extrapyramidal movements (50%), abnormal cerebellar function (46%), behavioral alterations (46%), myoclonus (46%), and mood depression (23%), among other features. Half of the patients progressed rapidly to a state of akinetic mutism (53%). Only 2 (7.6%) patients had a family history of a similar disease. Time interval between onset and diagnosis varied between 71 days to 24 months, with a median of 6 months. The classical bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities were present in the very early stage of the disease. Protein 14-3-3 immuneassay in the CSF was positive in all measured cases. Bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities was the most important early finding, while protein 14-3-3 was a late finding and the results were usually obtained after the patient was discharged. Around 1.5 cases of CJD cases per year are reported in our country. When suspected, MRI can support the diagnosis earlier than other studies.

  18. Somatic expansion of the Huntington's disease CAG repeat in the brain is associated with an earlier age of disease onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Meera; Hendricks, Audrey E; Gillis, Tammy; Massood, Tiffany; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Myers, Richard H; Wheeler, Vanessa C

    2009-08-15

    The age of onset of Huntington's disease (HD) is determined primarily by the length of the HD CAG repeat mutation, but is also influenced by other modifying factors. Delineating these modifiers is a critical step towards developing validated therapeutic targets in HD patients. The HD CAG repeat is somatically unstable, undergoing progressive length increases over time, particularly in brain regions that are the targets of neurodegeneration. Here, we have explored the hypothesis that somatic instability of the HD CAG repeat is itself a modifier of disease. Using small-pool PCR, we quantified somatic instability in the cortex region of the brain from a cohort of HD individuals exhibiting phenotypic extremes of young and old disease onset as predicted by the length of their constitutive HD CAG repeat lengths. After accounting for constitutive repeat length, somatic instability was found to be a significant predictor of onset age, with larger repeat length gains associated with earlier disease onset. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic HD CAG repeat length expansions in target tissues contribute to the HD pathogenic process, and support pursuing factors that modify somatic instability as viable therapeutic targets.

  19. Earlier application of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support rescues patients from severe cardiopulmonary failure using the APACHE III scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suk-Won; Yang, Hong-Suk; Lee, Sak; Youn, Young-Nam; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2009-12-01

    Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) is a widely accepted treatment for severe cardiopulmonary failure. This system, which uses a percutaneous approach and autopriming devices, can be rapidly applied in emergency situations. We sought to identify the risk factors that could help predict in-hospital mortality, and to assess its outcomes in survivors. During a 2-yr period, 50 patients underwent PCPS for the treatment of severe cardiopulmonary failure, and of those, 22 (44%) were classified as survivors and 28 (56%) as non-survivors. We compared the 2 groups for risk factors of in-hospital mortality and to establish proper PCPS timing. Twenty patients underwent PCPS for acute myocardial infarction, 20 for severe cardiopulmonary failure after cardiac surgery, 7 for acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 3 for acute myocarditis. Multivariate analysis showed that an acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score >or=50 prior to PCPS was the only significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (P=0.001). Overall 18-month survival was 42.2%. Cox analysis showed patients with APACHE III scores >or=50 had a poor prognosis (P=0.001). Earlier application of PCPS, and other preemptive strategies designed to optimize high-risk patients, may improve patient outcomes. Identifying patients with high APACHE scores at the beginning of PCPS may predict in-hospital mortality. Survivors, particularly those with higher APACHE scores, may require more frequent follow-up to improve overall survival.

  20. Intravenous paracetamol infusion: Superior pain management and earlier discharge from hospital in patients undergoing palliative head-neck cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F and (P Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h. Results and Statistical analysis: The mean VAS score in 1 st , 2 nd postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU and hospital stay which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital.

  1. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  2. Revised activation estimates for silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, E.T.; Mann, F.M.

    1996-10-01

    Recent progress in nuclear data development for fusion energy systems includes a reevaluation of neutron activation cross sections for silicon and aluminum. Activation calculations using the newly compiled Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library result in calculated levels of {sup 26}Al in irradiated silicon that are about an order of magnitude lower than the earlier calculated values. Thus, according to the latest internationally accepted nuclear data, SiC is much more attractive as a low activation material, even in first wall applications.

  3. The Predictive Value of Plasma Fibronectin Concentration on Fetal Growth Retardation at Earlier Stage of the Third Trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zehua; XIONG; Guirong; ZHU; Ying

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive value of maternal plasma fibronectin (FN) concentration at 24-34 weeks on fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a prospective double-blinded study was performed. The maternal plasma FN concentrations were measured by using a rate nephelometric procedure in the 130 initial normal nulliparous pregnant woman at 24-34 gestational weeks.The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. IUGR was defined as that the birth weight was less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. The receiver operating characteristic curves and predictive values of FN predicting on outcome of pregnancy with IUGR were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) In a cohort of 130 initially normal nulliparous pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 14 cases during the follow-up; (2) The plasma FN levels in the women with IUGR (467.58± 104.43 mg/L) were significantly higher than in the normal control group (299. 44±105.55 mg/L, P<0. 01). However, there was no significant difference in the mean maternal age,gravidity, sampling gestational ages, delivering gestational ages between the two groups (P>0. 05);(3) The areas under ROC curve for predicting the outcome of pregnancy in IUGR was 0. 893; (4)At the cut point of 475 mg/L FN level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index for predicting the outcomes of pregnancy in IUGR were 57. 14 %,95. 69 %, 61.54 %, 94.87 %, 0. 5455 respectively. It was concluded that the maternal plasma FN might be used as an earlier predictor for screening of IUGR.

  4. The Role of Changes in the Annual Cycle in Earlier Onset of Climatic Spring in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Cheng; FU Congbin; Zhaohua WU; YAN Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    Climatic changes in the onset of spring in northern China associated with changes in the annual cycle and with a recent warming trend were quantified using a recently developed adaptive data analysis tool,the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. The study was based on a homogenized daily surface air temperature (SAT) dataset for the period 1955-2003. The annual cycle here is referred to as a refined modulated annual cycle (MAC). The results show that spring at Beijing has arrived significantly earlier by about 2.98 d (10 yr)-1, of which about 1.85 d (10 yr)-1 is due to changes in the annual cycle and 1.13 d (10 yr)-1 due to the long-term warming trend. Variations in the MAC component explain about 92.5% of the total variance in the Beijing daily SAT series and could cause as much as a 20-day shift in the onset of spring from one year to another. The onset of spring has been advancing all over northern China, but more significant in the east than in the west part of the region. These differences are somehow unexplainable by the zonal pattern of the warming trend over the whole region, but can be explained by opposite changes in the spring phase of the MAC, i.e. advancing in the east while delaying in the west. In the east of northern China, the change in the spring phase of MAC explains 40%-60% of the spring onset trend and is attributable to a weakening Asian winter monsoon. The average sea level pressure in Siberia (55°-80°N,50°-110°E), an index of the strength of the winter monsoon, could serve as a potential short-term predictor for the onset of spring in the east of northern China.

  5. Indicator condition based HIV testing: Missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel, Marco; Belza, María José; Cabeza-de-Vaca, Cristina; Arranz, Beatriz; Guerras, Juan Miguel; Garcia-Soltero, Jennifer; Hoyos, Juan

    2017-10-07

    Contact with the healthcare system by a sample of seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) prior to their HIV diagnosis are analysed, and missed opportunities (MO) for an earlier HIV diagnosis are identified. Between 2012-2013, an online survey was conducted among HIV-positive MSM, mainly recruited from gay websites. Those who were diagnosed with HIV between 2010-2013 were analysed. MO were defined as episodes prior to the HIV diagnosis in which the healthcare system was contacted due to an indicator condition of HIV infection and the test was not suggested. The proportion of missed opportunities were compared according to the type of indicator condition, the department consulted and the healthcare professional's knowledge that the patient was MSM. Overall, 639 participants (66% of 966) reported 1,145 episodes with some indicator condition, the majority of these being identified in primary care (n=527; 46%). The highest percentage of MOs is also observed in primary care (63%). Although the indicator condition with the highest number of MOs was STIs (n=124), the highest percentage of MOs was observed in consultations due to diarrhoea with no known cause (69.8%). The percentage of MOs when the doctor knew that the patient was MSM was 40 vs. 70% when the doctor did not know. The majority of HIV-positive MSM analysed in this study went to healthcare services for HIV-infection indicator conditions prior to their HIV diagnosis. Primary care was the most-frequently-visited department and is also where the most opportunities were missed to perform an HIV test, even when it was known that the patient was a MSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. In Vitro Activity of the Siderophore Cephalosporin, Cefiderocol, against a Recent Collection of Clinically Relevant Gram-Negative Bacilli from North America and Europe, Including Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Isolates (SIDERO-WT-2014 Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Meredith A; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori; Echols, Roger; Karlowsky, James A; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-09-01

    Cefiderocol (formerly S-649266) is an investigational siderophore cephalosporin. Iron-depleted cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (ID-CAMHB) was prepared according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol and used to perform broth microdilution testing of cefiderocol against a 2014-2015 collection of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli from North America (n = 4,239) and Europe (n = 4,966). The concentrations of cefiderocol inhibiting 90% of isolates tested (MIC90s) were 0.5 μg/ml (North America; n = 3,007) and 1 μg/ml (Europe; n = 3,080) for all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae; 1 μg/ml (North America; n = 30) and 4 μg/ml (Europe; n = 139) for meropenem-nonsusceptible (MIC ≥ 2 μg/ml) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae; 0.5 μg/ml for both North American (n = 765) and European (n = 765) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 0.5 μg/ml (North America; n = 151) and 1 μg/ml (Europe; n = 202) for meropenem-nonsusceptible (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml) isolates of P. aeruginosa; 1 μg/ml for both North American (n = 309) and European (n = 839) isolates of all Acinetobacter baumannii strains as well as for both North American (n = 173) and European (n = 595) isolates of meropenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii; and 0.5μg/ml (North America; n = 152) and 0.25 μg/ml (Europe; n = 276) for isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MICs of cefiderocol were ≤4 μg/ml for 99.9% (6,078/6,087) of all Enterobacteriaceae, 97.0% (164/169) of meropenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae, 99.9% (1,529/1,530) of all P. aeruginosa isolates, 100% (353/353) of meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa isolates, 97.6% (1,120/1,148) of all A. baumannii isolates, 96.9% (744/768) of meropenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii isolates, 100% of isolates of S. maltophilia (428/428) and 93.8% of isolates of Burkholderia cepecia (11/12). We conclude that cefiderocol demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a recent collection of clinical isolates of commonly encountered Gram

  7. F-wave for evaluating earlier diabetic peripheral neuropathy%F波对糖尿病周围神经病的早期评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祖能; 李竟; 董红娟; 周桂兰; 胡胜; 王真真

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The minimal latency and conduction velocity of F-wave have been widely used for the detection of varied neurological disorders,whereas the significance and the diagnostic value for the other parameters of F wave are seldom reported. How sensitive are these parameters in the earlier evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) ?OBJECTIVE: To investigate the evaluating value of F-wave parameters for the earlier DPN, providing references for earlier clinical rehabilitative intervention.DESIGN: Case-control study with type 2 diabetic patients and health people as subjects.SETTING: The wards and outpatients in the Departments of Neurology and Endocrinology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University.PARTICIPANTS: Between January 1999 and December 2000, there were totally 106 patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus(DM) at the wards and outpatients in the department of neurology and endocrinology in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 64 males and 42 females, with the average age of (55 ± 13) years and the average DM course of (10.2 ± 4. 8)years. Meanwhile, 75 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the control group,including 45 males and 30 females, with the mean age of(54 ± 12) years.Two groups were matched in age and leg length( P > 0. 05).INTERVENTIONS: Using Nicolet Viking-Ⅳ, F wave and M-wave parameters of tibial nerve stimulation were analyzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The minimum latency (Fmin), duration (Fdur), amplitude(Famp) and area(Farca) of F wave; and the amplitude (Mamp)and aera(Marea) of M-wave.neuropathy( n = 30), there were 8 cases(the abnormal rate being 27% ) with increased Fdur, 4(13% ) with prolonged Fmin and 2(7% ) with increased F/Mamp and F/Marea increased significantly in the patients with DPN( n = 76).mality rate of Fdur was significantly higher (96% vs 21%, P <0.01), the abnormality rate of Fmin was significantly lower(51% vs 76%, P < 0.05 ) and there were no significant difference of other parameters( P > 0.05) in

  8. Hyperphosphorylation of Tau at Ser396 occurs in the much earlier stage than appearance of learning and memory disorders in 5XFAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the relation of age-dependent spatial learning/memory impairment and Tau phosphorylation in 5XFAD mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. In the water maze test, the acquisition and retention latencies for 5XFAD mice at 6 months, but not 2 months, of age was significantly longer than those for wild-type mice at the same months of age, without difference in the swim speed and visual acuity between two groups. The level of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation at Ser9 in the hippocampus for the 5XFAD mice at >4 months of age was significantly lesser than that for wild-type mice at the same months of age, while a robust increase in the Tyr216 phosphorylation of GSK-3β was found both in wild-type and 5XFAD mice at 6 months of age, without no significant difference in the extent between two groups. There was no significant difference in the Tau phosphorylation at Ser202/Thr205 in the hippocampus between two groups, but Ser396 phosphorylation for 5XFAD mice was significantly higher than that for wild-type mice at ages ranging from 2 to 6 months. The results of the present study indicate that Tau hyperphosphorylation in the brain for 5XFAD mice precedes high activation of GSK-3β and occurs in the much earlier stage than appearance of learning and memory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in maize inbred lines involves an earlier and enhanced expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Valentina; Marocco, Adriano; Malachova, Alexandra; Lanubile, Alessandra

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot in maize and contaminates the kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. It is known that plant lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins regulate defence against pathogens and that the host-pathogen lipid cross-talk influences the pathogenesis. The expression profiles of fifteen genes of the LOX pathway were studied in kernels of resistant and susceptible maize lines, grown in field condition, at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) with F. verticillioides. Plant defence responses were correlated with the pathogen growth, the expression profiles of fungal FUM genes for fumonisin biosynthesis and fumonisin content in the kernels. The resistant genotype limited fungal growth and fumonisin accumulation between 7 and 14 dpi. Pathogen growth became exponential in the susceptible line after 7 dpi, in correspondence with massive transcription of FUM genes and fumonisins augmented exponentially at 14 dpi. LOX pathway genes resulted strongly induced after pathogen inoculation in the resistant line at 3 and 7 dpi, whilst in the susceptible line the induction was reduced or delayed at 14 dpi. In addition, all genes resulted overexpressed before infection in kernels of the resistant genotype already at 3 dpi. The results suggest that resistance in maize may depend on an earlier activation of LOX genes and genes for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-134 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 134Cs to include the 2008 results of the BEV (Austria), the 2009 result of the IRA (Switzerland) and the 2010 results of the NMISA (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Maringer, F. J.; Caffari, Y.; van Wyngaardt, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, three national metrology institutes have submitted ampoules for the measurement of 134Cs in the International Reference System (SIR). The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.17 MBq and 2.3 MBq. The primary standardization result for the IRA, Switzerland, replaces their earlier result of 1978 but no change is proposed for the key comparison reference value at the present time. There are now 14 results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-134 comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Early life stress disrupts social behavior and prefrontal cortex parvalbumin interneurons at an earlier time-point in females than in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Potter, David N; Chartoff, Elena H; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2014-04-30

    Early life stress exposure (ELS) yields risk for psychiatric disorders that might occur though a population-specific mechanism that impacts prefrontal cortical development. Sex differences in ELS effects are largely unknown and are also essential to understand social and cognitive development. ELS can cause dysfunction within parvalbumin (PVB)-containing inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex and in several prefrontal cortex-mediated behaviors including social interaction. Social behavior deficits are often the earliest observed changes in psychiatric disorders, therefore the time-course and causation of social interaction deficits after ELS are important to determine. PVB interneuron dysfunction can disrupt social behavior, and has been correlated in males with elevated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cyclooxygenase-2 after ELS. Here, we measured the effects of maternal separation ELS on social interaction behaviors in males and females. Prefrontal cortex PVB and cyclooxygenase-2 were also measured in juveniles and adolescents using Western blots. ELS led to social interaction alterations earlier in females than males. Sexually dimorphic behavioral changes were consistent with prefrontal cortex PVB loss after ELS. PVB levels were decreased in ELS-exposed juvenile females, while males exposed to ELS do not display parvalbumin decreases until adolescence. Early behavioral and PVB changes in females did not appear to be mediated through cyclooxygenase-2, since levels were not affected in ELS females. Therefore, these data suggest that ELS affects males and females differently and with distinct developmental profiles.

  12. Perspectives on a combined test of multi serum biomarkers in China: towards screening for and diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma at an earlier stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keming; Song, Peipei; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Gaohua; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Shaogeng

    2014-06-01

    China has 50% of the worldwide hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, and the HBV-related cases accounts for approximately 85%. Over the past few decades, although a series of standardized management methods for HCC has been implemented in China, most HCC patient in China still suffered from advanced-stage disease, in consequence, reducing the opportunity of curable treatment that can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival for HCC patient. Accordingly, strategies including screening and diagnose HCC at an earlier stage are urgently needed in China. In this study, the current status, challenges, and prospects of early detection of HCC in China have been analyzed. The result indicated the need for using multi serum biomarkers for early HCC detection. During the past ten years, the research on the clinical usefulness of novel serum biomarkers of des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP), Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Midkine (MDK) in early HCC detection for Chinese patients found that the novel serum biomarker can complete the measurement of α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis process of HCC, particularly for the patient with negative AFP with/or at an early stage. More large-scale, multi-center studies are expected to be performed in China to provide further evidence, and using novel and reliable serum biomarkers to complement AFP as a new trend is expected to be extensively used in clinical practice to facilitate early detection for those patients with HCC in China.

  13. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-10-01

    Factors that influence smoking initiation and age of smoking onset are important considerations in tobacco control. We evaluated European Union (EU)-wide differences in the age of onset of regular smoking, and the potential role of peer, parental and tobacco product design features on the earlier onset of regular smoking among adults current and former smokers aged 15-39 years, collected for the Eurobarometer 77.1 survey (2012). Respondents reported their age at regular smoking onset and factors that influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. parents (OR = 1.60; 95%CI 1.21-2.12) were more likely to have started smoking regularly patterns among EU countries, which may warrant different approaches in the prevention of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. The age-related performance decline in Ironman triathlon starts earlier in swimming than in cycling and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käch, Ilja; Rüst, Christoph A; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2017-02-21

    In Ironman triathlon, the number of overall male and female finishers increased in the last 30 years, while an improvement in performance has been reported. Studies concluding these numbers only analysed the top ten athletes per age group instead of all finishers, therefore a selection bias might have occurred. The aim of the present study was to investigate participation, performance and the age-related performance decline of all pro and age group triathletes ranked in all Ironman triathlons held worldwide between 2002 and 2015. Split and overall race times of 329,066 (80%) male and 81,815 (20%) female athletes competing in 253 different Ironman triathlon races were analysed. The number of finishers increased in all age groups with exception of women in age group 75-79 years. In pro athletes, performance improved in all disciplines. In age group athletes, performance improved in younger age groups for running (18-24 to 40-44 years) and older age groups for swimming (50-54 to 65-69 years) and cycling (35-39 to 55-59 years), while it impaired in younger age groups for swimming (18-24 to 45-49 years) and cycling (18-24 to 30-34), and older age groups in running (45-49 to 70-74 years). The age-related performance decline started in women in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 30-34 years in cycling, running and overall race time, whereas it started in men in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 35-39 years in cycling, running and overall race time. For athletes and coaches, performance improved in younger age groups for running and older age groups for swimming and cycling and the age-related decline in performance started earlier in swimming than in cycling and running. In summary, women should start competing in Ironman triathlon before the age of 30 years and men before the age of 35 years to achieve their personal best Ironman race time.

  15. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 113Sn to include the 2010 results of the PTB (Germany) and the LNE-LNHB (France), and the 2011 result of the CIEMAT (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Bobin, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Moune, M.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Roteta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1975, seven national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted eleven samples of known activity of 113Sn to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.7 MBq and 22 MBq. The present primary standardization results for the PTB, Germany and the LNE-LNHB, France, replace their earlier results of 1989 and 1992, respectively. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 113Sn. There are only three results remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 comparison, all the previously published ones being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each of these three equivalent activities measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-60 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 60Co to include the 2011 result of the CNEA (Argentina), the 2012 results of the BARC (India) and the NRC (Canada), and the 2014 result of the NIM (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Arenillas, P.; Balpardo, C.; Joseph, L.; Anuradha, R.; Kulkarni, D. B.; Galea, R.; Moore, K.; Stroak, A.; Zhang, Ming; Liang, Juncheng; Liu, Haoran

    2017-01-01

    Since 2010, four national metrology institutes (NMI) have each submitted a sample of known activity of 60Co to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-60. The values of the activity submitted were between about 175 kBq and 1600 kBq. The primary standardization results for the CNEA, Argentina and the BARC, India replace their earlier result of 2003 and 2001, respectively. There are now seventeen results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-60 comparison. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been updated using the power-moderated weighted mean. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  18. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  19. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability management in industries is often defined by measuring the performance against the triple bottom-line, People, Planet and Profit in business decisions. The product chain perspective inherent in LCA is very suitable for sustainability management but LCA methodology only considers...... activities in the product life cycle. Workers’ fundamental rights, as defined by the ILO, are used as baseline in the method, and as a consequence, some of the issues addressed by the method are: child labour, discrimination, right to organise, and forced labour....

  20. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability management in industries is often defined by measuring the performance against the trippel bottom-line, People, Planet and Profit in business decisions. The product chain perspective inherent in LCA is very suitable for sustainability management but LCA methodology only considers...... activities in the product life cycle. Workersø fundamental rights, as defined by the ILO, are used as baseline in the method, and as a consequence, some of the issues addressed by the method are: child labour, discrimination, right to organise, and forced labour....

  1. HbA1c variability is associated with increased mortality and earlier hospital admission in people with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G S; Cunningham, S G; Sainsbury, C A R; Jones, G C

    2017-08-19

    Despite evidence of morbidity, no evidence exists on the relationship between HbA1c variability and mortality in Type 1 diabetes. We performed an observational study to investigate whether the association between HbA1c variability and mortality exists in a population of people with Type 1 diabetes. As a secondary outcome, we compared onset of first hospital admission between groups. People with Type 1 diabetes were identified for inclusion from the Scottish Care Information - Diabetes data set. This database includes data of all people known to have diabetes who live within Scotland. A survival analysis was carried out over a 47-month period comparing two groups; group 1 with a HbA1c coefficient of variation (CV) above the median CV value, and group 2 with a CV below the median value. Time to death or first admission was also analysed. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare time to death, adjusting for appropriate covariables. Some 6048 individuals with Type 1 diabetes were included in the analysis. Median HbA1c CV was 7.9. The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality for those with an HbA1c CV above the median value is 1.5 over 47 months of follow-up (P < 0.001). HR for survival to either the first admission to hospital or death for those with an HbA1c CV above the median value was 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.25-1.45) over 730 days of follow-up (P < 0.001). Our results show that people with greater HbA1c variability have a higher rate of mortality and earlier hospital admission in Type 1 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Bi-207 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 207Bi to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Bobin, C.; Moune, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) submitted one sample of known activity of 207Bi to the International Reference System for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Bi-207. The value of the activity submitted was about 180 kBq. There is now one result in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Bi-207 comparison. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time using the LNE-LNHB result and a PTB result dating 1982. The degree of equivalence between the LNE-LNHB equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV has been calculated and is reported. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  4. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  5. A comparative study of night-time enhancement of TEC at a low latitude station on storm and quiet nights including the local time, seasonal and solar activity dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of night-time enhancements in TEC during magnetic storms are compared with those during quiet nights for different seasons and solar activity conditions at Palehua, a low latitude station during the period 1980–1989. We find that the mean amplitude has both a seasonal and solar activity dependence: in winter, the values are higher for weak storms as compared to those during quiet nights and increase with an increase in solar activity. In summer, the mean amplitude values during weak storms and quiet nights are almost equal. But during equinox, the mean amplitude values for quiet nights are greater than those during weak storms. The mean half-amplitude duration is higher during weak storms as compared to that during quiet nights in summer. However, during winter and equinox, the durations are almost equal for both quiet and weak storm nights. For the mean half-amplitude duration, the quiet night values for all the seasons and equinoctial weak storm values increase with an increase in solar activity. The occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement during weak storms is greater than during quiet nights for all seasons. The mean amplitude, the mean half-amplitude duration and the occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement values are higher during major storms as compared to those during quiet nights. The above parameters have their highest values during pre-midnight hours. From the data analysed, this behaviour is true in the case of major storms also.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; plasma convection Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  6. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  7. Effect of recall rate on earlier screen detection of breast cancers based on the Dutch performance indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, J.D.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Hendriks, J.H.C.L.; Groenewoud, J.H.; Fracheboud, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Koning, H.J. de; Holland, R.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recall rate (i.e., the rate at which mammographically screened women are recalled for additional assessment) in the Dutch breast screening program (0.89% in 2000 for subsequent examinations) is the lowest worldwide, with possible consequences including higher rates of late-detected (

  8. A Numerical Analysis Research on Earlier Behavior of Molten Droplet Covered with Vapor Film at the Stage of Triggering and Propagation in Steam Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the molten fuel with high temperature falls into the cavity water, it will be dispersed into droplets which are covered with vapor films due to the rapid heat transfer with phase transition. This situation cannot be simply described by liquid-liquid or gas-liquid systems. And there are no sufficient experimental studies on the behavior of droplet covered with vapor film because of the rapid reaction and the difficulty in capture of the film configuration. In this paper, a multiphase code with the volume of fluid (VOF method is used to simulate the earlier behavior of droplet when vapor film exits. The earlier behavior is defined as behavior of the droplet before its disintegration. Thermal effect and pure hydrodynamic effect are, respectively, considered. The simulation results indicate that the film thickness and material density have significant effect on the earlier behavior of droplet. The situation assumed in Ciccarelli and Frost’s model (1994 is observed in current simulation of earlier thermal droplet behavior. The effect of triggering pressure pulse on earlier hydrodynamic behavior is also discussed and it indicates that vapor film has little effect on the hydrodynamic droplet deformation when the intensity of the pressure pulse is very high.

  9. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  10. Brassica napus responses to short-term excessive copper treatment with decrease of photosynthetic pigments, differential expression of heavy metal homeostasis genes including activation of gene NRAMP4 involved in photosystem II stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, I E; Kholodova, V P; Rakhmankulova, Z F; Kuznetsov, Vl V

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of 50 and 100 µM CuSO4 was investigated starting from 3 h till 72 h treatment of 4-weeks Brassica napus plants. High CuSO4 concentrations in nutrient medium resulted in the rapid copper accumulation in plants, especially in roots, much slower and to lower degree in leaves. Copper excess induced early decrease in the leaf water content and temporary leaf wilting. The decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments became significant to 24 h of excessive copper treatments and reached 35 % decrease to 72 h, but there were no significant changes in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The copper excess affected the expression of ten genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis and copper detoxification. The results showed the differential and organ-specific expression of most genes. The potential roles of copper-activated genes encoding heavy metal transporters (ZIP5, NRAMP4, YSL2, and MRP1), metallothioneins (MT1a and MT2b), low-molecular chelator synthesis enzymes (PCS1 and NAS2), and metallochaperones (CCS and HIPP06) in heavy metal homeostasis and copper ion detoxification were discussed. The highest increase in gene expression was shown for NRAMP4 in leaves in spite of relatively moderate Cu accumulation there. The opinion was advanced that the NRAMP4 activation can be considered among the early reactions in the defense of the photosystem II against copper excess.

  11. Aerosol exposure to Rift Valley fever virus causes earlier and more severe neuropathology in the murine model, which has important implications for therapeutic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Reed

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that can cause severe disease including acute-onset hepatitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, retinitis and blindness, or a hemorrhagic syndrome. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exist to treat this potentially deadly disease. Detailed studies describing the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure have not been completed and candidate therapeutics have not been evaluated following an aerosol exposure. These studies are important because while mosquito transmission is the primary means for human infection, it can also be transmitted by aerosol or through mucosal contact. Therefore, we directly compared the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure to a subcutaneous (SC exposure in the murine model by analyzing survival, clinical observations, blood chemistry, hematology, immunohistochemistry, and virus titration of tissues. Additionally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nucleoside analog ribavirin administered prophylactically to treat mice exposed by aerosol and SC. The route of exposure did not significantly affect the survival, chemistry or hematology results of the mice. Acute hepatitis occurred despite the route of exposure. However, the development of neuropathology occurred much earlier and was more severe in mice exposed by aerosol compared to SC exposed mice. Mice treated with ribavirin and exposed SC were partially protected, whereas treated mice exposed by aerosol were not protected. Early and aggressive viral invasion of brain tissues following aerosol exposure likely played an important role in ribavirin's failure to prevent mortality among these animals. Our results highlight the need for more candidate antivirals to treat RVFV infection, especially in the case of a potential aerosol exposure. Additionally, our study provides an account of the key pathogenetic differences in RVF disease following two potential

  12. Infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab for treating moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis after the failure of conventional therapy (including a review of TA140 and TA262): clinical effectiveness systematic review and economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Rachel; Tappenden, Paul; Ren, Shijie; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Harvey, Rebecca; Basarir, Hasan; Stevens, John; Carroll, Christopher; Cantrell, Anna; Lobo, Alan; Hoque, Sami

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK. UC can have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life. The burden for the NHS is substantial. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of interventions, to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of all interventions and comparators (including medical and surgical options), to estimate the expected net budget impact of each intervention, and to identify key research priorities. DATA SOURCES Peer-reviewed publications, European Public Assessment Reports and manufacturers' submissions. The following databases were searched from inception to December 2013 for clinical effectiveness searches and from inception to January 2014 for cost-effectiveness searches for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Health Technology Assessment database and NHS Economic Evaluation Database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science and Bioscience Information Service Previews. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency website were also searched, as were research registers, conference proceedings and key journals. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review [including network meta-analysis (NMA)] was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of named interventions. The health economic analysis included a review of published economic evaluations and the development of a de novo model. RESULTS Ten randomised controlled trials were included in the systematic review. The trials suggest that adult patients receiving infliximab (IFX) [Remicade(®), Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd (MSD)], adalimumab (ADA) (Humira(®), Abb

  13. Hepatic involvement in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: discrepancies between AIDS patients and those with earlier stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer-Krämer, L; Krämer, A; Weigel, R; Rögler, G; Fleige, B; Krause, P H; Hahn, E G; Riecken, E O; Pohle, H D

    1991-04-01

    The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on type and severity of liver disease was studied in 61 HIV-positive patients who did not have AIDS and in 45 AIDS patients. Liver biopsies revealed viral hepatitis in 12 of 18 non-AIDS patients but in only 4 of 34 AIDS patients (P less than .0005, Fisher's exact test). Acute, non-A non-B, and chronic active hepatitis B were seen exclusively in the non-AIDS group; however, chronic persistent hepatitis B was seen in both groups. In 9 of 18 AIDS patients intra vitam liver histopathology established diagnoses of opportunistic infections or tumors. Tissue reaction to certain pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus, mycobacteria, and cryptococci, seems to be milder in AIDS patients than in others who are HIV positive or the expected reaction of the normal host. This is likely because of impaired cell-mediated immunity in patients with advanced HIV disease.

  14. An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Karpowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W or general public (GP members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons. Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs, by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users. Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated. Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment.

  15. An assessment of hazards caused by electromagnetic interaction on humans present near short-wave physiotherapeutic devices of various types including hazards for users of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both-GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment).

  16. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Albano, Jessica D; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D Heather; White, Amina

    2016-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15-44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population.

  17. Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, D; Guo, Y M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)(0.75) per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (phens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens.

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the oropharynx and urine among sexually active men: a comparative study of infection by papillomavirus and other organisms, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazufumi; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Wakatsuki, Akira; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Nakashima, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Yasunori; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-01-27

    ratio of 3.39 (95% CI: 1.49 - 7.71), whereas oral gonococcal infection was inversely correlated with oral HPV infection (odds ratio: 0.096; 95% CI: 0.01 - 0.77). Oral HPV infection commonly occurs in sexually active men, and is significantly correlated with urinary HPV infection.

  19. 2011 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline, Reversing the Increase of a Year Earlier, and Suggesting Slow Growth for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Kalpen, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs declined in the autumn of 2011, compared to a year earlier. Enrollments were down slightly at the senior and junior levels and substantially at the freshman level. Enrollment increased at the sophomore level. The majority of administrators say they have made curricular changes in the past…

  20. An Autopsied Case of Malignant Sarcomatoid Pleural Mesothelioma in Which Chest Pain Developed Several Months Earlier without Abnormality on Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Daizo; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Inoue, Noriko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Matsuura, Akinobu; Shizu, Masato; Imai, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    The patient experienced chest pain for about 7 months, but a diagnosis could not be made until after death. He was diagnosed with malignant sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma on autopsy. In this case report, difficult aspects of the diagnosis are discussed. The 70-year-old Japanese man was a driver who transported ceramic-related products. Right chest pain developed in July 2013, but no abnormality was detected on a chest computed tomography (CT) performed in September 2013, and the pain was managed as right intercostal neuralgia. A chest CT performed in late October 2013 revealed a right pleural effusion, and the patient was referred to our hospital in early November 2013. Thoracentesis was performed, but the cytology was negative, and no diagnosis could be made. Close examination was postponed because the patient developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. He underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) after discharge from the neurosurgery department, and extensive right pleural thickening and (18)F-FDG accumulation in this region were observed. Based on these findings, malignant pleural mesothelioma was suspected, and a thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia in early December 2013, but no definite diagnosis could be made. The patient selected best supportive care and died about 7 months after the initial development of right chest pain. The disease was definitively diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma by a pathological autopsy. When chronic chest pain of unknown cause is observed and past exposure to asbestos is suspected, actions to prevent delay in diagnosis should be taken, including testing for suspicion of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  1. An Autopsied Case of Malignant Sarcomatoid Pleural Mesothelioma in Which Chest Pain Developed Several Months Earlier without Abnormality on Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizo Yaguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The patient experienced chest pain for about 7 months, but a diagnosis could not be made until after death. He was diagnosed with malignant sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma on autopsy. In this case report, difficult aspects of the diagnosis are discussed. The 70-year-old Japanese man was a driver who transported ceramic-related products. Right chest pain developed in July 2013, but no abnormality was detected on a chest computed tomography (CT performed in September 2013, and the pain was managed as right intercostal neuralgia. A chest CT performed in late October 2013 revealed a right pleural effusion, and the patient was referred to our hospital in early November 2013. Thoracentesis was performed, but the cytology was negative, and no diagnosis could be made. Close examination was postponed because the patient developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. He underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET after discharge from the neurosurgery department, and extensive right pleural thickening and 18F-FDG accumulation in this region were observed. Based on these findings, malignant pleural mesothelioma was suspected, and a thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia in early December 2013, but no definite diagnosis could be made. The patient selected best supportive care and died about 7 months after the initial development of right chest pain. The disease was definitively diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma by a pathological autopsy. When chronic chest pain of unknown cause is observed and past exposure to asbestos is suspected, actions to prevent delay in diagnosis should be taken, including testing for suspicion of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  2. Toward earlier identification and preventative intervention in schizophrenia: evidence from the London Child Health and Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Kristin R; Cullen, Alexis E

    2016-04-01

    The London Child Health and Development Study (CHADS) is a prospective, longitudinal investigation of children, sampled from the general community aged 9-11 years and assessed biennially, who present premorbid risk markers for schizophrenia. The study aims to characterise developmental trajectories of psychological, cognitive, and biological functioning in at-risk children and identify potential targets for early preventative intervention. This review summarises CHADS findings, discusses these in the context of recent theory regarding aetiology and prevention of schizophrenia, and highlights challenges to be addressed with future research. We review (1) epidemiological information on the prevalence and correlates of developmental antecedents of schizophrenia in the general child population, (2) evidence of psychosocial, cognitive, and biological dysfunctions in at-risk children presenting multiple antecedents of schizophrenia and at-risk children with a family history of schizophrenia, and (3) related findings from an associated sample of help-seeking children receiving intervention. Community-based screening of 9-11-year olds identified ~9 % with a triad of antecedents of schizophrenia [including psychotic-like experiences (PLEs)] who are putatively at-risk of psychosis; these children reported greater exposure and responsivity to stressors, impairments in general intelligence and specific cognitive functions, brain structure and function abnormalities, and neuromotor dysfunction. Preliminary evidence suggests distressing PLEs are a viable target for cognitive-behavioural intervention in at-risk children. Intervention in early, premorbid phases of illness might alleviate current difficulties and avert future schizophrenia using benign treatments. The CHADS programme has identified several markers that may index early pathophysiology and constitute potential targets for preventative intervention.

  3. Variation in wing characteristics of monarch butterflies during migration: Earlier migrants have redder and more elongated wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satterfield Dara A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus in North America has a number of parallels with long-distance bird migration, including the fact that migratory populations of monarchs have larger and more elongated forewings than residents. These characteristics likely serve to optimize flight performance in monarchs, as they also do with birds. A question that has rarely been addressed thus far in birds or monarchs is if and how wing characteristics vary within a migration season. Individuals with superior flight performance should migrate quickly, and/or with minimal stopovers, and these individuals should be at the forefront of the migratory cohort. Conversely, individuals with poor flight performance and/or low endurance would be more likely to fall behind, and these would comprise the latest migrants. Here we examined how the wing morphology of migrating monarchs varies to determine if wing characteristics of early migrants differ from late migrants. We measured forewing area, elongation (length/width, and redness, which has been shown to predict flight endurance in monarchs. Based on a collection of 75 monarchs made one entire season (fall 2010, results showed that the earliest migrants (n = 20 in this cohort had significantly redder and more elongated forewings than the latest migrants (n = 17. There was also a non-significant tendency for early migrants to have larger forewing areas. These results suggest that the pace of migration in monarchs is at least partly dependent on the properties of their wings. Moreover, these data also raise a number of questions about the ultimate fate of monarchs that fall behind

  4. Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ning

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW0.75 per d with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI, HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP and retained energy (RE. The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm. Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05. Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm was 113.09 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05. The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05 but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW0·75 per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively. Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens.

  5. Wean Earlier and Automatically with New technology (the WEAN study: a protocol of a multicentre, pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Martin R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning is the process during which mechanical ventilation is withdrawn and the work of breathing is transferred from the ventilator back to the patient. Prolonged weaning is associated with development of ventilator-related complications and longer stays in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Computerized or Automated Weaning is a novel weaning strategy that continuously measures and adapts ventilator support (by frequently measuring and averaging three breathing parameters and automatically conducts Spontaneous Breathing Trials to ascertain whether patients can resume autonomous breathing. Automated Weaning holds promise as a strategy to reduce the time spent on the ventilator, decrease ICU length of stay, and improve clinically important outcomes. Methods/Design A pilot weaning randomized controlled trial (RCT is underway in the ICUs of 8 Canadian hospitals. We will randomize 90 critically ill adults requiring invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours and identified at an early stage of the weaning process to either Automated Weaning (SmartCare™ or Protocolized Weaning. The results of a National Weaning Survey informed the design of the Protocolized Weaning arm. Both weaning protocols are operationalized in Pressure Support mode, include opportunities for Spontaneous Breathing Trials, and share a common sedation protocol, oxygen titration parameters, and extubation and reintubation criteria. The primary outcome of the WEAN study is to evaluate compliance with the proposed weaning and sedation protocols. A key secondary outcome of the pilot RCT is to evaluate clinician acceptance of the weaning and sedation protocols. Prior to initiating the WEAN Study, we conducted a run-in phase, involving two patients per centre (randomizing the first participant to either weaning strategy and assigning the second patient to the alternate strategy to ensure that participating centres could implement the weaning and sedation protocols and

  6. Evidence for an earlier greenhouse cooling effect in the stratosphere before the 1980s over the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a new look at the observed and calculated long-term temperature changes since 1958 for the region extending from the lower troposphere up to the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. The analysis is mainly based on monthly layer mean temperatures derived from geopotential height thicknesses between specific pressure levels. Layer mean temperatures from thickness improve homogeneity in both space and time and reduce uncertainties in the trend analysis. Datasets used include the NCEP/NCAR I reanalysis, the Free University of Berlin (FU-Berlin and the RICH radiosonde datasets as well as historical simulations with the CESM1-WACCM global model participating in CMIP5. After removing the natural variability with an autoregressive multiple regression model our analysis shows that the time interval of our study 1958–2011 can be divided in two distinct sub-periods of long term temperature variability and trends; before and after 1980s. By calculating trends for the summer time to reduce interannual variability, the two periods are as follows. From 1958 until 1979, non-significant trends or slight cooling trends prevail in the lower troposphere (0.06 ± 0.06 °C decade−1 for NCEP and −0.12 ± 0.06 °C decade−1 for RICH. The second period from 1980 to the end of the records shows significant warming trends (0.25 ± 0.05 °C decade−1 for both NCEP and RICH. Above the tropopause a persistent cooling trend is clearly seen in the lower stratosphere both in the pre-1980s period (−0.58 ± 0.17 °C decade−1 for NCEP, −0.30 ± 0.16 °C decade−1 for RICH and −0.48 ± 0.20 °C decade−1 for FU-Berlin and the post-1980s period (−0.79 ± 0.18 °C decade−1 for NCEP, −0.66 ± 0.16 °C decade−1 for RICH and −0.82 ± 0.19 °C decade−1 for FU-Berlin. The cooling in the lower stratosphere is a persistent feature from the tropics up to 60 north for all months. At polar latitudes competing dynamical and radiative

  7. SKIRT: Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, Maarten; Dejonghe, Herwig; Davies, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.

  8. Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically appraise recent published literature about factors associated with cancer risk likely to be influenced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential of earlier cART initiation to reduce this risk. RECENT FINDINGS...... and epidemiological data have been reported as to whether (and how) cART affects NADM risk. Furthermore, secondary analyses of randomized controlled trials comparing early versus delayed cART initiation were inconclusive. SUMMARY: Continuous epidemiological surveillance is warranted to monitor trends in cancer...... incidence among HIV-infected individuals and to better understand the impact of earlier cART on NADM risk. The role of adjuvant anti-inflammatory or antithrombotic therapies to reduce cancer risk deserves further investigation....

  9. Opioid dependence treatment, including buprenorphine/naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, Dennis W; Fye, Carol L; Boardman, Kathy D; Sather, Mike R

    2002-02-01

    To review opioid dependence (OD) and its treatment. Pharmacologic treatments, including the use of buprenorphine/naloxone, are presented. Pharmaceutical care functions for outpatient OD treatment are discussed. Primary and review articles were identified by MEDLINE and HEALTHSTAR searches (from 1966 to November 2000) and through secondary sources. Tertiary sources were also reviewed regarding general concepts of OD and its treatment. Relevant articles were reviewed after identification from published abstracts. Articles were selected based on the objectives for this article. Studies of the treatment of OD with buprenorphine were selected based on the topic (pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, adverse reactions) and study design (randomized, controlled clinical trials in patients with OD with active/placebo comparisons and/or comparisons of active OD treatments). Articles regarding pharmacists' activities in the treatment and prevention of OD were reviewed for the pharmaceutical care section. OD is considered a medical disorder with costly adverse health outcomes. Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is cost-effective for OD, only about 12% of individuals with OD receive this treatment. Psychological and pharmacologic modalities are used to treat OD, but patients often relapse. Drug therapy includes alpha 2-agonists for withdrawal symptoms, detoxification regimens with or without opioids, opioid antagonists, and opioid replacement including methadone, levomethadyl acetate, and buprenorphine. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 1999 allows for office-based opioid replacement therapies. Sublingual buprenorphine with naloxone can be used in this milieu. Buprenorphine with naloxone is currently under new drug application review with the Food and Drug Administration. Clinical research shows buprenorphine to be equal in effectiveness to methadone, but safer in overdose due to its ceiling effect on respiratory depression. It has lower abuse potential and fewer

  10. Low birth weight is associated with earlier onset of end-stage renal disease in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Low-birth-weight individuals have a higher risk of hypertension and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Here we investigated whether low birth weight was associated with earlier onset of ESRD in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In collaboration with all Danish depar...... birth weight may contribute to considerable phenotypic variability in the progression of renal disease between individuals with ADPKD....

  11. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  12. Intraoperative administration of tramadol for postoperative nurse-controlled analgesia resulted in earlier awakening and less sedation than morphine in children after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ya-Chun; Lin, Su-Man; Hsieh, Ying-Chou; Chan, Kwok-Hon; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2006-06-01

    In adults, intraoperative administration of tramadol could result in earlier recovery and less sedation than morphine. In this controlled, randomized, double-blind study, we investigated whether an intraoperative initial dose of tramadol could cause more rapid awakening from general anesthesia, less sedation, and earlier tracheal extubation than morphine in children during the immediate postoperative period. Forty children aged 1-6 yr, scheduled for atrial or ventricular septal defect repair and tracheal extubation in the pediatric intensive care unit, were randomly allocated to receive morphine, initial dose 0.2 mg/kg, or tramadol 2 mg/kg given at the end of sternal closure, followed by nurse-controlled analgesia (bolus 0.02 mg/kg of morphine and 0.2 mg/kg of tramadol) with background infusions (0.015 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) for morphine and 0.15 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) for tramadol). Postoperatively, children receiving tramadol had earlier awakening from general anesthesia (P = 0.02) and were less sedated at 1 and 2 h postoperatively (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Tracheal extubation was earlier in the tramadol group (P = 0.01). Lengths of pediatric intensive care unit stay did not differ between groups. Times to first trigger of nurse-controlled analgesia bolus and objective pain scores during the 48 h observation period were comparable between groups. The incidence of desaturation and emesis were similar between groups. The patients ate well and did not differ on Day 1 or Day 2.

  13. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  14. Both Earlier Times and the Future Are "Front": The Distinction Between Time- and Ego-Reference-Points in Mandarin Speakers' Temporal Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chengli; Zhao, Mengya; Chen, Lei

    2017-09-28

    Mandarin speakers, like most other language speakers around the world, use spatial terms to talk about time. However, the direction of their mental temporal representation along the front-back axis remains controversial because they use the spatial term "front" to refer to both earlier times (e.g., front-year means "the year before last") and the future (e.g., front-road means "prospect"). Although the linguistic distinction between time- and ego-reference-point spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin suggests a promising clarification of the above controversy, there is little empirical evidence verifying this distinction. In this study, Mandarin speakers' time- and ego-reference-point temporal representations on three axes (i.e., sagittal, lateral, and vertical) were separately examined through two tasks. In a time-reference-point task, Mandarin speakers judged whether the time point of the second picture was earlier or later than the time point of the first picture, while in an ego-reference-point task, they judged whether an event or phase had happened in the past or would happen in the future. The results indicate that Mandarin speakers construe an earlier-times-in-front-of-later-times temporal sequence and adopt the front-to-the-future orientation. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, J; Zupancic, J A F; McCormick, M C; Richardson, D K; Escobar, G J; Tucker, J; Tarnow‐Mordi, W; Parry, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare gestational age at discharge between infants born at 30–34+6 weeks gestational age who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Fifty four United Kingdom, five California, and five Massachusetts NICUs. Subjects A total of 4359 infants who survived to discharge home after admission to an NICU. Main outcome measures Gestational age at discharge home. Results The mean (SD) postmenstrual age at discharge of the infants in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom were 35.9 (1.3), 36.3 (1.3), and 36.3 (1.9) weeks respectively (p  =  0.001). Compared with the United Kingdom, adjusted discharge of infants occurred 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 6.5) days earlier in California, and 0.9 (95% CI −1.2 to 3.0) days earlier in Massachusetts. Conclusions Infants of 30–34+6 weeks gestation at birth admitted and cared for in hospitals in California have a shorter length of stay than those in the United Kingdom. Certain characteristics of the integrated healthcare approach pursued by the health maintenance organisation of the NICUs in California may foster earlier discharge. The California system may provide opportunities for identifying practices for reducing the length of stay of moderately premature infants. PMID:16449257

  16. Increasing screening frequency in men who have sex with men: impact of guidance on risk profiling on workload and earlier diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Fleury, C; Clarke, E; Foley, E; Samraj, S; Rowen, D; Patel, R

    2013-08-01

    Increasing screening frequency in men who have sex with men (MSM) engaging in high-risk behaviours can reduce prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This evaluation investigated the impact of applying stricter screening guidelines for MSM on service workload and earlier STI diagnoses. A validated risk assessment tool (RAT) was distributed to MSM attending a level 3 sexual health service over three months. Australian screening guidelines were applied to the data to identify MSM requiring more frequent screening and data projected to the larger MSM population. The RAT identified a 2-5-fold increase in the number of STI and HIV screenings required based on six- and three-monthly screening intervals, respectively, in the MSM cohort. When screening intervals are reduced from three-monthly to six-monthly there is a potential loss of 66.7% of earlier HIV diagnoses. The use of RATs will increase workload in sexual health services, but potentially diagnose a large proportion of disease earlier.

  17. Resident microglia, rather than blood-derived macrophages, contribute to the earlier and more pronounced inflammatory reaction in the immature compared with the adult hippocampus after hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekawa, Takashi; Osman, Ahmed M; Han, Wei; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Blomgren, Klas

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal injury after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are different in the immature and the adult brain, but microglia activation has not been compared. The purpose of this study was to phenotype resident microglia and blood-derived macrophages in the hippocampus after HI in neonatal (postnatal day 9, P9) or adult (3 months of age, 3mo) mice. Unilateral brain injury after HI was induced in Cx3cr1(GFP/+) Ccr2(RFP/+) male mice on P9 (n = 34) or at 3mo (n = 53) using the Vannucci model. Resident microglia (Cx3cr1-GFP+) proliferated and were activated earlier after HI in the P9 (1-3 days) than that in the 3mo hippocampus, but remained longer in the adult brain (3-7 days). Blood-derived macrophages (Ccr2-RFP+) peaked 3 days after HI in both immature (P9) and adult (3mo) hippocampi but were twice as frequent in adult brains, 41% vs. 21% of all microglia/macrophages. CCL2 expression was three times higher in the P9 hippocampi, indicating that the proinflammatory response was more pronounced in the immature brain after HI. This corresponded well with the higher numbers of galectin-3-positive resident microglia in the P9 hippocampi, but did not correlate with CD16/32- or CD206-positive resident microglia or blood-derived macrophages. In conclusion, resident microglia, rather than infiltrating blood-derived macrophages, proliferate and are activated earlier in the immature than in the adult brain, but remain increased longer in the adult brain. The inflammatory response is more pronounced in the immature brain, and this correlate well with galectin-3 expression in resident microglia.

  18. The clock gene circuit in Arabidopsis includes a repressilator with additional feedback loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Edwards, Kieron D; Southern, Megan M; Halliday, Karen J; Millar, Andrew J

    2012-03-06

    Circadian clocks synchronise biological processes with the day/night cycle, using molecular mechanisms that include interlocked, transcriptional feedback loops. Recent experiments identified the evening complex (EC) as a repressor that can be essential for gene expression rhythms in plants. Integrating the EC components in this role significantly alters our mechanistic, mathematical model of the clock gene circuit. Negative autoregulation of the EC genes constitutes the clock's evening loop, replacing the hypothetical component Y. The EC explains our earlier conjecture that the morning gene Pseudo-Response Regulator 9 was repressed by an evening gene, previously identified with Timing Of CAB Expression1 (TOC1). Our computational analysis suggests that TOC1 is a repressor of the morning genes Late Elongated Hypocotyl and Circadian Clock Associated1 rather than an activator as first conceived. This removes the necessity for the unknown component X (or TOC1mod) from previous clock models. As well as matching timeseries and phase-response data, the model provides a new conceptual framework for the plant clock that includes a three-component repressilator circuit in its complex structure.

  19. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  20. Quantitative T1 and T2 mapping in recurrent glioblastomas under bevacizumab: earlier detection of tumor progression compared to conventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescher, Stephanie; Jurcoane, Alina; Veit, Andreas [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Baehr, Oliver [Hospital of Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Neurooncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Deichmann, Ralf [Brain Imaging Center, Center for Imaging in Neuroscience, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hattingen, Elke [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hospital of University Bonn, Instiute of Neuroradiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-07

    Treatment with the humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab in glioblastoma patients suppresses contrast enhancement via the reduction of vascular permeability, which does not necessarily indicate real reduction of tumor cell mass. Therefore, other imaging criteria are needed to recognize tumor growth under bevacizumab more reliably. It is still unknown, whether quantitative T1 mapping is useful to monitor the effects of anti-angiogenic therapy or to indicate a tumor progression earlier and more reliable compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. This raised the question whether quantitative T1 mapping is more suitable to monitor treatment effects of bevacizumab. Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed on six consecutive patients with recurrent glioblastoma before treatment with bevacizumab and every 8 weeks thereafter until further tumor progression. Quantitative T1 maps before and after intravenous application of contrast agent and quantitative T2 maps were performed to calculate serial differential maps and subtraction maps from one time point, subtracting contrast-enhanced T1 maps from non-contrast T1 maps. In five illustrative cases, tumor progression was documented earlier in differential T1 relaxation time (DiffT1) and T2 relaxation time (DiffT2) maps before changes in the conventional MRI studies were obvious. Four patients showed previous prolongation of T1 relaxation time in the DiffT1 maps, suggesting tumor progression, and subtraction maps revealed faint contrast enhancement matching with the areas of T1 prolongation. Our results emphasize that quantitative relaxation time mapping could be a promising method for tumor monitoring in glioblastoma patients under anti-angiogenic therapy. Quantitative T1 mapping seems to detect enhancing tumor earlier than conventional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  1. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  2. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Hueffer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1 determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2 conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3 improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4 improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5 improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  3. Increased Prevalence 12308 A > G mutation in Mitochondrial tRNALeu (CUN Gene Associated with earlier Age of Onset in Friedreich Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Medhi HEIDARI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Heidari MM, Khatami M, Houshmand M, Mahmoudi E, Nafissi Sh .Increased Prevalence 12308 A > G mutation in MitochondrialtRNALeu (CUN Gene Associated with earlier Age of Onset in Friedreich Ataxia. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:25-31.Objective Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an inherited recessive disorder. Mitochondrial DNA is a candidate modifying factor for FRDA.The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the tRNALeu (CUN 12308 A> G mutation and age of onset in Friedreich ataxia.Materials & Methods The 12308 A> G substitution in mitochondrial tRNALeu (CUN was examined in DNA samples from 30 Friedreich ataxia patients and 48 control subjects by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE and sequencing. Logistic regression was used to determine of cutoff age of onset.ResultsTwenty-two patients had the 12308 A> G mutation, and we found that its overall prevalence was significantly higher in 20 patients aged 17 years or younger than in 2 patients aged over 17 years (90% versus 10%. The 12308 A> G mutation lies in a region that has been highly conserved between species.Conclusion Our results show that the 12308 A > G mutation is associated with earlier age of onset in Friedreich ataxia. Thus, this mutation might cause the younger age of onset in FRDA.References Grabczyk E, Usdin K. The GAA*TTC triplet repeat expanded in Friedreich ataxia impedes transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase in a length and supercoil dependent manner. Nucleic Acids Res 2000;28(14:2815-22.Sakamoto N, Chastain PD, Parniewski P, Ohshima K, Pandolfo M, Griffith JD, et al. Sticky DNA: self association properties of long GAA.TTC repeats in R.R.Y triplex structures from Friedreich ataxia. Mol Cell1999;3(4:465-75.Lodi R, Cooper JM, Bradley JL, Manners D, Styles P, Taylor DJ, et al. Deficit of in vivo mitochondrial ATP production in patients with Friedreich ataxia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999

  4. Oogenesis in adult mammals, including humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Wimalasena, Jay; Ayala, Maria E; Dominguez, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    The origin of oocytes and primary follicles in ovaries of adult mammalian females has been a matter of dispute for over 100 yr. The prevailing belief that all oocytes in adult mammalian females must persist from the fetal period of life seems to be a uniquely retrogressive reproductive mechanism requiring humans to preserve their gametes from the fetal period for several decades. The utilization of modern techniques during last 10 yr clearly demonstrates that mammalian primordial germ cells originate from somatic cell precursors. This indicates that if somatic cells are precursors of germ cells, then somatic mutations can be passed on to progeny. Mitotically active germline stem cells have been described earlier in ovaries of adult prosimian primates and recently have been reported to also be present in the ovaries of adult mice. We have earlier shown that in adult human females, mesenchymal cells in the ovarian tunica albuginea undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition into ovarian surface epithelium cells, which differentiate sequentially into primitive granulosa and germ cells. Recently, we have reported that these structures assemble in the deeper ovarian cortex and form new follicles to replace earlier primary follicles undergoing atresia (follicular renewal). Our current observations also indicate that follicular renewal exists in rat ovaries, and human oocytes can differentiate from ovarian surface epithelium in fetal ovaries in vivo and from adult ovaries in vitro. These reports challenge the established dogma regarding the fetal origin of eggs and primary follicles in adult mammalian ovaries. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. Yet, the follicular renewal may cease at a certain age, and this may predetermine the onset of the natural menopause or premature ovarian failure. A lack of follicular renewal in aging ovaries

  5. Making Way and Making Sense: Including Newcomers in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet-Shore, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    In our everyday interactions as they unfold in real time, how do we do including? This article examines a specific set of interactional moments when the potential to be included (or not) recurs: when a newcomer arrives to some social scene where two or more already-present persons are actively engaged in some activity and that newcomer displays…

  6. Constraint is associated with earlier circadian phase and morningness: Confirmation of relationships between personality and circadian phase using a constant routine protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, B; Murray, G; Anderson, J L; Cooper-O'Neill, T; Gooley, J J; Cain, S W; Lockley, S W

    2017-01-01

    Associations among personality, diurnal preference, and circadian phase were investigated using a constant routine laboratory protocol. One hundred and sixty-eight healthy participants aged 18-30 years (Women n = 68) completed either a 30- or 50-hour constant routine under dim-light conditions (<3 lux), during which circadian phase was measured from core body temperature and melatonin. Prior to laboratory admission, self-report measures of personality and diurnal preference were also obtained. The personality trait of Constraint correlated positively with morning diurnal preference and earlier circadian phase, with circadian phase partially mediating the relationship between Constraint and diurnal preference. No other personality variables correlated with circadian phase. Sex was an important covariate in several of the relationships investigated due to lower levels of Constraint and later CBT phase amongst men and was thus controlled for in all relevant analyses. Findings from this highly controlled study are consistent with previous field research in suggesting that earlier circadian phase is associated with the personality trait of Constraint.

  7. Precise determination of Moessbauer lineshape parameters including interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.G.; Djedid, A.; Bullard, B.; Schupp, G.; Cowan, D.; Cao, Y.; Crow, M.L.; Yelon, W.

    1987-01-01

    Using 100 Ci /sup 183/Ta and 5 Ci /sup 182/Ta sources, with LiF and NaCl crystal monochromating filters, we have measured the lineshape parameters for the 46.5 keV and 99.1 keV Moessbauer effect (ME) transitions of /sup 183/W and the 100.1 keV transition of /sup 182/W. Using an analytic representation of the convolution integral and utilizing asymptotic analyses of the lineshape, we find, for both transmission and microfoil internal conversion (MICE) experiments, accurate values of all ME parameters including width, position, cross section, and interference. This new approach allows deconvolution of source and absorber spectra and gives a simple analytic expression for both as well as their Fourier transforms. The line widths for the 46.5, 99.1, and 100.1 keV transitions are 3.10(10), 0.369(18), and 0.195(12) cm/s, respectively. The interference parameters are -0.00257(9), -0.0093(12), and -0.0107(12) in the same respective order. The agreement between transmission and MICE measurements for the above lineshape parameters is within the experimental errors. We believe these measurements are the first having sufficient precision to allow a quantitative comparison with dispersion theory and they indicate interference parameters 10 to 20% smaller than predicted. Our measured line widths are less than earlier reported values. This is because our analysis of the true lineshape and the study of line asymptotics permits a quantitative determination of the isomer lifetimes rather than the usual lower bound found in earlier ME experiments. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. An Appraisal on the Earlier Euro Adoption by the New Member States in the Frame of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Iordache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathway of the new member states towards the euro area was stopped, but not modified by the current world economic crisis. Their inflation declined but the fiscal status suffered. On the verge of thefinancial crisis, the European Central Bank overruled the Central and Eastern European member states’ intentions for an earlier adoption of the euro, requiring compliance with the Maastricht criteria. The objective of this paper is to analyze the main proposed solutions and to draw attention on the most suitable ones in keeping with the particular features of these countries. Our conclusion is that fast results on the euro adoption will definitely depend on the fiscal consolidation, the soundness of global economic rehabilitation, the capital availability, and the domestic policies. The nature of the approached problems and the authors’ experience recommend this study, both for researchers and practitioners.

  9. Past cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, obesity, and earlier menopause are associated with an increased risk of vulval cancer in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Kate; Gaitskell, Kezia; Beral, Valerie; Canfell, Karen; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian; Barnes, Isobel

    2016-08-23

    Vulval cancer predominantly affects postmenopausal women. A smaller proportion of vulval cancers, particularly at older ages, are now thought to be associated with human papillomavirus infection than previously reported, but other risk factors have not been well examined in prospective cohort studies. A total of 1.3 million women aged 49-65 years were followed for incident vulval cancer (ICD-10 C51). Adjusted Cox regression models were used to examine the relationship between reproductive and lifestyle factors and risk of vulval cancer. There were 898 vulval cancers registered in the cohort over an average of 14 years of follow-up; 70% were squamous cell carcinomas. Past registration of cervical carcinoma in situ (RR 2.68; 95% CI 1.71-4.18; Pobesity (RR 1.71; 95% CI 1.44-2.04; Pcancer. Past cervical pre-cancer, obesity, and earlier age at menopause are associated with an increased risk of vulval cancer at older ages.

  10. Higher precision in pointing movements of the preferred vs. non-preferred hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of anticipatory postural adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bruttini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb vs. the non-preferred one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the preferred vs. non-preferred hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs.In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover Flexor Carpi Radialis. Moreover, we analysed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in Triceps Brachii, Biceps Brachii and Anterior Deltoid were more anticipated when movements were performed with the preferred than with the non-preferred hand (60-70 vs. 20-30 ms. APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (preferred: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; non-preferred: 16.3 ± 1.7.Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the non-preferred side.

  11. A Call to Include Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Newborn Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Raz; Etzioni, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) has recently emerged as a useful non-invasive clinical and research tool to investigate thymic activity. It allows the identification of T cell production by the thymus. Quantification of TREC copies has recently been implemented as the preferred test to screen neonates with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or significant lymphopenia. Neonatal genetic screening for SCID is highly important in countries with high rates of consanguinous marriages, such as Israel, and can be used for early diagnosis, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention that will save lives and improve the outcome of these patients. TREC measurement is also applicable in clinical settings where T cell immunity is involved, including any T cell immunodeficiencies, HIV infection, the aging process, autoimmune diseases, and immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation. TAKE-HOME MESSAGES Severe combined immunodeficiency, a life-threatening condition, can be detected by neonatal screening. The earlier the detection and the quicker the implementation of appropriate treatment, the greater the likelihood for improved outcome, even cure, for the affected children. TRECs and KRECs quantification are useful screening tests for severe T and B cell immunodeficiency and can be used also to evaluate every medical condition involving T and B cell immunity. PMID:24498508

  12. A possible scenario for earlier occurrence of the next Nankai earthquake due to triggering by an earthquake at Hyuga-nada, off southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Several recent large-scale earthquakes including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake ( M w 9.0) in northeastern Japan and the 2014 Iquique earthquake ( M w 8.1) in northern Chile were associated with foreshock activities ( M w > 6). The detailed mechanisms between these large earthquakes and the preceding smaller earthquakes are still unknown; however, to plan for disaster mitigation against the anticipated great Nankai Trough earthquakes, in this study, possible scenarios after M w 7-class earthquakes that frequently occur near the focal region of the Nankai Trough are examined through quasi-dynamic modeling of seismic cycles. By assuming that simulated Nankai Trough earthquakes recur as two alternative earthquakes with variations in magnitudes ( M w 8.7-8.4) and recurrence intervals (178-143 years), we systematically examine the effect of the occurrence timing of the M w 7 Hyuga-nada earthquake on the western extension of the source region of Nankai Trough earthquakes on the assumed Nankai Trough seismic cycles. We find that in the latter half of a seismic cycle preceding a large Nankai Trough earthquake, an immature Nankai earthquake tends to be triggered within several years after the occurrence of a Hyuga-nada earthquake, then Tokai (Tonankai) earthquakes occur with maximum time lags of several years. The combined magnitudes of the triggered Nankai and subsequent Tokai (Tonankai) earthquakes become gradually larger with later occurrence of the Hyuga-nada earthquake, while the rupture timings between the Nankai and Tokai (Tonankai) earthquakes become smaller. The triggered occurrence of an immature Nankai Trough earthquake could delay the expected larger Nankai Trough earthquake to the next seismic cycle. Our results indicate that triggering can explain the variety and complexity of historical Nankai Trough earthquakes. Moreover, for the next anticipated event, countermeasures should include the possibility of a triggered occurrence of a Nankai Trough earthquake by an M

  13. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  14. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  15. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  16. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  17. Gauge-invariant approach to meson photoproduction including the final-state interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Haberzettl, H; Krewald, S

    2006-01-01

    A fully gauge-invariant (pseudoscalar) meson photoproduction amplitude off a nucleon including the final-state interaction is derived. The approach based on a comprehensive field-theoretical formalism developed earlier by one of the authors replaces certain dynamical features of the full interaction current by phenomenological auxiliary contact currents. A procedure is outlined that allows for a systematic improvement of this approximation. The feasibility of the approach is illustrated by applying it to both the neutral and charged pion photoproductions.

  18. Sex of parent transmission effect in Tourette's syndrome: evidence for earlier age at onset in maternally transmitted cases suggests a genomic imprinting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, V; O'Neill, J; Gurling, H M; Robertson, M M

    1997-04-01

    Parent of origin effects caused by genomic imprinting may influence the phenotypic expression of a number of heritable human disorders. To test this phenomenon in Tourette's syndrome (TS), we studied 437 first degree relatives systematically ascertained through 57 probands. We compared age at onset, age at diagnosis, and phenotypic expressions as observed in the diagnosis of TS, chronic motor tics, and obsessive compulsive behavior in the offspring of affected males with the offspring of affected females. Of the 437 subjects, 16.7% had matrilineal inheritance and 13.9% had patrilineal inheritance, as determined by family history methodology. Chi-square analysis of the different phenotypic expressions and sex of the transmitting parent failed to provide evidence of significant group differences. We found no significant differences in the age at diagnosis either. However, the maternally transmitted offspring showed a significantly earlier age at onset. This points to a parent of origin effect on the putative TS gene that could be explained by meiotic events or even intrauterine environmental influences. These findings may help explain the hitherto conflicting reports about the nature of genetic transmission in TS, and suggest a need to re-examine family data separately for maternally and paternally transmitted cases, taking into account the possible role of imprinting.

  19. The role of psychosocial stress in the onset and progression of bipolar disorder and its comorbidities: the need for earlier and alternative modes of therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R M; Leverich, G S

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocial stress plays an important role at multiple junctures in the onset and course of bipolar disorder. Childhood adversity may be a risk factor for vulnerability to early onset illness, and an array of stressors may be relevant not only to the onset, recurrence, and progression of affective episodes, but the highly prevalent substance abuse comorbidities as well. A substantial group of controlled studies indicate that various cognitive behavioral psychotherapies and psychoeducational approaches may yield better outcomes in bipolar disorder than treatment as usual. Yet these approaches do not appear to be frequently or systematically employed in clinical practice, and this may contribute to the considerable residual morbidity and mortality associated with conventional treatment. Possible practical approaches to reducing this deficit (in an illness that is already underdiagnosed and undertreated even with routine medications) are offered. Without the mobilization of new clinical and public health approaches to earlier and more effective treatment and supportive interventions, bipolar illness will continue to have grave implications for many patients' long-term well being.

  20. Lower blood glucose and variability are associated with earlier recovery from renal injury caused by episodic urinary tract infection in advanced type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fang Chiu

    Full Text Available In our previous study, type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with glomerular filtration rates of 9 days, Group B groups. The differences in the continuous and categorical variables of the two groups were assessed separately. The mean glucose levels and their variability (using the standard deviation and the coefficient of standard deviation were compared at the fasting, midday pre-meal, evening pre-meal, and evening post-meal time points during hospitalization. We have organized the manuscript in a manner compliant with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement.Acute kidney injury occurred within the two groups (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively. The early-morning blood glucose levels (149.7±44.0 mg/dL and average blood glucose levels (185.6±52.0 mg/dL were better in Group A (p = 0.01, p = 0.02. Group A patients also had lower glucose variability than Group B at the different time points (p<0.05. Group A also had earlier renal recovery. More relevant pathogens were identified from blood in Group B (p = 0.038.Early-morning fasting and mean blood glucose levels and their variability can be good indicators of severe infection and predictors of renal outcome in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD and UTI.

  1. Interplay between filter-feeding zoobenthos and hydrodynamics in the shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) - Earlier and recent studies, perspectives and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Lassen, J.; Kortegaard, M.; Møller, L. F.; Friedrichs, M.; Jensen, M. H.; Larsen, P. S.

    2007-11-01

    The shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) is characterized by a large biomass of filter-feeding polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), clams ( Mya arenaria), cockles ( Cerastoderma glaucum), and amphipods ( Corophium volutator). The present paper summarizes studies on zoobenthic filter-feeding in Odense Fjord from the last 10 years. The general principles discovered are extracted and compared to available tools for modelling of the primary characteristics of interplay between benthic filter-feeders and hydrodynamics. Earlier works have been supplemented with data from a recent field study conducted in the shallow inner part of the fjord. Based on data from this study site, the reduction in phytoplankton for fully mixed and incompletely mixed flows has been modelled. It was found that fully mixed flow results in a potential half-life for phytoplankton of only 1.3 h, whereas for the incompletely mixed water the half-life is 2.7 times longer. The field measurements clearly demonstrate the presence of a strong interplay between filter-feeders and hydrodynamics, but although a certain grazing impact is evident from vertical chlorophyll a profiles with often strongly reduced near-bottom concentrations it is not straightforward to identify and model even the main bio-physical processes that prevent the dense populations of filter-feeders to completely control the phytoplankton biomass in Odense Fjord.

  2. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  4. Cognitive function in a middle aged cohort is related to higher quality dietary pattern 5 and 25 years earlier: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, N; Jacobs, D R; Meyer, K A; He, K; Launer, L; Reis, J P; Yaffe, K; Sidney, S; Whitmer, R A; Steffen, L M

    2015-01-01

    Preserving cognitive function is an important public health issue. We investigated whether dietary pattern associates with cognitive function in middle-age. We studied 2435 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study of black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0, Y0). We hypothesized that a higher A Priori Diet Quality Score, measured at Y0 and Y20, is associated with better cognitive function measured at Y25. The diet score incorporated 46 food groups (each in servings/day) as the sum of quintile ranks of food groups rated beneficial, 0 for food groups rated neutral, and reversed quintile ranks for food groups rated adverse; higher score indicated better diet quality. Y25 cognitive testing included verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and executive function (Stroop). Per 10-unit higher diet score at Y20, the RAVLT was 0.32 words recalled higher, the DSST was 1.76 digits higher, and the Stroop was 1.00 seconds+errors lower (better performance) after adjusting for race, sex, age, clinic, and energy intake. Further adjustment for physical activity, smoking, education, and body mass index attenuated the association slightly. Diet score at Y0 and increase in diet score over 20 years were also positively associated with each cognitive test. A higher quality dietary pattern was associated with better cognitive function 5 years and even 25 years later in apparently healthy middle-aged adults.

  5. New patterns of relapse in multiple myeloma: a case of "light chain escape" in which FLC predicted relapse earlier than urine and serum immunofixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldini, Anna; Nozzoli, Chiara; Terreni, Alessandro; Staderini, Michela; Berardi, Margherita; Biagioli, Tiziana; Brogi, Marco; Bosi, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized, in about 80% of cases, by the production of monoclonal intact immunoglobulin and more than 95% of them have elevated concentrations of involved (i.e. of the same class of intact immunoglobulin) free light chain (FLC). The introduction of novel therapeutic strategies has changed the natural history of the disease, leading to new manifestations of relapse. Light chain escape (LCE) is a pattern of relapse in which the FLC increase is not accompanied by a concomitant raise of the original monoclonal component (MC). Here we present a case of a 55-year-old man with an IgG kappa MM stage III diagnosed in September 2007. At presentation an IgG kappa MC and urine Bence Jones protein (BJP) kappa were present. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) showed the presence of 80% monotypic kappa plasma cells (PCs). The patient received bortezomib, thalidomide, dexamethasone before undergoing a double autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in October 2008 and April 2009. In May 2011 he relapsed showing the same pattern of presentation and treatment with lenalidomide and dexamethasone was started. ln May 2013 serum and urine immunofixation and FLC became negative. In September 2014, an increase of kappa FLC was observed, while serum and urine immunofixations remained negative until January 2015, when urine immunofixation became positive. Eventually, in February 2015, serum immunofixation revealed the presence of a free kappa MC. After a new BMB showing 80% of monotypic kappa PCs, a LCE relapse was diagnosed and the patient started the treatment with bendamustine, bortezomib and dexamethasone. In the present case, the increase of kappa FLC has indicated relapse 4 and 5 months earlier than urine and serum IFE, respectively. Our observation confirms that it is advisable to routinely perform FLC or BJP during follow up of MM patients undergoing ASCT and/or treatment with biological drugs to ensure that LCE is not missed.

  6. 4662名学龄前期儿童龋病调查分析%An Investigation on Dental Caries Among 4662 Earlier School Age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔士杰; 孙泽河

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨学龄前期儿童龋齿与是否独生子女、寄托、婴儿期喂养方式的关系。方法口腔保健医师采用提问填表法进行调查。结果受检4662名儿童,患龋齿儿童1767名,其中总龋患率为37.90%,6~7岁龋患率为43.24%。与独生子女、寄托、婴儿期喂养方式有极大关系。结论说明建立健全口腔卫生保健制度,提倡母乳喂养,儿童入托后培养其良好的卫生生活习惯及采取正确的口腔卫生保健措施,对龋齿病的发生有重要的防治作用。%Objective To dicuss the relation of Dental caries of earlier school age children with single child, entrusting, and feeding ways. Methods Mouth carity Doctors investigated with the questionaire through health examination . Results  4662 children were examined in Dental caries in 1767 cses,accounting for 37.9%. Dental caries peak 6~7 years old children with the rate 43.24%.It was related to single child,entrusting and feeding ways. Conclusion To build perfect health protection system and encourage mother milkfeeding and carry out mouth cavity health protection system are important to prevent and cure dental caries.

  7. History of the recommended atomic-weight values from 1882 to 1997: A comparision of differences from current values to the estimated uncertainties of earlier values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Peiser, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    International commissions and national committees for atomic weights (mean relative atomic masses) have recommended regularly updated, best values for these atomic weights as applicable to terrestrial sources of the chemical elements. Presented here is a historically complete listing starting with the values in F. W. Clarke's 1882 recalculation, followed by the recommended values in the annual reports of the American Chemical Society's Atomic Weights Commission. From 1903, an International Commission published such reports and its values (scaled to an atomic weight of 16 for oxygen) are here used in preference to those of national committees of Britain, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, and the U.S.A. We have, however, made scaling adjustments from Ar(16O) to Ar(12C) where not negligible. From 1920, this International Commission constituted itself under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Since then, IUPAC has published reports (mostly biennially) listing the recommended atomic weights, which are reproduced here. Since 1979, these values have been called the "standard atomic weights" and, since 1969, all values have been published, with their estimated uncertainties. Few of the earlier values were published with uncertainties. Nevertheless, we assessed such uncertainties on the basis of our understanding of the likely contemporary judgement of the values' reliability. While neglecting remaining uncertainties of 1997 values, we derive "differences" and a retrospective index of reliability of atomic-weight values in relation to assessments of uncertainties at the time of their publication. A striking improvement in reliability appears to have been achieved since the commissions have imposed upon themselves the rule of recording estimated uncertainties from all recognized sources of error.

  8. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  9. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  10. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., drunkenness, vagrancy, disturbing the peace, curfew violation, loitering, false fire alarm, non-specific charges of suspicion or investigation, and traffic violations (except data will be included on arrests...

  11. Including risk in the balanced scorecard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    iiSouthern African Business Review Special Edition Accounting Research 2015. Including risk in the .... customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspectives comprise ...... Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Kaplan ...

  12. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  13. Regional differences on patterns of physical activity and leisure sedentary time: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank study, including a million people from 10 regions%中国慢性病前瞻性研究:10个项目地区成人体力活动和休闲静坐时间特征差异的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊萌语; 吕筠; 郭彧; 卞铮; 余灿清; 杜怀东; 周汇燕; 谭云龙; 陈君石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the gender and regional differences in patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior across 10 study areas through data from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) that involving half a million adults.Methods The baseline survey of CKB took place in 5 urban and 5 rural areas across China during 2004-2008.After excluding those who had a prior history of heart disease,stroke and/or cancer,486 514 participants (age:30-79 y) were included in the analyses.MET-h/d was calculated for each one of the participant,based on the type,duration and intensity of self-reported physical activity,along with time spent on sedentary activity.These data were compared,after standardization for age between sex and study areas.Results The mean total physical activity was 22.9 MET-h/d among men,20.6 MET-b/d among women,and the mean sedentary leisure time appeared 3.1 h/d in men and 2.9 h/d in women.In men,the total physical activity ranged from 13.3 MET-h/d in Haikou to 31.3 MET-h/d in Zhejiang,while in women it ranged from 14.7 MET-h/d to 30.2 MET-h/d across the 10 areas.For sedentary leisure time,it ranged from 2.0 h/d in Zhejiang to 3.8 h/d in Sichuan in men and 1.6 h/d to 3.7 h/d in women.In both men and women,occupational physical activities (77.6% and 59.8% respectively) accounted for most of the daily activities,while leisure time physical activities accounted for the least (3.1% in both men and women).Among men,the proportion of occupational physical activity ranged from 86.5% in Zhejiang to 69.4% in Haikou (69.4%),while in women it ranged from 74.8% in Zhejiang to 40.9% in Henan.Gansu (men 17.8%,women 18.1%) reported the highest proportion of transportation physical activities.Among women,areas reporting the highest proportion of physical activity at home would include Henan (54.0%) and Hunan (39.1%),whereas adults in Zhejiang (20.0%) reported the lowest proportion.Among men,Hunan (18.0%) reported the highest proportion of

  14. Recent developments in superconducting materials including ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the history of superconduction starting in 1911, when the superconducting phenomenon was first observed in murcury, until the recent discovery of superconducting materials with high critical temperatures. After outlining the BCS theory, basic characteristics are discussed including the critical temperature, magnetic field and current density to be reached for realizing the superconducting state. Various techniques for practical superconducting materials are discussed, including methods for producing extra fine multiconductor wires from such superconducting alloys as Nb-Ti, intermetallic Nb/sub 3/Sn compound and V/sub 3/Ga, as well as methods for producing wires of Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/(Al, Ge) and Nb/sub 3/Ge such as continuous melt quenching, electron beam irradiation, laser beam irradiation and chemical evaporation. Characteristics of superconducting ceramics are described, along with their applications including superconducting magnets and superconducting elements. (15 figs, 1 tab, 19 refs)

  15. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  16. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  17. The Case for Strategies that Include Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Case for Strategies that Include Men. Denise M Roth and .... one set of approaches advocated using medical cri- teria to identify and ... planning, offering services for the prevention and ..... are equipped with the basic minimum needed to respond to ..... Lane SD Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in ...

  18. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  19. An acoustic finite element including viscothermal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2007-01-01

    In acoustics it is generally assumed that viscous- en thermal boundary layer effects play a minor role in the propagation of sound waves. Hence, these effects are neglected in the basic set of equations describing the sound field. However, for geometries that include small confinements of air or thi

  20. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  1. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  2. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  3. [Prevention of dementia (including Alzheimer's disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, H H

    2004-05-01

    Prevention of dementia: Life expectancy still increases linearly, and the elderly part of the European population grows rapidly in relation to the young. Dementia, however, grows even more rapidly, because it increases exponentially after age 65; it will become a great burden if nothing is done. The discussion so far is concentrated on treatment, whereas prevention is neglected. The therapy of dementia, however, has limited effect. Contrary to a widespread opinion prevention is possible. Genetic factors alone dominate the fate of cognition only in about 3 % of the cases. Besides age, lifestyle and the vascular risk factors exercise a great influence. High blood pressure carries a fourfold risk, diabetes more than doubles the risk both of the vascular and of the Alzheimer type; combined even more. Especially cerebral microangiopathy is strongly associated with Alzheimer's dementia, it triggers the vicious circle which leads to amyloid deposition. The importance of the circulation is underestimated, because most of the microvascular cerebral lesions are not perceived by the patient. All the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease after age 65 are also vascular risk factors especially for microangiopathy: Apo-E4, oestrogen deficiency, insulin resistance, diabetes, arterial hypertension, high cholesterol, old age and increased plasma homocystin which is often caused by alcohol consumption even in moderate doses. A healthy life style with daily outdoor activity and a Mediterranean diet not only reduces the risk of dementia, but also of coronary death and cancer. Cognitively stimulating activity protects even more than physical activity against dementia; the basis for this is acquired in youth by education. Therapy with statins is advisable if atherosclerosis cannot be reasonably counteracted by physical activity and diet.

  4. EARLIER FORMAL ETHICS EDUCATION, THE IMPORTANCE OF MEICAL ETHICS AND EXPECTATION OF ETHICS DOCTOR IN FIRST GRADE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF MEDICAL FACULTY UNIVERSITAS TANJUNGPURA PONTIANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Armyanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHealth care decisions are based not only on clinical and technical grounds, but also onethical grounds. Although we carefully weigh the clinical and technical aspects, ethical issuesinvolved may be overlooked. A legal framework or code of conduct governing doctor's decisionsand behaviour may help overcome this problem but they often provide rigid guidelines for alimited number of situations. Earlier education in ethics might have some advantages to build agood medical character. The perception of the importance of medical ethics could also had aneffect to the expectation of a good medical doctor should be. This research was a cross sectionalstudy in first grade medical students of medical faculty Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak,conducted in the last week of April, 2014. All of first grade medical students participated in thisstudy. This subjects given questionaire contained several questions : did they ever get a lessonof ethics in their Senior high schcol, how important the medical ethics and after studied medicalethics, what were their expectation ?. 86 subjects participated, 3'1 (36,05% subjects are maleand 55(63,95% subjects are female. The Age range from 16-20 years old, median 1B years oldand mode 1B years old. The subject came from 39 senior high school, was spread from papua,java dan kalimantan. Only 10(25,64% senior high school had been given ethics in theircurriculum and this'1C school all located in Kalinrantan. One subject (1,16%stated that ethicsjust a common lesson while 35 (40,7A %subjects stated ihat ethics was inrportani and most ofthe subjects, 50(58,14% subjects stated that ethics was very important lesson. The expectationafter studying medical ethics are : 39(45,35 o/o subjects: respect and emphatize the other people,17 (19.77% subjeets : be a betier person, 14(16,28o/c subjeets: hospitable docior, 11 (12,79o/osub;ects :Apply the basic principle of bioethics and 5 (5,81% sublects :treat the other like we'dlike to be

  5. Evidence for stabilization of the ice-cemented cryosphere in earlier martian history: Implications for the current abundance of groundwater at depth on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David K.; Head, James W.

    2017-05-01

    , atmospheric pressure, obliquity, and surface heat flux conditions under which the downward-propagating cryosphere freezing front matches the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere. The thermal models which can best reproduce the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere occur for obliquities between 25° and 45° and CO2 atmospheric pressures ≤600 mbar, but require increased heat fluxes and surface temperatures/pressures relative to the Amazonian period. Because the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere is much thinner compared with Amazonian-aged cryosphere thermal models, we suggest that the ice-cemented cryosphere ceased growing when it exhausted the underlying groundwater supply (i.e., ICC stabilization) in a more ancient period in Mars geologic history. Our thermal analysis suggests that this ICC stabilization likely occurred sometime before or at ∼3.0-3.3 Ga (during or before the Late Hesperian or Early Amazonian period). If groundwater remained below the ICC during the earlier Late Noachian period, our models predict that mean annual surface temperatures during this time were ≥212-227 K. If the Late Noachian had a pure CO2 atmosphere, this places a minimum bound on the Late Noachian atmospheric pressure of ≥390-850 mbar. These models suggest that deep groundwater is not abundant or does not persist in the subsurface of Mars today, and that diffusive loss of ice from the subsurface has been minimal.

  6. Earlier application of loading doses of aspirin and clopidogrel decreases rate of recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fa-kuan; LIN Le-jian; HUA Ning; LU Hong; QI Zhi; TANG Xue-zheng

    2012-01-01

    significantly increased compared with that in the control group,3%,10% and 1%,respectively (P <0.01).In contrast,the occurrence rates in the R+L group (10%,23% and 6%,respectively) were attenuated compared with those in the R+R group (P <0.01 ),although still higher than in the control group (P <0.01).Conclusions Almost all of the cardiovascular ischemic events occurred in the first six months after percutaneous coronary intervention.According to the result of TEG determinations,earlier application of a loading dose of aspirin and clopidogrel can decrease the rate of recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events.

  7. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  8. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  9. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  10. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  11. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  12. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  13. Including supplementary elements in a compositional biplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunis-i-Estadella, J.; Thió-Henestrosa, S.; Mateu-Figueras, G.

    2011-05-01

    The biplot is a widely and powerful methodology used with multidimensional data sets to describe and display the relationships between observations and variables in an easy way. Compositional data are vectors with positive components, whose sum is constant because they represent a relative contribution of different parts to a whole; due to this property standard biplots cannot be performed with compositional data, instead of a previous transformation of the data is performed. In this paper, we extend the compositional biplot defined by Aitchison and Greenacre (2002), in order to include in the display supplementary elements which are not used in the definition of the compositional biplot. Different types of supplementary elements are considered: supplementary parts of the composition, supplementary continuous variables external to the composition, supplementary categorical variables and supplementary observations. The projection of supplementary parts of the composition is done by means of the equivalence of clr and lr biplots. The other supplementary projections are done by classical methodology. An application example with a real geological data is included.

  14. A study on ovicidal activities of extracts from 35 species of plants (including Coronilla varia)against Mythimna separata%绣球小冠花等35种植物提取物对粘虫的杀卵作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏艳; 胡冠芳; 余海涛; 牛树君; 李玉奇

    2012-01-01

    The ovicidal activities of extracts from 35 species of plants (including Coronilla varia) against My-thimna separata were measured by immersion methods. The acetone extract from Levisticum officinale seeds, chloroform extract from Cnidium monnieri seeds, methanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts from Ricinus communis seeds, methanol, ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts from C. varia roots all had strong ovicidal activities against M. separata. Corrected non-hatching ratios of eggs were 100% after 5 days treatment. Extracts of 75% methanol, and petroleum ether from L. officinale roots and of methanol and petroleum ether extracts from L. officinale seeds had strong ovicidal activities with corrected non-hatching ratios of eggs of 39. 65%, 35. 31%, 55. 99%, 34. 51% respectively. Petroleum ether extracts from C. varia roots, Datura stramonium seeds and Abutilon theophrasti seeds had some ovicidal activities - corrected non-hatching ratios of eggs were 11. 45%, 11. 79% and 10. 60% respectively. Other extracts had no ovicidal activity. Four species of plants (C. varia, L. officinale, C. monnieri and R. communis) with effective ovicidal activities are worth further research and development.%采用浸卵法测定了绣球小冠花等35种植物提取物对粘虫的杀卵作用.结果表明,欧当归种子丙酮提取物、蛇床种子氯仿提取物、蓖麻种子甲醇、石油醚与乙酸乙酯提取物、绣球小冠花根甲醇、乙醇、丙酮与乙酸乙酯提取物对粘虫具有很强的杀卵作用,5d的校正未孵化率均达100%;欧当归根75%甲醇与石油醚提取物、欧当归种子甲醇与石油醚提取物具有较强的杀卵作用,校正未孵化率分别为39.65%与35.31%,55.99%与34.51%,绣球小冠花根、曼陀罗种子和苘麻种子石油醚提取物具有一定的杀卵作用,校正未孵化率分别为11.45%,11.79%和10.60%,其他提取物杀卵作用很弱或无杀卵作用.绣球小冠花

  15. History matters: The impact of reviews and sales of earlier versions of a product on consumer and expert reviews of new editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Situmeang, F.B.I.; Leenders, M.A.A.M.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Product reviews are assumed to be based on the observable characteristics of the underlying product. However, in the case of new editions in a product series, the determinants may include signals that originate from the reviews and the sales of editions that precede the focal product edition. Our

  16. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  17. Reconnection experiments including 3D magnetic nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Vrublevskis, A.

    2010-11-01

    A rich collection of magnetic reconnection scenarios is possible in three dimensions depending on the topological and geometric structure of the magnetic field [1]. In recent experiments at the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) three-dimensional effects were essential even in nearly axisymmetric plasmas with a non-vanishing toroidal field [2]. To explore reconnection in 3D geometries including magnetic null points, a new adjustable set of coils will be installed in the vacuum chamber of VTF. The range of vacuum magnetic field topologies attainable in VTF will be explored numerically. Plasma reconnection experiments will be run in these configurations, and measurements will be presented if available. [4pt] [1] CE Parnell, et al., (2009) ``Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection, in Magnetic Coupling between the Interior and the Atmosphere of the Sun,'' eds. S.S. Hasan and R.J. Rutten, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. [0ex] [2] Katz, N. et al., (2010) Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004.

  18. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  19. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  20. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  1. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  2. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  3. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  4. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  5. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  6. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  8. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  9. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  10. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  11. New generation concretes including reactive powder concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Grzeszczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a broad literature review, this paper presents characteristics of new generation composites on the basis of cements which are applied in engineering structures and in rehabilitation of structures. The role of cement, microfillers, superplasticizers and fibers in the above stated composites i.e. factors which allow for the maximum packing of particles in the cement matrix and a minimum pore volume, and the increase in composite bending strength, have been discussed. Special attention was paid to Reactive Powder Concrete in which coarse aggregate was replaced by ground quartz and sand. Such composites contain active microfillers and the applied new-generation superplasticizers allow us to decrease the water-cement ratio in the composite up to 0.2. Whereas, steel fibre additive allows us to significantly improve the bending strength.The paper presents the properties of the excellent Ductal — a composite from Reactive Powder Concrete, which at compressive strength from 180 to 230 MPa achieves the tensile strength of 30 to 50 MPa. Its application allows us to create slim profiles and tall light and slender, and simultaneously durable and corrosion-resistant structural elements of considerable span. This paper gives a few examples of Ductal application in practice.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, composite materials, reactive powder concrete

  12. Imaging of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Baraliakos, X

    2011-03-01

    New bone formation of the vertebral column is pathognomonic for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while acute and/or chronic changes in the sacroiliac joints are relevant for diagnosis. The 'gold standard' for assessment of structural changes in AS are conventional radiographs, while MRI is useful to assess inflammation. Recent MRI studies have shown that the lower half of the thoracic spine is most commonly affected in AS. Scoring tools for spinal inflammation such as the ASspiMRI-a have been proposed, successfully used in large clinical trials and compared in a multireader experiment; none was finally preferred by OMERACT. Quantification of structural spinal AS changes is performed by the modified Stokes AS Spine Score (mSASSS), which evaluates lateral cervical and lumbar radiographs. Two years was identified as the shortest possible follow-up time based on the reliability and sensitivity to change of the mSASSS. A potential disadvantage of the mSASSS is that the thoracic spine is not included. Recent data based on the mSASSS have suggested that tumour necrosis factor blockers do not inhibit radiographic progression in AS. Since the mean radiographic change is reported to be less than 1 syndesmophyte over 2 years, the sensitivity to change of the mSASSS has been questioned. However, in one study where continuous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use was compared with on-demand use, a difference between these two methods of drug intake was reported. The face and construct validity of the mSASSS has been criticised because a score of ´1´ contains a mixture of osteodestructive (erosions) and osteoproliferative changes (squaring and sclerosis). A new scoring system, the RASSS, which concentrates only on bone formation and which includes the lower part of the thoracic spine is currently being evaluated. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation in AS has recently been investigated. Low sclerostin and DKK-1 serum levels, both inhibitors of bone

  13. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  14. Full Boltzmann equations for leptogenesis including scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn-Woernle, F; Wong, Y Y Y

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by means of the full classical Boltzmann equations, without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors. Beginning with the full mode equations we derive the usual equations of motion for the right-handed neutrino number density and integrated lepton asymmetry, and show explicitly the impact of each assumption on these quantities. For the first time, we investigate also the effects of scattering of the right-handed neutrino with the top quark to leading order in the Yukawa couplings by means of the full Boltzmann equations. We find that in our full Boltzmann treatment the final lepton asymmetry can be suppressed by as much as a factor of 1.5 in the weak wash-out regime (K1), the full Boltzmann treatment and the integrated approach give nearly identical final lepton asymmetries (within 10 % of each other at K>3). Finally, we show that the opposing effects of quantum statistics on decays/i...

  15. Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A paper presents further results of continuing research reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most recent being Stochastic Representations of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors (NPO-41519), [Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 2006), page 57] and Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness (NPO-43822) [Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), page 56]. This research focuses upon a mathematical formalism for describing post-instability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism involves fictitious control forces that couple the equations of motion of the system with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These stabilizing forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in configuration space (ordinary three-dimensional space as commonly perceived) is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. As a result, the post-instability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable.

  16. Odontogenic fibroma, including amyloid and ossifying variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Lewis R

    2011-12-01

    Sixty-five cases of odontogenic fibroma (OdonF) are herein presented having been segregated into peripheral, extra bony tumors (n = 40) and tumors arising in bone or centrally (n = 25). All cases were characterized microscopically by a fibrous proliferation that varied within and between cases in cellularity and collagen fibril diameter, with intermixed odontogenic epithelial islands and cords. All central lesions presented as well demarcated radiolucencies and resorption of contiguous tooth roots was a common finding. These intraosseous lesions were of the WHO type; the so-called nonWHO type was excluded as all lesions with this diagnosis were devoid of an epithelial component and could be reclassified as other soft tissue fibrogenic tumors. Neither the central tumors nor the peripheral lesions recurred following enucleation/curettage, with a mean follow-up of 4 and 3.4 years respectively. Three distinct microscopic variations were encountered in this series: (1) two cases of OdonF with giant cell reaction, (2) two instances of OdonF with ossifying fibroma; and (3) four instances of OdonF with odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM), an amyloid-like protein found deposited adjacent to epithelial cords plus CD1a+/S-100+ Langerhans dendritic cells entwined around the epithelial element. A single instance of the odontogenic fibroma-like hamartoma/enamel hypoplasia syndrome has been included in this series.

  17. Locomotive Assignment Optimization Including Train Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intention– Cyclic locomotive assignment planning is a specific type of organization of locomotive usage, and in fact, it means putting the complete workload to a closed chain, which is repeated periodically. The concept of cyclic locomotive assignment planning type organization in the area of train traction has proven in practice as the best one, but as it is made for in-advance defined timetable and without considering the stochastic nature of the timetable realization process, it leads to incompatibility in using locomotives. Methodology – Methodology defined in this paper contains: research of train delays on the Serbian Railways and Montenegrin Railways networks, analysis of the real system organization of locomotive usage in conditions of train delays, theoretical thesis of solving the problem of optimal cyclic locomotive assignment planning in conditions of train delays, designing of a model with algorithms, preparing the software package, testing the model and program with results, as well as the conclusions drawn from the complete research project. Results– The optimization model of cyclic locomotive assignment planning during the process of making timetable including train delays has been defined. Conclusion –The obtained results have shown as expected, that the larger delays of trains required a larger number of locomotives. However, by using this model it is possible to optimize the required number of locomotives, taking into account the real time delays of trains.

  18. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  19. Changing clinical presentation of angiosarcomas after breast cancer: from late tumors in edematous arms to earlier tumors on the thoracic wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styring, Emelie; Fernebro, Josefin; Jönsson, Per-Ebbe

    2010-01-01

    mastectomy and radiotherapy 1949-1988 developed angiosarcomas in edematous arms (Stewart-Treves syndrome) after median 11 years, and 17 females treated by segmental resection, anti-hormonal treatment and radiotherapy 1980-2005 developed angiosarcomas in the irradiated field on the thoracic wall after median...... 7.3 years. The clinical presentations were heterogeneous and included hematoma-like lesions, multiple bluish-reddish nodules, and asymptomatic lumps. The overall 5-year survival was 16%. In this population-based cohort, the early angiosarcomas developed in edematous arms after radical mastectomies...

  20. Epidemiological study of sun exposure and visual field damage in children in Primorsko-Goranska County--the risk factors of earlier development of macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojniković, Bozo; Synek, Svatopluk; Mićović, Vladimir; Telezar, Mirna; Linsak, Zeljko

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible harmful effects of solar exposure on visual field damage in children living in Primorsko-Goranska County. Our previous work has shown noxious influence on visual field in children with anamnesis long term exposure to sunlight. This is an extended study, including children in Novi Vinodolski and Gorski kotar. We measured possible defect in isopteric visual field and macular-meridian thresholds. In the area of island of Rab these changes were the biggest, subsequently is Novi Vinodolski and at least Gorski kotar with the smallest range of eye complicates according to exposure to sunlight. These damages correlate with the areas of great solar emission. Damages in periphery isopters of visual field have shown the characteristics of periphery defect invagination, while increased macular thresholds in complete visual field was from 5 to 15Asb. We can conclude that there is direct connection between increased sunlight and long-term exposure to sunlight on one side, and on the other side, damages of retinal perception. Increased sun exposure may represent very important factors in early occurrence and develop of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). It is recommended the children protection in summer months, as well as taking derivates of vitamin A and antioxidants. Nowadays, AMD is one of the most important causes of damaged visual field, pretend to be national problem if we don't use the adequate prevention. World Health Organization has to begin with prevention of AMD, including these risk factors.

  1. Novel protocol including liver biopsy to identify and treat CD8+ T-cell predominant acute hepatitis and liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Rebecca B; Berquist, William E; Nadeau, Kari C; Louie, Christine Y; Chen, Sharon F; Sibley, Richard K; Glader, Bertil E; Wong, Wendy B; Hofmann, Lawrence V; Esquivel, Carlos O; Cox, Kenneth L

    2014-08-01

    In the majority of children with ALF, the etiology is unknown and liver transplantation is often needed for survival. A patient case prompted us to consider that immune dysregulation may be the cause of indeterminate acute hepatitis and liver failure in children. Our study includes nine pediatric patients treated under a multidisciplinary clinical protocol to identify and treat immune-mediated acute liver injury. Patients with evidence of inflammation and no active infection on biopsy received treatment with intravenous immune globulin and methylprednisolone. Seven patients had at least one positive immune marker before or after treatment. All patients had a CD8+ T-cell predominant liver injury that completely or partially responded to immune therapy. Five of the nine patients recovered liver function and did not require liver transplantation. Three of these patients subsequently developed bone marrow failure and were treated with either immunosuppression or stem cell transplant. This series highlights the importance of this tissue-based approach to diagnosis and treatment that may improve transplant-free survival. Further research is necessary to better characterize the immune injury and to predict the subset of patients at risk for bone marrow failure who may benefit from earlier and stronger immunosuppressive therapy.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  3. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  4. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  5. Rehabilitation of a triple amputee including a hip disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J C; Park, C I; Kim, Y C; Jang, S H; Bang, I K; Shin, J S

    1998-12-01

    A multiple amputee more severe than a triple amputee is uncommon. There have been no reports on the rehabilitation outcome of a triple amputee, including hip disarticulation and transtibial amputation. The authors report the rehabilitation of a patient with left hip disarticulation, right trans-tibial amputation, and left trans-humeral amputation due to a train accident. He has successfully completed the rehabilitation programme and has become independent in prosthetic ambulation, activities of daily living, and driving.

  6. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  7. On the Interpretation of Earlier Recovery of the Second Language After Injection of Sodium Amytal in the Left Middle Cerebral Artery or Are There Relevant Facts Without Interpretation?: A Response to Paradis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Schumann, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to Paradis's (1990) argument that these authors misreported the facts presented by Berthier, Starkstein, Lylyk, and Leiguarda (1990) regarding the recovery by a bilingual patient of his second language earlier than his native tongue subsequent to injection of a narcotic drug. The article argues that Paradis is incorrect. (nine references)…

  8. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.

  9. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  10. Correspondence between future-included and future-not-included theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the correspondence principle proposed in our previous paper, which claims that if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time $T_B$ and the past state at time $T_A$ as an expectation value in the complex action theory whose path runs over not only past but also future, the expectation value at the present time $t$ of a future-included theory for large $T_B-t$ and large $t-T_A$ corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large $t-T_A$. This correspondence principle suggests that the future-included theory is not excluded phenomenologically.

  11. A Mixed Mode Cochlear Amplifier Including Neural Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Matthew R.; Holmes, W. Harvey

    2011-11-01

    The mixed mode cochlear amplifier (MMCA) model is derived from the physiology of the cochlea. It is comprised of three main elements of the peripheral hearing system: the cochlear mechanics, hair cell motility, and neurophysiology. This model expresses both active compression wave and active traveling wave modes of operation. The inclusion of a neural loop with a time delay, and a new paradigm for the mechanical response of the outer hair cells, are believed to be unique features of the MMCA. These elements combine to form an active feedback loop to constitute the cochlear amplifier, whose input is a passive traveling wave vibration. The result is a cycle-by-cycle amplifier with nonlinear response. This system can assume an infinite number of different operating states. The stable state and the first few amplitude-limited unstable (Hopf-bifurcated) states are significant in describing the operation of the peripheral hearing system. A hierarchy of models can be constructed from this concept, depending on the amount of detail included. The simplest model of the MMCA is a nonlinear delay line resonator. It was found that even this simple MMCA version can explain a large number of hearing phenomena, at least qualitatively. This paper concentrates on explaining the fractional octave shift from the living to postmortem response in terms of the new model. Other mechanical, hair cell and neurological phenomena can also be accounted for by the MMCA, including two-tone suppression behavior, distortion product responses, otoacoustic emissions and neural spontaneous rates.

  12. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  13. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  14. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  15. Body art education: the earlier, the better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Tustin, Jane; Owen, Donna C; Koch, Jerome R; Roberts, Alden E

    2014-02-01

    Using the major format identified for successful prevention and intervention work, five "W" questions: what, why, whom, where, and who, plus one: how, this article first summarizes the current body art literature. Then, educational strategies specifically regarding the topic of tattoos and body piercing are presented for school nurses. These strategies can be used to create applicable, realistic information for young students before they are faced with decisions related to body art. The school nurse might be the first and only credible source of information the students receive related to body art in an education/health environment. Curriculum emphasis is on the decision making leading up to the action, and the major purposes, rather than on the markings or jewelry associated with procurement. Reducing decisional conflict while promoting positive development in the areas of empowerment, self-esteem, and maturing can help achieve stronger informed decision making.

  16. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle, mov

  17. Earlier Debridement and Antibiotic Administration Decrease Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    10.68 g). Using aseptic technique , a longitudinal incision was made over the left anterolateral femur, and the entire femoral shaft was exposed using... inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. At 2, 6, or 24 hours following contamination, defects were irrigated and debrided then directly closed or...surgical techniques across clinicians. Animal studies may help to elucidate the issue. The aim of this study was to determine in a contami- nated critical

  18. An earlier origin for the Acheulian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepre, Christopher J; Roche, Hélène; Kent, Dennis V; Harmand, Sonia; Quinn, Rhonda L; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Lenoble, Arnaud; Feibel, Craig S

    2011-08-31

    The Acheulian is one of the first defined prehistoric techno-complexes and is characterized by shaped bifacial stone tools. It probably originated in Africa, spreading to Europe and Asia perhaps as early as ∼1 million years (Myr) ago. The origin of the Acheulian is thought to have closely coincided with major changes in human brain evolution, allowing for further technological developments. Nonetheless, the emergence of the Acheulian remains unclear because well-dated sites older than 1.4 Myr ago are scarce. Here we report on the lithic assemblage and geological context for the Kokiselei 4 archaeological site from the Nachukui formation (West Turkana, Kenya) that bears characteristic early Acheulian tools and pushes the first appearance datum for this stone-age technology back to 1.76 Myr ago. Moreover, co-occurrence of Oldowan and Acheulian artefacts at the Kokiselei site complex indicates that the two technologies are not mutually exclusive time-successive components of an evolving cultural lineage, and suggests that the Acheulian was either imported from another location yet to be identified or originated from Oldowan hominins at this vicinity. In either case, the Acheulian did not accompany the first human dispersal from Africa despite being available at the time. This may indicate that multiple groups of hominins distinguished by separate stone-tool-making behaviours and dispersal strategies coexisted in Africa at 1.76 Myr ago.

  19. Addressing second-career teachers' earlier experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative certification programmes (ACPs) for second-career teachers are seen as a solution to teacher shortages because they offer a way to expand a pool of qualified teachers by attracting individuals who might otherwise not have become teachers. The principal virtue of ACPs is that they are lab

  20. Body Art Education: The Earlier, the Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L.; Tustin, Jane; Owen, Donna C.; Koch, Jerome R.; Roberts, Alden E.

    2014-01-01

    Using the major format identified for successful prevention and intervention work, five "W" questions: what, why, whom, where, and who, plus one: how, this article first summarizes the current body art literature. Then, educational strategies specifically regarding the topic of tattoos and body piercing are presented for school nurses.…

  1. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  2. Activation of Students with Various Teaching Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2011-01-01

    A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students.......A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students....

  3. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  4. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 64Cu to include the 2009 results of the CMI-IIR (Czech Rep.) and the NPL (UK), the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France) and the 2011 result of the ENEA-INMRI (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Sochorovà, J.; Auerbach, P.; Keightley, J.; Johansson, L.; Bakhshandeiar, E.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.; Capogni, M.; De Felice, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, four national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted four samples of known activity of 64Cu to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64. The values of the activity submitted were between about 3 MBq and 260 MBq. There are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64 comparison. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been calculated for the first time for this nuclide. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Ho-166m activity measurements to include the IRA and the NPL and a re-evaluation of the degrees of equivalence for the APMP.RI(II)-K2.Ho-166m comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Nedjadi, Y.; Bailat, C.; Johansson, L.; Hino, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The IRA and the NPL have submitted ampoules of 166Hom to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, thus becoming the third and fourth participants since 1989. The five samples of known activity of 166Hom now recorded in the SIR have activities between about 70 kBq and 500 kBq. The new results have enabled a re-evaluation of the key comparison reference value, and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated. The results are given in the form of a matrix for these four NMIs together with the recalculated degrees of equivalence of an APMP regional comparison held in 2000, comparison identifier APMP.RI(II)-K2.Ho-166m for six other NMIs. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  7. Persistent Aeolian Activity at Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, M.; Michaels, T. I.; Fenton, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of sites that are known to have active dunes and ripples is generally limited to 3 Mars-Years (MY). Here, we discuss new results of dune activity and albedo change in Endeavour crater (EC), Meridiani Planum (MP) that record eight MY of aeolian activity. MP dune fields often show large yearly variations in albedo; EC darkened by ~12% in TES albedo between MY 24 and 26 (from 0.14 to 0.12). THEMIS VIS albedo of dunes did not change significantly from MY 26 to 29, but did decrease notably (~15 %) in MY 30. These darkening events are most likely related to aeolian-driven dust cleaning (e.g., removal by saltating sand, dust devils). For example, the Opportunity rover (poised on the western rim of EC) observed evidence for a MY 31 dune field dust-clearing event. HiRISE monitoring of MP has shown it be one of the most active regions outside of north polar latitudes. Paired images of western EC taken 3 MY apart show clear evidence for dune modification that include: ripple migration, change in dune perimeters, exposure of previously buried light-toned rock, and/or burial of rock by sand (Fig. 1a-1b). Dune slip face movement is evident for most dunes, where crests and aprons advanced (2-7 m) in the downwind direction (to the SSE) at rates of 0.7-2.3 m per MY. Small dome dunes in the eastern EC were found to have a large degree of aeolian activity (e.g., deflation and/or translation) by an earlier study that used MGS-MRO images (MY 24-30). New MY 31 images validate earlier observations, showing clear evidence for bedform deflation where dunes often occupy less area (~50%) than in earlier MY 29 images (Fig. 1c-1d). Areal removal rates are on par with earlier estimates. Bedform modification and sand streamer orientation appear to be caused by a NNW wind regime, consistent with earlier observations, mesoscale modeling, and the transport direction of barchans to the west. Dunes in EC are now known to be periodically (consistently?) active from over a decade

  8. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  9. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    studies in the Ph.D. project will evaluate whether early spirometry measurements can be used to predict future lung disease and describe the follow up of patients with abnormal spirometry measurements at the general practitioner. Disclosure of interest: None to declare. Key words: early spirometry......Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...

  10. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion.

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL’s clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients’ group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  12. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Topdressing Earlier and Source-sink Modification on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%氮肥前移和源库修饰对烤烟产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊芬; 傅淋; 王建波; 周乾; 屠乃美; 易镇邪; 邹湘香; 易江; 张炜; 刘泓翔

    2013-01-01

    以烤烟品种K326为材料,研究了氮肥前移和源库修饰(打顶、打叶)处理对烤烟大田各生育期农艺性状与烤后烟叶叶片厚度、经济性状和内在化学成分的影响。结果表明:氮肥前移处理烤烟在生育前期生长较为旺盛,后期以源库修饰处理长势较好,整个生长发育过程中以移栽后25 d内完成氮素追肥并进行源库修饰整体表现最佳;氮肥前移对叶片厚度影响不大,源库修饰使中上部叶片干物质积累量增加;同时采取氮肥前移和库源修饰两种处理措施,其产量、产值分别为2356.28 kg/hm2和47125.60元/hm2,烟碱和总氮含量最为适宜,内在化学成分协调性最好。综合考虑,移栽后25 d内全部完成氮素追肥并进行源库修饰的处理措施最适宜当地的烤烟生产,具有一定的应用价值。%Taking K326 as test variety, the effects of nitrogen fertilizer topdressing earlier and source-sink modification on agronomic traits, leaf thickness, economic characters and the intrinsic chemical composition were studied. The results showed that the treatment with nitrogen topdressing earlier was benefit for fast growth at early stage, and the treatment with source-sink modification ( leaf removal) grew well at the later stage, However, treatment with both topdressing earlier and source-sink modification appeared the best overall performance during the whole growth and development. Topdress-ing earlier had little influence on the blade thickness, source-sink modification increased the dry matter accumulation of upper leaves;Two measures taken at the same time, the yield and output value were 2 356.28 kg/hm2 and 4 7125.60 yuan/hm2 respectively, although the yield declined, but no obvious decreadin for output. Treatment with both topdressing earlier and source-sink modification had the optimum nicotine and total nitrogen content, and harmonious combination of intrinsic chemical composition. In a word, the treatment with

  13. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. By using high resolution gamma spectrometry cross-section data for the production of $^{51,48}$Cr, $^{48}$V, $^{48,47,46,44m,44g,43}$Sc and $^{43,42}$K were determined. Comparisons with the earlier published data are presented and results predicted by different theoretical codes (EMPIRE and TALYS) are included. Thick target yields were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves and compared with the earlier experimental yield data. Depth distribution curves to be used for thin layer activation (TLA) are also presented.

  14. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  15. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CPM) network. (4) The CPM network shall include a separate cost loaded activity for adjusting and... shall show on the critical path method (CPM) network the total cost of the guarantee period services in... contracting officer. The activity on the CPM shall have money only and not activity time. (ii) The...

  16. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs.

  17. Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on renal function among antiretroviral-na(i)ve HIV-infected adult patients%含TDF的HAART方案对抗逆转录病毒药物初治成年HIV感染患者肾功能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段兴钧; 章银娣; 杨宏; 谢金沛; 曹东冬; 排云珍; 白洁; 王国见; 高卓

    2015-01-01

    目的 探索含替诺福韦酯(tenofovir disoproxil fumarate,TDF)的高效抗逆转录病毒疗法(highly active antiretroviral therapy,HAART)对抗逆转录病毒药物初治HIV感染患者肾功能的影响.方法 本研究回顾性分析TDF治疗组和非TDF治疗组、依非韦伦(efavirenz,EFV)治疗组(即采用TDF+ lamivudine (3TC)+EFV方案治疗)和克力芝(lopinavir/ritonavir,LPV/RTV)治疗组(即采用TDF+ 3TC+ LPV/RTV方案治疗)在CD4细胞计数和内生肌酐清除率(rate of creatinine clearance,CrCl)上的差异.结果 TDF治疗组和非TDF治疗组患者的CD4细胞计数开始明显升高的时间分别为12周和48周.TDF治疗组患者在第24、48、60、72、84、96周时,CrCl比其基线时降低,差异具有统计学意义(均有P <0.05),而非TDF治疗组患者治疗后,CrCl未出现明显降低,无有统计学意义(均有P>0.05).EFV治疗组和LPV/RTV治疗组患者均从第12周起,CD4细胞计数升高,差异均有统计学意义(均有P<0.05).EFV治疗组患者和LPV/RTV治疗组患者的CrCl开始比其基线时降低的时间分别是72周和12周.结论 在患者各项危险因素可控的情况下,推荐TDF+ 3TC+ EFV为初治HIV患者的首选治疗方案.

  18. Study on the Earlier Public Security Work to Solve the Group Events%基于群体性事件的公安工作前置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华

    2015-01-01

    How to deal with group events concerns the image of government and public security agency and re-flects their social governance capacity. Development of group events and the idea of ruling the country according to law advocated by Central Government set new demands on public security agency about how to deal with group e-vents, and the earlier public security work can be seen as an effective measure to meet the demands. Assisted by the laws that how the group events happens and develops, the public security can provide the earlier community ser-vice, set up local police stations on network, keep its indiscriminate service as long as 24 hours and establish joint control with jurisdiction units on network through making full use of high and new technology and continuously inno-vating service mode. Only in this way can the public security do some earlier work to reduce the factors leading to group events, to solve contradictions timely and to stop the group events from happening or worsening.%群体性事件的处置关乎政府和公安机关的形象,体现了他们的社会治理能力。我国群体性事件发展态势和中央倡导的依法治国理念,对公安机关处置群体性事件提出了新要求,公安工作前置便是实现这一要求的有效手段。公安机关根据群体性事件发生、演变的规律,充分利用高新技术,不断创新服务方式,通过社区服务前置、建立网络派出所、提供全天候、无差别服务、以及辖区单位建立治安联控网络等措施,就能较好地将公安工作前置付诸实践,减少引发群体性事件的因素,适时化解相关方面的矛盾,降低事件发生或恶化的概率。

  19. Evidence-based interventions in dementia: A pragmatic cluster-randomised trial of an educational intervention to promote earlier recognition and response to dementia in primary care (EVIDEM-ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Tamar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Dementia Strategy seeks to enhance general practitioners' diagnostic and management skills in dementia. Early diagnosis in dementia within primary care is important as this allows those with dementia and their family care networks to engage with support services and plan for the future. There is, however, evidence that dementia remains under-detected and sub-optimally managed in general practice. An earlier unblinded, cluster randomised controlled study tested the effectiveness of educational interventions in improving detection rates and management of dementia in primary care. In this original trial, a computer decision support system and practice-based educational workshops were effective in improving rates of detecting dementia although not in changing clinical management. The challenge therefore is to find methods of changing clinical management. Our aim in this new trial is to test a customised educational intervention developed for general practice, promoting both earlier diagnosis and concordance with management guidelines. Design/Method The customised educational intervention combines practice-based workshops and electronic support material. Its effectiveness will be tested in an unblinded cluster randomised controlled trial with a pre-post intervention design, with two arms; normal care versus the educational intervention. Twenty primary care practices have been recruited with the aim of gaining 200 patient participants. We will examine whether the intervention is effective, pragmatic and feasible within the primary care setting. Our primary outcome measure is an increase in the proportion of patients with dementia who receive at least two dementia-specific management reviews per year. We will also examine important secondary outcomes such as practice concordance with management guidelines and benefits to patients and carers in terms of quality of life and carer strain. Discussion The EVIDEM-ED trial

  20. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E.; Essington, Timothy E.; Kaplan, Isaac C.

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill–Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod–Limacina helicina, pink shrimp–Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab–Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake–Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species’ vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  1. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Hodgson

    Full Text Available Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1 the maximum stage vulnerability and (2 a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  2. Activity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  3. Effect of Xinhuang Tablets on Herpes Zoster of the Earlier Period Neuralgia%新癀片治疗带状疱疹早期神经痛的序贯试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翔; 梁东辉; 马红利

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察新癀片治疗带状疱疹早期神经痛的疗效和安全性.方法 采用质反应开放型单向序贯试验,逐对纳入基线资料相当的带状疱疹患者,按照既定随机分配方案接受不同的治疗计划.每对患者均接受抗病毒治疗和氦氖激光治疗,其中一位患者同时予新癀片1.28g,po tid.结果 当观察到第15对符合纳入标准的病例时,实验线触及U线,表明新癀片对带状疱疹神经痛止痛有效,不良反应少.结论 新癀片治疗带状疱疹早期神经痛的疗效肯定,安全性好.%Objective:To observe the curative effect and safety of xinhuang tablets on herpes zoster of the earlier period neuralgia. Method: A sequential test of the open single-direction qualitative reaction was adopted, and patients with herpes zoster and similar characteristics at baseline were randomly divided into two groups for different therapy. Both groups received the anti-viral and He-Ne laser therapy, but the treatment group took xinhuang tablets. Result;Up to the 15 pairs observed, the experimental line met with U line. It showed that xinhuang tablets had effect with little adverse reactions on the pain of herpes zoster neuralgia. Conclusion: Xinhuang tablets were safe and effective on herpes zoster of earlier period neuralgia.

  4. 早期抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响%Survival effect regarding earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 安伟锋; 马彦民; 李宁; 朱谦; 孙定勇; 黄学勇; 许汴利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival effect of initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients at different stages so as to explore the best time of initiation with the treatment.Methods Information regarding the dates of AIDS patient initially receiving the anti-retroviral therapy during 2007-2012 was collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Integrated Control System.According to the level of baseline immunology,all the participants were divided into earlier treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts between 350/ μl and 500/μl) and conventional treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts ≤350/ μl).Data was analyzed under Survival and Review methods.Results A total number of 16 282 cases were selected.The mortality of conventional treatment group was obviously higher than the earlier treatment group (5.78/100 person year vs.1.64/100 person year),and the median survival time was lower than the earlier treatment group (2.07 year vs.3.15 year).The cumulative survival rate of the 6-year conventional treatment group was lower than the earlier treatment group (77.39% vs.92.10%,x2=156.00,P < 0.01).By means of multi-variable analysis,we found that factors as age,gender,marital status,route of transmission,schedule on initial therapy,number of symptoms at the baseline etc.in the conventional treatment group were associated with survival time of patients after the ART initiation (P<0.05),while gender,schedule for initial therapy,number of symptoms at baseline etc.in the earlier treatment group,were associated with survival time of patients after the initiation of ART (P<0.05).Conclusion Earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients could improve the survival rate and prolong the survival time.%目的 比较不同时间开始抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响,并探讨抗病毒治疗最佳时机.方法 利用国家艾滋病抗病毒治疗信息系统,收集2007-2012年河南省加入抗病毒治疗的艾滋病患者基本

  5. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  6. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Michael W; Aslam, Dean M; Janoudi, Abed; Chan, Ho-Yin; Wang, Donna H

    2011-08-15

    Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM). The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA), due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  7. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence.

  8. Olfactory and tissue markers of fear in mammals including humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Roman; Wiergowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Michał; Gos, Tomasz; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Studniarek, Michał; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Pheromones are a mysterious world of chemical signals involved in conspecific communication. They play a number of key functions important for preservation of life of individual organisms, for their defence, survival of offspring and preservation of species. The best-known groups of pheromones include: trail pheromones, territorial pheromones, sex pheromones, aggregation pheromones, dispersion pheromones, repellent pheromones, social pheromones and alarm pheromones. Alarm pheromones are pheromones that are emitted by animals in threatening situations and inform members of the same species of danger. The identified alarm pheromones are synthesised by insects and aquatic organisms. Also humans are able to emit and perceive pheromones. Although alarm pheromones have not been isolated and identified in man so far, there is presumably evidence for their presence in humans. Pinpointing human alarm pheromones, determinants of experienced stress and inductors of provoked fear could have widespread consequences. Their identification could also be of significant importance for the practical utilisation of results by institutions responsible for safety and defence as well as law enforcement/crime detection and antiterrorist activities.

  9. [Active learning strategies have proved effective in changing behaviours and encouraging continuing professional development (CPD) in nursing. Narrative pedagogy in particular has demonstrated its usefulness in this regard. This article describes narrative pedagogy through the lens of learning activities conducted in the classroom and in the course of practicum and CPD experiences. It also examines the challenges associated with implementing such activities and how to meet them. This includes not determining the content of activities completely in advance, specifying that the content to be discussed is not entirely known, that additional research could be required and that different options are to be explored, allowing students to express themselves freely, and tolerating moments of silence. Current and future teachers are urged to experiment with this novel teaching and learning approach that is grounded in phenomenological research and shows strong potential for the development of nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Louise; Porlier, Marie-Josée

    2017-08-17

    Active learning strategies have proved effective in changing behaviours and encouraging continuing professional development (CPD) in nursing. Narrative pedagogy in particular has demonstrated its usefulness in this regard. This article describes narrative pedagogy through the lens of learning activities conducted in the classroom and in the course of practicum and CPD experiences. It also examines the challenges associated with implementing such activities and how to meet them. This includes not determining the content of activities completely in advance, specifying that the content to be discussed is not entirely known, that additional research could be required and that different options are to be explored, allowing students to express themselves freely, and tolerating moments of silence. Current and future teachers are urged to experiment with this novel teaching and learning approach that is grounded in phenomenological research and shows strong potential for the development of nursing science.

  10. Radio Properties of Low Redshift Broad Line Active Galactic Nuclei Including Multiple Component Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the radio properties of a low redshift (z FRIIs. From these data we find an FRI/FRII luminosity dividing line like that found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974), where we use our core-only sources as proxies for FRIs, and our multi-component sources for the FRIIs. We find a bimodal distribution for the radio loudness (R = L(radio)/L(opt)) where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the multi-component extended sources, compared with no evidence for bimodality when just the core-only sources are used. We also find that a log(R) value of 1.75 is well suited to separate the FRIs from the FRIIs, and that the R bimodality seen here is really a manifestation of the FRI/FRII break originally found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974). We find modest trends in the radio loud fraction as a function of Eddington ratio and black hole mass, where the fraction of RL AGNs decreases with increasing Eddington ratio, and increases when the black hole mass is above 2 x 108 solar masses.

  11. Phytophthora infestans has a plethora of phospholipase D enzymes including a subclass that has extracellular activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.G.; Hassen, H.H.; Govers, F.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, an

  12. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed wi...

  13. Idea of the Person and Valuable Orientations of the Seniors Included in Collective Creative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononova O. B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of education in the conditions of collective creative interaction are discussed. The results of research of the self-image, an image of the senior companion, images of the good and the bad man in consciousness of children and adult, present and former members of the children's organization working by a technique of collective creative education are presented.

  14. In vitro bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides, including the next-generation drug plazomicin, against Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially improved safety profile compared to other aminoglycosides. This study assessed plazomicin MICs and MBCs in four Brucella spp. reference strains. Like other aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols, plazomicin MBC values equaled MIC values ...

  15. The High Velocity Galaxy Problem of $\\Lambda$CDM in the Local Group $-$ Including External Perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Banik, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    We recently used an axisymmetric model of the Local Group (LG) to show that the observed positions and velocities of galaxies inside it are difficult to reconcile with the standard cosmological model, $\\Lambda$CDM (MNRAS, 459, 2237). We now extend this investigation using a 3D model of the LG. This makes it feasible to directly include several other mass concentrations within and just outside the LG e.g. M33 and IC 342, respectively. As before, LG dwarf galaxies are treated as test particles. Although our best-fitting 3D model yields different velocity predictions for individual galaxies, the overall picture remains unchanged. In particular, observed radial velocities (RVs) tend to exceed $\\Lambda$CDM model predictions. The typical mismatch is slightly higher than in our earlier axisymmetric analysis, with a root mean square value of $\\sim$50 km/s. \\emph{Our main finding is that including the 3D distribution of massive perturbing dark matter halos is unlikely to help greatly with the high velocity galaxy prob...

  16. Screening marine organisms for antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; Tonima, K.; DeSouza, L.

    ) and Hospital. Antimicrobial assay Antibacterial activity of different extracts was assessed using standard disc-diffusion assay on marine agar as described earlier5. Extracts and fractions, each, were dissolved in the respective solvents and loaded...

  17. A family with earlier onset spinocerebellar ataxia 6 in China%早发型脊髓小脑共济失调6型家系的神经病理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪晶; 沈若武; 黄良; 李晓辉; 唐北沙

    2009-01-01

    目的 对我国首次报道的经基因诊断明确的早发型脊髓小脑共济失调6型(spinocerebellar ataxia 6,SCA6)家系进行神经病理学研究.方法 对经基因诊断明确的一个SCA6家系中的2例患者进行尸检,分别取小脑上蚓部、齿状核、下橄榄核等部位进行HE染色、尼氏染色、Golgi染色、Calbindin免疫组织化学以及电镜的检测,研究早发型SCA6中枢神经系统的病理改变.结果 早发型SCA6患者的小脑皮质浦肯野细胞出现严重的神经退行性改变,齿状核、下橄榄核神经元以及大脑皮质中央前回也受到累及,而脊髓相对保存无明显的神经病理学改变.结论 早发型SCA6患者中枢神经系统存在较为严重的神经退行性改变,主要发生在小脑皮质、齿状核以及下橄榄核,这些病理改变随病程的延长而逐渐加重.%Objective To investigate the real type of the first earlier onset spinocerebellar ataxia family in China. Methods Two family members were subjected to autopsy, whose genetypings were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing technique. Golgi staining, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy methods were used to detect the neurodegeneration in central nervous system of 2 patients. Results The light microscopic and electron microscopic showed synaptic degeneration of Purkinje cell in the cerebellar cortex, which was accompanied by deterioration of Purkinje cell, and both inferior olivary complex, dentate nucleus and anterior central gyrus. Conclusions There is severer neurodegeneration in the central nervous system of earlier onset spiuocerebellar ataxia 6 patient, especially in cerebellar cortex, inferior olivary complex and dentate nucleus, and the neurodegeneration may depend on disease duration.

  18. Cognitively Stimulating Activities: Effects on Cognition across Four Studies with up to 21 Years of Longitudinal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan B. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in cognitively stimulating activities has been considered to maintain or strengthen cognitive skills, thereby minimizing age-related cognitive decline. While the idea that there may be a modifiable behavior that could lower risk for cognitive decline is appealing and potentially empowering for older adults, research findings have not consistently supported the beneficial effects of engaging in cognitively stimulating tasks. Using observational studies of naturalistic cognitive activities, we report a series of mixed effects models that include baseline and change in cognitive activity predicting cognitive outcomes over up to 21 years in four longitudinal studies of aging. Consistent evidence was found for cross-sectional relationships between level of cognitive activity and cognitive test performance. Baseline activity at an earlier age did not, however, predict rate of decline later in life, thus not supporting the concept that engaging in cognitive activity at an earlier point in time increases one's ability to mitigate future age-related cognitive decline. In contrast, change in activity was associated with relative change in cognitive performance. Results therefore suggest that change in cognitive activity from one's previous level has at least a transitory association with cognitive performance measured at the same point in time.

  19. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  20. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Compartir On this Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease is usually diagnosed with one ...

  1. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  2. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  3. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  4. Giant-Magnetoresistance(GMR) Siegel KEY FIRST Experimental Discovery Decade-Earlier PRE-``Fert"-``Gruenberg" in Nuc"el"ar ``Super"alloys: Science?;``SEANCE!!!; Ethics?; SHMETHICS!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    (So MIScalled) ``Fert"-``Grunberg"[PRL(1988;1989)] GMR 2007 physics Nobel/Wolf/Japan-Prizes VS. decade-earlier(1973-1977) KEY FIRST Siegel at:Westin"kl"ouse/PSEG/IAEA/ABB[google:``Martin Ebner"(94-04) in financial media]/Vattenfall/Wallenbergs/nuc"el"ar-DoE Labs[at flickr.com, search on ``Giant- Magnotoresistance''; find: Intl.Conf.Mag.Alloys & Oxides(ICMAO), Haifa(Aug./1977); J.Mag.Mag.Mtls,(JMMM)7,312(1978)``unavailable: not yet scanned''/modified(last R(H) GMR Figs(7;8) deleted!!!) on JMMM/Reed-Elsevier website until 7/29/08 conveniently one- half-year after last (Nobel)award(12/2007); conveniently effectively deleted!!!; google: ``If Leaks Could Kill''; many APS/MRS Mtgs(1970s)experimental discovery in (so MIScalled) ``super''alloys [182/82, Hastelloy-X, 600, 690(!!!), Stainless-Steels: ANY/ALL!!!] generic endemic Wigner's[JAP,17,857(1946)]- disease/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing- embrittlement/ thermo-mechanical-INstability!

  5. Cost Estimation of Equipment Software in Earlier Period Based on Wideband Delphi and Function Resolve%基于宽带Delphi和功能分解相结合的装备软件早期成本估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏芳; 刘沃野; 陈晓; 李彬

    2011-01-01

    针对装备软件早期成本估算时存在的相关成本信息基础薄弱的"贫信息"问题,提出了基于宽带Delphi与功能分解的装备软件早期成本估算组合法.该组合法依据领域专家的知识和经验对软件成本做出判断,避免了需要过多依赖历史信息的局限性.而功能分解法能将软件按功能模块进行细分,提高了宽带Delphi估算的精度.%The article proposes a way to estimate the cost of equipment software in the earlier period in the case of a small historical data sample based on Wideband Delphi and function resolve. This combined method makes judgment based on the knowledge and experience of experts. In this way, we can avoid the limit of excessive dependence on historical information. Function resolve subdivides the software according to function mold and improves accuracy of the Wideband Delphi.

  6. Optimal Portfolio Model with Earlier Retirement and Dividend Payments under Constraint Conditions%在约束条件下考虑红利和提前退休的最优投资组合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹安照; 田丽; 周明龙; 苏凯; 程晶晶

    2012-01-01

    分别研究了在退休期限和借贷约束条件下提前退休的最优投资组合问题,其中考虑风险资产派发红利的情形;退休期限和借贷约束条件会使代理人相应地改变投资策略;运用了随机控制等方法,得到了代理人在约束条件下最优消费投资组合策略显示解.%This paper studies optimal portfolio model for earlier retirement problem under retirement age and borrow/lend constraint conditions respectively through considering the case of the dividend-payment of risk assets.Retirement age and borrow/lend constraint conditions will change the agent’s corresponding investment strategy.In this article,we use the method such as stochastic control and so on and obtain the explicit solution to optimal consumption-investment portfolio of the agent under constraint condition.

  7. Language and Thought, Which One us Earlier?- from the Perspective of Mirror Neuron System%语言与思维的孰先孰后--镜像神经元视域的解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉婧; 赵红

    2013-01-01

      语言与思维的孰先孰后历来是许多学者争论的问题。文章先总结了三种代表性观点,然后介绍了镜像神经元的相关研究成果,并分别阐述其在儿童、原始人的语言和思维关系探讨中的作用。该文旨在通过把语言和思维看做受不同神经系统驱动的行为,进而支持语言和思维共生的观点。%  Language and thought , which is earlier and which is later is a problem always argued by many scholars. Firstly, this the⁃sis reviewed three typical opinions. Then, related research results of Mirror Neuron System(MNS) was introduced, which laid foun⁃dation for later discussion on cases of the children and the primitives respectively. The writer proposed that language and thought could be seen as neuron-driven actions. Based on the existing theories of MNS, the thesis tries to demonstrate that language and thought exist side by side.

  8. Autobiographical Memory Retrieval and Hippocampal Activation as a Function of Repetition and the Passage of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Nadel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple trace theory (MTT predicts that hippocampal memory traces expand and strengthen as a function of repeated memory retrievals. We tested this hypothesis utilizing fMRI, comparing the effect of memory retrieval versus the mere passage of time on hippocampal activation. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants retrieved remote autobiographical memories that had been previously retrieved either one month earlier, two days earlier, or multiple times during the preceding month. Behavioral analyses revealed that the number and consistency of memory details retrieved increased with multiple retrievals but not with the passage of time. While all three retrieval conditions activated a similar set of brain regions normally associated with autobiographical memory retrieval including medial temporal lobe structures, hippocampal activation did not change as a function of either multiple retrievals or the passage of time. However, activation in other brain regions, including the precuneus, lateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and perirhinal cortex increased after multiple retrievals, but was not influenced by the passage of time. These results have important implications for existing theories of long-term memory consolidation.

  9. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.125 - What information must agencies include in the title report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and description of fixtures and related personal property that have possible historic or artistic... substance activity, as defined by regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at 40 CFR part 373, took place on the property. Hazardous substance activity includes situations where any...

  11. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  12. Should Creation Be Included in the Biology Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    The author discusses the activities and goals of advocates of creation science as these persons and groups work to bring about the teaching of creationism in high school science courses in which evolution is taught. It is the author's belief that the anti-evolutionism movement was stimulated by the science curriculum improvement activities of the…

  13. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service...

  14. 40 CFR 725.255 - Information to be included in the TERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information to be included in the TERA... and Development Activities § 725.255 Information to be included in the TERA. (a) To review a TERA, EPA... the person believes will be useful for EPA's risk assessment. The TERA must be in writing and...

  15. 76 FR 2288 - TRICARE; Changes Included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... active duty for more than 30 days, thus providing care to the Reserve member in both military dental... dental benefits for Reserve Component members includes space available care in military dental treatment... Reserve Component members include space available care in military dental treatment...

  16. {sup 220}Rn measurements and implications for earlier surveys of {sup 222}Rn; Meting van {sup 220}Rn en consequenties voor eerdere {sup 222}Rn-surveys. VERA-onderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauboer, R.O.

    2010-08-15

    The concentration of radioactive radon gas (Rn-222) encountered in newly constructed dwellings was lower than that expected from earlier surveys. An investigation into the response of the radon detectors used in these earlier surveys revealed that these were also sensitive to radioactive thoron (Rn-220), of which more appears to be present than originally assumed. This is the primary outcome of a detailed examination of the detectors that resulted from a national study on radiation exposure in Dutch dwellings constructed between 1994 and 2003. Detectors used in international radon comparison studies have only been set to test for radon, not thoron. Consequently, in practice it is not immediately evident that some detectors actually measure thoron as well, which is also reported as radon. The increasing interest shown by the Netherlands for thoron, provoked by survey results that appear to have been strongly affected by this radioactive isotope of radon, is mirrored by many other countries. The thoron found in dwellings seems to originate from a (frequently used) building material, possibly a finishing material, which has a relatively high thoron exhalation rate. It has more recently been determined that for many years a type of plaster was used in the Netherlands that contained phosphogypsum, a material known for its high radon content. However, it is possible that other materials incorporated into finishing layers also contribute to higher indoor thoron levels. A large portion of the total indoor exposure of occupants to radiation is from inhalation of radioactive decay products of radon and thoron. Radon and thoron are formed in the soil and earth-based building materials by radioactive decay and, because they are gaseous, they are able to diffuse into homes and other buildings. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the home accounts for approximately half of the average annual radiation dose received by a Dutch citizen. [Dutch] Er komt minder radioactief radongas

  17. Heteroplasmy Level of the Mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) A3243G Mutation in a Chinese Family Is Positively Associated with Earlier Age-of-onset and Increasing Severity of Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhang; An-li Tong; Yun Zhang; Min Nie; Yu-xiu Li; Heng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mutations of mitochondrial genome in a pedigree with suspected maternally inherited diabetes and deafness and to explore the correlations between the mutations and clinical features. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leucocytes of each member of the pedigree. The mitochondrial genome was amplified with 24-pair primers that could cover the entire mitochondrial DNA. Direct sequencing of PCR products was used to identify any mitochondrial DNA mutations. Results Family members on the maternal side all harbored the tRNALeu(UUR) A3243G mutation. The paternal side family members did not have the mutation. The age-of-onset of diabetes of the 4 maternal side family members was 15, 41, 44, and 65 years old, and their corresponding heteroplasmy level of the mutation was 34.5%, 14.9%, 14.6%, and 5.9%, respectively. The age-of-onset of diabetes and heteroplasmy level of A3243G mutation were negatively correlated with a correlation coefficient of -0.980 (P = 0.02). Meanwhile, patient with high heteroplasmy level of A3243G mutation had relatively low severity of disease. Moreover, 6 reported polymorphisms and 2 new variants were found. Conclusions The main cause of diabetes in this pedigree is the tRNALeu(UUR) A3243G mutation. However, other gene variants may contribute to its pathogenicity. The heteroplasmy level of the tRNALeu(UUR) A3243G mutation is positively associated with earlier age-of-onset and increasing severity of diabetes.

  18. Select Biochemical Indexes Used for the AMI Earlier Diagnosis%从动物模型角度探讨AMI早期诊断中生化指标的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左雪梅; 孙晨光

    2003-01-01

    Objective To ligate the coronary artery of left descending anterior branch of the New Zealand Rabbit and toform AMI model,to supervise and observe different period biochemistry indexes(CK, CK- MB, ALT, AST, M - AST, LDH,LDH-isozyme,a- HBDH,TNI,K, CRP, SCRP),to select a set of combine indexes used for the AMI earlier diagnose andapplication in clinical. Method Anaesthesia rabbit and ligate the coronary artery of left descending anteior branch of the NewZealand Rabbit and to form AMI model. Adopt the blood from rabbit humerus vein to examine before ligation and after ligation30min, 1h,2h,3h,4h,5h,6h,7h,8h. Result The most sensitivity biochemistry index is TNT which display positive in 1h. CKin3h,CK- MB, CRP in 5h has been increasing. But ALT, AST, LDH and its isozyme, a- HBDH, M- AST is no moredifference between ligature fore- and - aft. It was reported that K,SCRP,etc. reaction protein stimulate would be increased.but no embodiment in the task. Conchusions It should be first select TNT in the diagnosis AMI indexes. It is the mostsensitive index for evaluating the tiny deal of myocardial,replacing the CK- MB become the newly AMI diagnostic standards.The next in order are the CK,CK- MB and CRP.As far as ALT,AST,LDH and its isozyme, M - AST etc. are no longerfunction in the diagnosis AMI.

  19. An extended fractal growth regime in the diffusion limited aggregation including edge diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritra Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated on-lattice diffusion limited aggregation (DLA involving edge diffusion and compared the results with the standard DLA model. For both cases, we observe the existence of a crossover from the fractal to the compact regime as a function of sticking coefficient. However, our modified DLA model including edge diffusion shows an extended fractal growth regime like an earlier theoretical result using realistic growth models and physical parameters [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994 1829]. While the results of Zhang et al. showed the existence of the extended fractal growth regime only on triangular but not on square lattices, we find its existence on the square lattice. There is experimental evidence of this growth regime on a square lattice. The standard DLA model cannot characterize fractal morphology as the fractal dimension (Hausdorff dimension, DH is insensitive to morphology. It also predicts DH = DP (the perimeter dimension. For the usual fractal structures, observed in growth experiments on surfaces, the perimeter dimension can differ significantly (DH ≠ DP depending on the morphology. Our modified DLA model shows minor sensitivity to this difference.

  20. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to...