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Sample records for ear skin temperature

  1. The relationship between ear skin temperature and behavior of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi

    The aim of this research was to investigate the diurnal variation in the ear skin temperature and the lying behaviour at different environmental temperatures. Three repeated experiments were performed. In each experiment, 18 growing pigs were divided into three groups with six pigs each. The pigs...... have an average start weight of 75 +/- 5 kg. Each experimental period was 20 days. The temperature was changed from 18 ºC down to 10ºC and up again to 22ºC in two degrees steps. The pigs carried a special ear tag with a temperature sensor. The skin temperature at the ear was measured every three...... scan sampling. A clearly diurnal variation pattern of the ear skin temperature was found, with the highest ear skin temperature level at night and the lowest level in the afternoon. For the behavioural observations it was found that the pigs tended to huddle more during the night comparing to the day...

  2. The ear skin temperature as an indicator of the thermal comfort of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Jørgensen, Erik; Dybkjær, Lise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the ear skin temperature and the behaviour of pigs. Fifty-four pigs weighing 75 ± 5 kg were used in three replications (18 pigs per replication) and housed in pens (six pigs per pen) in a controlled climate facility. The room...... temperature was changed by 2 °C from 18 °C down to 10 °C and up again to 22 °C. The ear skin temperature (EST) was continuously recorded and the activity, lying posture, location and contact with pen mates were scored by 12 min scan sampling for 24 h at the set point temperatures 18 °C, 10 °C and 22 °C...

  3. CAULIFLOWER EAR AND SKIN INFECTIONS AMONG WRESTLERS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Kordi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44% had "cauliflower ears". Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in "cauliflower ears". The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2 was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5 (p < 0.05. More than half of the participants (52% had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran

  4. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Distribution of esterase activity in porcine ear skin, and the effects of freezing and heat separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wing Man; Ng, Keng Wooi; Sakenyte, Kristina; Heard, Charles M

    2012-08-20

    Porcine ear skin is widely used to study skin permeation and absorption of ester compounds, whose permeation and absorption profiles may be directly influenced by in situ skin esterase activity. Importantly, esterase distribution and activity in porcine ear skin following common protocols of skin handling and storage have not been characterised. Thus, we have compared the distribution and hydrolytic activity of esterases in freshly excised, frozen, heated and explanted porcine ear skin. Using an esterase staining kit, esterase activity was found to be localised in the stratum corneum and viable epidermis. Under frozen storage and a common heating protocol of epidermal sheet separation, esterase staining in the skin visibly diminished. This was confirmed by a quantitative assay using HPLC to monitor the hydrolysis of aspirin, in freshly excised, frozen or heated porcine ear skin. Compared to vehicle-only control, the rate of aspirin hydrolysis was approximately three-fold higher in the presence of freshly excised skin, but no different in the presence of frozen or heated skin. Therefore, frozen and heat-separated porcine ear skin should not be used to study the permeation of ester-containing permeants, in particular co-drugs and pro-drugs, whose hydrolysis or degradation can be modulated by skin esterases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise .2. Temperature dependence of inner ear function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a

  8. Ethosomal Hydrogel of Raloxifene HCl: Statistical Optimization & Ex Vivo Permeability Evaluation Across Microporated Pig Ear Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Hetal P; Savsani, Hitesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of Raloxifene hydrochloride, an FDA approved selective estrogen receptor modulator, is severely limited due to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. The Present work focuses on the development of ethosomal hydrogel for transdermal delivery of Raloxifene HCl as an alternate way to solve aforementioned problem. The physical breaching of stratum corneum, the principal barrier, by microneedle treatment was also employed to potentiate its transdermal permeation. The influence of lipid and ethanol concentration on vesicle size and entrapment efficiency was extensively investigated using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The software based optimization was done and validated using check point analysis. Optimized batch was extensively evaluated for its safety, efficacy and stability. The optimized ethosomal batch possessed 403 nm size and 74.25% drug entrapment. Its zeta potential and in vitro drug release were also found favorable for transdermal permeation. The ex vivo skin permeation study revealed a transdermal flux of 4.621 μg/cm2/h through the intact pig ear skin which was further enhanced through the microporated skin (transdermal flux, 6.194 μg/cm2/h) with a 3.87 fold rise when compared to drug permeation from plain solution applied over intact skin (transdermal flux, 1.6 μg/cm2/h). Histopathological skin sections showed the non-irritant nature of the ethosomal hydrogel and microneedle treatment. The formulation was found stable under both refrigeration and room temperature conditions for 6 weeks. In a nutshell, the developed system was found efficient, safe and stable and seems promising for transdermal use.

  9. High temperature skin friction measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  10. A case report on a burned ear: Elastic memory of cartilage following temporary burial in a skin pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, D O; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2017-05-01

    Preserving exposed ear cartilage following a facial burn remains a major challenge. Normally, burned ear cartilage cannot be preserved in case of a full thickness burn of the overlying skin, and the cartilage has to be surgically removed. Sometimes, reconstructions can be performed at a later stage. We report a case where burned ear cartilage was directly surgically buried in a retroauricular skin pocket showing remarkable elastic memory: the buried ear cartilage, in this case the antihelix, regenerated over time and regained its original position protruding from the facial area. This case illustrates that ear cartilage is highly resilient, even when it has sustained significant thermal damage, and can be buried in a retroauricular skin pocket to avoid radical excision of the framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy...... volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...... by activation of the heat shock response, is likely to contribute to the immediate and delayed effects of UV in a way that has to be found out in future studies....

  12. Skin temperature after interscalene brachial plexus blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, Henning; Braun, Sebastian; Werdehausen, Robert; Werner, Andreas; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In neuraxial anesthesia, increase of skin temperature is an early sign of successful block. Yet, during peripheral nerve block of the lower extremity, increase in skin temperature is a highly sensitive, but late sign of a successful block. We hypothesized that after

  13. Skin Temperature Biofeedback in Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Steve; Loughry-Machado, Glenna

    1981-01-01

    Skin temperature biofeedback performance was studied in 38 6- to 10-year-old children and 38 of their parents across two sessions of audio biofeedback segments in which participants alternately attempted hand-warming and hand-cooling. Children were superior to adults in controlling skin temperature in the presence of biofeedback. (Author/DB)

  14. Porcine ear skin as a biological substrate for in vitro testing of sunscreen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myriam; Korn, Verena; Imanidis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the use of skin from porcine ears as a biological substrate for in vitro testing of sunscreens in order to overcome the shortcomings of the presently used polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates that generally fail to yield a satisfactory correlation between sun protection factors (SPF) in vitro and in vivo. Trypsin-separated stratum corneum and heat-separated epidermis provided UV-transparent substrates that were laid on quartz or on PMMA plates. These were used to determine surface roughness by chromatic confocal imaging and to measure SPF in vitro of 2 sunscreens by diffuse transmission spectroscopy. The recovered skin layers showed a lower roughness than full-thickness skin but yielded SPF in vitro values that more accurately reflected the SPF determined in vivo by a validated procedure than PMMA plates, although the latter had in part roughness values identical to those of intact skin. Combination of skin tissue with a high roughness PMMA plate also provided accurate SPF in vitro. Besides roughness, the improved affinity of the sunscreen to the skin substrate compared to PMMA plates may explain the better in vitro prediction of SPF achieved with the use of a biological substrate. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Core temperature affects scalp skin temperature during scalp cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Peerbooms, M.; van den Hurk, C.J.G.; van Os, B.; Levels, K.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Breed, W.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of hair loss prevention by scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy induced hair loss has been shown to be related to scalp skin temperature. Scalp skin temperature, however, is dependent not only on local cooling but also on the thermal status of the body. Objectives: This

  16. Penetration of topically applied nanocarriers into the hair follicles of dog and rat dorsal skin and porcine ear skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Fanny; Patzelt, Alexa; Darvin, Maxim E; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Schäfer, Ulrich; Gruber, Achim D; Ostrowski, Anja; Lademann, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    In humans, topically applied nanocarriers penetrate effectively into the hair follicles where they can be exploited for the localized and targeted treatment of skin disorders. The objective of the present study was to examine the applicability of particle-based systems for follicular drug delivery in companion animals and livestock, which have a large follicular reservoir. Skin samples from 10 beagle dogs, 14 Wistar rats and four ears from freshly slaughtered cross-bred pigs were used. Fluoresceinamine labelled poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocarriers (256 or 430 nm) were applied on the different skin samples. After penetration, skin biopsies were removed and cryohistological cross sections prepared and investigated with regard to the follicular penetration depths (in μm ± standard deviation) of the nanocarriers using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In canine, rat and porcine hair follicles, the smaller nanoparticles were detected at mean follicular penetration depths of 630.16 ± 135.75 μm, 253.55 ± 47.36 μm and 653.40 ± 94.71 μm, respectively. The larger particles were observed at average follicular depths of 604.79 ± 132.42 μm; 262.87 ± 55.25 μm and 786.81 ± 121.73 μm, respectively, in canine, rat and porcine hair follicles. Statistically significant differences (P porcine skin samples. The mean follicular penetration depths of the differently sized nanocarriers were mostly significantly different between the different species, which might be due to different species-specific follicular dimensions. This issue needs to be addressed specifically in further studies. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Detection of follicular transport of lidocaine and metabolism in adipose tissue in pig ear skin by DESI mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Janina; Mortensen, Rasmus; Hansen, Steen H

    2014-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport of lidoca......Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport...... of lidocaine into the deeper skin layers is demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, metabolism of lidocaine to 3-OH-lidocaine was observed in subcutaneous tissue as well as in lobules of white adipose tissue surrounding the hair follicles. These results suggest that it is advantageous to use full...

  18. Comparison of neonatal skin sensor temperatures with axillary temperature: does skin sensor placement really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Dorothea; Boogaart, Sheri; Johnson, Lynette; Keezel, Catherine; Ruperts, Liga; Vander Laan, Karen J

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate thermoregulation affects both morbidity and mortality in the neonatal setting. Nurses rely on information from temperature sensors and radiant warmers or incubators to appropriately maintain a neonate's body temperature. Skin temperature sensors must be repositioned to prevent skin irritation and breakdown. This study addresses whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperature readings from 3 locations on the neonate and whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperatures compared with digital axillary temperatures. The study participants included 36 hemodynamically stable neonates, with birth weight of 750 g or more and postnatal age of 15 days or more, in a neonatal intensive care unit. Gestational age ranged from 29.6 to 36.1 weeks at the time of data collection. A method-comparison design was used to evaluate the level of agreement between skin sensor temperatures and digital axillary thermometer measurements. When the neonate's skin sensor was scheduled for routine site change, 3 new skin sensors were placed-1 each on the right upper abdomen, left flank, and right axilla. The neonate was placed in a supine position and redressed or rewrapped if previously dressed or wrapped. Subjects served as their own controls, with temperatures measured at all 3 skin sensor sites and followed by a digital thermometer measurement in the left axilla. The order of skin sensor temperature measurements was randomly assigned by a computer-generated number sequence. An analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to test for statistical differences between the skin sensor temperatures. The difference in axillary and skin sensor temperatures was calculated by subtracting the reference standard temperature (digital axillary) from the test temperatures (skin temperatures at 3 different locations), using the Bland-Altman method. The level of significance was set at P temperature readings obtained from the 3 sites (F2

  19. Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, A A

    2014-03-01

    This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non-glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non-human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non-hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat-exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory-related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non-hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.

  20. Temperature-sensitive SV40-immortalized rat middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Katsuhiro; Kim, Youngki; Paparella, Michael M; Lin, Jizhen

    2004-12-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of middle ear epithelial cells are essential in both normal and diseased middle ears. The normal situation involves physiologic growth and renewal of the epithelium, and the diseased situation involves pathological changes of the epithelium such as mucous cell metaplasia and ciliated cell proliferation in otitis media. In this study, we used a temperature-sensitive large T antigen (the SV40 mutant) to transduce and immortalize the primary culture of middle ear epithelial cells. SV40-immortalized middle ear epithelial cells have been cultured for more than 50 passages and are stable morphologically. Their nonimmortalized parent cells died at the second passage. Immortalized middle ear epithelial cells carrying the SV40 mutant show a monolayer, cobblestonelike morphology. The cell line expresses characteristic middle ear mucosal molecules such as mucins, keratins, and collagens. It also responds to temperature changes; namely, cells proliferate at 33 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is active, and differentiate at 39 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is inactive. Therefore, we conclude that a temperature-sensitive middle ear epithelial cell line has successfully been established.

  1. Core temperature affects scalp skin temperature during scalp cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Peerbooms, Mijke; van den Hurk, Corina J G; van Os, Bernadet; Levels, Koen; Teunissen, Lennart P J; Breed, Wim P M

    2015-08-01

    The efficacy of hair loss prevention by scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy induced hair loss has been shown to be related to scalp skin temperature. Scalp skin temperature, however, is dependent not only on local cooling but also on the thermal status of the body. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of body temperature on scalp skin temperature. We conducted experiments in which 13 healthy subjects consumed ice slurry to lower body temperature for 15 minutes after the start of scalp cooling and then performed two 12-minute cycle exercise sessions to increase body core temperature. Esophageal temperature (Tes ), rectal temperature (Tre ), mean skin temperature (eight locations, Tskin ), and mean scalp temperature (five locations, Tscalp ) were recorded. During the initial 10 minutes of scalp cooling, Tscalp decreased by >15 °C, whereas Tes decreased by 0.2 °C. After ice slurry ingestion, Tes , Tre , and Tskin were 35.8, 36.5, and 31.3 °C, respectively, and increased after exercise to 36.3, 37.3, and 33.0 °C, respectively. Tscalp was significantly correlated to Tes (r = 0.39, P scalp cooling contributes to the decrease in scalp temperature and may improve the prevention of hair loss. This may be useful if the desired decrease of scalp temperature cannot be obtained by scalp cooling systems. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Comparison of ATR-FTIR spectra of porcine vaginal and buccal mucosa with ear skin and penetration analysis of drug and vehicle components into pig ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Julia C; Pagitsch, Elisabeth; Valenta, Claudia

    2013-12-18

    In the present study, porcine buccal and vaginal mucosae were successfully characterised by ATR-FTIR for the first time and compared to porcine ear skin. By analysing typical bands of the spectra, the structure of proteins and the lipid matrix were elucidated. According to the body site, differences in membrane permeability were detected when analysing the CH2-stretching and -scissoring vibrations. The results indicated a higher permeability for porcine vaginal and buccal tissue compared to skin. Furthermore, the influence of a lecithin-based microemulsion on the barrier properties of the above mentioned tissues was investigated by ATR-FTIR; the results revealed structural changes in all tissues. In addition, the ATR-FTIR technique was employed to semi-quantitatively analyse compounds directly on skin. To this end, tape stripping experiments were performed with a deuterated liposomal drug delivery system containing the model drug flufenamic acid. While the amount of penetrated deuterated liposomes was determined directly on skin samples by ATR-FTIR, the drug amount was analysed by HPLC after extraction of the tape strips since higher sensitivity was achieved in this fashion. Thus, it was possible to monitor the skin penetration of drug and vehicle simultaneously. Interestingly, the results indicated an independent drug penetration after release from the liposomal carrier system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments.

  4. Effects of skin surface temperature on photoplethysmograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In Cheol; Yoon, Hyungro; Kang, Hyunjeong; Yeom, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Photoplethysmograph (PPG) has been widely used to investigate various cardiovascular conditions. Previous studies demonstrated effects of temperature of the measurement environment; however, an integrated evaluation has not been established in environments with gradual air temperature variation. The purpose of this study is to investigate variations and relationships of blood pressure (BP), PPG and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), by changing skin surface temperature (SST). Local mild cooling and heating was conducted on 16 healthy subjects. The results showed that local SST changes affected Finometer blood pressures (Finger BP), PPG components and TPR, but not the oscillometric blood pressure (Central BP), HR, SV and CO, and indicated that temperature must be maintained and monitored to reliably evaluate cardiovascular conditions in temperature-varying environments.

  5. Effects of Skin Surface Temperature on Photoplethysmograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Choel Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoplethysmograph (PPG has been widely used to investigate various cardiovascular conditions. Previous studies demonstrated effects of temperature of the measurement environment; however, an integrated evaluation has not been established in environments with gradual air temperature variation. The purpose of this study is to investigate variations and relationships of blood pressure (BP, PPG and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate (HR, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO and total peripheral resistance (TPR, by changing skin surface temperature (SST. Local mild cooling and heating was conducted on 16 healthy subjects. The results showed that local SST changes affected Finometer blood pressures (Finger BP, PPG components and TPR, but not the oscillometric blood pressure (Central BP, HR, SV and CO, and indicated that temperature must be maintained and monitored to reliably evaluate cardiovascular conditions in temperature-varying environments.

  6. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina

    2014-01-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency......-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA...... detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  7. Dynamic changes in ear temperature in relation to separation distress in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Stefanie; Assis, Luciana; Pike, Thomas W; Mills, Daniel S

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography can visualize changes in body surface temperature that result from stress-induced physiological changes and alterations of blood flow patterns. Here we explored its use for remote stress monitoring (i.e. removing need for human presence) in a sample of six pet dogs. Dogs were tested in a brief separation test involving contact with their owner, a stranger, and social isolation for two one-minute-periods. Tests were filmed using a thermographic camera set up in a corner of the room, around 7m from where the subjects spent most of the time. Temperature was measured from selected regions of both ear pinnae simultaneously. Temperatures of both ear pinnae showed a pattern of decrease during separation and increase when a person (either the owner or a stranger) was present, with no lateralized temperature differences between the two ears. Long distance thermographic measurement is a promising technique for non-invasive remote stress assessment, although there are some limitations related to dogs' hair structure over the ears, making it unsuitable for some subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of TNF-alpha by skin explants of dinitrochlorobenzene-challenged ears in rats: A model for the evaluation of contact hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Contact hypersensitivity (CHS is a local inflammatory response of the skin following challenge of hapten-sensitized animals. It is the consequence of cell infiltration of derm and the release of inflammation mediators, among which Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is one of the most important factors. The intensity of the inflammation could be quantified by ear swelling which is the classical manifestation of the reaction. This study was testing the working hypothesis that levels of TNF-α in skin organ culture medium should correlate with the intensity of CHS reaction measured in vivo by ear swelling assay, and with the density of dermal infiltrate in ear skin samples. In order to test the working hypothesis, the intensity of inflammatory reaction following challenge was evaluated by classical measurements of ear swelling, by the determination of TNF-α levels in culture fluids of ear skin following epicutaneous application of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB into the ears of sensitized animals. Methods. Animal model of CHS reaction to DNCB in Albino Oxford rats was used as described. Ear swelling was quantified in percentage terms as the difference in thickness between the challenged and nontreated ears of the same animal. Dermal infiltrate density in histopathologically analyzed samples of ear skin was evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Ear skin samples were cultured in standard medium for 24 h, and TNF-α concentration in the conditioned medium was subsequently determined with ELISA test. Results. Dose-dependent increase in the density of the dermal infiltrate and in TNF-α in CM were noted following the application of 0.65%, 1.3% and 2.6% of DNCB to the ears of previously sensitized rats. The correlation between ear swelling and the levels of TNF-α (r=0.933, p<0.001 in CM, and between ear swelling and dermal infiltrate density (r=0.916, p<0.001 was found. Correlation was also found between the density of the dermal

  9. Analysis of the effect of lying on the ear on body temperature measurement using a tympanic thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gulsah Gurol; Eser, Ismet; Khorshid, Leyla

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of lying on the ear on the measurement of body temperature by a tympanic thermometer. Participants in the study were healthy young people of the Nursing Department of the College of Health, Izmir, Turkey. Sixty-eight participants who agreed to participate, and who had no discharge or infection of the ear and no upper respiratory tract infection, were included in the study. Immediately after the first temperature reading, measurement had been performed five times. Non-probability sampling method was used and the study was conducted in January 2007. Tympanic thermometer body temperature results were significantly higher (p measurements were taken following lying on the ear compared to those when the subject did not lie on the ear prior to temperature measurement. There are significant differences in tympanic temperature caused by the subject lying on his or her ear. This is important to keep in mind during health workers' assessments.

  10. Temperature measurements during laser skin welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Choi, Bernard; Welch, Ashley J.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    A thermal camera was used to measure surface temperatures during laser skin welding to provide feedback for optimization of the laser parameters. Two-cm-long, full- thickness incisions were made in guinea pig skin. India ink was used as an absorber. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing a pulse duration of approximately 100 ms. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6, 4.0, and 8.0 s were studied with total operation times of 3, 5, and 10 min, respectively. A laser spot diameter of 5 mm was used with the power constant at 10 W. Thermal images were obtained at 30 frames per second with a thermal camera detecting 3.5 micrometers radiation. Surface temperatures were recorded at 0, 1, and 6 mm from the center line of the incision. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6 s and 4.0 s in vitro resulted in temperatures at the weld site remaining above ~65°C for prolonged periods of time. Cooling durations between scans as long as 8.0 s were sufficient both in vitro and in vivo to prevent a significant rise in baseline temperatures at the weld site over time.

  11. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  12. Tympanic ear thermometer assessment of body temperature among patients with cognitive disturbances. An acceptable and ethically desirable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadal, Lena; Fog, Lisbet; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of a possible relation between body temperature measurements by the current generation of tympanic ear and rectal thermometers. In Denmark, a national guideline recommends the rectal measurement. Subsequently, the rectal thermometers and tympanic ear devices are the most frequently used and first choice in Danish hospital wards. Cognitive changes constitute challenges with cooperating in rectal temperature assessments. With regard to diagnosing, ethics, safety and the patients' dignity, the tympanic ear thermometer might comprise a desirable alternative to rectal noninvasive measurement of body temperature during in-hospital-based neurorehabilitation. A prospective, descriptive cohort study. Consecutive inclusion of 27 patients. Linear regression models were used to analyse 284 simultaneous temperature measurements. Ethical approval for this study was granted by the Danish Data Protection Agency, and the study was completed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration 2008. About 284 simultaneous rectal and ear temperature measurements on 27 patients were analysed. The patient-wise variability of measured temperatures was significantly higher for the ear measurements. Patient-wise linear regressions for the 25 patients with at least three pairs of simultaneous ear and rectal temperature measurements showed large interpatient variability of the association. A linear relationship between the rectal body temperature assessment and the temperature assessment employing the tympanic thermometer is weak. Both measuring methods reflect variance in temperature, but ear measurements showed larger variation. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  14. Depth-dependent autofluorescence photobleaching using 325, 473, 633, and 785 nm of porcine ear skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleusener, Johannes; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2017-09-01

    Autofluorescence photobleaching describes the decrease of fluorescence intensity of endogenous fluorophores in biological tissue upon light irradiation. The origin of autofluorescence photobleaching is not fully understood. In the skin, the spatial distribution of various endogenous fluorophores varies within the skin layers. Most endogenous fluorophores are excited in the ultraviolet and short visible wavelength range, and only a few, such as porphyrins (red) and melanin (near-infrared), are excited at longer wavelengths. The excitation wavelength- and depth-dependent irradiation of skin will therefore excite different fluorophores, which will likely influence the photobleaching characteristics. The autofluorescence photobleaching of porcine ear skin has been measured ex vivo using 325, 473, 633, and 785 nm excitation at different skin depths from the surface to the dermis at 150 ? ? m . Confocal Raman microscopes were used to achieve sufficient spatial resolution of the measurements. The autofluorescence area under the curve was measured for 21 consecutive acquisitions of 15 s. In all cases, the photobleaching follows a two-exponential decay function approximated by nonlinear regression. The results show that photobleaching can be applied to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in Raman spectroscopy for all of the applied excitation wavelengths and skin depths.

  15. Depth-dependent autofluorescence photobleaching using 325, 473, 633, and 785 nm of porcine ear skin ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleusener, Johannes; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2017-09-01

    Autofluorescence photobleaching describes the decrease of fluorescence intensity of endogenous fluorophores in biological tissue upon light irradiation. The origin of autofluorescence photobleaching is not fully understood. In the skin, the spatial distribution of various endogenous fluorophores varies within the skin layers. Most endogenous fluorophores are excited in the ultraviolet and short visible wavelength range, and only a few, such as porphyrins (red) and melanin (near-infrared), are excited at longer wavelengths. The excitation wavelength- and depth-dependent irradiation of skin will therefore excite different fluorophores, which will likely influence the photobleaching characteristics. The autofluorescence photobleaching of porcine ear skin has been measured ex vivo using 325, 473, 633, and 785 nm excitation at different skin depths from the surface to the dermis at 150 μm. Confocal Raman microscopes were used to achieve sufficient spatial resolution of the measurements. The autofluorescence area under the curve was measured for 21 consecutive acquisitions of 15 s. In all cases, the photobleaching follows a two-exponential decay function approximated by nonlinear regression. The results show that photobleaching can be applied to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in Raman spectroscopy for all of the applied excitation wavelengths and skin depths.

  16. Skin temperature and subcutaneous adipose blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1980-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured bilaterally by the 133Xe washout method. At one side of the skin (epicutaneous) temperature was varied with a temperature blanket, the other side served as control. There was a significant (P less than 0.001) positive...... correlation between skin temperature and ATBF. In the range from 25 to 37 degrees CATBF increased 9% of the control flow on average per centigrade increase in skin temperature. ATBF at the control side was uninfluenced by the contralateral variations in skin temperature. Although no better correlation could...... be demonstrated between ATBF and subcutaneous temperature than between ATBF and skin temperature, arguments are presented in favour of the hypothesis that ATBF is influenced by the subcutaneous temperature rather than via reflexes from the skin. Infiltration of the 133Xe depots with 20 microgram histamine...

  17. Modelling hand skin temperature in relation to body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Katarina; Li, Rongling; Kingma, Boris; Zeiler, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Skin temperature is a challenging parameter to predict due to the complex interaction of physical and physiological variations. Previous studies concerning the correlation of regional physiological characteristics and body composition showed that obese people have higher hand skin temperature compared to the normal weight people. To predict hand skin temperature in a different environment, a two-node hand thermophysiological model was developed and validated with published experimental data. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed which showed that the variations in skin blood flow and blood temperature are most influential on hand skin temperature. The hand model was applied to simulate the hand skin temperature of the obese and normal weight subgroup in different ambient conditions. Higher skin blood flow and blood temperature were used in the simulation of obese people. The results showed a good agreement with experimental data from the literature, with the maximum difference of 0.31°C. If the difference between blood flow and blood temperature of obese and normal weight people was not taken into account, the hand skin temperature of obese people was predicted with an average deviation of 1.42°C. In conclusion, when modelling hand skin temperatures, it should be considered that regional skin temperature distribution differs in obese and normal weight people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Skin Temperatures Retrieved from GOES-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Ronnie, J.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Lapenta, W. M.; Haines, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Skin temperatures derived from geostationary satellites have the potential of providing the temporal and spatial resolution needed for model assimilation. To adequately assess the potential improvements in numerical model forecasts that can be made by assimilating satellite data, an estimate of the accuracy of the skin temperature product is necessary. A particular skin temperature algorithm, the Physical Split Window Technique, that uses the longwave infrared channels of the GOES Imager has shown promise in recent model assimilation studies to provide land surface temperatures with reasonable accuracy. A comparison of retrieved GOES-8 skin temperatures from this algorithm with in situ measurements is presented. Various retrieval algorithm issues are addressed including surface emissivity

  19. Skin Protectants Made of Curable Polymers: Effect of Application on Local Skin Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Walt, Michael J.; Atwood, Nancy; Bernatchez, St?phanie F.; Ekholm, Bruce P.; Asmus, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To measure the skin temperature after application of a new skin protectant intended for incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD), compared with a commercial product with an analogous cyanoacrylate-based chemistry. Approach: Twelve healthy human volunteers received an application of the new product on one thigh and of the comparator on the other thigh. An infrared camera using ThermaCAM? software imaged the skin and measured the temperature at the skin surface over time to character...

  20. The effect of body temperature on the hunting response of the middle finger skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, H A; Van de Linde, F J; Romet, T T; Ducharme, M B

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between body temperature and the hunting response (intermittent supply of warm blood to cold exposed extremities) was quantified for nine subjects by immersing one hand in 8 degree C water while their body was either warm, cool or comfortable. Core and skin temperatures were manipulated by exposing the subjects to different ambient temperatures (30, 22, or 15 degrees C), by adjusting their clothing insulation (moderate, light, or none), and by drinking beverages at different temperatures (43, 37 and 0 degrees C). The middle finger temperature (Tfi) response was recorded, together with ear canal (Tear), rectal (Tre), and mean skin temperature (Tsk). The induced mean Tear changes were -0.34 (0.08) and +0.29 (0.03) degrees C following consumption of the cold and hot beverage, respectively. Tsk ranged from 26.7 to 34.5 degrees C during the tests. In the warm environment after a hot drink, the initial finger temperature (T(fi,base)) was 35.3 (0.4) degrees C, the minimum finger temperature during immersion (T(fi,min)) was 11.3 (0.5) degrees C, and 2.6 (0.4) hunting waves occurred in the 30-min immersion period. In the neutral condition (thermoneutral room and beverage) T(fi,base) was 32.1 (1.0) degrees C, T(fi,min) was 9.6 (0.3) degrees C, and 1.6 (0.2) waves occurred. In the cold environment after a cold drink, these values were 19.3 (0.9) degrees C, 8.7 (0.2) degrees C, and 0.8 (0.2) waves, respectively. A colder body induced a decrease in the magnitude and frequency of the hunting response. The total heat transferred from the hand to the water, as estimated by the area under the middle finger temperature curve, was also dependent upon the induced increase or decrease in Tear and Tsk. We conclude that the characteristics of the hunting temperature response curve of the finger are in part determined by core temperature and Tsk. Both T(fi,min) and the maximal finger temperature during immersion were higher when the core temperature was elevated; Tsk

  1. Evaluation of mean skin temperature formulas by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. K.; Miki, K.; Sagawa, S.; Shiraki, K.

    To study the reliabiliity of formulas for calculating mean skin temperature (Tsk), values were computed by 18 different techniques and were compared with the mean of 10,841 skin temperatures measured by infrared thermography. One hundred whole-body infrared thermograms were scanned in ten resting males while changing the air temperature from 40° C to 4° C. Local, regional average and mean skin temperatures were obtained using an image processing system. The agreement frequency, defined as the percentage of the calculated Tsk values which agreed with the corresponding infrared thermographic Tsk within +/-0.2° C, ranged for with the various formulas from 7% to 80%. In many sites, the local skin temperature did not coincide with the regional average skin temperature. When the local skin temperatures which showed the highest percentage similarity to the regional average skin temperature within +/-0.4° C were applied to the formula, the agreement frequency was markedly improved for all formulas. However, the agreement frequency was not affected by changing the weighting factors from specific constants to individually measured values of regional surface area. By applying the physiologically reliable accuracy range of +/-0.2° C in the moderate and +/-0.4° C in the cool condition, agreement frequencies of at least 95% were observed in formulas involving seven or more skin temperature measurement sites, including the hand and foot. We conclude that calculation of a reliable mean skin temperature must involve more than seven skin temperature measurement sites regardless of ambient temperature. Optimal sites for skin temperature measurement are proposed for various formulas.

  2. Measurement of skin temperature after infrared laser stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandri, M; Saturno, M; Spadavecchia, L; Iannetti, G D; Cruccu, G; Truini, A

    2006-01-01

    Several types of lasers are available for eliciting laser evoked responses (LEPs). In order to understand advantages and drawbacks of each one, and to use it properly, it is important that the pattern of skin heating is known and duly considered. This study was aimed at assessing the skin temperature during and immediately after irradiation with pulses by Nd:YAP and CO(2) lasers. The back of the non-dominant hand was irradiated in 8 subjects. Temperatures were measured by a fast analogical pyrometer (5 ms response time). Stimuli were tested on natural colour (white) and blackened skin. Nd:YAP pulses yielded temperatures that were correlated with pulse energy, but not with pulse duration; much higher temperatures were obtained irradiating blackened skin than white skin (ranges 100-194 degrees C vs 35-46 degrees C). Temperature decay was extremely slow in white skin, reaching its basal value in more than 30 s. CO(2) pulses delivered with power of 3W and 6W yielded temperatures of 69-87 degrees C on white skin, and 138-226 degrees C on blackened skin. Temperature decay was very fast (4-8 ms). Differences in peak temperatures and decay times between lasers and tested conditions depend on energy and volume of heated skin. The highest temperatures are reached with lesser degree of penetration, as in the case of CO(2) laser and blackened skin. Taking into account the temperature decay time of the skin, the minimum interstimulus interval to get reliable LEPs should be no less than 10 s for Nd:YAP and 100 ms for CO(2) laser. Another important practical consequence of the heating pattern is that the Nd:YAP pulses will activate warmth receptors more easily than CO(2).

  3. The Dynamics of the Skin Temperature of the Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Nehorai; Nadav Lensky; Steve Brenner; Itamar Lensky

    2013-01-01

    We explored the dynamics of the temperature of the skin layer of the Dead Sea surface by means of in situ meteorological and hydrographic measurements from a buoy located near the center of the lake. The skin temperature is most highly correlated to air temperature (0.93–0.98) in all seasons. The skin temperature is much less correlated to the bulk surface water temperature in the summer (0.80), when the lake is thermally stratified, and uncorrelated in the winter, when the Dead Sea is vertic...

  4. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Chen; Bingwei Lu; Yihao Chen; Xue Feng

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and fore...

  5. Treated-skin temperature regularities revealed by IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2001-03-01

    Experimental results disclosing temperature change of human skin affected by various unnatural factors are presented in detail. Thermograms are obtained with the IR thermograph containing high performance InAs CID FPA-based photosensitive unit. Using logarithmic scale of time, evolution of skin temperature after moistening, spirit sponging, and olive oil lubrication is investigated. A comparative analysis of the resulting effects of treatments including alpha-hydroxy acid, cosmetic regenerating cream, spirit, and water, is made. Quantitative distinctions between skin regions characterized by ordinary, and depleted blood supply, including areas located directly above surface main vessels, are revealed. Strongly logarithmic time- dependence of a skin temperature is discovered when the skin is cooled down after its preliminary heating with a hot wax. Non-monotonic change of a local temperature during electrically active procedure is described. Low level light therapy equipment is also applied. A special role of the temperature of nose is discussed.

  6. Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to

  7. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  8. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-22

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  9. Eye and Ear Temperature using Infrared Thermography are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Michael Zanghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectal body temperature (BT has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye and ear (BTear temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT were compared to rectal (BTrec temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N=16 and Beagles (N=16 while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise. Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by ANOVA for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p<0.0001, BTear (p<0.0001, and BTeye (p=0.06 with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8oC higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p<0.0001 and BTear (p<0.0001, but not for BTrec (p=0.63 for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min activity counts did not differ (p=0.53 between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p=0.035 and p=0.005, respectively, with a marginal interaction (p=0.09 for BTeye. All 3 methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p<0.0001 related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r=0.674 versus measures at rest (r=0.381, whereas BTear was significantly related to BTrec regardless of activity (r=0.615-0.735. Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias (p<0

  10. Manipulation of skin temperature improves nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Overeem, S.; Romeijn, N.; van Dijk, J. G.; Lammers, G.J.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Besides excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep is a major complaint of patients with narcolepsy. Previously, alterations in skin temperature regulation in narcoleptic patients have been shown to be related to increased sleepiness. This study tests the hypothesis that

  11. Manipulation of skin temperature improves nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Raymann, R.J.; Overeem, S.; Romeijn, N.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Lammers, G.J.; Someren, EJ Van

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Besides excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep is a major complaint of patients with narcolepsy. Previously, alterations in skin temperature regulation in narcoleptic patients have been shown to be related to increased sleepiness. This study tests the hypothesis that

  12. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  13. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Nieuwenhoff, M D; Huygen, F J P M; van der Helm, F C T; Niehof, S; Schouten, A C

    2017-05-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively characterize the control mechanism of small nerve fibers in regulating skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbation. The skin of healthy subjects' hand dorsum (n=8) was heated to 42°C with an infrared lamp, and then naturally cooled down. The distance between the lamp and the hand was set to three different levels in order to change the irradiation intensity on the skin and implement three different skin temperature rise rates (0.03°C/s, 0.02°C/s and 0.01°C/s). A laser Doppler imager (LDI) and a thermographic video camera recorded the temporal profile of the skin blood flow and the skin temperature, respectively. The relationship between the skin blood flow and the skin temperature was characterized by a vasomotor response model. The model fitted the skin blood flow response well with a variance accounted for (VAF) between 78% and 99%. The model parameters suggested a similar mechanism for the skin blood flow regulation with the thermal perturbations at 0.03°C/s and 0.02°C/s. But there was an accelerated skin vasoconstriction after a slow heating (0.01°C/s) (p-valueskin vasodilation was also observed in four out of the seven subjects during the slow heating (0.01°C/s). Our method provides a promising way to quantitatively assess the function of small nerve fibers non-invasively and non-contact. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu

    2009-01-01

    Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.55.

  15. Evaluation of detection distance-dependent reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of the sun protection factor using pig ear skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reble, Carina; Gersonde, Ingo; Schanzer, Sabine; Meinke, Martina C; Helfmann, Jürgen; Lademann, Jürgen

    2017-05-18

    Determination of sun protection factors (SPFs) is currently an invasive method, which is based on erythema formation (phototest). Here we describe an optical setup and measurement methodology for the determination of SPFs based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which measures UV-reflectance spectra at 4 distances from the point of illumination. Due to a high spatial variation of the reflectance data, most likely due to inhomogeneities of the sunscreen distribution, data of 50 measurement positions are averaged. A dependence of the measured SPF on detection distance is significant for 3 sunscreens, while being inconclusive for 2 sunscreens due to high inter-sample variations. Using pig ear skin samples (n=6), the obtained SPF of 5 different commercial sunscreens corresponds to the SPF values of certified test institutes in 3 cases and is lower for 2 sunscreens of the same manufacturer, suggesting a formulation specific reason for the discrepancy. The results demonstrate that the measurement can be performed with a UV dose below the minimal erythema dose. We conclude the method may be considered as a potential noninvasive in vivo alternative to the invasive in vivo phototest, but further tests on different sunscreen formulations are still necessary. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evaluation of the percutaneous absorption of chlorpromazine from PLO gels across porcine ear and human abdominal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaab, Hashem; Alzhrani, Rami M; Boddu, Sai H S

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the percutaneous absorption of chlorpromazine hydrochloride from pluronic lecithin organogels (PLO gels) and verify the suitability of topically applied chlorpromazine hydrochloride PLO gels for use in hospice patients for relieving symptoms such as vomiting and nausea during the end stages of life. PLO gels of chlorpromazine hydrochloride were prepared using isopropyl palmitate (IPP) or ricinoleic acid (RA) as oil phase. In vitro percutaneous absorption of chlorpromazine hydrochloride was assessed through porcine ear and human abdominal skin. Further, the theoretical steady state plasma concentration (Css) of chlorpromazine was calculated from the flux values. The pH, viscosity, and stability of both PLO gels prepared with IPP and RA were comparable. The thixotropic property of RA PLO gel was found to be better than that of IPP PLO gel. The permeation of chlorpromazine hydrochloride was higher from RA PLO gel than from IPP PLO gel and pure drug solution. Theoretical Css of chlorpromazine from pure drug solution, IPP PLO gel and RA PLO gel were found to be 1.05, 1.20, and 1.50 ng/ml, respectively. PLO gels only marginally increased the flux and theoretical Css of chlorpromazine. From this study, it is clearly evident that PLO gels fail to achieve required systemic levels of chlorpromazine following topical application. Chlorpromazine PLO gel may not be effective in treating nausea and vomiting for hospice patients with swallowing difficulties.

  17. NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

  18. Approach towards developing a novel procedure to selectively quantify topically applied substances in the hair follicles of the model tissue porcine ear skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Fanny; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Schanzer, Sabine; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles represent reservoirs for localized drug therapy and transport pathways for systemic drug delivery. This study describes an approach towards developing a novel procedure for quantifying topically applied substances located in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin, a model for human in vivo skin, using a fluorescent dye. Approximately 5% of the topically applied dye was recovered from the hair follicles, which is in accordance with a previous study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The influence of hydrophylic polymers on the release rate of calcium dobesilate in hydrogel formulation assessed in vitro using porcine ear skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Pastuszka Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A shortage of available experimental data exists in the available bibliography on the release rate of calcium dobesilate (CD from hydrogel formulations. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selected hydrophilic nonionic polymers and anionic polymers on the release rate of CD from formulation provided for dermal application, as compared to the reference product in the market. The work utilized excised pork skin, while, Methylcellulose (MC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, and anionic polymers (copolymers of acrylic acid were used as CD carriers. The release study was executed by the pharmacopoeial paddle method, with extraction cells and fresh excised porcine skin as a membrane. CD in aqueous acceptor fluid was quantified by UV-VIS spectrometry at 300 nm. Subsequently, the kinetic curves were fitted to a zero-order kinetics model, a first-order kinetics model, a second-order kinetics model, as well as to the Higuchi model. The work saw that porcine ear skin influences the release pattern of the CD, compared to the artificial membrane. In the study, the evaluated formulations with MC, polyacrylic acid (PA and polyacrylate crosspolymer 11 (PC-11 deliver over 60% of the active component (AC, within 250 min, through the excised porcine ear skin, to the acceptor compartment. Moreover, the release observed via porcine ear skin to the aqueous acceptor compartment is congenial to zero-order or first-order kinetics. In addition, the formulations prepared on the basis of MC and PA appear to control AC delivery, independently of actual concentration of AC.

  20. Ear discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotic medicines, which are placed in the ear. Antibiotics may be given by mouth if a ruptured eardrum from an ear infection is causing the discharge. Alternative Names Drainage from the ear; Otorrhea; Ear bleeding; ...

  1. Increase in skin temperature after spinal anesthesia in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetzek-Zader, Martin; Hermanns, Henning; Freynhagen, Rainer; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relatively stable hemodynamics during spinal anesthesia in infants have been attributed to a less active sympathetic nervous system in comparison with adults. Thus, the authors evaluated sympathetic block primarily by measurement of skin temperature and secondarily by

  2. Skin temperature during regional anesthesia of the lower extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Markus F.; Werdehausen, Robert; Hermanns, Henning; Lipfert, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Increase in skin temperature (Ts) occurs early during neuraxial blocks. However, the reliability of Ts to predict successful peripheral block is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether an increase in Ts more than 1 degrees C precedes or follows an impairment of sensation after combined femoral

  3. Effect of individual finger skin temperature on vibrotactile perception threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Harazin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In healthy people, the vibrotactile perception threshold (VPT at fingertips depends on a given measurement method and on individual characteristics such as age, gender and finger skin temperature. The aim of the study was to compare the VPT values in 2 groups of healthy subjects with different finger skin temperature. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 56 males and 76 females, who formed pairs matched with respect to age, gender and body mass index (BMI but differing in terms of finger skin temperature at pre-launch testing. The finger skin temperature of less than 29°C indicated the subjects with "cold hands" and that of more than 29°C, the subjects with "warm hands". The measuring system made use of P8 pallesthesiometer (EMSON-MAT, Poland and the measurement procedure was in compliance with the ISO 13091-1:2001 standard. VPT measurements were performed for the index, middle and ring fingers of both hands at the frequencies of 4 Hz, 25 Hz, 31.5 Hz, 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 250 Hz. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the mean VPTs among the subjects with "cold hands" were significantly higher than the corresponding values among the subjects with "warm hands". Conclusions: The type of individual peripheral thermoregulation should be considered when assessing the VPT and determining its reference values.

  4. Effect of elevating the skin temperature during topical ALA application on in vitro ALA penetration through mouse skin and in vivo PpIX production in human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Johanna T. H. M.; Boot, Kristian; Vernon, David I.; Brown, Stanley B.; Groenendijk, Laurens; van Rhoon, Gerard C.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to induce increased protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production in aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin lesions is to elevate the skin temperature during topical ALA application. Increased skin temperature may increase the ( depth of) penetration of ALA into the

  5. Effects of 630 nm Red and 460 nm Blue Light Emitting Diode Irradiation on Healing of the Skin Wound in Japanese Big-ear White Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2017-06-20

    Objective To observe the effects of 630 nm red light and 460 nm blue light emitting diode irradiation on the healing of skin wounds in Japanese big-ear white rabbits. Methods The skin wound model was established with 8 Japanese big-ear white rabbits. Three parts of vulnus in each rabbit were used:two parts of vulnus were irradiated vertically by red and blue LED light,respectively(15 min/time),and the distance between lights and wounds was 15 cm;the 3rd part of the wound was used as a control. On the 21st day of the wounds exposure to light,the number of healing wounds and the percentage of healing area were recorded and the treatment effect of these two light sources was compared. HE staining was used to analyze the newborn tissue structure. Masson staining was used to observe the proliferation of skin collagen fibers. Immuohistochemical staining was used to analyze fibroblast growth factor(FGF),epidermal growth factor(EGF),endothelial growth factor(CD31),proliferating cell nuclear antigen(Ki-67),and inflammatory cytokines(CD68)infiltration in the skin. Results The healing rate in the red light,blue light,and control groups was 50.0%(4/8),25.0%(2/8),and 12.5%(1/8),respectively. Since the 12th day after modeling,the healing area percentage in the red light group was significantly higher than those in the blue light and control groups(Plight group was(2.95±0.34)mm,which was significantly higher than that in control group [(2.52±0.42)mm;F=3.182,P=0.016)]. The average optical density of collagen fibers was 0.15±0.03 in red light group,which was significantly higher than that of the blue light group(0.09±0.01;F=7.316,P=0.012)and control(0.07±0.01;F=7.316,P=0.003). The results of immunohistochemistry showed the expression levels of EGF,FGF,CD31 antigen,and Ki-67 in the red light group were significantly higher than those in the blue light and control groups,whereas the CD68 expression was significantly lower(Plight irradiation can promote the healing of skin wounds

  6. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outer Ear: Catch the Wave The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations The Inner Ear: Nerve Signals Start Here Day or Night, Ears Keep You Upright Three Cheers for the Ears! en español Tus oídos Did you hear something? Maybe the sound you heard was as quiet as your cat licking her paws. Or maybe it was loud, ...

  7. High Skin Temperature and Hypohydration Impair Aerobic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    performance (velocity) can be preserved despite high Tc ~40°C, if Tsk is cool-warm (Ely et al. 2009; Lee et al. 2010). Ely et al. (2009) had highly trained ...trial running velocities of 12 highly trained runners in compensable environmental conditions (cool-warm skin temperatures) when their core...Febbraio MA (2000). Effects of heat stress on physiological responses and exercise performance in elite cyclists . J Sci Med Sport 3, 186-193. Todd

  8. Inflammatory response, parasite load and AgNOR expression in ear skin of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi infected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verçosa BLA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin has an important role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL as the infection pathway in dogs. To better characterize the inflammatory response of intact skin in VL, sixty infected dogs (30 symptomatic and 30 asymptomatic and six non-infected controls were studied. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by RIFI and ELISA; direct visualization of the parasite in bone marrow aspirate; imprints of popliteal lymph nodes, spleen, liver and skin; culture in NNN-phase liquid Schneider's medium; and PCR (performed only in the ear skin. Amastigote forms of the parasite in intact skin were found only in symptomatic dogs. Inflammatory infiltrates were observed in all groups, varying from intense and/or moderate in symptomatic to discrete and/or negligible in asymptomatic and control animals. Parasite load was associated with the intensity of the inflammatory response and with clinical manifestations in canine visceral leishmaniasis. AgNOr as active transcription markers were expressed in inflammatory cells and within apoptotic bodies in all groups, including controls, with no statistical difference. Therefore, cell activation and transcription do occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic canine visceral leishmaniasis and may result in more necrosis and inflammation or in apoptosis and less symptoms, depending on the parasite load.

  9. Ultrasound-guided lateral infraclavicular block evaluated by infrared thermography and distal skin temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Semera; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Bjerregaard, Lars Stryhn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus blocks cause changes in hand and digit skin temperature. We investigated thermographic patterns after the lateral infraclavicular brachial plexus block. We hypothesised that a successful lateral infraclavicular block could be predicted by increased skin temperature of ...

  10. Estimation of mean body temperature from mean skin and core temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Rainer; Sessler, Daniel I

    2006-12-01

    Mean body temperature (MBT) is the mass-weighted average temperature of body tissues. Core temperature is easy to measure, but direct measurement of peripheral tissue temperature is painful and risky and requires complex calculations. Alternatively MBT can be estimated from core and mean skin temperatures with a formula proposed by Burton in 1935: MBT = 0.64 x TCore + 0.36 x TSkin. This formula remains widely used, but has not been validated in the perioperative period and seems unlikely to remain accurate in dynamic perioperative conditions such as cardiopulmonary bypass. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that MBT, as estimated with Burton's formula, poorly estimates measured MBT at a temperature range between 18 degrees and 36.5 degrees C. The authors reevaluated four of their previously published studies in which core and mass-weighted mean peripheral tissue temperatures were measured in patients undergoing substantial thermal perturbations. Peripheral compartment temperatures were estimated using fourth-order regression and integration over volume from 18 intramuscular needle thermocouples, 9 skin temperatures, and "deep" hand and foot temperature. MBT was determined from mass-weighted average of core and peripheral tissue temperatures and estimated from core temperature and mean skin temperature (15 area-weighted sites) using Burton's formula. Nine hundred thirteen data pairs from 44 study subjects were included in the analysis. Measured MBT ranged from 18 degrees to 36.5 degrees C. There was a remarkably good relation between measured and estimated MBT: MBTmeasured = 0.94 x MBTestimated + 2.15, r = 0.98. Differences between the estimated and measured values averaged -0.09 degrees +/- 0.42 degrees C. The authors concluded that estimation of MBT from mean skin and core temperatures is generally accurate and precise.

  11. Manipulation of core body and skin temperature improves vigilance and maintenance of wakefulness in narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Raymann, R.J.; Romeijn, N.; Overeem, S.; Fischer, M.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Lammers, G.J.; Someren, EJ Van

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Impaired vigilance and sleepiness are two majordaily complaints of patients with narcolepsy. We previously showed their sleepiness to be correlated to an abnormally regulated skin temperature, i.e., increased distal skin temperature compared with proximal skin temperature. OBJECTIVE: Our

  12. Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution in Cosmetic Laser Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kuen; Chen, Kuen-Tasnn; Cheng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Cheng-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The use of lasers in cosmetic surgery has increased dramatically in the past decade. To achieve minimal damage to tissues, the study of the temperature distribution of skin in laser irradiation is very important. The phenomenon of the thermal wave effect is significant due to the highly focused light energy of lasers in very a short time period. The conventional Pennes equation does not take the thermal wave effect into account, which the thermal relaxation time (τ) is neglected, so it is not sufficient to solve instantaneous heating and cooling problem. The purpose of this study is to solve the thermal wave equation to determine the realistic temperature distribution during laser surgery. The analytic solutions of the thermal wave equation are compared with those of the Pennes equation. Moreover, comparisons are made between the results of the above equations and the results of temperature measurement using an infrared thermal image instrument. The thermal wave equation could likely to predict the skin temperature distribution in cosmetic laser surgery.

  13. Relationship of age and body mass index to skin temperature and skin perfusion in primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgea, Georgiana-Aura; Mlekusch, Wolfgang; Charwat-Resl, Silvia; Mueller, Markus; Hammer, Alexandra; Gschwandtner, Michael E; Koppensteiner, Renate; Schlager, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship of age and body mass index (BMI) to skin temperature and perfusion in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) compared with controls. Patients with RP as well as age- and sex-matched controls underwent external cold provocation by exposure to 20 °C water for 1 minute. Before and after cold provocation, skin temperature and skin perfusion were measured. Twenty-six patients with RP (20 women and 6 men; median age 41.9 years) and 22 controls (17 women and 5 men; median age 42.9 years) were studied. In RP patients, cold exposure led to a median change in skin temperature of -7% (interquartile range [IQR] -13.1, -4.1) and to a median change in skin perfusion of -26.4% (IQR -36.2, 2.9). In controls, skin temperature changed by -15.7% (IQR -18.3, -11.6) and skin perfusion by -33% (IQR -53.3, -1.1) upon cold exposure. In patients with RP, age and BMI were related to skin temperature (for age, r = 0.683, P skin perfusion (for age, r = 0.595, P = 0.002; for BMI, r = 0.653, P skin temperature was inversely related to age (r = -0.518, P = 0.003) and BMI (r = -0.662, P skin perfusion was not related to age or BMI in either group. The cold-induced decrease in skin temperature is related to age and BMI in patients with RP but not in controls. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiology of digital ischemia in primary RP. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Skin Temperature Over the Carotid Artery, an Accurate Non-invasive Estimation of Near Core Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Farsad; Karimi Rouzbahani, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Mehrdad; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    During anesthesia, continuous body temperature monitoring is essential, especially in children. Anesthesia can increase the risk of loss of body temperature by three to four times. Hypothermia in children results in increased morbidity and mortality. Since the measurement points of the core body temperature are not easily accessible, near core sites, like rectum, are used. The purpose of this study was to measure skin temperature over the carotid artery and compare it with the rectum temperature, in order to propose a model for accurate estimation of near core body temperature. Totally, 124 patients within the age range of 2 - 6 years, undergoing elective surgery, were selected. Temperature of rectum and skin over the carotid artery was measured. Then, the patients were randomly divided into two groups (each including 62 subjects), namely modeling (MG) and validation groups (VG). First, in the modeling group, the average temperature of the rectum and skin over the carotid artery were measured separately. The appropriate model was determined, according to the significance of the model's coefficients. The obtained model was used to predict the rectum temperature in the second group (VG group). Correlation of the predicted values with the real values (the measured rectum temperature) in the second group was investigated. Also, the difference in the average values of these two groups was examined in terms of significance. In the modeling group, the average rectum and carotid temperatures were 36.47 ± 0.54°C and 35.45 ± 0.62°C, respectively. The final model was obtained, as follows: Carotid temperature × 0.561 + 16.583 = Rectum temperature. The predicted value was calculated based on the regression model and then compared with the measured rectum value, which showed no significant difference (P = 0.361). The present study was the first research, in which rectum temperature was compared with that of skin over carotid artery, to find a safe location with easier

  15. Gradient-dependent release of the model drug TRITC-dextran from FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngo Bich Nga Nathalie; Knorr, Fanny; Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Richter, Heike; Meinke, Martina; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2017-07-01

    Hair follicle research is currently focused on the development of drug-loaded nanocarriers for the targeting of follicular structures in the treatment of skin and hair follicle-related disorders. In the present study, a dual-label nanocarrier system was implemented in which FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers loaded with the model drug and dye TRITC-dextran were applied topically to porcine ear skin. Follicular penetration and the distribution of both dyes corresponding to the nanocarriers and the model drug in the follicular ducts subsequent to administration to the skin were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The release of TRITC-dextran from the particles was induced by washing of the nanocarriers, which were kept in a buffer containing TRITC-labeled dextran to balance out the diffusion of the dextran during storage, thereby changing the concentration gradient. The results showed a slightly but statistically significantly deeper follicular penetration of fluorescent signals corresponding to TRITC-dextran as opposed to fluorescence corresponding to the FITC-labeled particles. The different localizations of the dyes in the cross-sections of the skin samples evidenced the release of the model drug from the labeled nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Registered Report: Measuring Unconscious Deception Detection by Skin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Van 't Veer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers. To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  17. Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, V L; Wilkinson, D M; Blacker, S D; Horner, F E; Carter, J; Havenith, G; Rayson, M P

    2013-11-01

    This study assessed the validity of insulated skin temperature (Tis) to predict rectal temperature (Tre) for use as a non-invasive measurement of thermal strain to reduce the risk of heat illness for emergency service personnel. Volunteers from the Police, Fire and Rescue, and Ambulance Services performed role-related tasks in hot (30 °C) and neutral (18 °C) conditions, wearing service specific personal protective equipment. Insulated skin temperature and micro climate temperature (Tmc) predicted Tre with an adjusted r(2) = 0.87 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.19 °C. A bootstrap validation of the equation resulted in an adjusted r(2) = 0.85 and SEE = 0.20 °C. Taking into account the 0.20 °C error, the prediction of Tre resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 91%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature and Tmc can be used in a model to predict Tre in emergency service personnel wearing CBRN protective clothing with an SEE of 0.2 °C. However, the model is only valid for Tis over 36.5 °C, above which thermal stability is reached between the core and the skin.

  18. [Analysis on relevance between regional acupoint skin temperature and indoor temperature and humidity in healthy female volunteers during menstruation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yan-Fen; Zhu, Jiang; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Xie, Jie-Ping; Li, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Hong-Wen

    2012-04-01

    To observe the relationship between the cutaneous temperature of the acupoint area and the environmental temperature and humidity in healthy female undergraduate student volunteers. Forty-nine healthy female undergraduate student volunteers experiencing menstruation were enrolled in the present study. The cutaneous temperature of the acupoint region was detected for 60 min by using a "dynamic skin temperature detector" and under room temperature of (22.15 +/- 1.47) degrees C and indoor relative humidity of (50.12 +/- 4.52)%. The detected acupoints were Xuehai (SP10), Diji (SP8), Zhongdu (LR 6), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taixi (KI 3), Taibai (SP 3), Taichong (LR 3) and Shuiquan (KI 5)which have been well documented in effectively regulating uterine activity, and Xuanzhong (GB 39) and non-meridian acupoint nearby GB 39. The skin temperature measurement was conducted on the first day of menstruation. The skin temperature levels of Xuehai (SP 10), Diji (SP 8), Zhongdu (LR 6), Xuanzhong (GB 39) and non-acupoint near GB 39 were apparently hig-her under higher temperature, showing a significant relevance between the acupoint skin temperature and room temperature (P 0.05), between the skin temperature difference of the bilateral isonym acupoints and the indoor temperature, and between the skin temperature difference and the indoor humidity (P > 0.05). The skin temperature of some acupoints is influenced by the environment temperature rather than the indoor humidity.

  19. Characterization of Temperature Profiles in Skin and Transdermal Delivery System When Exposed to Temperature Gradients In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Murawsky, Michael; LaCount, Terri; Hao, Jinsong; Kasting, Gerald B; Newman, Bryan; Ghosh, Priyanka; Raney, Sam G; Li, S Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Performance of a transdermal delivery system (TDS) can be affected by exposure to elevated temperature, which can lead to unintended safety issues. This study investigated TDS and skin temperatures and their relationship in vivo, characterized the effective thermal resistance of skin, and identified the in vitro diffusion cell conditions that would correlate with in vivo observations. Experiments were performed in humans and in Franz diffusion cells with human cadaver skin to record skin and TDS temperatures at room temperature and with exposure to a heat flux. Skin temperatures were regulated with two methods: a heating lamp in vivo and in vitro, or thermostatic control of the receiver chamber in vitro. In vivo basal skin temperatures beneath TDS at different anatomical sites were not statistically different. The maximum tolerable skin surface temperature was approximately 42-43°C in vivo. The temperature difference between skin surface and TDS surface increased with increasing temperature, or with increasing TDS thermal resistance in vivo and in vitro. Based on the effective thermal resistance of skin in vivo and in vitro, the heating lamp method is an adequate in vitro method. However, the in vitro-in vivo correlation of temperature could be affected by the thermal boundary layer in the receiver chamber.

  20. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

    2012-05-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  1. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  2. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Full body illusion is associated with widespread skin temperature reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eSalomon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A central feature of our consciousness is the experience of the self as a unified entity residing in a physical body, termed bodily self-consciousness. This phenomenon includes aspects such as the sense of owning a body (also known as body ownership and has been suggested to arise from the integration of sensory and motor signals from the body. Several studies have shown that temporally synchronous tactile stimulation of the real body and visual stimulation of a fake or virtual body can induce changes in bodily self-consciousness, typically resulting in a sense of illusory ownership over the fake body. The present study assessed the effect of anatomical congruency of visuo-tactile stimulation on bodily self-consciousness. A virtual body was presented and temporally synchronous visuo-tactile stroking was applied simultaneously the participants’ body and to the virtual body. We manipulated the anatomical locations of the visuo-tactile stroking (i.e. on the back, on the leg, resulting in congruent stroking (stroking was felt and seen on the back or the leg or incongruent stroking (i.e. stroking was felt on the leg and seen on the back. We measured self-identification with the virtual body and self-location as well as skin temperature. Illusory self-identification with the avatar as well as changes in self-localization were experienced in the congruent stroking conditions. Participants showed a decrease in skin temperature across several body locations during congruent stimulation. These data establish that the full-body illusion alters bodily self-consciousness and instigates widespread physiological changes in the participant’s body.

  4. Full body illusion is associated with widespread skin temperature reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Roy; Lim, Melanie; Pfeiffer, Christian; Gassert, Roger; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of our consciousness is the experience of the self as a unified entity residing in a physical body, termed bodily self-consciousness. This phenomenon includes aspects such as the sense of owning a body (also known as body ownership) and has been suggested to arise from the integration of sensory signals from the body. Several studies have shown that temporally synchronous tactile stimulation of the real body and visual stimulation of a fake or virtual body can induce changes in bodily self-consciousness, typically resulting in a sense of illusory ownership over the fake body. The present study assessed the effect of anatomical congruency of visuo-tactile stimulation on bodily self-consciousness. A virtual body was presented and temporally synchronous visuo-tactile stroking was applied simultaneously to the participants' body and to the virtual body. We manipulated the anatomical locations of the visuo-tactile stroking (i.e., on the back, on the leg), resulting in congruent stroking (stroking was felt and seen on the back or the leg) or incongruent stroking (i.e., stroking was felt on the leg and seen on the back). We measured self-identification with the virtual body and self-location as well as skin temperature. Illusory self-identification with the avatar as well as changes in self-location were experienced in the congruent stroking conditions. Participants showed a decrease in skin temperature across several body locations during congruent stimulation. These data establish that the full-body illusion (FBI) alters bodily self-consciousness and instigates widespread physiological changes in the participant's body.

  5. Pierced Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Should You Fight a Bully? What You Need to Know About ... What's in this article? Getting Your Ears Pierced Metal Matters Taking Care of Your Ears If Your Ears ...

  6. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  7. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    function, the recommended treatment is intravenous ciprofloxacin and ... respiratory tract infection. The infec- tion spreads to the middle ..... structures. The underlying pathophysiology of otitis externa is maceration of the skin of the external ear canal. The hair and lipid content of cerumen renders the ear canal impervious to ...

  8. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Webb, R Chad; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or 'epidermal', photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements...

  9. Daily oscillations of skin temperature in military personnel using thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Sillero-Quintana, M; Piñonosa Cano, S; Moreira, D G; Brito, C J; Fernandes, A A; Pussieldi, G A; Marins, J C B

    2016-10-01

    The human body makes many physiological adjustments throughout the day, including adjustments to body temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine oscillations in the skin temperature (Tsk-1-Tsk-25) at 25 body regions of interest (ROIs) over 1 day using infrared thermography. Tsk values of 31 male (age 22.9±3.0 years) Brazilian Air Force members were evaluated from five thermograms collected at 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23 h (Tsk7,11,15,19,23) by a Fluke imager. We applied one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures for the different times of the day and Tukey's post hoc test to determine significant Tsk differences between ROIs (α=0.05), and the cosinor analysis was used to determine the midline estimating statistic of rhythm, amplitude and acrophase of Tsk during the 24 h period. The anterior hands showed the greatest Tsk variations throughout the day. In the lower limbs, scapula, abdomen, chest and lower back, Tsk-11, Tsk-15, Tsk-19 and Tsk-23 were significantly different (pthermal stabilisation in some regions in the afternoon and a central upward trend throughout the day in the hands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Relating friction on the human skin to the hydration and temperature of the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    The human skin is constantly in interaction with materials and products. Therefore, skin friction is relevant to all people. In the literature, the frictional properties of the skin have been linked to a large variety of variables, like age, gender and hydration. The present study compares the data

  11. Diagnostic values for skin temperature assessment to detect diabetes-related foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, J.; Prijs, M.; van Baal, J.G.; Liu, C.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Bus, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin temperature assessment is a promising modality for early detection of diabetic foot problems, but its diagnostic value has not been studied. Our aims were to investigate the diagnostic value of different cutoff skin temperature values for detecting diabetes-related foot complications such as

  12. The non-linear relationship between nerve conduction velocity and skin temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Todnem, K; Knudsen, G; Riise, T.; Nyland, H; Aarli, J A

    1989-01-01

    Median motor and sensory nerves were examined in 20 healthy subjects. Superficial stimulating and recording electrodes were used, and the nerves were examined at natural skin temperature, after cooling and after heating of the arm. The conduction velocity for the fastest and slow conducting sensory fibres (temperature range 17-37 degrees C), and for the fastest conducting motor fibres (temperature range 19-38 degrees C) increased non-linearly with increase in skin temperature. Similarly, dist...

  13. Distal infrared thermography and skin temperature after ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Semera; Bjerregaard, Lars S; Lundstrøm, Lars H

    2014-01-01

    -four blocks were successful and two were failures. Four thermographic patterns were observed after successful blocks: the increase in skin temperature was restricted to the thumb (n = 5); increase in skin temperature of the thumb and the second digit (n = 11); increase in skin temperature of the thumb......, the second and fifth digits (n = 4); and an increase in skin temperature in all parts of the hand (n = 24). All successful blocks demonstrated a significant (P thumb of 6.6°C (0.7 to 17.2) by 30 min, which was already significant (P ....0001) by 5 min. By contrast, skin temperature decreased significantly (P thumb within 30...

  14. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Sun, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy.

  15. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Ken S; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mørch, Carsten D

    2010-11-08

    CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation.

  16. Comparative studies on proliferation, molecular markers and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells from various tissues (adipose, bone marrow, ear skin, abdominal skin, and lung) and maintenance of multipotency during serial passages in miniature pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Young; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Chan-Lan; Lee, Keum Sil; Lee, So-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Lee, Byeong Chun; Koo, Ok Jae; Song, Jae-Young; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into multi-lineage cells, which confers great promise for use in regenerative medicine. In this study, MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue, bone marrow, ear skin, lung, and abdominal skin of miniature pigs (mpMSCs), and the optimal medium (DMEM/F12-Glutamax) was selected for the culturing of mpMSCs. As a result, proliferation of the mpMSCs derived from all tissues was steadily increased when cultured with DMEM/F12-Glutamax during 14 consecutive passages. The cells harbored MSC surface markers (CD34-, CD45-, CD29+, CD44+, CD90+, and CD105+), whose levels of expression differed among the tissue sources and declined over sub-passaging. In addition, the expression of stemness markers (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) and differentiation into mesoderm (adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts) were clearly represented at early passage; however, expression of stemness markers decreased, and differentiation potential was lost over sequential sub-passaging, which should be considered in the selection of mpMSC for MSC-based application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research of temperature field measurement using a flexible temperature sensor array for robot sensing skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Siyu; Li, Ruiqi; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yugang; Liu, Caixia

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel temperature sensor array by dispensing conductive composites on a flexible printed circuit board which is able to acquire the ambient temperature. The flexible temperature sensor array was fabricated by using carbon fiber-filled silicon rubber based composites on a flexible polyimide circuit board, which can both ensure their high flexibility. It found that CF with 12 wt% could be served as the best conductive filler for higher temperature sensitivity and better stability comparing with some other proportion for dynamic range from 30&° to 90°. The preparation of the temperature sensitive material has also been described in detail. Connecting the flexible sensor array with a data acquisition card and a personal computer (PC), some heat sources with different shapes were loaded on the sensor array; the detected results were shown in the interface by LabVIEW software. The measured temperature contours are in good agreement with the shapes and amplitudes of different heat sources. Furthermore, in consideration of the heat dissipation in the air, the relationship between the resistance and the distance of heat sources with sensor array was also detected to verify the accuracy of the sensor array, which is also a preparation for our future work. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed flexible sensor array, and it can be used as humanoid artificial skin for sensation system of robots.

  18. Airplane Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an imbalance in the air pressure in the middle ear and air pressure in the environment prevents your eardrum (tympanic membrane) from vibrating as ... eustachian tube. One end is connected to the middle ear. The other end has a ... in the environment changes rapidly, and your eustachian tube often doesn' ...

  19. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Suaste-Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C. The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing. More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  20. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-03-04

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  1. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K McFarlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual’s temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes for the measurement of peripheral (bicep and central (abdominal skin temperature. Young men and women (N=30 were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO 2 max of cycling in a hot (39±2°C, humid (45±5% RH environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5 were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5, For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9 and thermal (1.9, suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35ºC, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects

  2. Results of scalp cooling during anthracycline containing chemotherapy depend on scalp skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komen, M M C; Smorenburg, C H; Nortier, J W R; van der Ploeg, T; van den Hurk, C J G; van der Hoeven, J J M

    2016-12-01

    The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients undergoing similar chemotherapy regimens. A decrease of the scalp skin temperature seems to be an important factor, but data on the optimum temperature reached by scalp cooling to prevent CIA are lacking. This study investigated the relation between scalp skin temperature and its efficacy to prevent CIA. In this explorative study, scalp skin temperature was measured during scalp cooling in 62 breast cancer patients undergoing up to six cycles of anthracycline containing chemotherapy. Scalp skin temperature was measured by using two thermocouples at both temporal sides of the head. The primary end-point was the need for a wig or other head covering. Maximal cooling was reached after 45 min and was continued for 90 min after chemotherapy infusion. The scalp skin temperature after 45 min cooling varied from 10 °C to 31 °C, resulting in a mean scalp skin temperature of 19 °C (SEM: 0,4). Intrapersonal scalp skin temperatures during cooling were consistent for each chemotherapy cycle (ANOVA: P = 0,855). Thirteen out of 62 patients (21%) did not require a wig or other head covering. They appeared to have a significantly lower mean scalp skin temperature (18 °C; SEM: 0,7) compared to patients with alopecia (20 °C; SEM: 0,5) (P = 0,01). The efficacy of scalp cooling during chemotherapy is temperature dependent. A precise cut-off point could not be detected, but the best results seem to be obtained when the scalp temperature decreases below 18 °C. TRIALREGISTER. 3082. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Circadian rhythms in bed rest: Monitoring core body temperature via heat-flux approach is superior to skin surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendt, Stefan; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Nordine, Michael; Steinach, Mathias; Opatz, Oliver; Belavý, Daniel; Felsenberg, Dieter; Koch, Jochim; Shang, Peng; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Stahn, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Continuous recordings of core body temperature (CBT) are a well-established approach in describing circadian rhythms. Given the discomfort of invasive CBT measurement techniques, the use of skin temperature recordings has been proposed as a surrogate. More recently, we proposed a heat-flux approach (the so-called Double Sensor) for monitoring CBT. Studies investigating the reliability of the heat-flux approach over a 24-hour period, as well as comparisons with skin temperature recordings, are however lacking. The first aim of the study was therefore to compare rectal, skin, and heat-flux temperature recordings for monitoring circadian rhythm. In addition, to assess the optimal placement of sensor probes, we also investigated the effect of different anatomical measurement sites, i.e. sensor probes positioned at the forehead vs. the sternum. Data were collected as part of the Berlin BedRest study (BBR2-2) under controlled, standardized, and thermoneutral conditions. 24-hours temperature data of seven healthy males were collected after 50 days of -6° head-down tilt bed-rest. Mean Pearson correlation coefficients indicated a high association between rectal and forehead temperature recordings (r > 0.80 for skin and Double Sensor). In contrast, only a poor to moderate relationship was observed for sensors positioned at the sternum (r = -0.02 and r = 0.52 for skin and Double Sensor, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses further confirmed the feasibility of the forehead as a preferred monitoring site. The phase difference between forehead Double Sensor and rectal recordings was not statistically different from zero (p = 0.313), and was significantly smaller than the phase difference between forehead skin and rectal temperatures (p = 0.016). These findings were substantiated by cosinor analyses, revealing significant differences for mesor, amplitude, and acrophase between rectal and forehead skin temperature recordings, but not between forehead Double Sensor and rectal

  4. The relation between skin temperature increase and sensory block height in spinal anaesthesia using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, F G A M; Driessen, J J; Kadic, L; van Egmond, J; Booij, L H D J; Scheffer, G J

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of determining the extent of sympathetic blockade by skin temperature measurement with infrared thermography and relate the cranial extent of the temperature increase to that of the sensory block after spinal anaesthesia. Before and 5, 10 and 20 min after the administration of spinal anaesthesia, skin temperatures were measured with infrared thermography at the dermatomes T2-L3, in 12 male patients scheduled for lower limb surgery. The most cephalad dermatome at which sensory blockade occurred was related to the dermatome at which the largest temperature jump (corrected for baseline temperature) occurred. The baseline temperatures showed considerable variation across the dermatomes, being lower below T12 than at the thoracic dermatomes. The mean difference between the level of the cephalad skin temperature elevation front (mean 1.03 °C, SD 0.8 °C) and cranial sensory block height was 0.10 dermatomes (SD 1.16), correlation coefficient (0.88, P<0.001). The varying baseline temperatures across the trunk, the limited sympathetic block-induced increase in skin temperature at the trunk and the difficult control of influences from the surroundings partly obscured the extent of the skin temperature increase and its correlation to sensory block height. These factors have to be controlled to improve the use of infrared cameras as an easy bedside tool for predicting the cranial extent of (sympathetic blockade during) spinal anaesthesia.

  5. Uniform distribution of skin-temperature increase after different regional-anesthesia techniques of the lower extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdehausen, Robert; Braun, Sebastian; Hermanns, Henning; Freynhagen, Rainer; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Skin-temperature increase is a reliable but late indicator of success during regional-anesthesia techniques. The goal of this study is to determine the distribution of skin-temperature changes during different regional techniques. Does skin temperature increase in the

  6. The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest and after exercise. M Mars, B Hadebe, M Tufts. Abstract. Objective. To compare cooling of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle, produced by an icepack, at rest and after short-duration exhaustive exercise. Methods. Eight male subjects were studied. With the ...

  7. The simulation of skin temperature distributions by means of a relaxation method (applied to IR thermography)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermey, G.F.

    1975-01-01

    To solve the differential equation for the heat in a two-layer, rectangular piece of skin tissue, a relaxation method, based on a finite difference technique, is used. The temperature distributions on the skin surface are calculated. The results are used to derive a criterion for the resolution for

  8. Cauliflower Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to prevent cauliflower ear. Wearing the right headgear when playing sports — especially contact sports — is a ... any sport where helmets or other forms of headgear are recommended or required (like football, baseball, hockey, ...

  9. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the side, or the child's head may rest against an adult's chest. Older children and adults may sit with the head tilted toward the shoulder opposite the ear being examined. The provider will ...

  10. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Hair Loss Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems Headaches Hearing Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back ... have ear pain or redness but is having problems hearing?YesNo Back to Questions Step 3 Possible Causes ...

  11. Ear Reconstruction in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, John

    2015-12-01

    The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  13. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  14. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospectiv...

  15. Skin Temperature Rhythms in Humans Respond to Changes in the Timing of Sleep and Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marc; Boudreau, Philippe; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2017-06-01

    Body temperature is known to vary with circadian phase and to be influenced by factors that can mask its circadian expression. We wanted to test whether skin temperature rhythms were sensitive to an abrupt shift of the sleep schedule and to the resetting effects of light. Nineteen healthy subjects spent 6 days in time isolation and underwent a simulated night-shift procedure. They were assigned to either a control group ( n = 10) or bright light group ( n = 9) and measurements were taken under a baseline day-oriented schedule and during the 4(th) cycle of a night-oriented schedule. In the bright light group, participants were exposed to a 3-cycle 8-h exposure of ~6,500 lux at night, while the control group remained in dim light conditions (~3 lux). Skin temperature was recorded in 10 and 4 participants from the control and bright light groups, respectively. We found significant circadian rhythms of plasma melatonin, core body temperature (CBT), and skin temperature at baseline for both groups ( p skin temperature following night shifts were significantly phase delayed by about 7 to 9 h ( p skin temperature and subsequent decrease in CBT, in contrast to what has been previously reported. The present study shows that, in constant posture conditions, skin temperature rhythms have an evoked component sensitive to abrupt changes in the timing of sleep. They also comprise an endogenous component that is sensitive to the resetting effects of bright light exposure. These results have applications for the determination of circadian phase, as skin temperature is less intrusive than rectal temperature recordings.

  16. Calculations of atmospheric transmittance in the 11 micrometer window for estimating skin temperature from VISSR infrared brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, D.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for calculating the atmospheric transmittance in the 10 to 20 micro m spectral band from a known temperature and dewpoint profile, and then using this transmittance to estimate the surface (skin) temperature from a VISSR observation in the 11 micro m window is presented. Parameterizations are drawn from the literature for computing the molecular absorption due to the water vapor continuum, water vapor lines, and carbon dioxide lines. The FORTRAN code is documented for this application, and the sensitivity of the derived skin temperature to variations in the model's parameters is calculated. The VISSR calibration uncertainties are identified as the largest potential source of error.

  17. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sandra L.; Emery, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. During this one year grant, design and construction of an improved infrared radiometer was completed and testing was initiated. In addition, development of an improved parametric model for the bulk-skin temperature difference was completed using data from the previous version of the radiometer. This model will comprise a key component of an improved procedure for estimating the bulk SST from satellites. The results comprised a significant portion of the Ph.D. thesis completed by one graduate student and they are currently being converted into a journal publication.

  18. Influence of drying temperature on the chemical constituents of jaboticaba (Plinia Jaboticaba (Vell. Berg skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de C. Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba is a fruit native to Brazil. Its skin represents up to 43% of the fruit and contains high levels of fiber, minerals and phenolic compounds. The use of the skin waste adds value to the fruit. However, one of the drawbacks of skin storage is the high water content, which requires drying processes to preserve the skin without leading to the loss of nutrients and antioxidants. The influence of different drying temperatures on the levels of nutrients and antioxidants was investigated. Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba (Vell. Berg, genotype Sabará skins were lyophilized or dried at three temperatures (30, 45, and 60ºC, using food dryers. The skins were then ground, stored (protected from light and subjected to analysis of proximate composition, vitamin C, phytate, polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. The drying process had little effect on the proximate composition of the flour, presenting significant difference only for crude protein, fiber and non-nitrogenous extract. The greatest preservation of chemical constituents occurs in the lyophilized jaboticaba skins. Among the drying temperatures tested, however, the skins dried at 45 and60°C had more highly preserved nutritional substances and antioxidants.

  19. [Increase in skin surface temperature in spinal anesthesia. Predictive value for probability of surgical tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, A; Arumugam, M; Antweiler, G; Laubert, T; Habermann, J; Bruch, H-P

    2012-09-01

    Spinal anesthesia causes sympathetic blockade which leads to changes in the local temperature of the skin surface due to hyperemia. These changes in skin temperature were used in a newly developed method for estimating the level of analgesia. A total of 11 patients who were scheduled for surgical procedures of the lower extremities with symmetrical spinal anesthesia were included in the clinical study. By means of an electronic digital multi-channel body temperature measurement device with eight high precision temperature sensors placed on defined dermatomes, patient skin temperature was continuously measured at 2 s intervals and documented before, during and for 45 min after spinal anesthesia. Simultaneously, a neurological pin-prick test was carried on at regular intervals every 2 min on the defined dermatomes to calculate the correlation between the effects of analgesia and corresponding changes in skin temperature. The analyzed correlations showed that there is a minimum of 1.05°C temperature difference before and after spinal anesthesia especially on the lower extremities (foot, knee, inguinal) of patient dermatomes. The collected data of varying temperature differences were systematically evaluated using statistical software which led to a deeper understanding of the interdependency between temperature differences at different dermatomes. These interdependencies of temperature differences were used to develop a systematic analgesia level measurement algorithm. The algorithm calculates the skin temperature differences at specified dermatomes to find the accurate level of analgesia and also to find the forward and reverse progresses of analgesia. The developed mathematical method shows that it is possible to predict the level of analgesia up to an accuracy of 95% after spinal anesthesia. Therefore, it can be concluded that systematic processing of skin temperature data, collected at defined dermatomes can be used as a promising parameter for predicting

  20. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, Frank J.P.M.; van der Helm, F. C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  1. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  2. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; M.D. Nieuwenhoff (Mariska D.); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); F.C.T. van der Helm (Frans C.); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); A.C. Schouten (A.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSmall nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to

  3. Infrared skin temperature measurement cannot be used to detect myofascial tender spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, M; Burnham, R

    2001-07-01

    To determine the relationship between skin temperature and pressure tolerance in patients with myofascial pain. Blinded, criterion standard. Community physiatry clinic. Sixteen consecutive female patients with myofascial pain or fibromyalgia with shoulder girdle symptoms above the T4 level for at least 3 months. No patient met the exclusion criteria of recent trauma to the area or therapy within 48 hours. Skin temperature was measured by using a hand-held infrared thermometer over 36 points arranged in a grid on the upper and midtrapezius. Pressure threshold was then assessed at each point by using a pressure threshold meter. A second, blinded examiner then examined each patient to find any myofascial tender spots and noted within which square on the grid they occurred. The correlation between temperature and pressure threshold and the temperature differences between tender and nontender areas. A nonsignificant correlation of.023 (p =.57) was found between temperature and pressure threshold. The mean temperature of the tender spots was 32.1 degrees C. No significant difference existed between tender spot temperature and temperature of nontender points (32.1 degrees C, p =.653) or contralateral points (32 degrees C, p =.893). Skin temperature, measured with a hand-held infrared thermometer, cannot be used to diagnose and follow treatment progress of myofascial tender spots, because skin temperature over tender spots does not correlate with pressure sensitivity. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  4. Validation of the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Quesada, José Ignacio Priego; de Anda, Rosa María Cibrián Ortiz; Soriano, Pedro Pérez; Palmer, Rosario Salvador; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René Michel; Annaheim, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The most complete and realistic physiological data are derived from direct measurements during human experiments; however, they present some limitations such as ethical concerns, time and cost burden. Thermophysiological models are able to predict human thermal response in a wide range of environmental conditions, but their use is limited due to lack of validation. The aim of this work was to validate the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures against a dedicated database containing 43 different human experiments representing a wide range of conditions. The validation was conducted based on root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) and bias. The thermophysiological model by Fiala showed a good precision when predicting core and mean skin temperature (rmsd 0.26 and 0.92 °C, respectively) and also local skin temperatures for most body sites (average rmsd for local skin temperatures 1.32 °C). However, an increased deviation of the predictions was observed for the forehead skin temperature (rmsd of 1.63 °C) and for the thigh during exercising exposures (rmsd of 1.41 °C). Possible reasons for the observed deviations are lack of information on measurement circumstances (hair, head coverage interference) or an overestimation of the sweat evaporative cooling capacity for the head and thigh, respectively. This work has highlighted the importance of collecting details about the clothing worn and how and where the sensors were attached to the skin for achieving more precise results in the simulations.

  5. Infants sleeping outdoors in a northern winter climate: skin temperature and duration of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourula, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Hassi, Juhani; Bloigu, Risto; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the relationships among thermal environment, skin temperatures and infants' daytime outdoor sleep duration in northern winter conditions. This study is a cross-over observational study. Skin temperatures of three-month-old infants were recorded from seven skin sites continuously throughout outdoor (n = 34) and indoor sleep (n = 33) in the families' homes. The duration of the sleep was observed, and temperature and the air velocity of the environment were recorded. Skin temperatures increased towards the end of indoor sleeping, whereas they decreased during outdoor sleeping. The cooling rate of mean skin temperature (T(sk)) increased in lower outdoor temperatures (r(s) = .628, p Sleep time was 92 min longer in outdoors than in indoors. However, outdoor sleep duration was shortened when the cooling rate of T(sk) increased (r(s) = 0.611, p sleep was recorded outdoors when the cooling rate of T(sk) was minimal. Restriction of movements by clothing probably increases the length of sleep, and a cold environment makes swaddling possible without overheating. A decrease in ambient temperature increased the cooling rate, suggesting that the cold protection of the clothing compensated only partly for the increased heat loss. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Effects of artificial dawn on sleep inertia, skin temperature, and the awakening cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; De Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Van Someren, Eus J W; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2010-09-01

    The effect of artificial dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia was investigated, including possible involvement of cortisol and thermoregulatory processes. Sixteen healthy subjects who reported difficulty with waking up participated in random order in a control and an artificial dawn night. Sleep inertia severity was measured by subjective ratings of sleepiness and activation, and by performance on an addition and a reaction time task measured at 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min after waking up at habitual wake up time at workdays. At all intervals, saliva samples were collected for cortisol analysis. Sleep electroencephalogram was recorded during the 30 min prior to waking up; core body temperature and skin temperatures were recorded continuously until 90 min after waking up. Subjective sleepiness was significantly decreased and subjective activation increased after waking up in the artificial dawn condition as compared with control, in which lights were turned on at waking up. These effects can be explained by effects of artificial dawn on skin temperature and amount of wakefulness during the 30 min prior to the alarm. Artificial dawn accelerated the decline in skin temperature and in the distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient after getting up. No significant effects of artificial dawn on performance, core body temperature, and cortisol were found. These results suggest that the physiology underlying the positive effects of artificial dawn on the dissipation of sleep inertia involves light sleep and an accelerated skin temperature decline after awakening.

  7. Case study of skin temperature and thermal perception in a hot outdoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Chatzi, Evriklia; Theoharatos, George

    2014-08-01

    Focusing on the understanding and the estimation of the biometeorological conditions during summer in outdoor places, a field study was conducted in July 2010 in Athens, Greece over 6 days at three different sites: Syntagma Square, Ermou Street and Flisvos coast. Thermo-physiological measurements of five subjects were carried out from morning to evening for each site, simultaneously with meteorological measurements and subjective assessments of thermal sensation reported by questionnaires. The thermo-physiological variables measured were skin temperature, heat flux and metabolic heat production, while meteorological measurements included air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, globe temperature, ground surface temperature and global radiation. The possible relation of skin temperature with the meteorological parameters was examined. Theoretical values of mean skin temperature and mean radiant temperature were estimated applying the MENEX model and were compared with the measured values. Two biometeorological indices, thermal sensation (TS) and heat load (HL)-were calculated in order to compare the predicted thermal sensation with the actual thermal vote. The theoretically estimated values of skin temperature were underestimated in relation to the measured values, while the theoretical model of mean radiant temperature was more sensitive to variations of solar radiation compared to the experimental values. TS index underestimated the thermal sensation of the five subjects when their thermal vote was 'hot' or 'very hot' and overestimated thermal sensation in the case of 'neutral'. The HL index predicted with greater accuracy thermal sensation tending to overestimate the thermal sensation of the subjects.

  8. Acute effects of cold therapy on knee skin surface temperature: gel pack versus ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Matthew; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there has been no research that has compared the effectiveness of two popular cold therapy modalities applied to healthy human knees, with a surgical dressing, over a 4 h period. To determine whether gel packs are more effective than ice bags at reducing skin surface temperature in humans. This was a randomised, repeated measures crossover study, which included nine healthy participants. Level 2. Two cold therapy modalities-a gel pack (DonJoy-Orthopaedic Pty Ltd, Normanhurst, New South Wales, Australia) and an ice bag (ICE'N'EASY, Bokarina, Queensland, Australia)-were applied on top of a surgical dressing, covering the knee. Each participant randomly received two cold therapy treatments, in separate sessions, at least 4 days apart. Each session utilised the time protocol of 20 min application on the hour, for 4 h. Skin surface temperature was recorded throughout the session at 1 min intervals. In the first application, the ice bag (5°C±1.7°C) was more effective at reducing skin surface temperature (pice bag initially was more effective than the gel pack at reducing skin surface temperature of healthy knees, with a surgical dressing. Over a 4 h period both gel packs and ice bags were just as effective at reducing skin surface temperature and at maintaining these lower temperatures.

  9. Implementation of Coupled Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Global Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Jon; Bosilovich, M.; Chern, Jiun-dar; daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NCAR Finite Volume GCM (fvGCM) with the NCAR CLM (Community Land Model) version 2.0 was integrated into the NASA/GMAO Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS). A new method was developed for coupled skin temperature assimilation and bias correction where the analysis increment and bias correction term is passed into the CLM2 and considered a forcing term in the solution to the energy balance. For our purposes, the fvDAS CLM2 was run at 1 deg. x 1.25 deg. horizontal resolution with 55 vertical levels. We assimilate the ISCCP-DX (30 km resolution) surface temperature product. The atmospheric analysis was performed 6-hourly, while the skin temperature analysis was performed 3-hourly. The bias correction term, which was updated at the analysis times, was added to the skin temperature tendency equation at every timestep. In this presentation, we focus on the validation of the surface energy budget at the in situ reference sites for the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP). We will concentrate on sites that include independent skin temperature measurements and complete energy budget observations for the month of July 2001. In addition, MODIS skin temperature will be used for validation. Several assimilations were conducted and preliminary results will be presented.

  10. The validity of wireless iButtons and thermistors for human skin temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A D Harper; Crabtree, D R; Bilzon, J L J; Walsh, N P

    2010-01-01

    Skin temperature is a fundamental variable in human thermo-physiology, and yet skin temperature measurement remains impractical in most free-living, exercise and clinical settings, using currently available hard-wired methods. The purpose of this study was to compare wireless iButtons and hard-wired thermistors for human skin temperature measurement. In the first of two investigations, iButtons and thermistors monitored temperature in a controlled water bath (range: 10-40 degrees C) and were referenced against a certified, mercury thermometer. In the second investigation, eight healthy males completed three randomized trials (ambient temperature = 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C) while both devices recorded skin temperature at rest (in low and high wind velocities) and during cycle-ergometry exercise. The results are as follows. Investigation 1: both devices displayed very high validity correlation with the reference thermometer (r > 0.999). Prior to correction, the mean bias was +0.121 degrees C for iButtons and +0.045 degrees C for thermistors. Upon calibration correction the mean bias for iButtons and thermistors was not significantly different from zero bias. Interestingly, a typical error of the estimate of iButtons (0.043 degrees C) was 1.5 times less than that of thermistors (0.062 degrees C), demonstrating iButtons' lower random error. Investigation 2: the offset between iButton and thermistor readings was generally consistent across conditions; however, thermistor responses gave readings that were always closer to ambient temperature than those given by iButtons, suggesting potential thermistor drift towards environmental conditions. Mean temperature differences between iButtons and thermistors during resting trials ranged from 0.261 degrees C to 1.356 degrees C. Mean temperature differences between iButtons and thermistors during exercise were 0.989 degrees C (ambient temperature = 10 degrees C), 0.415 degrees C (ambient temperature = 20

  11. A modeling study on the influence of blood flow regulation on skin temperature pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanliang; Mizeva, Irina; He, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays together with known optic techniques of microcirculation blood flow monitoring, skin temperature measurements are developed as well. In this paper, a simple one-dimensional bioheat transfer model was developed to analyse the heat wave transport in biological tissue, where an arteriole vessel with pulsatile blood is located. The simulated results show that the skin temperature oscillation amplitudes attenuate with the increase of blood flow oscillation frequency which gives the same tendency as that in the experiments. The parameter analyses further show that the amplitude of oscillation is also influenced by oscillation amplitude of blood and effective thermal conductivity. When oscillation amplitude of blood flow and effective thermal conductivity increase, the amplitude of skin temperature oscillation increases nonlinearly. Variation of effective thermal convective influence to the time delay of the thermal wave on the skin surface and distort it. Combination of two measurement techniques: one for estimation blood flow oscillations in the microvessels and other to the skin temperature measurement can produce additional information about the skin properties.

  12. Skin temperature increase mediated by wearable, long duration, low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Matthew D.; Huang, Wenyi; Ghanem, Angi; Guo, Yuan; Lewis, George K.

    2017-03-01

    One of the safety concerns with the delivery of therapeutic ultrasound is overheating of the transducer-skin interface due to poor or improper coupling. The objective of this research was to define a model that could be used to calculate the heating in the skin as a result of a novel, wearable long-duration ultrasound device. This model was used to determine that the maximum heating in the skin remained below the minimum threshold necessary to cause thermal injury over multiple hours of use. In addition to this model data, a human clinical study used wire thermocouples on the skin surface to measure heating characteristics during treatment with the sustained ultrasound system. Parametric analysis of the model determined that the maximum temperature increase is at the surface of the skin ranged from 40-41.8° C when perfusion was taken into account. The clinical data agreed well with the model predictions. The average steady state temperature observed across all 44 subjects was 40°C. The maximum temperature observed was less than 44° C, which is clinically safe for over 5 hours of human skin contact. The resultant clinical temperature data paired well with the model data suggesting the model can be used for future transducer and ultrasound system design simulation. As a result, the device was validated for thermal safety for typical users and use conditions.

  13. Results of scalp cooling during anthracycline containing chemotherapy depend on scalp skin temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.M.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Nortier, J.W.; Ploeg, T. van der; Hurk, C.J. van den; Hoeven, J.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients undergoing similar chemotherapy regimens. A decrease of the scalp skin temperature seems to be an important factor, but data on the optimum temperature reached

  14. The relation between skin temperature increase and sensory block height in spinal anaesthesia using infrared thermography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Driessen, J.J.; Kadic, L.; Egmond, J. van; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of determining the extent of sympathetic blockade by skin temperature measurement with infrared thermography and relate the cranial extent of the temperature increase to that of the sensory block after spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: Before and 5,

  15. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after ultrasound-guided blockade of the sciatic nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Kadic, L.; Driessen, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study, we assessed the relationship between subgluteal sciatic nerve blocking and skin temperature by infrared thermography in the lower extremity. We hypothesized that blocking the sciatic nerve will lead to an increase in temperature, and that this will correlate with

  16. Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, J.A.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The SensorTouch thermometer performs an infrared measurement of the skin temperature above the Superficial Temporal Artery (STA). This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal

  17. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Astrid; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Pijl, Hanno; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert J; Van Someren, Eus J W; Fronczek, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperature and sleep-wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and controls. Eight hypocretin-deficient male narcolepsy type 1 patients and eight healthy matched controls underwent temperature measurement of core body and proximal and distal skin twice, and the sleep-wake state for 24 h. After the baseline assessment, 2 × 3 g of sodium oxybate was administered for 5 nights, immediately followed by the second assessment. At baseline, daytime core body temperature and proximal skin temperature were significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy (core: 36.8 ± 0.05 °C versus 37.0 ± 0.05 °C, F = 8.31, P = 0.01; proximal: 33.4 ± 0.26 °C versus 34.3 ± 0.26 °C, F = 5.66, P = 0.03). In patients, sodium oxybate administration increased proximal skin temperature during the day (F = 6.46, P = 0.04) to a level similar as in controls, but did not affect core body temperature, distal temperature or distal-proximal temperature gradient. Sodium oxybate administration normalised the predictive value of distal skin temperature and distal-proximal temperature gradient for the onset of daytime naps (P treatment. A causal relationship is not proven. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Correlation of Handheld Infrared Skin Thermometer and Infrared Videothermography Device for Measurement of Corneal Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Zafer; Barut Selver, Ozlem; Akkin, Cezmi; Canturk, Ecem; Afrashi, Filiz

    2016-05-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of handheld infrared skin thermometer and videothermography device for the measurement of corneal temperature. Forty healthy individuals (80 eyes) were enrolled to the study. Participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination and medical history review for excluding any ocular and systemic diseases. The measurements of the central corneal temperature were performed in a room having constant temperature, humidity, and brightness levels. To avoid any variability, all the temperature measurements were performed in the same examination room by a single examiner. The temperature was measured with a handheld infrared skin thermometer (MEDISANA, FTN) from the corneal surface. The same instrument was also used to measure the subjects' body temperature. Moreover, the subjects underwent the corneal temperature measurement by a noncontact videothermography device (Optris PI 450; Optris GmbH). The male to female ratio was 19:21 among the subjects. The mean age was 25.1±4.7 years. The mean body temperature was 36.93±0.33°C. The mean corneal temperatures measured by the handheld infrared skin thermometer and the ocular videothermography device were 36.94±0.28°C and 35.61±0.61°C, respectively (Ptemperature difference was 1.34±0.57°C, with a 95% confidence interval. There was a moderate correlation between the corneal temperatures measured by the 2 devices in the right, the left eyes, and both eyes, respectively (P=0.450, 0.539, 0.490). Handheld infrared skin thermometers can be used for the evaluation of the corneal temperature. These devices may provide a simple, practical, and cheaper way to detect the corneal temperature, and the widely performed corneal temperature measurements may afford us to understand the temperature variability in numerous ocular conditions in a better way.

  19. [Clinical study on effect of keeping perioperative normal body temperature on skin flap survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongwei; Luo, Jun; Huang, Fuguo

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the effect of perioperative body temperature on the survival of skin flap grafting. From July 2005 to November 2006, 50 cases of I-II grade patients undergoing elective skin flap grafting were randomly divided 2 groups. Pharyngeal temperature (PT) and skin temperature (ST) were monitored and recorded every 15 minutes. Operative time, anesthetic time, time from the end of operation to extubation, the volume of blood transfusion, the volume of fluid transfusion and the flap survival 7 days after operation were recorded. In the experimental group, the body temperature was maintained in normal range with water market and forced air heater. In the control group, the body temperature was only monitored without any treatment. Results There were no significant differences in operating room temperature, operative time, anesthetic time, the volume of blood transfusion and fluid transfusion between 2 groups (P > 0.05). After induction, PT decreased gradually in both groups during the first 45 minutes, compared with the time point of intubation (P 0.05); and ST rose in both groups during the first 45 minutes, compared with the time point of intubation (P 0.05). In the control group, both PT and ST decreased gradually and time-dependently compared with the time point of intubation (P skin flap grafts survived in the experimental group, and skin flap grafts necrosed in 2 cases in the control group. Keeping normal body temperature can improve the survival of skin flap grafting. Therefore, the body temperature should be monitored and maintained in a normal range.

  20. Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause your child’s eardrum to rupture or pop, leaving a hole in the ear. The initial pop hurts, but actually relieves the pressure and pain. ... turns up the volume of the TV or music, is not responding to softer sounds or is ...

  1. Integrating a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Wang, Faming; Song, Guowen

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration. The simulated core and mean skin temperatures were compared to the published experimental results of subject tests at three levels of ambient temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Although lower signal-to-noise-ratio was observed, the developed model demonstrated positive performance at predicting core temperatures with a maximum difference between the simulations and measurements of no more than 0.43 °C. Generally, the current model predicted the mean skin temperatures with reasonable accuracy. It could be applied to predict human physiological responses and assess thermal comfort and heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Question mark ear deformity-revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Qattan, Noha M

    2017-01-01

    We report on two unusual cases of Cosman (question mark) ear; both required modifications of the standard techniques for surgical correction. The first patient presented with a unilateral question mark ear and concurrent ear prominence and bulging of the cartilage of the anti-helix. Simultaneous correction was done using a combination of cartilage suturing/scoring (for the prominence and the cartilage bulge) as well as Al-Qattan's "v-y skin flap-cartilage graft-z-plasty" technique (for the correction of the ear cleft deformity). The second patient had aurico-condylar syndrome with bilateral ear deformity and complete separation of ear lobes from the external ear. Staged transposition followed by Al-Qattan's technique resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Level V, therapeutic study.

  3. Thermal time constant: optimising the skin temperature predictive modelling in lower limb prostheses using Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Arjan

    2016-06-01

    Elevated skin temperature at the body/device interface of lower-limb prostheses is one of the major factors that affect tissue health. The heat dissipation in prosthetic sockets is greatly influenced by the thermal conductive properties of the hard socket and liner material employed. However, monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used which requires consistent positioning of sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. To predict the residual limb temperature, a machine learning algorithm - Gaussian processes is employed, which utilizes the thermal time constant values of commonly used socket and liner materials. This Letter highlights the relevance of thermal time constant of prosthetic materials in Gaussian processes technique which would be useful in addressing the challenge of non-invasively monitoring the residual limb skin temperature. With the introduction of thermal time constant, the model can be optimised and generalised for a given prosthetic setup, thereby making the predictions more reliable.

  4. An assessment of skin temperature gradients in a tropical primate using infrared thermography and subcutaneous implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Scheidel, Caleb; Glander, Kenneth E; Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermography has become a useful tool to assess surface temperatures of animals for thermoregulatory research. However, surface temperatures are an endpoint along the body's core-shell temperature gradient. Skin and fur are the peripheral tissues most exposed to ambient thermal conditions and are known to serve as thermosensors that initiate thermoregulatory responses. Yet relatively little is known about how surface temperatures of wild mammals measured by infrared thermography relate to subcutaneous temperatures. Moreover, this relationship may differ with the degree that fur covers the body. To assess the relationship between temperatures and temperature gradients in peripheral tissues between furred and bare areas, we collected data from wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. We used infrared thermography to measure surface temperatures of the furred dorsum and bare facial areas of the body, recorded concurrent subcutaneous temperatures in the dorsum, and measured ambient thermal conditions via a weather station. Temperature gradients through cutaneous tissues (subcutaneous-surface temperature) and surface temperature gradients (surface-ambient temperature) were calculated. Our results indicate that there are differences in temperatures and temperature gradients in furred versus bare areas of mantled howlers. Under natural thermal conditions experienced by wild animals, the bare facial areas were warmer than temperatures in the furred dorsum, and cutaneous temperature gradients in the face were more variable than the dorsum, consistent with these bare areas acting as thermal windows. Cutaneous temperature gradients in the dorsum were more closely linked to subcutaneous temperatures, while facial temperature gradients were more heavily influenced by ambient conditions. These findings indicate that despite the insulative properties of fur, for mantled howling monkeys surface temperatures of furred areas still demonstrate a

  5. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  6. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, ... heard a soft sound or a loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is ...

  7. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cochlear Implants Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) Dealing With Earwax Is Earwax Removal Safe? Hearing Evaluation in Children Middle Ear Infections Middle Ear Infections and Ear ...

  8. Modeling skin temperature to assess the effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Pedersen, Poul; Morsing, Svend

    to the skin and from the skin to the surroundings. The latter is modelled as the united resistance for convection, radiation and evaporation. The model considers that the thermal heat load affects the tissue resistance, the body temperature and the evaporation from the skin, which is managed by modeling...... temperature model to generated data for determining the potential effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs housed in warm environment. The model calculates the skin temperature as function of body temperature, air temperature and the resistances for heat transfer from the body...

  9. Bridging phenomenon - Simplifying complex ear reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Lapid, Oren; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extirpation of noninvasive skin tumors of the anterior ear may create large defects. Various flaps, described to cover these defects, demand special knowledge without which a loss of the fine detail of the ear may result. Healthy, exposed cartilage is deliberately excised leaving a basic framework

  10. Effects of Gloves, Temperature and Their Interaction on Finger, Hand, and Arm Blood Flow and Skin Temperature: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbech, M. Susan

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cold only, commercially available gloves only, and the combination of gloves and cold on the blood flow and surface (skin) temperature of the medial and proximal phalanxes of digit 3, the metacarpal region of the hand, and the forearm.

  11. Thermal Skin Damage During Reirradiation and Hyperthermia Is Time-Temperature Dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, Akke, E-mail: akke.bakker@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolff, M. Willemijn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Holman, Rebecca [Clinical Research Unit, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Caspar M. van; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne de; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Crezee, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship of thermal skin damage (TSD) to time–temperature isoeffect levels for patients with breast cancer recurrence treated with reirradiation plus hyperthermia (reRT + HT), and to investigate whether the treatment history of previous treatments (scar tissue) is a risk factor for TSD. Methods and Materials: In this observational study, temperature characteristics of hyperthermia sessions were analyzed in 262 patients with recurrent breast cancer treated in the AMC between 2010 and 2014 with reirradiation and weekly hyperthermia for 1 hour. Skin temperature was measured using a median of 42 (range, 29-82) measurement points per hyperthermia session. Results: Sixty-eight patients (26%) developed 79 sites of TSD, after the first (n=26), second (n=17), third (n=27), and fourth (n=9) hyperthermia session. Seventy percent of TSD occurred on or near scar tissue. Scar tissue reached higher temperatures than other skin tissue (0.4°C, P<.001). A total of 102 measurement points corresponded to actual TSD sites in 35 of 79 sessions in which TSD developed. Thermal skin damage sites had much higher maximum temperatures than non-TSD sites (2.8°C, P<.001). Generalized linear mixed models showed that the probability of TSD is related to temperature and thermal dose values (P<.001) and that scar tissue is more at risk (odds ratio 0.4, P<.001). Limiting the maximum temperature of a measurement point to 43.7°C would mean that the probability of observing TSD was at most 5%. Conclusion: Thermal skin damage during reRT + HT for recurrent breast cancer was related to higher local temperatures and time–temperature isoeffect levels. Scar tissue reached higher temperatures than other skin tissue, and TSD occurred at lower temperatures and thermal dose values in scar tissue compared with other skin tissue. Indeed, TSD developed often on and around scar tissue from previous surgical procedures.

  12. The effect of environmental humidity and temperature on skin barrier function and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, K A; Johansen, J D; Kezic, S

    2016-01-01

    existing dermatoses. We searched the literature for studies that evaluated the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Commonly used meteorological terms such as absolute humidity, relative humidity and dew point are explained. Furthermore, we review the negative effect of low humidity, low temperatures...... and different seasons on the skin barrier and on the risk of dermatitis. We conclude that low humidity and low temperatures lead to a general decrease in skin barrier function and increased susceptible towards mechanical stress. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol are released by keratinocytes...

  13. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-Ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study that examined the distribution of skin temperature in patients with CRPS and skin temperature asymmetry versus symptom duration. Patients diagnosed with type 1 or 2 CRPS were recruited. After confirming CRPS according to the IASP diagnostic criteria, infrared thermographic images were evaluated for skin temperature differences (ΔT) between the affected and unaffected limbs. A total of 296 patients with CRPS were included in this study. The median duration of symptoms was 6 months and the mean ± standard deviation of ΔT was –0.72 ± 1.65°C. A skin temperature difference between bilateral limbs (|ΔT|) of 1°C or less was seen in 131 patients (44.3%); thus, these 131 patients did not meet the IASP criteria for CRPS. Further, cool skin temperature was not observed in 88 patients (29.7%), meaning that these patients did not meet the AMA criteria for CRPS. There was no correlation between the symptom duration and ΔT (Spearman's rho = –0.075, P = 0.196) and there was no significant difference in the average ΔT among the 4 symptom duration groups (0–3 months, 4–6 months, 7–12 months, >12 months, P = 0.08). In conclusion, a considerable proportion of the patients that participated in this study did not meet the thermal criteria set forth by the IASP and AMA. Further, there was no correlation between symptom duration and skin temperature difference. PMID:28033251

  14. Retrieving Clear-Sky Surface Skin Temperature for Numerical Weather Prediction Applications from Geostationary Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric models rely on high-accuracy, high-resolution initial radiometric and surface conditions for better short-term meteorological forecasts, as well as improved evaluation of global climate models. Remote sensing of the Earth’s energy budget, particularly with instruments flown on geostationary satellites, allows for near-real-time evaluation of cloud and surface radiation properties. The persistence and coverage of geostationary remote sensing instruments grant the frequent retrieval of near-instantaneous quasi-global skin temperature. Among other cloud and clear-sky retrieval parameters, NASA Langley provides a non-polar, high-resolution land and ocean skin temperature dataset for atmospheric modelers by applying an inverted correlated k-distribution method to clear-pixel values of top-of-atmosphere infrared temperature. The present paper shows that this method yields clear-sky skin temperature values that are, for the most part, within 2 K of measurements from ground-site instruments, like the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Infrared Thermometer and the National Climatic Data Center Apogee Precision Infrared Thermocouple Sensor. The level of accuracy relative to the ARM site is comparable to that of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS with the benefit of an increased number of daily measurements without added bias or increased error. Additionally, matched comparisons of the high-resolution skin temperature product with MODIS land surface temperature reveal a level of accuracy well within 1 K for both day and night. This confidence will help in characterizing the diurnal and seasonal biases and root-mean-square differences between the retrievals and modeled values from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5 in preparation for assimilation of the retrievals into GEOS-5. Modelers should find the immediate availability and broad coverage of these skin temperature

  15. Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gregory T

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and spatial distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. Transport of heat by conduction, and by temperature-dependent, spatially heterogeneous blood perfusion is modeled here using a transport lattice approach. Methods We represent heat transport processes by using a lattice that represents the Pennes bioheat equation in perfused tissues, and diffusion in nonperfused regions. The three layer skin model has a nonperfused viable epidermis, and deeper regions of dermis and subcutaneous tissue with perfusion that is constant or temperature-dependent. Two cases are considered: (1 surface contact heating and (2 spatially distributed heating. The model is relevant to the prediction of the transient and steady state temperature rise for different methods of power deposition within the skin. Accumulated thermal damage is estimated by using an Arrhenius type rate equation at locations where viable tissue temperature exceeds 42°C. Prediction of spatial temperature distributions is also illustrated with a two-dimensional model of skin created from a histological image. Results The transport lattice approach was validated by comparison with an analytical solution for a slab with homogeneous thermal properties and spatially distributed uniform sink held at constant temperatures at the ends. For typical transcutaneous blood gas sensing conditions the estimated damage is small, even with prolonged skin contact to a 45°C surface. Spatial heterogeneity in skin thermal properties leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution during a 10 GHz electromagnetic field exposure. A realistic two-dimensional model of the skin shows that tissue heterogeneity does not lead to a significant local temperature increase when heated by a hot wire tip. Conclusions The heat transport system model of the

  16. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm, Ken Steffen; Andersen, Ole K.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background: CO(2) lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial...... to deeper skin layers. Methods: In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO(2) laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were...... dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO(2) laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation....

  18. PERSPECTIVE Working towards a community-wide understanding of satellite skin temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Cheney

    2010-12-01

    With more than sixty free and publicly available high-quality datasets, including ecosystem variables, radiation budget variables, and land cover products, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS scientific team have contributed significantly to scientific investigations of ecosystems across the globe. The MODIS instrument, launched in December 1999, has 36 spectral bands, a viewing swath of 2330 km, and acquires data at 250 m, 500 m, and 1000 m spatial resolution every one to two days. Radiation budget variables include surface reflectance, skin temperature, emissivity, and albedo, to list a few. Ecosystem variables include several vegetation indices and productivity measures. Land cover characteristics encompass land cover classifications as well as model parameters and vegetation classifications. Many of these products are instrumental in constraining global climate models and climate change studies, as well as monitoring events such as the recent flooding in Pakistan, the unprecedented oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, or phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea. While product validation efforts by the MODIS scientific team are both vigorous and continually improving, validation is unquestionably one of the most difficult tasks when dealing with remotely derived datasets, especially at the global scale. The quality and availability of MODIS data have led to widespread usage in the scientific community that has further contributed to validation and development of the MODIS products. In their recent paper entitled 'Land surface skin temperature climatology: benefitting from the strengths of satellite observations', Jin and Dickinson review the scientific theory behind, and demonstrate application of, a MODIS temperature product: surface skin temperature. Utilizing datasets from the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN), daily skin and air temperature from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, and MODIS products (skin temperature, albedo, land

  19. The relationship between local scalp skin temperature and cutaneous perfusion during scalp cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Francis-Paul E.M.; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Gerard M.J.; van Steenhoven, Anton A.

    2007-01-01

    Cooling the scalp during administration of chemotherapy can prevent hair loss. It reduces both skin blood flow and hair follicle temperature, thus affecting drug supply and drug effect in the hair follicle. The extent to which these mechanisms contribute to the hair preservative effect of scalp

  20. Infrared thermographic assessment of changes in skin temperature during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Lange, Kai H W; Frandsen, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hypoglycaemia is associated with reduced skin temperature (Ts). We studied whether infrared thermography can detect Ts changes during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and how the Ts response differs between patients with normal hypoglycaemia awareness and hypoglycae...

  1. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Astrid; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Pijl, Hanno; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert J; Van Someren, Eus J W; Fronczek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of

  2. Changes in Skin Surface Temperature during Muscular Endurance indicated Strain – An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-contact thermography enables the diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperature during athletic movement. Resistance exercise results in stress of required musculature, which is supposed to be measurable thermographically in terms of skin surface temperature change. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the application of thermography to analyze changes in skin temperature, representing specific muscle groups, during and after resistance exercise. Method: Thirteen male participants (age: 27.1 ± 4.9 years, height: 181.5 ± 5.7 cm, mass: 74.8 ± 7.4 kg completed the study. On 5 separate visits to the laboratory, participants performed one of 5 resistance exercise to target specific muscles (M. pectoralis major, M. rectus abdominis, M. trapezius, M. erector spinae, M. quadriceps femoris. The exercise protocol consisted of 3 sets of 20 repetitions, with 1 minute rest between exercise sets. The average skin surface temperature above the muscle groups used was thermographically determined using standard methods at 7 time points; pre-exercise, immediately following each exercise set, and post exercise (2, 3, and 6 minutes after the finale exercise set. The measurement areas were standardized using anatomic reference points. Results: From an inferential statistical point of view, no significant change in the average temperature caused by the applied resistance training was found for the individual muscle groups over time at the individual measurement times (all P>0.08. However, thermography showed a characteristic chronological temperature curve for the five body areas between measurement times, as well as a distinctive spatial temperature distribution over the measurement areas. Discussion: Based on the thermographic image data and the characteristic temperature curve, it is possible to identify the primarily used functional musculature after device-controlled resistance training. Therefore, thermography seems to be

  3. Study of the effect of temperature on the optical properties of Latin skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistián-Vázquez, Brenda; Morales-Cruzado, Beatriz; Sarmiento-Gómez, Erick; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a very effective technique for treatment of certain types of cancer, among the most common, skin cancer. PDT requires the presence of three elements: the photosensitizer, light and oxygen. Penetration depth of light into the tumor depends on both the characteristics of the tissue to be treated and the wavelength. As the light dose to be delivered in each lesion depends on the optical properties of the tissue, all the effects that change these properties should be considered in order to choose suitable doses. There are some studies that have determined the maximum dose of radiation tolerated for certain types of skin, but the influence of the temperature on the optical properties, especially for darker skin types, remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the optical properties of skin in vivo of different Latin volunteers in order to study the influence of the temperature on the optical properties and thereby to define more precisely the dose of light to be received by each patient in a personalized way. The optical properties of skin in vivo were investigated using an optical system that included an integrating sphere, a tungsten lamp and a spectrophotometer. Such experimental set up-allowed to obtain spectra reflectance of various volunteers and from this measurement, the absorption coefficient was recovered by Inverse Adding Doubling (IAD) program.

  4. Considerations for the measurement of core, skin and mean body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Tipton, Michael J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-12-01

    Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Swimmer's Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En ... ll find delicate skin that's protected by a thin coating of earwax . Most of the time, water ...

  6. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Mouth and Dental Disorders Older People’s Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Symptoms ALL ...

  7. Ear Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Mouth and Dental Disorders Older People’s Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Symptoms ALL ...

  8. Skin surface temperature of broiler chickens is correlated to body core temperature and is indicative of their thermoregulatory status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloh, M; Shinder, D; Yahav, S

    2012-01-01

    Extreme thermal conditions may dramatically affect the performance of broilers and other domestic animals, thereby impairing animal welfare and causing economic losses. Although body core temperature is the parameter that best reflects a bird's thermal status, practical and physiological obstacles make it irrelevant as a source of information on the thermal status of commercial flocks. Advances in the technology of infrared thermal imaging have enabled highly accurate, noncontact, and noninvasive measurements of skin surface temperature. Providing that skin surface temperature correlates with body temperature, this technology could enable acquisition of reliable information on the thermal status of animals, thereby improving diagnoses of environmental stress in a flock. This study of broiler chickens found a strong positive correlation between body core temperature and facial surface temperature, as recorded by infrared thermal imaging. The correlation was equally strong at all ages from 8 to 36 d during exposure to acute heat stress with or without proper ventilation and after acclimation to chronic heat exposure. A similar correlation was found by measurements in commercial flocks of broilers. Measurements of blood plasma concentrations of corticosterone, thyroid hormones, and arginine vasotocin confirmed that metabolic activity was low after acclimation to chronic exposure to heat, whereas ventilation was at least as efficient as acclimation in reducing thermal stress but did not impair metabolism. In light of these novel results, commercial benefits of infrared thermal imaging technology are suggested, especially in climate control for commercial poultry flocks. The application of this technique to other domestic animals should be investigated in future experiments.

  9. Coupling of infraslow fluctuations in autonomic and central vigilance markers: Skin temperature, EEG beta power and ERP P300 latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramautar, J.R.; Romeijn, N.; Gomez-Herrero, G.; Piantoni, G.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Even under thermoneutral conditions, skin temperature fluctuates spontaneously, most prominently at distal parts of the body. These fluctuations were shown to be associated with fluctuations in vigilance: mild manipulation of skin temperature during nocturnal sleep affects sleep depth and the power

  10. Improvement of skin optical clearing efficacy by topical treatment of glycerol at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Zijian; Liu Caihua; Tao Wei; Zhu Dan, E-mail: dawnzh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, laser has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and cosmetic therapy. However, there is limitation for further usage in deeper tissue for high scattering property. Skin optical clearing technique, by introducing optical clearing agents (OCAs) into tissue, will have a potential impact on optical diagnosis and therapy. In this work, anhydrous glycerol at different temperatures of 4, 25, 32 and 45 deg. C were applied respectively to in vitro porcine skin, and reflectance and transmittance spectra were then measured dynamically using a spectrometry combined with integrating sphere system. Further, reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth were obtained. Results showed that, glycerol at different temperatures could induce the reduced scattering coefficient of in vitro skin to decrease and the penetration depth to increase. 4 and 25 deg. C glycerol had similar effect, decreasing the scattering by 48.2% and 49.7%, and increasing penetration depth by 37.9% and 39.5%, respectively. However, 32 and 45 deg. C glycerol treatment could decrease scattering by 61.6% and 76.6%, and increase penetration depth by 53.3% and 84.1%, respectively. In conclusion, glycerol at higher temperature can induce greater and faster skin optical clearing efficacy.

  11. Improvement of skin optical clearing efficacy by topical treatment of glycerol at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijian; Liu, Caihua; Tao, Wei; Zhu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, laser has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and cosmetic therapy. However, there is limitation for further usage in deeper tissue for high scattering property. Skin optical clearing technique, by introducing optical clearing agents (OCAs) into tissue, will have a potential impact on optical diagnosis and therapy. In this work, anhydrous glycerol at different temperatures of 4, 25, 32 and 45°C were applied respectively to in vitro porcine skin, and reflectance and transmittance spectra were then measured dynamically using a spectrometry combined with integrating sphere system. Further, reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth were obtained. Results showed that, glycerol at different temperatures could induce the reduced scattering coefficient of in vitro skin to decrease and the penetration depth to increase. 4 and 25°C glycerol had similar effect, decreasing the scattering by 48.2% and 49.7%, and increasing penetration depth by 37.9% and 39.5%, respectively. However, 32 and 45°C glycerol treatment could decrease scattering by 61.6% and 76.6%, and increase penetration depth by 53.3% and 84.1%, respectively. In conclusion, glycerol at higher temperature can induce greater and faster skin optical clearing efficacy.

  12. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  13. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibin; Li, Nianping; Cui, Haijiao; Peng, Jinqing; Chen, Haowen; Liu, Penglong

    2017-09-21

    Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments' conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm) and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC) located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET*) was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.

  14. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments’ conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET* was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.

  15. Noise Reduction on Nasal Skin Temperature Measured by Radiation Thermometer with Differential Revision Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tota; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    This paper shows noise reduction on nasal skin temperature measured by a radiation thermometer with differential revision filtering. We evaluated and examined emotion stress from the nasal skin temperature fluctuation of the space-time with the radiation thermometer. The measured data with the radiation thermometer consists of three kind of factor, because of one point [24±3φ/m] measurement system. Three kinds of factors are temperature fluctuation dependent feelings stress, noise of the radiation thermometer and the other parts which it should measure as the subject moves. We make threshold processing on a change of an area in time of a measurement signal provided in a radiation thermometer. We suggested Differential Revision Filtering (DRF) that a new method use a measurement value of change of one second and a low pass filter go through. By using this method, we got the possibility that decrease movement of a measurement and a noise of measurement device.

  16. Nongrafted Skin Area Best Predicts Exercise Core Temperature Responses in Burned Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Schlader, Zachary J; Pearson, James; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Gagnon, Daniel; Rivas, Eric; Kowalske, Karen J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-10-01

    Grafted skin impairs heat dissipation, but it is unknown to what extent this affects body temperature during exercise in the heat. We examined core body temperature responses during exercise in the heat in a group of individuals with a large range of grafts covering their body surface area (BSA; 0%-75%). Forty-three individuals (19 females) were stratified into groups based on BSA grafted: control (0% grafted, n = 9), 17%-40% (n = 19), and >40% (n = 15). Subjects exercised at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (339 ± 70 W; 4.3 ± 0.8 W·kg) in an environmental chamber set at 40°C, 30% relative humidity for 90 min or until exhaustion (n = 8). Whole-body sweat rate and core temperatures were measured. Whole-body sweat rates were similar between the groups (control: 14.7 ± 3.4 mL·min, 17%-40%: 12.6 ± 4.0 mL·min; and >40%: 11.7 ± 4.4 mL·min; P > 0.05), but the increase in core temperature at the end of exercise in the >40% BSA grafted group (1.6°C ± 0.5°C) was greater than the 17%-40% (1.2°C ± 0.3°C) and control (0.9°C ± 0.2°C) groups (P skin (expressed in square meters) was the strongest independent predictor of the core temperature increase (r = 0.41). When regrouping all subjects, individuals with the lowest BSA of nongrafted skin (temperature (1.6°C ± 0.5°C) than those with more than 1.5 m nongrafted skin (1.0°C ± 0.3°C; P skin have greater increases in core temperature when exercising in the heat and that the magnitude of this increase is best explained by the amount of nongrafted skin available for heat dissipation.

  17. Comparative study on skin temperature response to menstruation at acupuncture points in healthy volunteers and primary dysmenorrhea patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She Yanfen; Song Jiashan; Ma Liangxiao; Zhu Jiang; Qi Conghui; Wang Yanxia; Tang Ling; Li Chunhua; Yuan Hongwen; Liu Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To assess skin temperature response to menstruation at acupuncture points in primary dysmenorrhea (PD) patients and healthy volunteers so as to explore acupuncture point specificity in reflecting diseases in the light of skin temperature.METHODS:Fifty-two PD patients and 49 healthy volunteers were recruited.Skin temperature measurements were performed with a skin temperature assessment device at 10 points.Absolute difference between skin temperature of the same point on the left and right side is used as main outcome measure.RESULTS:On the first day of menstruation,when menstrual pain attacking in PD patients,a significant increase in skin temperature difference was detected at Taixi (KI 3) compared with the healthy group (P < 0.01).A significant reduction in skin temperature difference was detected at Taixi (KI 3) in the first day of menstruation compared with those values in the third day after menstruation (P < 0.01)in the healthy group.On the third day after menstruation,a significant reduction in skin temperature difference was found at Zhongdu (LR 6) in PD group compared with the healthy group (P < 0.05).No significant differences of skin temperature were detected at other points (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION:The skin temperature difference at menstruation-relevant points in PD patients did not all change significantly more than those in women without PD.Significant difference was only found in Taixi (KI 3),the Yuan-source point of Kidney meridian.

  18. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  19. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  20. Improvement of Surface skin temperature simulation over the Tibetan Plateau from an energy balance perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Haifeng

    2015-04-01

    There has a big cold bias of temperature about reanalysis and simulations over Tibetan Plateau comparing with observations. In order to solve this problem, for the land -- atmosphere interaction in arid and semi-arid region is mainly dominated by heat transfer process, a latest revision of surface sensible heat parameterization introduced by Zeng et al is then used for bare soil in WRFV3 (CLM4) model. Results show that the annual surface skin temperature has approximately up to 2.0 degree improvement on average over Tibetan Plateau. Firstly, the revised scheme changes the energy balance over and around Tibetan Plateau. It significantly reduces the overestimate of surface sensible heat and improves the surface skin temperature simulation, which tends more close to the observation. Secondly, the revised scheme weakens the sensible heat air pump effect of Tibetan Plateau. The diabatic heating reduce and the updraft airflow weaken especially over the southern slope of plateau, meanwhile the clouds thin, the incident solar radiation increases, eventually led to the increase of surface skin temperature in North India in dry season.

  1. The effect of local heat and cold therapy on the intra-articular and skin surface temperature of the knee

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterveld, F. G. J.; Rasker, Hans J.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Overmars, H.J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effects of local application of ice chips, ligno-paraffin, short-wave diathermy, and nitrogen-cold air on skin and intraarticular temperature. Methods. Forty-two healthy subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups. A temperature probe was inserted into the knee joint cavity and another placed on the overlying skin, and changes in temperature over 3 hours, by treatment group, were recorded. Results. The mean skin surface temperature dropped from 27.9°C to 11.5°C af...

  2. Determination of skin temperature under a comfort-controlled liquid-cooled garment in exercising subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, L. J.

    1971-01-01

    The physiological responses of exercising subjects were investigated under conditions in which the temperature of the coolant water was varied according to the subjective state of thermal comfort. Conditioning water was maintained at a constant flow rate of 240 lb/hr and at a temperature controllable within the range of 45 to 90 F. In addition to skin temperatures, rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored in the course of each trial. Total and evaporative weight losses were determined by measurements before and after each test. The levels on metabolic loading, measured indirectly on the basis of O2 consumption in the course of treadmill activity, ranged from the resting state to 2000 BTU/hr at increments of about 400 BTU. Under the experimental conditions, six volunteer subjects established a level of thermal comfort, as sensed subjectively, by controlling inlet water within the available range of temperature.

  3. Effect of postmortem time interval on in vitro culture potential of goat skin tissues stored at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahipal; Ma, Xiaoling; Sharma, Anil

    2012-09-01

    Animal cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has renewed the interest in postmortem tissue storage, since these tissues can be used to reintroduce the lost genes back into the breeding pool in animal agriculture, preserve the genetic diversity, and revive the endangered species. However, for successful cloning of animals, integrity of nuclear DNA is essential. Cell viability and their potential to in vitro culture ensure nuclear integrity. The aim of this study was to determine the limits of postmortem time interval within which live cells can be recovered from goat skin tissues. To test the postmortem tissue storage limits, we cultured 2-3 mm(2) skin pieces (n = 70) from the ears of three breeds of goats (n = 7) after 0, 2, 4, and 6 days of postmortem storage at 24°C. After 10 days of culture, outgrowth of fibroblast-like cells (>50 cells) around the explants was scored. All the explants irrespective of breed displayed outgrowth of cells on the dish containing fresh tissues (i.e., day 0 of storage). However, the number of explants exhibiting outgrowth reduced with increasing time interval. Only 53.85 % explants displayed outgrowth after 2 days of tissue storage. The number of explants displaying outgrowth was much smaller after 4 (16.67 %) and 6 days (13.3 %) of storage. In general, the number of outgrowing cells per explant, on a given day, also decreased with increasing postmortem storage time interval. To test the differences between cell cultures, we established secondary cultures from one of the goats exhibiting outgrowth of cells after 6 days of tissue storage and compared them to similar cells from fresh tissues. Comparison of both the cell lines revealed similar cell morphology and growth curves and had doubling times of 23.04 and 22.56 h, respectively. These results suggest that live cells can be recovered from goat (and perhaps other animal) tissues stored at room temperature even after 6 days of their death with comparable growth

  4. Acute effects of cold therapy on knee skin surface temperature: gel pack versus ice bag

    OpenAIRE

    Breslin, Matthew; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge there has been no research that has compared the effectiveness of two popular cold therapy modalities applied to healthy human knees, with a surgical dressing, over a 4?h period. Hypothesis To determine whether gel packs are more effective than ice bags at reducing skin surface temperature in humans. Study design This was a randomised, repeated measures crossover study, which included nine healthy participants. Level of evidence Level 2. Methods Two cold therapy mo...

  5. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Manzella, Nicola; Tomasetti, Marco; Gaetani, Simona; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Santarelli, Lory

    2016-01-01

    The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers. PMID:27128899

  6. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers.

  7. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Manzella, Nicola; Tomasetti, Marco; Gaetani, Simona; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Santarelli, Lory

    2016-04-26

    The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers.

  8. Using skin temperature and muscle thickness to assess muscle response to strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Several studies already reported the response of many biomarkers after strength training, but studies using low cost diagnostic imaging tools are rare.Objective:To evaluate the usage of skin temperature and muscle thickness (MT to monitor muscle response (until 96 hours after to high-intensity strength training.Methods:This is a short-term longitudinal study with 13 trained, healthy male volunteers. Volunteers performed five sets of biceps bi-set exercise with their dominant arm with dumbbells, with load of 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM. The ultrasound (US and thermal images were acquired before and immediately after the last set, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exercise.Results:The analysis was divided in two stages: acute muscle response (until 24 hours after training and delayed muscle response (from 24 to 96 hours after training. The elbow flexors thickness showed the peak value immediately after the last set of training. Skin temperature (on elbow flexors and the elbow flexors thickness grew continuously from 24 to 96 hours after strength training. There is a high correlation (r=0.941, p=0.017 between skin temperature and muscle thickness from the end of exercise until 96 hours after strength training.Conclusions:The US images showed high sensibility for muscle physiological changes on the first 24 hours after exercise. On the other hand, the thermal images had higher sensibility for muscle physiological changes than US images from 24 to 96 hours after training.

  9. Comparison of abdominal skin temperature between fertile and infertile women by infrared thermography: A diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Junyoung; Kim, Hyunho

    2016-10-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the differences in abdominal temperature (AT) between fertile (n=206; age) and infertile (n=250) women between the ages of 30 and 39 years. We evaluated the differences in two distinctive skin temperatures by thermography: ΔT1 (CV8 index) - difference in temperature between the mid-abdomen (CV8 acupuncture area) and ventral upper arm (VUA) and ΔT2 (CV4 index) - difference in temperature between the lower abdomen (CV4 acupuncture area) and VUA. The results indicated that the ΔT1 and ΔT2 of infertile women were significantly lower (by 1.05°C and 0.79°C, respectively; pthermography for analysis of infertility in women. Further evaluation of the influence of AT on fertility outcomes is required to determine the causal relationship between AT and infertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A comprehensive comparison between satellite-measured skin and multichannel sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gary A.; Emery, William J.; Schluessel, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Three algorithms for computing sea-surface temperature (SST) from AVHRR channel-4 and -5 brightness temperatures were compared using 1-week blocks of global-area-coverage (GAC) data archived at NCAR. These are the multichannel SST (MCSST), the cross-product SST (CPSST), and the AVHRR-only satellite-measured ocean-surface skin temperature (SMSST). Maps of each SST product were produced and were compared for various time periods. The difference between the algorithms range from +1.6 to -1.2 K, resulting from the different forms of both the algorithms and the ground truth from which the algorithms were derived. It is concluded that, for the study of relative SST patterns, any of the algorithms can be used. However, for applications requiring accurate absolute temperature measurements, the differences are significant and the derivation of the algorithm must be considered when an algorithm is selected.

  11. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Augusta Boeckh Haebisch

    Full Text Available In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided and systemic (right sided reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (ΔmAP = -2.9%, increased heart rate (ΔHR = +7,4% and QTc prolongation (ΔQTc = +4,9% in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (ΔmAP = +12% and increased heart rate (ΔHR = + 10.4% mainly in supine position was observed in 11 % of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN with its active component nitric oxide (NO depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

  12. Estimating the time and temperature relationship for causation of deep-partial thickness skin burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John P; Plourde, Brian; Vallez, Lauren; Stark, John; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and present a simple procedure for evaluating the temperature and exposure-time conditions that lead to causation of a deep-partial thickness burn and the effect that the immediate post-burn thermal environment can have on the process. A computational model has been designed and applied to predict the time required for skin burns to reach a deep-partial thickness level of injury. The model includes multiple tissue layers including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Simulated exposure temperatures ranged from 62.8 to 87.8°C (145-190°F). Two scenarios were investigated. The first and worst case scenario was a direct exposure to water (characterized by a large convection coefficient) with the clothing left on the skin following the exposure. A second case consisted of a scald insult followed immediately by the skin being washed with cool water (20°C). For both cases, an Arrhenius injury model was applied whereby the extent and depth of injury were calculated and compared for the different post-burn treatments. In addition, injury values were compared with experiment data from the literature to assess verification of the numerical methodology. It was found that the clinical observations of injury extent agreed with the calculated values. Furthermore, inundation with cool water decreased skin temperatures more quickly than the clothing insulating case and led to a modest decrease in the burn extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Fountain, Jacqueline; Snell, Alicia; Doherty, Devin; King, Brittany; Shemer, Eran; Oliveira, Simone; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A commercial bacterial identification system (API/Biomerieux), was used for this purpose. The most common species was Escherichia coli (N=60), followed by Staphylococcus felis/simulans (40), S. hominis (16), S. haemolyticus (12), Streptococcus canis (9), Proteus mirabilis (8), Pasteurella multocida (7), Streptococcus mitis (7), Staphylococcus xylosus (7), S. capitis (6), S. chromogenes (4), S. sciuri (3), S. auricularis (2), S. lentus (2), S. hyicus (2), Streptococcus suis (2) and Pseudomonas argentinensis (2). Sixteen other isolates were identified to species level. A molecular method using 16S rRNA sequencing was used to confirm/identify 22 isolates. Salmonella or campylobacters were not isolated from rectal swabs. E. coli and S. felis/simulans together constituted 50% of isolates from vagina. S. felis/simulans was the most common species from culture positive ear and eye samples. P. multocida was isolated from 15% of mouth samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common isolates from nose and wound swabs. Staphylococcus aureus, or S. intemedius/S. pseudintermedius were not isolated from any sample. Antimicrobial drug resistance was minimal, most isolates being susceptible to all drugs tested against, including tetracycline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Head and neck cooling decreases tympanic and skin temperature, but significantly increases blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Julia; Kollmar, Rainer; Cimpianu, Camelia-Lucia; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Moeller, Sebastian; Schwab, Stefan; Hilz, Max J

    2012-08-01

    Localized head and neck cooling might be suited to induce therapeutic hypothermia in acute brain injury such as stroke. Safety issues of head and neck cooling are undetermined and may include cardiovascular autonomic side effects that were identified in this study. Ten healthy men (age 35±13 years) underwent 120 minutes of combined head and neck cooling (Sovika, HVM Medical). Before and after onset of cooling, after 60 and 120 minutes, we determined rectal, tympanic, and forehead skin temperatures, RR intervals, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), laser-Doppler skin blood flow at the index finger and cheek, and spectral powers of mainly sympathetic low-frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and parasympathetic high-frequency (0.15-0.5 Hz) RR interval oscillations and sympathetic low-frequency oscillations of BP. We compared values before and during cooling using analysis of variance with post hoc analysis; (significance, Pskin temperature dropped by 5.5±2.2°C with cooling onset and by 12.4±3.2°C after 20 minutes. Tympanic temperature decreased by 4.7±0.7°C within 40 minutes, and rectal temperature by only 0.3±0.3°C after 120 minutes. Systolic and diastolic BP increased immediately on cooling onset and rose by 15.3±20.8 mm Hg and 16.5±13.4 mm Hg (P=0.004) after 120 minutes, whereas skin blood flow fell significantly during cooling. RR intervals and parasympathetic RR interval high-frequency powers increased with cooling onset and were significantly higher after 60 and 120 minutes than they were before cooling. Head and neck cooling prominently reduced tympanic temperature and thus might also induce intracerebral hypothermia; however, it did not significantly lower body core temperature. Profound skin temperature decrease induced sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction and prominent BP increases that are not offset by simultaneous parasympathetic heart rate slowing. Prominent peripheral vasoconstriction and BP increase must be considered as

  15. A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature, affects aerobic capacity in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the core to skin temperature gradient during incremental running to volitional fatigue across varying environmental conditions. A secondary aim was to determine if a "critical" core temperature would dictate volitional fatigue during running in the heat. 60 participants (n=49 male, n=11 female; 24±5 yrs, 177±11 cm, 75±13 kg) completed the study. Participants were uniformly stratified into a specific exercise temperature group (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C) based on a 3-mile run performance. Participants were equipped with core and chest skin temperature sensors and a heart rate monitor, entered an environmental chamber (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C), and rested in the seated position for 10 min before performing a walk/run to volitional exhaustion. Initial treadmill speed was 3.2 km h(-1) with a 0% grade. Every 3 min, starting with speed, speed and grade increased in an alternating pattern (speed increased by 0.805 km h(-1), grade increased by 0.5%). Time to volitional fatigue was longer for the 18 °C and 26 °C group compared to the 42 °C group, (58.1±9.3 and 62.6±6.5 min vs. 51.3±8.3 min, respectively, pskin gradient for the 18 °C and 26 °C groups was larger compared to 42 °C group (halfway: 2.6±0.7 and 2.0±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.5 for the 18 °C, 26 °C and 42 °C groups, respectively; finish: 3.3±0.7 and 3.5±1.1 vs. 2.1±0.9 for the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, respectively, ptemperature and heart rate response during the exercise trials. The current data demonstrate a 13% and 22% longer run time to exhaustion for the 18 °C and 26 °C group, respectively, compared to the 42 °C group despite no differences in beginning and ending core temperatures or baseline 3-mile run time. This capacity difference appears to result from a magnified core to skin gradient via an environmental temperature advantageous to convective heat loss, and in part from an increased sweat rate. Copyright

  16. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  17. The effect of local heat and cold therapy on the intraarticular and skin surface temperature of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveld, F G; Rasker, J J; Jacobs, J W; Overmars, H J

    1992-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of local application of ice chips, ligno-paraffin, short-wave diathermy, and nitrogen-cold air on skin and intraarticular temperature. Forty-two healthy subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups. A temperature probe was inserted into the knee joint cavity and another placed on the overlying skin, and changes in temperature over 3 hours, by treatment group, were recorded. The mean skin surface temperature dropped from 27.9 degrees C to 11.5 degrees C after application of ice chips, and from 28.8 degrees C to 13.8 degrees C after application of cold air. The mean intraarticular temperature decreased from 31.9 degrees C to 22.5 degrees C and from 32.9 degrees C to 28.8 degrees C, respectively, after these 2 treatments. Shortwave diathermy increased skin temperature by 2.4 degrees C; intraarticular temperature was increased only 1.4 degrees C by short-wave diathermy. Treatment with ligno-paraffin increased the skin surface temperature 8.9 degrees C; the temperature in the joint cavity was increased 3.5 degrees C. The use of short-wave diathermy and superficial heat packs in the treatment of patients with arthritis may potentially cause harm by increasing intraarticular temperature. This may have major implications regarding treatment policy for patients with arthritis.

  18. Diurnal scrotal skin temperature and semen quality. The Danish First Pregnancy Planner Study Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Bonde, Jens Peter; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2000-01-01

    . Sixty men from a cohort of couples who were planning their first pregnancy were included and scrotal skin temperature was monitored during 3 days using a portable data recorder. Working hours and working postures were recorded daily in a questionnaire. Each man provided a fresh semen sample...... and the couples were followed for six menstrual cycles or until a clinical pregnancy was recognized. The median value of scrotal skin temperature was 33.3 degrees C in the daytime and 34.8 degrees C at night. In periods of sedentary work, the median temperature was on average 0.7 degrees C higher (SE=0.2 degrees...... C). In addition, scrotal temperature was higher in the daytime, in summer, and in leisure time compared with working hours. Median sperm concentration among men with more than 75% of their daytime readings above 35 degrees C was 33.4 x 10(6)/mL, compared with 91.8 x 10(6)/mL for men with less than...

  19. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Langeveld

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold or 24°C (thermoneutrality for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure.

  20. Effects of season on sleep and skin temperature in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2010-07-01

    The effects of season on sleep and skin temperature (Tsk) in 19 healthy, elderly volunteers were investigated. Measurements were obtained in summer, winter, and fall, and activity levels were monitored using a wrist actigraph system for five consecutive days. The temperature and humidity of the bedrooms of the subjects’ homes were measured continuously for five days. During actigraphic measurement, Tsk during sleep was measured for two nights. The bedroom temperature and humidity significantly increased in summer compared to winter and fall. In summer, the total sleep time decreased (mean ± SE min; summer, 350.8 ± 15.7; winter, 426.5 ± 14.2; fall, 403.2 ± 16.4) and wakefulness increased ( P sleep efficiency index that was derived from wrist actigraphy was significantly decreased ( P sleep is disturbed in summer more than in other seasons, and that this disturbance is related to fluctuations in Tsk.

  1. Estimation of the Ocean Skin Temperature using the NASA GEOS Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Akella, Santha; Todling, Ricardo; Suarez, Max

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the status of the development of a sea surface temperature (SST) analysis for the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Version-5 atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS). Its implementation is part of the steps being taken toward the development of an integrated earth system analysis. Currently, GEOS-ADAS SST is a bulk ocean temperature (from ocean boundary conditions), and is almost identical to the skin sea surface temperature. Here we describe changes to the atmosphere-ocean interface layer of the GEOS-atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) to include near surface diurnal warming and cool-skin effects. We also added SST relevant Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations to the GEOS-ADAS observing system. We provide a detailed description of our analysis of these observations, along with the modifications to the interface between the GEOS atmospheric general circulation model, gridpoint statistical interpolation-based atmospheric analysis and the community radiative transfer model. Our experiments (with and without these changes) show improved assimilation of satellite radiance observations. We obtained a closer fit to withheld, in-situ buoys measuring near-surface SST. Evaluation of forecast skill scores corroborate improvements seen in the observation fits. Along with a discussion of our results, we also include directions for future work.

  2. Improvement of the Stolwijk model with regard to clothing, thermal sensation and skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofsen, P; Vink, P

    2016-07-21

    The original Stolwijk model is not equipped with clothing, thermal sensation, comfort indices, individual characteristics and performance loss models. This study attempts to modify the model to include clothing, thermal sensation as well as the calculation of the percentage of dissatisfied as a result of general discomfort. The model is useful for the evaluation of thermal comfort in the built environment by professionals. Methods described in literature with regard of clothing, the research of Fiala as well as some in the literature recommended and validated adjustments, to improve the simulation of the skin temperature per body segment, are implemented in the here assembled Stolwijk computer model. Finally, for verification of the above adjustments, the model was compared with experiments conducted in the field of thermal sensation at various levels of temperature change. By improving the simulation of the skin temperature per body segment and by adding clothing and thermal sensation, suitable for the assessment of steady state and transient thermal conditions, and fixed with this the percentage of dissatisfied, the scope of the Stolwijk model has become larger than it was before. On the basis of the calculations and the experimental results, it was concluded that the adjusted Stolwijk model was suitable for the simulation of the thermal sensation under steady state and transient thermal conditions.

  3. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtte R Boon

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans.BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years, using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations.Proximal and distal (hand/feet skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001. Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010 and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030 and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010, while core body temperature did not.Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects.NTR 2473.

  4. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; van der Linden, Rianne A D; Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka; Smit, Frits; Verberne, Hein J; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Jazet, Ingrid M; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans. BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years), using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations. Proximal and distal (hand/feet) skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001). Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010) and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030) and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010), while core body temperature did not. Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects. NTR 2473.

  5. Infrared skin temperature measurements for monitoring health in pigs: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2015-01-01

    Infrared temperature measurement equipment (IRTME) is gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool for evaluating human and animal health. It has the prospect of reducing subject stress and disease spread by being implemented as an automatic surveillance system and by a quick assessment of skin....... The studies performed on pigs using IRTME have presented somewhat discrepant results, which could be caused by inadequate equipment, varying knowledge about reliable equipment operation, and site-specific factors not included in the assessment. Future focus areas in the field of IRTME are suggested...

  6. Finite element model to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Pardasani, K R

    2016-12-01

    The temperature of body tissues is viewed as an indicator of tissue response in clinical applications since ancient times. The tissue temperature depends on various physical and physiological parameters like blood flow, metabolic heat generation, thermal conductivity of tissues, shape and size of organs etc. In this paper a finite element model has been proposed to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs. The geometry of human limb is taken as elliptical tapered shape. It is assumed that outer surface of the limb is exposed to the environment. The appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on physical conditions of the problem. The model has been developed for a three dimensional steady state case. Hexahedral circular sectoral elements are used to discretize the region. The results have been computed to obtain temperature profiles and study the relation of tissue temperature with the parameters like atmospheric temperature, rate of evaporation, thickness of tissues layers and shape of the limb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin temperature changes during a footbath in patients who had had a stroke with consequent sensory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Kazue; Yamai, Terumi; Fukai, Kiyoko

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine skin temperature changes on the unaffected and affected sides as well as changes in perceived temperature and comfort during a footbath in patients who had had a stroke with consequent sensory impairment. The study used a quasi-experimental design in which the results of intervention for patients who had had a stroke and healthy adults were compared. The subjects were 20 patients who had had a stroke with consequent sensory impairment and 20 healthy adults. Before the footbath, the skin temperature of the dorsum of the foot on the affected side of the patient who had had a stroke was lower than that of the foot on the unaffected side. Five minutes after the start of the footbath, however, the relationship reversed, with the skin temperature on the affected side increasing in parallel with the water temperature. After the footbath, the dorsum skin temperature on the affected side was again lower than that on the unaffected side. In healthy adults, a difference was found in dorsum skin temperature between the left and right feet. In contrast with patients who had had a stroke, no reversal of the sides was found with the lower and higher temperature. Unlike in the healthy adults, the skin temperature of the patients who had had a stroke with consequent sensory impairment was susceptible to changes in the external environment. However, no significant changes in the physiological indices were seen, while perceived temperature and comfort remained at high levels after the footbath. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scratching their ear canals when they try to clean their ears. This is especially true if they use cotton swabs or dangerously sharp small objects, like hair clips or bobby pins. Sometimes, in a person ...

  9. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  10. The effect of body fat percentage and body fat distribution on skin surface temperature with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (TMi), maximum (TMa), and mean temperatures (TMe) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson's correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which TMe values were compared with Student's t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as TMa and TMe of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), TMe of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), TMa of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and TMi and TMe of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease TMe, especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R(2) =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of local heat and cold therapy on the intra-articular and skin surface temperature of the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, F.G.J.; Rasker, Hans J.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Overmars, H.J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effects of local application of ice chips, ligno-paraffin, short-wave diathermy, and nitrogen-cold air on skin and intraarticular temperature. Methods. Forty-two healthy subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups. A temperature probe was inserted into the knee joint

  12. All-weather land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface skin temperature (Ts) is a key parameter at the land-atmosphere interface. Upwelling longwave radiation directly epends upon Ts. Energy exchanges at the land-surface boundary are largely controlled by the difference between Ts and the surface air temperature, the air and the surface reac...

  13. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to trauma (e.g. car wreck or dog bite) or torn earlobes. Deformity of the ears may cause social anxiety and may make children vulnerable to teasing. Regardless of the origin of the ear deformity, these ear conditions can ...

  14. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Tribute to R. G. Boutilier: skin colour and body temperature changes in basking Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Eterovick, Paula C; de Andrade, Denis V

    2006-04-01

    In amphibians solar basking far from water sources is relatively uncommon since the highly permeable amphibian skin does not represent a significant barrier to the accompanying risk of losing water by evaporation. A South American frog, Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), however, spends a significant amount of the day exposed to full sun and relatively high temperatures. The means by which this frog copes with potentially high rates of evaporative water loss and high body temperatures are unknown. Thus, in this study, skin colour changes, body surface temperature, and evaporative water loss rates were examined under a mixture of field and laboratory conditions to ascertain whether changes in skin reflectivity play an important role in this animal's thermal and hydric balance. Field data demonstrated a tight correlation between the lightness of skin colour and frog temperature, with lighter frogs being captured possessing higher body temperatures. Laboratory experiments supported this relationship, revealing that frogs kept in the dark or at lower temperatures (20 degrees C) had darker skin colours, whereas frogs kept in the light or higher temperatures (30 degrees C) had skin colours of a lighter hue. Light exhibited a stronger influence on skin colour than temperature alone, suggesting that colour change is triggered by the increase in incident solar energy and in anticipation of changes in body temperature. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation that cold, darkly coloured frogs placed in the sun rapidly became lighter in colour during the initial warming up period (over the first 5 min), after which they warmed up more slowly and underwent a further, albeit slower, lightening of skin colour. Surprisingly, despite its natural disposition to bask in the sun, this species does not possess a ;waterproof' skin, since its rates of evaporative water loss were not dissimilar from many hylid species that live in arboreal or semi-aquatic environments

  16. Effects of caffeine on skin and core temperatures, alertness, and recovery sleep during circadian misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Smith, Benjamin J; Wright, Kenneth P

    2014-04-01

    Caffeine promotes wakefulness during night shift work, although it also disturbs subsequent daytime sleep. Increased alertness by caffeine is associated with a higher core body temperature (CBT). A lower CBT and a narrow distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG) have been reported to be associated with improved sleep, yet whether caffeine influences the DPG is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the use caffeine during nighttime total sleep deprivation would reduce the DPG, increase CBT and alertness, and disturb subsequent daytime recovery sleep. We also expected that a greater widening of the DPG prior to sleep would be associated with a greater degree of sleep disturbance. Thirty healthy adults (9 females) aged 21.6 ± 3.5 years participated in a double-blind, 28-h modified constant routine protocol. At 23 h of wakefulness, participants in the treatment condition (n = 10) were given 2.9 mg/kg caffeine, equivalent to ~200 mg (or 2 espressos) for a 70-kg adult, 5 h before a daytime recovery sleep episode. Throughout the protocol, core and skin body temperatures, DPG, sleep architecture, and subjective alertness and mood were measured. Prior to sleep, caffeine significantly widened the DPG and increased CBT, alertness, and clear-headedness (p sleep (p sleep were associated with a longer latency to sleep, and a wider DPG was associated with disturbed recovery sleep (i.e., increased wakefulness after sleep onset, increased stage 1 sleep, decreased sleep efficiency, and decreased slow wave sleep) (p sleep. Furthermore, our findings highlight that sleep disturbances associated with caffeine consumed near the circadian trough of alertness are still present when daytime recovery sleep occurs 5 h or approximately 1 half-life later.

  17. Altered core and skin temperature responses to endurance exercise in heart failure patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Nathalie M M; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Van Dijk, Arie P J; Bellersen, Louise; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopman, Maria T E

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training represents a central aspect of rehabilitation of heart failure patients. Previous work on passive heating suggests impaired thermoregulatory responses in heart failure patients. However, no previous study directly examined thermoregulatory responses to an exercise bout, that is, active heating, as typically applied in rehabilitation settings in heart failure. Cross-sectional observational study to compare changes in core body temperature (Tcore) and skin temperature (Tskin) during exercise between heart failure patients and controls. Fourteen heart failure subjects (65 ± 7 years, 13:1 male:female) and 14 healthy controls (61 ± 5 years, 12:2 male:female) were included. Tcore (telemetric temperature pill) and Tskin (skin thermistors) were measured continuously during a 45-min cycle exercise at comparable relative exercise intensity. Tcore increased to a similar extent in both groups (controls 1.1 ± 0.4℃, heart failure patients 0.9 ± 0.3℃, 'time*group': p = 0.15). Tskin decreased during the initial phase of exercise in both groups, followed by an increase in Tskin in controls (1.2 ± 1.0℃), whilst Tskin remained low in HF patients (-0.3 ± 1.4℃) ('time*group': p  0.05). Heart failure patients and controls show comparable exercise-induced increase in Tcore, whilst heart failure patients demonstrate altered Tskin responses to exercise and attenuated elevation in Tskin per increase in Tcore. These impaired thermoregulatory responses to exercise are, at least partly, explained by the lower absolute workload and lower physical fitness level in heart failure patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  18. Empirical analysis of skin friction under variations of temperature; Variacion de la resistencia al corte con temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Alvarez, A. R. de la; Groot Viana, M. de

    2014-07-01

    In soil geotechnical characterization, strength parameters, cohesion (c) and internal friction angle (Φ) has been traditional measured without taking into account temperature, been a very important issue in energy geostructures. The present document analyzes the variation of these parameters in soil-concrete interface at different temperatures. A traditional shear strength case with a forced plane of failure was used. Several tests were carried out to determine the variation of skin friction in granular and cohesive oils with temperature. (Author)

  19. Inhibition of Fungal Pathogens across Genotypes and Temperatures by Amphibian Skin Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R.; Almario, Jose G.; Barnett, Samuel E.; DiRenzo, Graziella V.; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Lips, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria may dampen the impacts of infectious diseases on hosts by inhibiting pathogen growth. However, our understanding of the generality of pathogen inhibition by different bacterial taxa across pathogen genotypes and environmental conditions is limited. Bacterial inhibitory properties are of particular interest for the amphibian-killing fungal pathogens (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans), for which probiotic applications as conservation strategies have been proposed. We quantified the inhibition strength of five putatively B. dendrobatidis-inhibitory bacteria isolated from woodland salamander skin against six Batrachochytrium genotypes at two temperatures (12 and 18°C). We selected six genotypes from across the Batrachochytrium phylogeny: B. salamandrivorans, B. dendrobatidis-Brazil and four genotypes of the B. dendrobatidis Global Panzootic Lineage (GPL1: JEL647, JEL404; GPL2: SRS810, JEL423). We performed 96-well plate challenge assays in a full factorial design. We detected a Batrachochytrium genotype by temperature interaction on bacterial inhibition score for all bacteria, indicating that bacteria vary in ability to inhibit Batrachochytrium depending on pathogen genotype and temperature. Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae moderately inhibited B. salamandrivorans at both temperatures (μ = 46–53%), but not any B. dendrobatidis genotypes. Chryseobacterium sp. inhibited three Batrachochytrium genotypes at both temperatures (μ = 5–71%). Pseudomonas sp. strain 1 inhibited all Batrachochytrium genotypes at 12°C and four Batrachochytrium genotypes at 18°C (μ = 5–100%). Pseudomonas sp. strain 2 and Stenotrophomonas sp. moderately to strongly inhibited all six Batrachochytrium genotypes at both temperatures (μ = 57–100%). All bacteria consistently inhibited B. salamandrivorans. Using cluster analysis of inhibition scores, we found that more closely related Batrachochytrium genotypes grouped together, suggesting

  20. Inhibition of Fungal Pathogens across Genotypes and Temperatures by Amphibian Skin Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Muletz-Wolz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic bacteria may dampen the impacts of infectious diseases on hosts by inhibiting pathogen growth. However, our understanding of the generality of pathogen inhibition by different bacterial taxa across pathogen genotypes and environmental conditions is limited. Bacterial inhibitory properties are of particular interest for the amphibian-killing fungal pathogens (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, for which probiotic applications as conservation strategies have been proposed. We quantified the inhibition strength of five putatively B. dendrobatidis-inhibitory bacteria isolated from woodland salamander skin against six Batrachochytrium genotypes at two temperatures (12 and 18°C. We selected six genotypes from across the Batrachochytrium phylogeny: B. salamandrivorans, B. dendrobatidis-Brazil and four genotypes of the B. dendrobatidis Global Panzootic Lineage (GPL1: JEL647, JEL404; GPL2: SRS810, JEL423. We performed 96-well plate challenge assays in a full factorial design. We detected a Batrachochytrium genotype by temperature interaction on bacterial inhibition score for all bacteria, indicating that bacteria vary in ability to inhibit Batrachochytrium depending on pathogen genotype and temperature. Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae moderately inhibited B. salamandrivorans at both temperatures (μ = 46–53%, but not any B. dendrobatidis genotypes. Chryseobacterium sp. inhibited three Batrachochytrium genotypes at both temperatures (μ = 5–71%. Pseudomonas sp. strain 1 inhibited all Batrachochytrium genotypes at 12°C and four Batrachochytrium genotypes at 18°C (μ = 5–100%. Pseudomonas sp. strain 2 and Stenotrophomonas sp. moderately to strongly inhibited all six Batrachochytrium genotypes at both temperatures (μ = 57–100%. All bacteria consistently inhibited B. salamandrivorans. Using cluster analysis of inhibition scores, we found that more closely related Batrachochytrium genotypes grouped together

  1. Inhibition of Fungal Pathogens across Genotypes and Temperatures by Amphibian Skin Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R; Almario, Jose G; Barnett, Samuel E; DiRenzo, Graziella V; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Zamudio, Kelly R; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Lips, Karen R

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria may dampen the impacts of infectious diseases on hosts by inhibiting pathogen growth. However, our understanding of the generality of pathogen inhibition by different bacterial taxa across pathogen genotypes and environmental conditions is limited. Bacterial inhibitory properties are of particular interest for the amphibian-killing fungal pathogens (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans), for which probiotic applications as conservation strategies have been proposed. We quantified the inhibition strength of five putatively B. dendrobatidis-inhibitory bacteria isolated from woodland salamander skin against six Batrachochytrium genotypes at two temperatures (12 and 18°C). We selected six genotypes from across the Batrachochytrium phylogeny: B. salamandrivorans, B. dendrobatidis-Brazil and four genotypes of the B. dendrobatidis Global Panzootic Lineage (GPL1: JEL647, JEL404; GPL2: SRS810, JEL423). We performed 96-well plate challenge assays in a full factorial design. We detected a Batrachochytrium genotype by temperature interaction on bacterial inhibition score for all bacteria, indicating that bacteria vary in ability to inhibit Batrachochytrium depending on pathogen genotype and temperature. Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae moderately inhibited B. salamandrivorans at both temperatures (μ = 46-53%), but not any B. dendrobatidis genotypes. Chryseobacterium sp. inhibited three Batrachochytrium genotypes at both temperatures (μ = 5-71%). Pseudomonas sp. strain 1 inhibited all Batrachochytrium genotypes at 12°C and four Batrachochytrium genotypes at 18°C (μ = 5-100%). Pseudomonas sp. strain 2 and Stenotrophomonas sp. moderately to strongly inhibited all six Batrachochytrium genotypes at both temperatures (μ = 57-100%). All bacteria consistently inhibited B. salamandrivorans. Using cluster analysis of inhibition scores, we found that more closely related Batrachochytrium genotypes grouped together, suggesting that

  2. Warm and cold complex regional pain syndromes: differences beyond skin temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, T; Doganci, B; Krämer, H H; Geber, C; Fechir, M; Magerl, W; Birklein, F

    2009-02-10

    To investigate clinical differences in warm and cold complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) phenotypes. CRPS represents inhomogeneous chronic pain conditions; approximately 70% patients with CRPS have "warm" affected limbs and 30% have "cold" affected limbs. We examined 50 patients with "cold" and "warm" CRPS (n = 25 in each group). Both groups were matched regarding age, sex, affected limb, duration of CRPS, and CRPS I and II to assure comparability. Detailed medical history and neurologic status were assessed. Moreover, quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed on the affected ipsilateral and clinically unaffected contralateral limbs. Compared with patients who had warm CRPS, patients who had cold CRPS more often reported a history of serious life events (p CRPS, the incidence of CRPS-related dystonia was increased (p CRPS (p CRPS were characterized by mechanical hyperalgesia (p CRPS) are associated with different clinical findings, beyond skin temperature changes. This might have implications for the understanding of CRPS pathophysiology.

  3. Alterations in Skin Temperature and Sleep in the Fear of Harm Phenotype of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Murphy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In children diagnosed with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD, disturbances in the quality of sleep and wakefulness are prominent. A novel phenotype of PBD called Fear of Harm (FOH associated with separation anxiety and aggressive obsessions is associated with sleep onset insomnia, parasomnias (nightmares, night-terrors, enuresis, REM sleep-related problems, and morning sleep inertia. Children with FOH often experience thermal discomfort (e.g., feeling hot, excessive sweating in neutral ambient temperature conditions, as well as no discomfort during exposure to the extreme cold, and alternate noticeably between being excessively hot in the evening and cold in the morning. We hypothesized that these sleep- and temperature-related symptoms were overt symptoms of an impaired ability to dissipate heat, particularly in the evening hours near the time of sleep onset. We measured sleep/wake variables using actigraphy, and nocturnal skin temperature variables using thermal patches and a wireless device, and compared these data between children with PBD/FOH and a control sample of healthy children. The results are suggestive of a thermoregulatory dysfunction that is associated with sleep onset difficulties. Further, they are consistent with our hypothesis that alterations in neural circuitry common to thermoregulation and emotion regulation underlie affective and behavioral symptoms of the FOH phenotype.

  4. Alterations in skin temperature and sleep in the fear of harm phenotype of pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia J; Frei, Mark G; Papolos, Demitri

    2014-01-01

    In children diagnosed with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD), disturbances in the quality of sleep and wakefulness are prominent. A novel phenotype of PBD called Fear of Harm (FOH) associated with separation anxiety and aggressive obsessions is associated with sleep onset insomnia, parasomnias (nightmares, night-terrors, enuresis), REM sleep-related problems, and morning sleep inertia. Children with FOH often experience thermal discomfort (e.g. feeling hot, excessive sweating) in neutral ambient temperature conditions, as well as no discomfort during exposure to the extreme cold, and alternate noticeably between being excessively hot in the evening and cold in the morning. We hypothesized that these sleep- and temperature-related symptoms were overt symptoms of an impaired ability to dissipate heat, particularly in the evening hours near the time of sleep onset. We measured sleep/wake variables using actigraphy, and nocturnal skin temperature variables using thermal patches and a wireless device, and compared these data between children with PBD/FOH and a control sample of healthy children. The results are suggestive of a thermoregulatory dysfunction that is associated with sleep onset difficulties. Further, they are consistent with our hypothesis that alterations in neural circuitry common to thermoregulation and emotion regulation underlie affective and behavioral symptoms of the FOH phenotype.

  5. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  6. Warm layer and cool skin corrections for bulk water temperature measurements for air-sea interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappattu, Denny P.; Wang, Qing; Yamaguchi, Ryan; Lind, Richard J.; Reynolds, Mike; Christman, Adam J.

    2017-08-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) relevant to air-sea interaction studies is the temperature immediately adjacent to the air, referred to as skin SST. Generally, SST measurements from ships and buoys are taken at depths varies from several centimeters to 5 m below the surface. These measurements, known as bulk SST, can differ from skin SST up to O(1°C). Shipboard bulk and skin SST measurements were made during the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and Electromagnetic ducting Research east coast field campaign (CASPER-East). An Infrared SST Autonomous Radiometer (ISAR) recorded skin SST, while R/V Sharp's Surface Mapping System (SMS) provided bulk SST from 1 m water depth. Since the ISAR is sensitive to sea spray and rain, missing skin SST data occurred in these conditions. However, SMS measurement is less affected by adverse weather and provided continuous bulk SST measurements. It is desirable to correct the bulk SST to obtain a good representation of the skin SST, which is the objective of this research. Bulk-skin SST difference has been examined with respect to meteorological factors associated with cool skin and diurnal warm layers. Strong influences of wind speed, diurnal effects, and net longwave radiation flux on temperature difference are noticed. A three-step scheme is established to correct for wind effect, diurnal variability, and then for dependency on net longwave radiation flux. Scheme is tested and compared to existing correction schemes. This method is able to effectively compensate for multiple factors acting to modify bulk SST measurements over the range of conditions experienced during CASPER-East.

  7. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome: An examination of temperature distribution and symptom duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-Ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-12-01

    According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study that examined the distribution of skin temperature in patients with CRPS and skin temperature asymmetry versus symptom duration.Patients diagnosed with type 1 or 2 CRPS were recruited. After confirming CRPS according to the IASP diagnostic criteria, infrared thermographic images were evaluated for skin temperature differences (ΔT) between the affected and unaffected limbs.A total of 296 patients with CRPS were included in this study. The median duration of symptoms was 6 months and the mean ± standard deviation of ΔT was -0.72 ± 1.65°C. A skin temperature difference between bilateral limbs (|ΔT|) of 1°C or less was seen in 131 patients (44.3%); thus, these 131 patients did not meet the IASP criteria for CRPS. Further, cool skin temperature was not observed in 88 patients (29.7%), meaning that these patients did not meet the AMA criteria for CRPS. There was no correlation between the symptom duration and ΔT (Spearman's rho = -0.075, P = 0.196) and there was no significant difference in the average ΔT among the 4 symptom duration groups (0-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, >12 months, P = 0.08).In conclusion, a considerable proportion of the patients that participated in this study did not meet the thermal criteria set forth by the IASP and AMA. Further, there was no correlation between symptom duration and skin temperature difference.

  8. Changes with time in skin temperature of the shoulders in healthy controls and a patient with shoulder-hand syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yoichi; Sano, Hirotaka; Imamura, Itaru; Goto, Masako; Ooyama, Masamizu; Kita, Atushi

    2010-11-01

    Abnormal skin temperature in the shoulder is caused by various diseases. A thermography is unable to capture temperature changes over time. In contrast, a Thermocron is an effective measuring device to monitor temperature changes over time. The purposes of this study employing a Thermocron were to measure shoulder skin temperature over time in healthy subjects and to detect shoulder skin temperature abnormalities in a patient with shoulder-hand syndrome. Subjects comprised 10 healthy volunteers (20 shoulders; 4 men and 6 women, mean age 54 years). For measurements, a Thermocron was attached on both shoulders. Measurements were made from 21.00 to 07.00 the following morning at 15-minute intervals. Gradual difference in right and left shoulder skin temperature was observed with the timing of measurements but no significant difference was apparent, i.e. dominant side 34.9 ± 0.8°C, non-dominant side 34.9 ± 0.9°C (P = 0.28). Presentation of a case with shoulder-hand syndrome. A 54-year-old woman with the diagnosis of rotator cuff tear underwent surgical treatment of rotator cuff repair, but the pain of the operated shoulder persisted due to phase 1 shoulder-hand syndrome. In postoperative week 3, skin temperature measurement using Thermocrons demonstrated a significant decrease in temperature on the operated side (affected side 34.3 ± 0.4°C, healthy side 35.2 ± 0.3°C; P shoulder-hand syndrome using a Thermocron.

  9. Toward Improved Validation of Satellite Sea Surface Skin Temperature Measurements for Climate Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C. J.; Minnett, P. J.; Gentemann, C.; Nightingale, T. J.; Barton, I. J.; Ward, B.; Murray, M. J.

    2002-02-01

    A poor validation strategy will compromise the quality of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) products because confidence limits cannot be quantified. This paper addresses the question of how to provide the best operational strategy to validate satellite-derived skin sea surface temperature (SSTskin) measurements. High quality in situ observations obtained using different state-of-the-art infrared radiometer systems are used to characterize the relationship between the SSTskin, the subsurface SST at depth (SSTdepth), and the surface wind speed. Data are presented for different oceans and seasons. These data indicate that above a wind speed of approximately 6 m s1 the relationship between the SSTskin and SSTdepth, is well characterized for both day- and nighttime conditions by a cool bias of 0.17 ± 0.07 K rms. At lower wind speeds, stratification of the upper-ocean layers during the day may complicate the relationship, while at night a cooler skin is normally observed. Based on these observations, a long-term global satellite SSTskin validation strategy is proposed. Emphasis is placed on the use of autonomous, ship-of-opportunity radiometer systems for areas characterized by prevailing low-wind speed conditions. For areas characterized by higher wind speed regimes, well-calibrated, quality-controlled, ship and buoy SSTdepth observations, corrected for a cool skin bias, should also be used. It is foreseen that SSTdepth data will provide the majority of in situ validation data required for operational satellite SST validation. We test the strategy using SSTskin observations from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, which are shown to be accurate to approximately 0.2 K in the tropical Pacific Ocean, and using measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. We note that this strategy provides for robust retrospective calibration and validation of satellite SST data and a means to compare and compile in a meaningful and consistent fashion

  10. Relationships between Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pain, Skin Temperature Indices of Autonomic Dysregulation, and Sensitivity to Thermal Cutaneous Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated relationships between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS pain, sympathetic dysregulation, and thermal pain sensitivity. Eight female patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS and ten healthy female controls were tested for sensitivity to thermal stimulation of the left palm. A new method of response-dependent thermal stimulation was used to maintain pain intensity at a predetermined level (35% by adjusting thermal stimulus intensity as a function of pain ratings. Clinical pain levels were assessed prior to each testing session. Skin temperatures were recorded before and after pain sensitivity testing. The temperature of palmar skin dropped (1.5∘C when the corresponding location on the opposite hand of control subjects was subjected to prolonged thermal stimulation, but this response was absent for IBS pain patients. The patients also required significantly lower stimulus temperatures than controls to maintain a 35% pain rating. Baseline skin temperatures of patients were significantly correlated with thermode temperatures required to maintain 35% pain ratings. IBS pain intensity was not significantly correlated with skin temperature or pain sensitivity. The method of response-dependent stimulation revealed thermal hyperalgesia and increased sympathetic tone for chronic pain patients, relative to controls. Similarly, a significant correlation between resting skin temperatures and thermal pain sensitivity for IBS but not control subjects indicates that tonic sympathetic activation and a thermal hyperalgesia were generated by the chronic presence of visceral pain. However, lack of a significant relationship between sympathetic tone and ratings of IBS pain casts doubt on propositions that the magnitude of IBS pain is determined by psychological stress.

  11. Order-picking in deep cold--physiological responses of younger and older females. Part 2: body core temperature and skin surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, Sandra; Kluth, Karsten; Strasser, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    So far, it was unclear to what extent working in deep cold-storage depots has an influence on female order-pickers body core temperature and skin surface temperature considering different age groups. Physiological effects of order-picking in a chill room (+3°C) and cold store (-24°C) were examined on 30 female subjects (Ss), classified in two age groups (20- to 35- year-olds and 40- to 65-year-olds). The body core temperature was taken every 15 min at the tympanum and the skin surface temperature was recorded continuously at seven different positions. Working in the chill room induced a decrease of the body core temperature up to 0.5K in comparison to the value at the outset for both age groups which could be compensated by all Ss during the breaks. Working in the cold store caused a decline up to 1.1K for the younger Ss and 1.3K for the older Ss. A complete warming-up during the breaks was often not possible. Regarding the skin surface temperature, working in the chill room can be considered as unproblematic, whereas significantly lower temperatures at nose, fingers and toes, associated with substantial negative subjective sensations, were recorded while working in the cold store.

  12. The human touch: skin temperature during the rubber hand illusion in manual and automated stroking procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Rohde

    Full Text Available A difference in skin temperature between the hands has been identified as a physiological correlate of the rubber hand illusion (RHI. The RHI is an illusion of body ownership, where participants perceive body ownership over a rubber hand if they see it being stroked in synchrony with their own occluded hand. The current study set out to replicate this result, i.e., psychologically induced cooling of the stimulated hand using an automated stroking paradigm, where stimulation was delivered by a robot arm (PHANToM(TM force-feedback device. After we found no evidence for hand cooling in two experiments using this automated procedure, we reverted to a manual stroking paradigm, which is closer to the one employed in the study that first produced this effect. With this procedure, we observed a relative cooling of the stimulated hand in both the experimental and the control condition. The subjective experience of ownership, as rated by the participants, by contrast, was strictly linked to synchronous stroking in all three experiments. This implies that hand-cooling is not a strict correlate of the subjective feeling of hand ownership in the RHI. Factors associated with the differences between the two designs (differences in pressure of tactile stimulation, presence of another person that were thus far considered irrelevant to the RHI appear to play a role in bringing about this temperature effect.

  13. Conductive and evaporative precooling lowers mean skin temperature and improves time trial performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, S H; Hupperets, M; Hodder, S G; Havenith, G

    2015-06-01

    Self-paced endurance performance is compromised by moderate-to-high ambient temperatures that are evident in many competitive settings. It has become common place to implement precooling prior to competition in an attempt to alleviate perceived thermal load and performance decline. The present study aimed to investigate precooling incorporating different cooling avenues via either evaporative cooling alone or in combination with conductive cooling on cycling time trial performance. Ten trained male cyclists completed a time trial on three occasions in hot (35 °C) ambient conditions with the cooling garment prepared by (a) immersion in water (COOL, evaporative); (b) immersion in water and frozen (COLD, evaporative and conductive); or (c) no precooling (CONT). COLD improved time trial performance by 5.8% and 2.6% vs CONT and COOL, respectively (both P COLD vs CONT (P COLD compared with COOL and CONT (both P COLD. The combination of evaporative and conductive cooling (COLD) had the greatest benefit to performance, which is suggested to be driven by reduced skin temperature following cooling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of stocking rate and floor types on performance, skin temperature and leukogram in pigs raising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovani Paiano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, thermoregulatory characteristics and the leukogram of growing finishing pigs reared in different stocking rates kept on compact floor pens or with shallow pool pens. Material and methods. Thirty-six pigs were used in two steps (total of 72 animals were used. In the first step it was analysed performance pig (daily feed intake, weight gain and feed: gain ratio and backfat thickness (P2. In the second step, the same analyzes were repeated, in addition, analysis of leukogram and skin temperature was performed in P2 and anal region, at the end of growing and finishing phase. Results. It was evaluated for differences between treatments and stocking. It was not found effect of floor type on growing phase, but the use of shallow pool had a negative effect on the gain and feed: gain ratio in the finishing phase, as well as lower surface temperature in the anal region on treatment with shallow pool in the finishing phase. No effect of treatments and type of floor on pig leukogram. Allowing more space/animal decreased backfat thickness. The use of shallow pool affected negatively the performance in the finishing phase. Conclusions. The shallow pool uses impair the finishing pig performance, despite improving thermolysis, with no effect observed on cell immune response.

  15. Validation of Surface Skin Temperature and Moisture Profiles Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man Li C.; Schubert, Siegfried; Lin, Ching I.

    1999-01-01

    New validation techniques and metrics using satellite data have been developed to evaluate the quality of model-based estimates of surface skin temperature (Tg) and moisture profiles (q). The satellite data consist of clear sky outgoing long-wave radiation (CLR), broadband radiances from 8 to 12 mu (RadWn), brightness temperature centered around 10.8 mu (Tbb), and total precipitable water (TPW) from microwave radiometry. We show that CLR can be used to diagnose Tg. Furthermore, by using a combination of CLR and RadWn from CERES-TRMM measurements and TPW from SSM/I, we are able to identify errors in the moisture profile. Finally, three-hourly Tbb from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project can be used to evaluate the amplitude and diurnal variation of Tg. For purpose of illustration, Tg and q are evaluated from runs with an early version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-2). It is found that, in general, Tg is too cold in the winter hemisphere and q is too wet in the upper atmosphere. In order to address these deficiencies, several improvements have been implemented into GEOS-2, including a Land-Surface-Model, a Moist Turbulence Scheme, and the assimilation of new TOVS retrievals. Preliminary results indicate positive impacts from each of these implementations.

  16. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Daytime variation in ambient temperature affects skin temperatures and blood pressure: Ambulatory winter/summer comparison in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Meyer, Martin; Hunkler, Stefan; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Meyer, Andrea H; Schötzau, Andy; Orgül, Selim; Kräuchi, Kurt

    2015-10-01

    It is widely accepted that cold exposure increases peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure (BP) and, hence, increases cardiovascular risk primarily in the elderly. However, there is a lack of concomitantly longitudinal recordings at personal level of environmental temperature (PET) and cardiophysiological variables together with skin temperatures (STs, the “interface-variable” between the body core and ambient temperature). To investigate the intra-individual temporal relationships between PET, STs and BP 60 healthy young women (52 completed the entire study) were prospectively studied in a winter/summer design for 26 h under real life conditions. The main hypothesis was tested whether distal ST (Tdist)mediates the effect of PET-changes on mean arterial BP (MAP). Diurnal profiles of cardiophysiological variables (including BP), STs and PET were ambulatory recorded. Daytime variations between 0930 and 2030 h were analyzed in detail by intra-individual longitudinal path analysis. Additionally, time segments before, during and after outdoor exposure were separately analyzed. In both seasons short-term variations in PET were positively associated with short-term changes in Tdist (not proximal ST, Tprox) and negatively with those in MAP. However, long-term seasonal differences in daytime mean levels were observed in STs but not in BP leading to non-significant inter-individual correlation between STs and BP. Additionally, higher individual body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with lower daytime mean levels of Tprox and higher MAP suggesting Tprox as potential mediator variable for the association of BMI with MAP. In healthy young women the thermoregulatory and BP-regulatory systems are closely linked with respect to short-term, but not long-term changes in PET. One hypothetical explanation could serve recent findings that thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is activated in a cool environment, which could be responsible for the

  18. Spatial Correlations of Anomaly Time Series of AIRS Version-6 Land Surface Skin Temperatures with the Nino-4 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 data set is a valuable resource for meteorological studies. Quality Controlled earth's surface skin temperatures are produced on a 45 km x 45 km spatial scale under most cloud cover conditions. The same retrieval algorithm is used for all surface types under all conditions. This study used eleven years of AIRS monthly mean surface skin temperature and cloud cover products to show that land surface skin temperatures have decreased significantly in some areas and increased significantly in other areas over the period September 2002 through August 2013. These changes occurred primarily at 1:30 PM but not at 1:30 AM. Cooling land areas contained corresponding increases in cloud cover over this time period, with the reverse being true for warming land areas. The cloud cover anomaly patterns for a given month are affected significantly by El Nino/La Nina activity, and anomalies in cloud cover are a driving force behind anomalies in land surface skin temperature.

  19. Correlation between skin surface temperature over masticatory muscles and pain intensity in women with myogenous temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Costa, Ana Cláudia de Souza; Packer, Amanda Carine; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a common clinical manifestation in individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The literature report changes in microcirculation in this condition. The aim of the present study was to correlate skin surface temperature at the central point of the masticatory muscles with pain intensity in women with myogenous TMD. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to divide 40 female university students into four groups: control group (n=10), mild pain group (n=10), moderate pain group (n=10) and severe pain group (n=10). Infrared thermography was used to assess the masticatory muscles. No significant correlations were found between pain intensity and skin surface temperature over the left masseter (p=0.368), right masseter (p=0.618), left anterior temporalis (p=0.293) and right anterior temporalis (p=0.922) muscles. No correlations were found between pain intensity and asymmetry of the masseter (p=0.375) and anterior temporalis (p=0.090) muscles. Moreover, no significant difference in skin surface temperature (p> 0.05) was found among the different groups. Pain intensity in women with myogenous TMD was not associated with skin surface temperature at the central point of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles.

  20. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Figueiredo Magalhães

    Full Text Available Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05. In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin.

  1. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin. PMID:26070073

  2. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin.

  3. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Children in day-care centres are at a higher risk. • Breast-feeding less than 3 months. Other conditions which may mimic acute purulent otitis media should be considered when evaluating a patient with a running ear.These are listed in Table I. To outrun the running ear all these facts should be kept in mind when evaluating ...

  4. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and ... Us Get Involved You are here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the ...

  5. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance ... Committees Contact Us Get Involved You are here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel ...

  6. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    organs including the skull and brain. Metastasis to the temporal bone is extremely rare. 1. An unusual presentation of isolated metastasis with middle ear effusion is reported. Case report. A 45 year old woman presented with a short history of blockage and pain in the right ear. She also complained of a feeling of pulsation in ...

  7. Ear drainage culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lab and placed on a special dish (culture media). The lab team checks the dish every day ... Medical findings based on ear anatomy Ear drainage culture ... PR. The clinician and the microbiology laboratory. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  8. Comparison of Land Skin Temperature from a Land Model, Remote Sensing, and In-situ Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihui; Barlage, Michael; Zeng, Xubin; Draper, Clara Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Land skin temperature (Ts) is an important parameter in the energy exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. Here hourly Ts from the Community Land Model Version 4.0, MODIS satellite observations, and in-situ observations in 2003 were compared. Compared with the in-situ observations over four semi-arid stations, both MODIS and modeled Ts show negative biases, but MODIS shows an overall better performance. Global distribution of differences between MODIS and modeled Ts shows diurnal, seasonal, and spatial variations. Over sparsely vegetated areas, the model Ts is generally lower than the MODIS observed Ts during the daytime, while the situation is opposite at nighttime. The revision of roughness length for heat and the constraint of minimum friction velocity from Zeng et al. [2012] bring the modeled Ts closer to MODIS during the day, and have little effect on Ts at night. Five factors contributing to the Ts differences between the model and MODIS are identified, including the difficulty in properly accounting for cloud cover information at the appropriate temporal and spatial resolutions, and uncertainties in surface energy balance computation, atmospheric forcing data, surface emissivity, and MODIS Ts data. These findings have implications for the cross-evaluation of modeled and remotely sensed Ts, as well as the data assimilation of Ts observations into Earth system models.

  9. Inter-Comparison of GOES-8 Imager and Sounder Skin Temperature Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ronnie J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Skin temperature (ST) retrievals derived from geostationary satellite observations have both high temporal and spatial resolutions and are therefore useful for applications such as assimilation into mesoscale forecast models, nowcasting, and diagnostic studies. Our retrieval method uses a Physical Split Window technique requiring at least two channels within the longwave infrared window. On current GOES satellites, including GOES-11, there are two Imager channels within the required spectral interval. However, beginning with the GOES-M satellite the 12-um channel will be removed, leaving only one longwave channel. The Sounder instrument will continue to have three channels within the longwave window, and therefore ST retrievals will be derived from Sounder measurements. This research compares retrievals from the two instruments and evaluates the effects of the spatial resolution and sensor calibration differences on the retrievals. Both Imager and Sounder retrievals are compared to ground-truth data to evaluate the overall accuracy of the technique. An analysis of GOES-8 and GOES-11 intercomparisons is also presented.

  10. Preliminary Study of Altered Skin Temperature at Body Sites Associated with Self-Injurious Behavior in Adults Who Have Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J.; Sutton, Kelly A.; Bodfish, James W.

    2001-01-01

    The sensory status of four nonverbal adults with mental retardation and severe self-injury was examined using skin temperature measures prior to opiate antagonist treatment. For each participant, the body site targeted most frequently for self-injury was associated with altered skin temperature and reduced by naltrexone treatment. In all cases,…

  11. Fully printed flexible fingerprint-like three-axis tactile and slip force and temperature sensors for artificial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shingo; Kanao, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2014-12-23

    A three-axis tactile force sensor that determines the touch and slip/friction force may advance artificial skin and robotic applications by fully imitating human skin. The ability to detect slip/friction and tactile forces simultaneously allows unknown objects to be held in robotic applications. However, the functionalities of flexible devices have been limited to a tactile force in one direction due to difficulties fabricating devices on flexible substrates. Here we demonstrate a fully printed fingerprint-like three-axis tactile force and temperature sensor for artificial skin applications. To achieve economic macroscale devices, these sensors are fabricated and integrated using only printing methods. Strain engineering enables the strain distribution to be detected upon applying a slip/friction force. By reading the strain difference at four integrated force sensors for a pixel, both the tactile and slip/friction forces can be analyzed simultaneously. As a proof of concept, the high sensitivity and selectivity for both force and temperature are demonstrated using a 3×3 array artificial skin that senses tactile, slip/friction, and temperature. Multifunctional sensing components for a flexible device are important advances for both practical applications and basic research in flexible electronics.

  12. Theoretical modeling of time-dependent skin temperature and heat losses during whole-body cryotherapy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, G; Marreiro, A; Pron, H; Lestriez, P; Boyer, F C; Quinart, H; Tourbah, A; Taïar, R

    2016-11-01

    This article establishes the basics of a theoretical model for the constitutive law that describes the skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses undergone by a subject during a session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). This study focuses on the few minutes during which the human body is subjected to a thermal shock. The relationship between skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses during this period is still unknown and have not yet been studied in the context of the whole human body. The analytical approach here is based on the hypothesis that the skin thermal shock during a WBC session can be thermally modelled by the sum of both radiative and free convective heat transfer functions. The validation of this scientific approach and the derivation of temporal evolution thermal laws, both on skin temperature and dissipated thermal power during the thermal shock open many avenues of large scale studies with the aim of proposing individualized cryotherapy protocols as well as protocols intended for target populations. Furthermore, this study shows quantitatively the substantial imbalance between human metabolism and thermolysis during WBC, the explanation of which remains an open question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  14. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA, non-ambulatory (NA, and total dead and down (D&D data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 and fall/spring (Experiment 2. Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P < 0.01. In conclusion, over-use of bedding may be economically inefficient. Pig skin surface temperature could be a useful measure of pig welfare during or after transport.

  15. Unconscious Deception Detection Measured by Finger Skin Temperature and Indirect Veracity Judgments – Results of a Registered Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth van 't Veer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to beinglied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers—an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed.

  16. Assimilation of Goes-Derived Skin Temperature Tendencies into Mesoscale Models to Improve Forecasts of near Surface Air Temperature and Mixing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; McNider, Richard T.; Suggs, Ron; Jedlovec, Gary; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1998-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-FR skin temperature tendencies into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature chance closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite-observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. An advantage of this technique for short-range forecasts (0-48 h) is that it does not require a complex land-surface formulation within the atmospheric model. As a result, the need to specify poorly known soil and vegetative characteristics is eliminated. The GOES assimilation technique has been incorporated into the PSU/NCAR MM5. Results will be presented to demonstrate the ability of the assimilation scheme to improve short- term (0-48h) simulations of near-surface air temperature and mixing ratio during the warm season for several selected cases which exhibit a variety of atmospheric and land-surface conditions. In addition, validation of terms in the simulated surface energy budget will be presented using in situ data collected at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) site as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program (ARM).

  17. Analysing visual pattern of skin temperature during submaximal and maximal exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Gorkem Aybars; Basaran, Tahsin; Colakoglu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Aims of this study were to examine our hypotheses assuming that (a) skin temperature patterns would differ between submaximal exercise (SE) and graded maximal exercise test (GXT) and (b) thermal kinetics of Tskin occurring in SE and GXT might be similar in a homogenous cohort. Core temperature (Tcore) also observed in order to evaluate thermoregulatory responses to SE and GXT. Eleven moderately to well-trained male athletes were volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; body surface area 1.93 ± 0.1 m2; body fat: 12.6% ± 4.2%; V ˙ O2max: 54 ± 9.9 mL min-1 kg-1). Under stabilized environmental conditions in climatic chamber, GXT to volitional exhaustion and 20-min SE at 60% of VO2max were performed on cycle ergometer. Thermal analyses were conducted in 2-min intervals throughout exercise tests. Tskin was monitored by a thermal camera, while Tcore was recorded via an ingestible telemetric temperature sensor. Thermal kinetic analyses showed that Tskin gradually decreased till the 7.58 ± 1.03th minutes, and then initiated to increase till the end of SE (Rsqr = 0.97), while Tskin gradually decreased throughout the GXT (Rsqr = 0.89). Decrease in the level of Tskin during the GXT was significantly below from the SE [F (4, 40) = 2.67, p = 0.07, ηp2 = 0.211]. In the meantime, Tcore continuously increased throughout the SE and GXT (p 0.05). However, total heat energies were calculated as 261.5 kJ/m2 and 416 kJ/m2 for GXT and SE, respectively (p exercises as expected. Tskin curves patterns found to be associated amongst participants at both GXT and SE. Therefore, Tskin kinetics may ensure an important data for monitoring thermoregulation in exercise.

  18. The effect of environmental humidity and temperature on skin barrier function and dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engebretsen, K. A.; Johansen, J. D.; Kezic, S.; Linneberg, A.; Thyssen, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Physicians are aware that climatic conditions negatively affect the skin. In particular, people living in equator far countries such as the Northern parts of Europe and North America are exposed to harsh weather during the winter and may experience dry and itchy skin, or deterioration of already

  19. Infrared typmanic tempature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the

  20. [Study on the skin-core evolvement of carbon fibers as a function of heat treatment temperature by Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-jie; Fan, Li-dong; Wang, Hao-jing; Zhu, Zhen-ping

    2008-08-01

    The skin-core evolvement of the carbon fibers was studied as a function of heat-treatment temperature though the analysis of Raman spectroscopy of the carbon fibers surface and core. It was found that the change of the Raman spectra of the carbon fibers core was similar to that on the surface with the increase in heat-treatment temperature. At 1600 degrees C, the Rs and Rc values were almost equal, indicating that the degrees of the graphitization of the carbon fibers surface and core were almost uniform. The Rs and Rc values decreased dramatically with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, and Rs decreased more. At 2800 degrees C, the Rs value came to 0.429, lowered 77.2%, while the Rc value then came to 1.101, lowered 38.7% only. It implied that the graphitization degree of the carbon fibers was enhanced with increasing the heat treatment temperature, and that of carbon fibers surface was enhanced more. The graphite characters of the carbon of the carbon fibers surface were different from that of the carbon fibers core. The former is close to soft carbon, which is easy to graphitize, while the latter is close to hard carbon, which is difficult to graphitize, and it may be resin carbon Skin-core structure gene Rsc (= Rs/Rc) which denoted the skin-core degree of the carbon fibers was first brought forward and adopted. The Rsc value is between 0 and 1. When the Rsc value is equal to 1, the carbon fibers are homogenous. When the Rsc value is close to zero, there are serious skin-core structures in the carbon fibers. The Rsc value reduced linearly with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, indicating that the homogeneous degrees of the carbon fibers decreased and the skin-core degrees of the carbon fibers increased. The crystallite size of the carbon fibers surface and core increased gradually with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, but the surface's increased more quickly, indicating that the carbon of the carbon fibers surface was easier to

  1. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  2. Further refinements to models for the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Wick, G. A.; Emery, W. J.

    2003-12-01

    The bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference, ΔT, has an important impact on both satellite remote sensing and air-sea interaction studies. Extensive in situ data from diverse environmental conditions are used to explore the dependence of ΔT on environmental conditions and to evaluate and refine models for ΔT during nighttime. Data from 10 different cruises covering large ranges of latitudes and seasons in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were accumulated and processed consistently. Comparison of the measured ΔT values with the environmental parameters generally confirmed an observed tendency for ΔT to approach a near-constant value as the wind speed increases but also demonstrated a dependence of the residual variability on the net heat flux. To adequately predict ΔT, it is necessary to use a model that incorporates a dependence on all these parameters. Existing models for ΔT are all shown to be unable to fully reproduce the observed variability under all conditions. To improve the ability to predict ΔT, a new surface renewal-type model was developed incorporating four additional physical processes. New expressions are proposed for renewal timescales, accounting for microscale and large-scale wave breaking, the effects of capillary waves, and a saturated shear regime. To incorporate the simultaneous effects of multiple physical processes within the sampling region and period, the modeled ΔT is computed as a weighted combination of the contributions of the relevant regimes. An initial specification of the weights, derived from the observed ΔT values and environmental parameters, demonstrates that a suitable combination of the timescales can reproduce the majority of the observed variability in ΔT. A second, objective determination of the weights, using conjugate gradient minimization, produces slightly poorer results but demonstrates that the model can be used in a prognostic manner to significantly improve upon the existing predictions of ΔT.

  3. Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Skin Temperature Observations into Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Mahanama, P. P.; Koster, Randal D.; Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Land surface (or "skin") temperature (LST) lies at the heart of the surface energy balance and is a key variable in weather and climate models. Here we assimilate LST retrievals from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) into the Noah and Catchment (CLSM) land surface models using an ensemble-based, off-line land data assimilation system. LST is described very differently in the two models. A priori scaling and dynamic bias estimation approaches are applied because satellite and model LST typically exhibit different mean values and variability. Performance is measured against 27 months of in situ measurements from the Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observations Project at 48 stations. LST estimates from Noah and CLSM without data assimilation ("open loop") are comparable to each other and superior to that of ISCCP retrievals. For LST, RMSE values are 4.9 K (CLSM), 5.6 K (Noah), and 7.6 K (ISCCP), and anomaly correlation coefficients (R) are 0.62 (CLSM), 0.61 (Noah), and 0.52 (ISCCP). Assimilation of ISCCP retrievals provides modest yet statistically significant improvements (over open loop) of up to 0.7 K in RMSE and 0.05 in anomaly R. The skill of surface turbulent flux estimates from the assimilation integrations is essentially identical to the corresponding open loop skill. Noah assimilation estimates of ground heat flux, however, can be significantly worse than open loop estimates. Provided the assimilation system is properly adapted to each land model, the benefits from the assimilation of LST retrievals are comparable for both models.

  4. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  5. Predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin during temperature abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2009-02-01

    To better predict risk of Salmonella infection from chicken subjected to temperature abuse, a study was undertaken to develop a predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin with native flora. For model development, chicken skin portions (2.14 cm2) were inoculated with 0.85 log of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (ATCC 700408) and then stored at 5 to 50 degrees C for 8 h. Kinetic data from the storage trials were fit to a primary model to determine lag time (lamda), specific growth rate (micrro), and the 95% prediction interval (PI). Secondary models for lamda, mu, and PI as a function of storage temperature were developed and then combined with the primary model to create a tertiary model. Performance of the tertiary model was evaluated against dependent data, independent data for interpolation, and independent data for extrapolation to kosher chicken skin by using an acceptable prediction zone from -1 (fail-safe) to 0.5 (fail-dangerous) log per skin portion. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin was observed during 8 h of storage at 5 to 20 degrees C and at 50 degrees C, whereas growth was observed from 25 to 45 degrees C and was optimal at 40 degrees C with a lamda of 2.5 h and a mu of 1.1 log/h. Variation of pathogen growth, as assessed by PI, increased in a nonlinear manner as a function of temperature and was greater for growth conditions than no-growth conditions. The percentage of acceptable prediction errors was 82.6% for dependent data, 83.7% for independent data for interpolation, and 81.6% for independent data for extrapolation to kosher skin, which all exceeded the performance criterion of 70% acceptable predictions. Thus, it was concluded that the tertiary model provided valid predictions for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 from a low initial dose on both nonkosher and kosher chicken skin with native flora.

  6. Skin temperature over the carotid artery provides an accurate noninvasive estimation of core temperature in infants and young children during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Chou, Shirley; Murto, Kimmo

    2013-12-01

    The accurate measurement of core temperature is an essential aspect of intraoperative management in children. Invasive measurement sites are accurate but carry some health risks and cannot be used in certain patients. An accurate form of noninvasive thermometry is therefore needed. Our aim was to develop, and subsequently validate, separate models for estimating core temperature using different skin temperatures with an individualized correction factor. Forty-eight pediatric patients (0-36 months) undergoing elective surgery were separated into a modeling group (MG, n = 28) and validation group (VG, n = 20). Skin temperature was measured over the carotid artery (Tsk_carotid ), upper abdomen (Tsk_abd ), and axilla (Tsk_axilla ), while nasopharyngeal temperature (Tnaso ) was measured as a reference. In the MG, derived models for estimating Tnaso were: Tsk_carotid  + 0.52; Tsk_abd  + (0.076[body mass] + 0.02); and Tsk_axilla  + (0.081[body mass]-0.66). After adjusting raw Tsk_carotid, Tsk_abd , and Tsk_axilla values in the independent VG using these models, the mean bias (Predicted Tnaso - Actual Tnaso [with 95% confidence intervals]) was +0.03[+0.53, -0.50]°C, -0.05[+1.02, -1.07]°C, and -0.06[+1.21, -1.28°C], respectively. The percentage of values within ±0.5°C of Tnaso was 93.2%, 75.4%, and 66.1% for Tsk_carotid, Tsk_abd , and Tsk_axilla , respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting hypothermia (Tnaso  Skin temperature over the carotid artery, with a simple correction factor of +0.52°C, provides a viable noninvasive estimate of Tnaso in young children during elective surgery with a general anesthetic. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Better Ear Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Many medical conditions, ... This condition usually results from poor eustachian tube function concurrent with middle ear infection (otitis media), but ...

  8. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness ...

  9. Comparing Surface Height Used in NCAR Climate Model with That Observed by ICEsat: Effects on Skin Temperature Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Jin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to identify one of the reasons for the poor land skin temperature simulated by a climate model over Greenland. It first compares ICEsat surface height measurements over Greenland with those used by the model and reveals that the surface height of Greenland prescribed in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Climate System Model/Community Land Model version 3 (CCSM/CLM3 differs greatly from the satellite measurements from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ICEsat at edges and central glacier regions. This deficiency, in part, leads to underestimated skin temperatures at coastal regions—the areas where significant ice sheet melt is observed. Furthermore, sensitivity studies reveal that surface skin temperature simulations of Greenland would be significantly improved if the more accurate surface height is used. The problem of the height used in current global climate model is mainly due to the fact that the model has to use coarse grid size, and within one grid, land surface height has high heterogeneity. How to assign a proper surface height for each model grid and meanwhile adequately present the high heterogeneity of land surface is a great challenge in current model development.

  10. The Effects of Industrial Protective Gloves and Hand Skin Temperatures on Hand Grip Strength and Discomfort Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Z. Ramadan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily working activities and functions require a high contribution of hand and forearm muscles in executing grip force. To study the effects of wearing different gloves on grip strength, under a variety of hand skin temperatures, an assessment of the maximum grip strength was performed with 32 healthy male workers with a mean age (standard deviation of 30.44 (5.35 years wearing five industrial gloves at three hand skin temperatures. Their ages and anthropometric characteristics including body mass index (BMI, hand length, hand width, hand depth, hand palm, and wrist circumference were measured. The hand was exposed to different bath temperatures (5 °C, 25 °C, and 45 °C and hand grip strength was measured using a Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer with and without wearing the gloves (chemical protection glove, rubber insulating glove, anti-vibration impact glove, cotton yarn knitted glove, and RY-WG002 working glove. The data were analyzed using the Shapiro–Wilk test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Tukey test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA of the within-subject design analysis. The results showed that wearing gloves significantly affected the maximum grip strength. Wearing the RY-WG002 working glove produced a greater reduction on the maximum grip when compared with the bare hand, while low temperatures (5 °C had a significant influence on grip when compared to medium (25 °C and high (45 °C hand skin temperatures. In addition, participants felt more discomfort in both environmental extreme conditions. Furthermore, they reported more discomfort while wearing neoprene, rubber, and RY-WG002 working gloves.

  11. The Effects of Industrial Protective Gloves and Hand Skin Temperatures on Hand Grip Strength and Discomfort Rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Z

    2017-12-04

    Daily working activities and functions require a high contribution of hand and forearm muscles in executing grip force. To study the effects of wearing different gloves on grip strength, under a variety of hand skin temperatures, an assessment of the maximum grip strength was performed with 32 healthy male workers with a mean age (standard deviation) of 30.44 (5.35) years wearing five industrial gloves at three hand skin temperatures. Their ages and anthropometric characteristics including body mass index (BMI), hand length, hand width, hand depth, hand palm, and wrist circumference were measured. The hand was exposed to different bath temperatures (5 °C, 25 °C, and 45 °C) and hand grip strength was measured using a Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer with and without wearing the gloves (chemical protection glove, rubber insulating glove, anti-vibration impact glove, cotton yarn knitted glove, and RY-WG002 working glove). The data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Tukey test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the within-subject design analysis. The results showed that wearing gloves significantly affected the maximum grip strength. Wearing the RY-WG002 working glove produced a greater reduction on the maximum grip when compared with the bare hand, while low temperatures (5 °C) had a significant influence on grip when compared to medium (25 °C) and high (45 °C) hand skin temperatures. In addition, participants felt more discomfort in both environmental extreme conditions. Furthermore, they reported more discomfort while wearing neoprene, rubber, and RY-WG002 working gloves.

  12. Body temperature measurement in VLBW infants by continuous skin measurement is a good or even better alternative than continuous rectal measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, R D G; van Lingen, R A; van Zoeren-Grobben, D

    2009-02-01

    An inadequate body temperature in preterm infants influences morbidity and mortality. Continuous rectal measurement is a reliable method to measure body temperature but might have adverse effects and is even contra-indicated in case of low platelets or necrotising enterocolitis. A save and non-invasive method to measure body temperature is the transcutaneous 'zero heat flow' method. We hypothesised that for monitoring body temperature in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, central measurement of temperature by way of the zero heat flow principle is just as reliable as rectal temperature. Twenty-six infants, birth weight between 520 g and 1250 g, gestational age 25.28-32.28 weeks were provided with an insulated continuous skin probe with 'zero heat flow' and a continuous rectal probe. Both measurements were registered every hour over a period of 48 h. The sample size was calculated to detect a difference of less than or equal to 0.20 degrees C. 1205 of the 1248 temperature measurements were analysed. At any moment, skin temperature was higher or equal when compared to rectal temperature. Mean skin temperature was 0.13 degrees C (SD 0.33) higher than mean rectal temperature (t-test, p skin temperature was 0.82 (p temperature measurement by 'zero heat flow' method is just as reliable as by rectal method.

  13. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  14. Assessment of circadian rhythms of both skin temperature and motor activity in infants during the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza-Moreno, Matilde; Fuentes-Hernández, Silvia; Sánchez-Solis, Manuel; Rol, María Ángeles; Larqué, Elvira; Madrid, Juan Antonio

    2011-05-01

    The authors developed a method useful for home measurement of temperature, activity, and sleep rhythms in infants under normal-living conditions during their first 6 mos of life. In addition, parametric and nonparametric tests for assessing circadian system maturation in these infants were compared. Anthropometric parameters plus ankle skin temperature and activity were evaluated in 10 infants by means of two data loggers, Termochron iButton (DS1291H, Maxim Integrated Products, Sunnyvale, CA) for temperature and HOBO Pendant G (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, UA-004-64, Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA) for motor activity, located in special baby socks specifically designed for the study. Skin temperature and motor activity were recorded over 3 consecutive days at 15 days, 1, 3, and 6 mos of age. Circadian rhythms of skin temperature and motor activity appeared at 3 mos in most babies. Mean skin temperature decreased significantly by 3 mos of life relative to previous measurements (p = .0001), whereas mean activity continued to increase during the first 6 mos. For most of the parameters analyzed, statistically significant changes occurred at 3-6 mos relative to 0.5-1 mo of age. Major differences were found using nonparametric tests. Intradaily variability in motor activity decreased significantly at 6 mos of age relative to previous measurements, and followed a similar trend for temperature; interdaily stability increased significantly at 6 mos of age relative to previous measurements for both variables; relative amplitude increased significantly at 6 mos for temperature and at 3 mos for activity, both with respect to previous measurements. A high degree of correlation was found between chronobiological parametric and nonparametric tests for mean and mesor and also for relative amplitude versus the cosinor-derived amplitude. However, the correlation between parametric and nonparametric equivalent indices (acrophase and midpoint of M5, interdaily stability

  15. Skin temperature during cutaneous wound healing in an equine model of cutaneous fibroproliferative disorder: kinetics and anatomic-site differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Christophe J; Deschesne, Karine; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine L

    2013-02-01

    To map skin temperature kinetics, and by extension skin blood flow throughout normal or abnormal repair of full-thickness cutaneous wounds created on the horse body and limb, using infrared thermography. Experimental. Standardbreds (n = 6), aged 3-4 years. Three cutaneous wounds were created on the dorsolateral surface of each metacarpus and on the lateral thoracic wall. Thoracic skin wounds and those on 1 randomly chosen forelimb healed by second intention without a bandage, whereas contralateral limb wounds were bandaged to induce formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). Thermal data were collected from all planned wound sites before the surgical procedure (baseline), and at 24, 48, 96 hours, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after wounding. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and a priori contrasts submitted to Bonferroni sequential correction. Level of significance was P wound temperature (CWT) increased temporally from preoperative period to week 1 postwounding, independently of anatomic location (P wounds was significantly less than that of body wounds throughout healing (P wounds managed with bandages and developing EGT was significantly less than that of unbandaged limb wounds, which did not develop EGT (P ≤ .01). CWT varied with anatomic location and throughout healing. CWT of wounds developing EGT was significantly less than that of wounds without EGT. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Mathematical model of temperature rise in three-layer skin during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solution of mathematical model of multi-layered human skin exposed to microwave heating during cancer therapy. We show that our model has a solution and the solution is unique.215-216. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 9 2005: pp.

  17. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  19. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  20. Caring for Pierced Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits Become a member DermCare Team Professionalism and ethics My account Member directory Publications JAAD JAAD Case ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & ...

  1. Salvage of Ear Framework Exposure in Total Auricular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo; Yun, In Sik; Chung, Seum

    2017-02-01

    One of the most common complications of total auricular reconstruction is delayed wound healing, which results in skin necrosis and exposure of the ear framework. Various options exist for salvage of the exposed ear framework. From January 2009 to May 2014, 149 patients underwent total auricular reconstruction using an autogenous cartilage framework or porous polyethylene framework (Medpor; Stryker, USA). An autogenous cartilage framework was used in 48 patients, and a Medpor framework was used in 101 cases. Three cases of framework exposure (3/48, 6.3%) were observed among the patients treated with an autogenous cartilage framework. In contrast, framework exposure took place in 11 patients who were treated with a Medpor framework (11/101, 10.9%). Depending on the method of total ear reconstruction and the location of exposure, the authors used local skin flaps, temporoparietal fascia flaps, deep temporal fascia (DTF) flaps, or mastoid fascia (MF) flaps with skin grafting. Among the 11 patients who experienced framework exposure after being treated with a Medpor framework, a DTF flap with skin grafting was used in 6 patients and an MF flap with skin grafting in 6 patients; 1 patient was treated with both a DTF flap and an MF flap. All 3 cases of cartilage framework exposure were salvaged using a temporoparietal fascia flap with skin grafting, and a local skin flap was used in 1 case. In all 3 cases, the exposed framework was completely covered with the flap, and the reconstructed ears showed well-defined convolutions. Salvage of framework exposure remains a challenging issue in total auricular reconstruction. However, appropriate wound management using various flaps allows the reconstructed ear to be safely preserved.

  2. Relationships Between the Bulk-Skin Sea Surface Temperature Difference, Wind, and Net Air-Sea Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to evaluate and improve models for the bulk-skin temperature difference to the point where they could accurately and reliably apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this goal, work was conducted in three primary areas. These included production of an archive of available data sets containing measurements of the skin and bulk temperatures and associated environmental conditions, evaluation of existing skin layer models using the compiled data archive, and additional theoretical work on the development of an improved model using the data collected under diverse environmental conditions. In this work we set the basis for a new physical model of renewal type, and propose a parameterization for the temperature difference across the cool skin of the ocean in which the effects of thermal buoyancy, wind stress, and microscale breaking are all integrated by means of the appropriate renewal time scales. Ideally, we seek to obtain a model that will accurately apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. A summary of the work in each of these areas is included in this report. A large amount of work was accomplished under the support of this grant. The grant supported the graduate studies of Sandra Castro and the preparation of her thesis which will be completed later this year. This work led to poster presentations at the 1999 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting and 2000 IGARSS meeting. Additional work will be presented in a talk at this year's American Meteorological Society Air-Sea Interaction Meeting this May. The grant also supported Sandra Castro during a two week experiment aboard the R/P Flip (led by Dr. Andrew Jessup of the Applied Physics Laboratory) to help obtain additional shared data sets and to provide Sandra with a fundamental understanding of the physical processes needed in the models. In a related area, the funding also partially supported Dr. William Emery and Daniel

  3. About possibility of temperature trace observing on a human skin through clothes by using computer processing of IR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Shestakov, Ivan L.; Blednov, Roman G.

    2017-05-01

    One of urgent security problems is a detection of objects placed inside the human body. Obviously, for safety reasons one cannot use X-rays for such object detection widely and often. For this purpose, we propose to use THz camera and IR camera. Below we continue a possibility of IR camera using for a detection of temperature trace on a human body. In contrast to passive THz camera using, the IR camera does not allow to see very pronounced the object under clothing. Of course, this is a big disadvantage for a security problem solution based on the IR camera using. To find possible ways for this disadvantage overcoming we make some experiments with IR camera, produced by FLIR Company and develop novel approach for computer processing of images captured by IR camera. It allows us to increase a temperature resolution of IR camera as well as human year effective susceptibility enhancing. As a consequence of this, a possibility for seeing of a human body temperature changing through clothing appears. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water and eats chocolate. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments are made with observing of temperature trace from objects placed behind think overall. Demonstrated results are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, concealed inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  4. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  5. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    Abstract. Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion. Key words: Carcinoma, breast, metastasis, temporal bone, ...

  6. Ear surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/ ...

  7. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Local: reinfection with water in an ear with a perforation or ventilation tube, anatomical abnormalities of the ET. — Systemic: infections (e.g. tuberculosis), immune deficiency, systemic diseases (e.g. leukaemia, AIDS, diabetes, Wegener's granulomatosis, histiocytosis X), anaemia, allergies. Table I. Differential diagnosis of ...

  8. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and ... and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language Información en español Statistics Health Resources Clinical Studies Research Extramural Research ...

  9. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flying. This sometimes uncomfortable sensation is related to pressure changes in the air space behind the eardrum (the middle ear). Normally, the Eustachian tube, a passageway that leads from the middle ear to the back of ... the nose, equalizes the air pressure in the middle ear to the outside air ...

  10. Ear canal papilloma in a 20 year old Ghanaian male | Adjeso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Squamous papilloma in the head and neck region commonly affects the skin, oral mucosa and upper aerodigestive tract. Ear canal papillomas are relatively rare worldwide, even more uncommon in the West African subregion. We report a twenty year old Ghanaian male seen with ear canal papilloma at our clinic in Kumasi, ...

  11. ENSO Effects on Land Skin Temperature Variations: A Global Study from Satellite Remote Sensing and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bartholomew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-lag and lag correlation coefficients between Niño 3 indices derived from sea-surface temperature (SST anomalies and land surface variables from satellite based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, as well as National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data are analyzed for 2001–2010. Strong positive correlations between January Niño 3 indices and skin temperature (Tskin occur over the northwest USA, western Canada, and southern Alaska, suggesting that an El Niño event is associated with warmer winter temperatures over these regions, consistent with previous studies based on 2 m surface air temperature measurements (Tair. In addition, in January, strong negative correlations exist over central and northern Europe (meaning colder than normal winters with positive correlations present over central Siberia (suggesting warmer than normal winters. Despite the different physical meaning between Tair and Tskin, the general response of the two surface temperatures to changes in ENSO is similar. Nevertheless, satellite observations of Tskin provide more rich information and higher spatial resolution than Tair data.

  12. Temporal and spatial temperature distribution in the glabrous skin of rats induced by short-pulse CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pen-Li; Hsu, Shu-Shen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wang, An-Bang; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2012-11-01

    Pain is a natural alarm that aids the body in avoiding potential danger and can also present as an important indicator in clinics. Infrared laser-evoked potentials can be used as an objective index to evaluate nociception. In animal studies, a short-pulse laser is crucial because it completes the stimulation before escape behavior. The objective of the present study was to obtain the temporal and spatial temperature distributions in the skin caused by the irradiation of a short-pulse laser. A fast speed infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature caused by a CO2 laser of different durations (25 and 35 ms) and power. The measured results were subsequently implemented with a three-layer finite element model to predict the subsurface temperature. We found that stratum corneum was crucial in the modeling of fast temperature response, and escape behaviors correlated with predictions of temperature at subsurface. Results indicated that the onset latency and duration of activated nociceptors must be carefully considered when interpreting physiological responses evoked by infrared irradiation.

  13. Monitoring changes in skin temperature associated with exercise in horses on a water treadmill by use of infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Fleming, Jennifer; Stratton, Tim D; Brassington, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess surface temperature change as an indirect measure of muscle activity and exercise associated changes in blood flow in the working hind limb muscles of horses (n=7) undergoing water treadmill exercise. Three treatments were investigated including the treadmill ran dry (TD), water at the height of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and water at the height of the carpus (CP). Maximum skin surface temperature was recorded from the region of the semitendinosus muscle during exercise at each water height. There was a significant difference in surface hind limb temperature between exercise on the water treadmill ran dry and with water at the height of the PIP and CP (P<0.0001) with hotter temperatures recorded during the TD treatment. There was a greater increase in surface temperature of the hind limbs from pre exercise to maximum temperature during the PIP and CP treatments when compared to the TD treatment, however, this was not significant (P=0.58). There was no significant difference in surface hind limb temperature found between exercise in water at the height of the PIP and water at the height of the CP. The findings from this study suggest that IRT is able to non-invasively detect muscle activity and associated changes in blood flow whilst horses are exercised on a water treadmill. IRT could potentially be used as an alternative method to assess muscle activity and temperature change in an aquatic environment where existing methods present methodological challenges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of short-term dependency and immobility on skin temperature and colour in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H P; Davis, T R C

    2006-12-01

    The effects of short-term dependency and immobility on skin temperature were assessed in two experiments. In the first study, ten volunteers hung their left arm dependent and motionless while using their right hand for light office work. After 30 minutes, the dependent left hands were cooler (mean=0.9 degrees C: 95% CI=0.7-1.1) than the active right hands and exhibited a deeper colour with significantly increased green intensity (P=0.03) as assessed on digital images. In the second study, seven volunteers submerged both their hands in water at 15 degrees C for 15 minutes. The left arm was then left dependent and motionless while the right hand was placed on the table and its fingers were flexed and extended every 10 seconds. The left hands remained cooler than the right and were a median of 3.6 (range 2.9-4.5) degrees C cooler after 60 minutes. These studies demonstrate that skin temperature and colour differences between the hands, which are sometimes used to support the diagnosis of CRPS-1, can be produced and maintained by short-term immobility and dependency of the hand.

  15. Satellite and Skin Layer Effects on the Accuracy of Sea Surface Temperature Measurements from the GOES Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gary A.; Bates, John J.; Scott, Donna J.

    2000-01-01

    The latest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have facilitated significant improvements in our ability to measure sea surface temperature (SST) from geostationary satellites. Nonetheless, difficulties associated with sensor calibration and oceanic near-surface temperature gradients affect the accuracy of the measurements and our ability to estimate and interpret the diurnal cycle of the bulk SST. Overall, measurements of SST from the GOES Imagers on the GOES 8-10 satellites are shown to have very small bias (less than 0.02 K) and rms differences of between 0.6 and 0.9 K relative to buoy observations. Separate consideration of individual measurement times, however, demonstrates systematic bias variations of over 0.6 K with measurement hour. These bias variations significantly affect both the amplitude and shape of estimates of the diurnal SST cycle. Modeled estimates of the temperature difference across the oceanic cool skin and diurnal thermocline show that bias variations up to 0.3 K can result from variability in the near-surface layer. Oceanic near-surface layer and known "satellite midnight" calibration effects, however, explain only a portion of the observed bias variations, suggesting other possible calibration concerns. Methods of explicitly incorporating skin layer and diurnal thermocline effects in satellite bulk SST measurements were explored in an effort to further improve the measurement accuracy. While the approaches contain more complete physics, they do not yet significantly improve the accuracy of bulk SST measurements due to remaining uncertainties in the temperature difference across the near-surface layer.

  16. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct Measurement of Skin Friction in High Temperature and Impulsively Started Supersonic Flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    the sensor head is tilted , so the edge of the sensor head may protrude into the flow (Figure 3-3). Because the deflection is small, the protru- sion...the nozzle was overexpanded , the oblique shocks at the nozzle exit caused the flow direction to change in the location of the gauges. In any event, the...reservoir forces oil into guage Figure 4-16 Skin Friction Gauge Re-Oiling Device Tilting the gage. This causes an initial strain as discussed in Section

  18. Estimating changes in mean body temperature for humans during exercise using core and skin temperatures is inaccurate even with a correction factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Reardon, Francis D; Webb, Paul; Ducharme, Michel B; Ramsay, Tim; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Kenny, Glen P

    2007-08-01

    Changes in mean body temperature (DeltaT(b)) estimated by the traditional two-compartment model of "core" and "shell" temperatures and an adjusted two-compartment model incorporating a correction factor were compared with values derived by whole body calorimetry. Sixty participants (31 men, 29 women) cycled at 40% of peak O(2) consumption for 60 or 90 min in the Snellen calorimeter at 24 or 30 degrees C. The core compartment was represented by esophageal, rectal (T(re)), and aural canal temperature, and the shell compartment was represented by a 12-point mean skin temperature (T(sk)). Using T(re) and conventional core-to-shell weightings (X) of 0.66, 0.79, and 0.90, mean DeltaT(b) estimation error (with 95% confidence interval limits in parentheses) for the traditional model was -95.2% (-83.0, -107.3) to -76.6% (-72.8, -80.5) after 10 min and -47.2% (-40.9, -53.5) to -22.6% (-14.5, -30.7) after 90 min. Using T(re), X = 0.80, and a correction factor (X(0)) of 0.40, mean DeltaT(b) estimation error for the adjusted model was +9.5% (+16.9, +2.1) to -0.3% (+11.9, -12.5) after 10 min and +15.0% (+27.2, +2.8) to -13.7% (-4.2, -23.3) after 90 min. Quadratic analyses of calorimetry DeltaT(b) data was subsequently used to derive best-fitting values of X for both models and X(0) for the adjusted model for each measure of core temperature. The most accurate model at any time point or condition only accounted for 20% of the variation observed in DeltaT(b) for the traditional model and 56% for the adjusted model. In conclusion, throughout exercise the estimation of DeltaT(b) using any measure of core temperature together with mean skin temperature irrespective of weighting is inaccurate even with a correction factor customized for the specific conditions.

  19. Global Clear-Sky Surface Skin Temperature from Multiple Satellites Using a Single-Channel Algorithm with Angular Anisotropy Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Benjamin R.; Minnis, Patrick; Chee, Thad; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Yost, Christopher R.; Palikonda, Rabindra

    2017-01-01

    Surface skin temperature (T(sub s)) is an important parameter for characterizing the energy exchange at the ground/water-atmosphere interface. The Satellite ClOud and Radiation Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) employs a single-channel thermal-infrared (TIR) method to retrieve T(sub s) over clear-sky land and ocean surfaces from data taken by geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite imagers. GEO satellites can provide somewhat continuous estimates of T(sub s) over the diurnal cycle in non-polar regions, while polar T(sub s) retrievals from LEO imagers, such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), can complement the GEO measurements. The combined global coverage of remotely sensed T(sub s), along with accompanying cloud and surface radiation parameters, produced in near-realtime and from historical satellite data, should be beneficial for both weather and climate applications. For example, near-realtime hourly T(sub s) observations can be assimilated in high-temporal-resolution numerical weather prediction models and historical observations can be used for validation or assimilation of climate models. Key drawbacks to the utility of TIR-derived T(sub s) data include the limitation to clear-sky conditions, the reliance on a particular set of analyses/reanalyses necessary for atmospheric corrections, and the dependence on viewing and illumination angles. Therefore, T(sub s) validation with established references is essential, as is proper evaluation of T(sub s) sensitivity to atmospheric correction source. This article presents improvements on the NASA Langley GEO satellite and AVHRR TIR-based T(sub s) product that is derived using a single-channel technique. The resulting clear-sky skin temperature values are validated with surface references and independent satellite products. Furthermore, an empirically adjusted theoretical model of satellite land surface temperature (LST) angular anisotropy is tested to improve

  20. Core Body and Skin Temperature in Type 1 Narcolepsy in Daily Life; Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Prediction of Sleep Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J W; Baumann, Christian R; Fronczek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin temperatures, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed temperature profiles in normal daily life, and whether sleep attacks

  1. Core Body and Skin Temperature in Type 1 Narcolepsy in Daily Life; Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Prediction of Sleep Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J W; Baumann, Christian R; Fronczek, Rolf

    2016-11-01

    Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin temperatures, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed temperature profiles in normal daily life, and whether sleep attacks are heralded by changes in skin temperature. Furthermore, the effects of three months of treatment with sodium oxybate (SXB) were investigated. Twenty-five narcolepsy patients and 15 healthy controls were included. Core body, proximal and distal skin temperatures, and sleep-wake state were measured simultaneously for 24 hours in ambulatory patients. This procedure was repeated in 16 narcolepsy patients after at least 3 months of stable treatment with SXB. Increases in distal skin temperature and distal-to-proximal temperature gradient (DPG) strongly predicted daytime sleep attacks (P narcolepsy, previously only studied in laboratory settings, were partially confirmed. Treatment with SXB resulted in a normalisation of the core body temperature profile. Future studies should explore whether predictive temperature changes can be used to signal or even prevent sleep attacks.

  2. Infrared camera assessment of skin surface temperature--effect of emissivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, V; Staffa, E; Mornstein, V; Bourek, A

    2013-11-01

    Infrared thermoimaging is one of the options for object temperature analysis. Infrared thermoimaging is unique due to the non-contact principle of measurement. So it is often used in medicine and for scientific experimental measurements. The presented work aims to determine whether the measurement results could be influenced by topical treatment of the hand surface by various substances. The authors attempted to determine whether the emissivity can be neglected or not in situations of topical application of substances such as ultrasound gel, ointment, disinfection, etc. The results of experiments showed that the value of surface temperature is more or less distorted by the topically applied substance. Our findings demonstrate the effect of emissivity of applied substances on resulting temperature and showed the necessity to integrate the emissivity into calculation of the final surface temperature. Infrared thermoimaging can be an appropriate method for determining the temperature of organisms, if this is understood as the surface temperature, and the surrounding environment and its temperature is taken into account. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous telemetric monitoring of tail-skin and core body temperature in a rat model of thermoregulatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Scott; Pawlyk, Aaron C; Alfinito, Peter D; Roman, Janet; Zhou, Tianhui; Deecher, Darlene C

    2009-04-15

    Temperature dysfunction, clinically described as hot flashes/flushes and night sweats, commonly occur in women transitioning through menopause. Research in this field has yet to fully elucidate the biological underpinnings explaining this dysfunction. The need to develop animal models that can be used to study hormone-dependent temperature regulation is essential to advancing this scientific area. Development of telemetric transmitters for monitoring tail-skin (TST) and core body (CBT) temperatures for animal research has increased the accuracy of data by reducing extraneous factors associated with previous methods. However, until recently, TST and CBT could not be simultaneously measured telemetrically within the same animal. In this report, new dual temperature monitoring transmitters were validated by simultaneously evaluating them with the single measurement transmitters using the ovariectomized (OVX) rat thermoregulatory dysfunction model. A major advantage of measuring TST and CBT in the same animal is the ability to relate temporal changes on these two temperature parameters. Comparative experimentation was performed by single administration of clonidine (alpha(2) adrenergic agonist), MDL-100907 (5-HT(2a) antagonist), or a 7-day treatment of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE). Clonidine caused decreases in TST and CBT, MDL-100907 caused increases in TST while decreasing CBT, and EE caused decreases in TST with minor CBT decreases only at the higher dose. Data from either probe type showed similar results on temperature parameters regardless of transmitter used. These findings support the use of the new dual temperature transmitters and should enhance the quality and interpretation of data being generated in thermoregulation studies.

  4. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heide, A. van der; Donjacour, C.E; Pijl, H; Reijntjes, R.H; Overeem, S; Lammers, G.J; Someren, E.J.W. van; Fronczek, R

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperature and sleep-wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and controls...

  5. High-resolution gulf water skin temperature estimation using TIR/ASTER

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; ManiMurali, R.; Mahender, K.

    Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is the highest-resolution multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) sensor currently available on a polar-orbiting spacecraft which allows surface temperature estimation, at a...

  6. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  7. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  8. Inner-ear decompression sickness in nine trimix recreational divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzani, Silvia; Mereu, Diego; Messersmith, Mark; Olivari, Diego; Arena, Mario; Spanò, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Recreational technical diving, including the use of helium-based mixes (trimix) and the experimentation of new decompression algorithms, has become increasingly popular. Inner-ear decompression sickness (DCS) can occur as an isolated clinical entity or as part of a multi-organ presentation in this population. Physiological characteristics of the inner ear make it selectively vulnerable to DCS. The inner ear has a slower gas washout than the brain thus potentially making it more vulnerable to deleterious effects of any bubbles that cross a persistent foramen ovale (PFO) and enter the basilar artery, whilst the inner ear remains supersaturated but the brain does not. A questionnaire was made widely available to divers to analyse the incidence of inner-ear DCS after technical dives. One-hundred-and-twenty-six divers submitted completed questionnaires, and we studied each incident in detail. Nine (7.1%) of the 126 responders reported to have had at least one episode of inner-ear DCS, of which seven occurred without having omitted planned decompression stops. Of these seven, four suffered from DCS affecting just the inner ear, while three also had skin, joint and bladder involvement. Five of the nine divers affected were found to have a PFO. All affected divers suffered from vestibular symptoms, while two also reported cochlear symptoms. Three divers reported to have balance problems long after the accident. This small study is consistent with a high prevalence of PFO among divers suffering inner-ear DCS after trimix dives, and the pathophysiological characteristics of the inner ear could contribute to this pathology, as described previously. After an episode of DCS, vestibular and cochlear injury should always be examined for.

  9. Blinded Observer Evaluation of Distal Skin Temperature for Predicting Lateral Infraclavicular Block Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Semera; Lange, Kai H W; Lundstrøm, Lars H

    2015-01-01

    as a diagnostic test for predicting a successful lateral infraclavicular block. METHODS: Blinded observers investigated temperature difference between the blocked and the nonblocked hands of 40 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were estimated...... of the test. RESULTS: As a stand-alone test, a temperature difference between the corresponding 2nd and 5th digits of the blocked and the nonblocked hands predicted a successful block with a sensitivity of 92% (95 % confidence interval (CI), 83%-97%) and with a predictive value of a positive test of 95% (CI...... digits, was a valid and reliable diagnostic test for predicting successful lateral infraclavicular block....

  10. The Effects of Exposure Time, Pressure and Cold on Hand Skin Temperature and Manual Performance When Wearing Three-Fingered Neoprene Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    summarised below. Grip strength was measured using a hand grip dynamometer . Tactile sensitivity was measured using modified (enlarged) Braille...in forearm temperature was partly due to leakage of water at the wrist in some divers. By comparison, the mean back of hand temperature fell to 15.8...larger unexplained variance in back of hand temperature is water leaking into the gloves at the wrist due to hand movement and the smaller skin

  11. Global Distribution and Variability of Surface Skin and Surface Air Temperatures as Depicted in the AIRS Version-6 Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will briefly describe the significant improvements made in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm, especially as to how they affect retrieved surface skin and surface air temperatures. The global distribution of seasonal 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM local time 12 year climatologies of Ts,a will be presented for the first time. We will also present the spatial distribution of short term 12 year anomaly trends of Ts,a at 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM, as well as the spatial distribution of temporal correlations of Ts,a with the El Nino Index. It will be shown that there are significant differences between the behavior of 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM Ts,a anomalies in some arid land areas.

  12. Skin Temperatures During Unaided Egress: Unsuited and While Wearing the NASA Launch and Entry or Advanced Crew Escape Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The two flight suits currently worn by crew members during Shuttle launch and landing, the Launch and Entry Suit (LES) and the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), are designed to protect crew members in the case of emergency. Although the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) worn under the flight suits was designed to counteract the heat storage of the suits, the suits may increase thermal stress and limit the astronaut's egress capabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the thermal loads experienced by crew members during a simulated emergency egress before and after spaceflight. Comparisons of skin temperatures were made between the preflight unsuited and suited conditions. between the pre- and postflight suited conditions, and between the two flight suits.

  13. Differential regulation of dehydrin expression and trehalose levels in Cardinal table grape skin by low temperature and high CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sara; Vazquez-Hernandez, María; Rosales, Raquel; Sanchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Merodio, Carmen; Escribano, María Isabel

    2015-05-01

    Dehydrins and trehalose are multifunctional protective biomolecules that play a role in counteracting cellular damage during dehydrative stresses. In this paper, we studied dehydrin isoform patterns, dehydrin gene expression and trehalose levels in the skin of Cardinal (Vitis vinifera L.) table grapes, along with their regulation by different cold postharvest storage conditions. Immunoanalysis with K-segment antibody recognizes four constitutive dehydrins (from 17 to 44 kDa) that are tightly regulated by low temperature and high CO2. Phosphatase treatment showed that DHN44 and DHN22 isoforms are phosphorylated polypeptides, while MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS analysis suggested that 44 kDa polypeptide may be a dehydrin homodimer. At the transcriptional level, dehydrins are also regulated by low temperature and high CO2, showing a fairly good correlation with their mRNA levels. Trehalose was quantified by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), revealing a progressive increase of this metabolite throughout storage at 0 °C and the sudden transitory increases in short-term high CO2-treated fruit. We propose that the constitutive presence and up-regulation of dehydrins and trehalose during low temperature postharvest storage could be positively correlated with the relative chilling tolerance of table grapes and the adaptive responses activated by high CO2 levels to preserve cell water status and to counteract the disruption of physiological processes during cold storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Triple helical structure of acid-soluble collagen derived from Nile tilapia skin as affected by extraction temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuanthong, Mantaka; Sirinupong, Nualpun; Youravong, Wirote

    2016-08-01

    Fish skin has become a new source of collagen. It is usually extracted at low temperature. Increasing the extraction temperature can increase the collagen yield. However, high temperature might cause degradation of the triple helical structure of collagen, which is related to its functional biomaterial. This work thus aimed to investigate the effect of extraction temperature on the extraction efficiency and characteristics of acid-soluble collagen (ASC), particularly its triple helical structure. ASC was extracted at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1 and 25 ± 1 °C for 0-24 h with 0.3 or 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid. The results showed that extraction with 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid gave a higher extraction efficiency than that in 0.3 mol L(-1) acetic acid (P < 0.5). Extraction at 25 ± 1 °C for 5 h with 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid gave a higher extraction efficiency (73.73 ± 1.28%), which is higher than that of 5 ± 1 °C by about 1.7-fold. All ASC obtained were identified as type I collagen and showed similar physicochemical properties. The results showed that extraction temperature strongly affected extraction efficiency. Extraction at 25 °C did not affect the triple helical structure, which was confirmed by the results of Fourier transform infrared, circular dichroism spectrum and collagen self-assembly. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Association between skin surface pH, temperature and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Rory M; Quinn, Patrick J; Baker, Kenneth P; McGeady, Thomas; Strobl, Eric; Abbott, Yvonne; Jones, Boyd R

    2011-08-01

    Secondary bacterial infection is a frequent complication in lesional skin of dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis (ImR-LPP). However, the influence of skin pH and temperature in determining the composition of the cutaneous microflora at lesional sites has not been investigated. The association between ImR-LPP and pedal skin temperature, pH and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates was thus evaluated. Temperature and pH were measured in 20 dogs with ImR-LPP and in 30 clinically healthy control dogs, and S. pseudintermedius was cultured from interdigital and palmoplantar swabs in both groups and scored semi-quantitatively for bacterial growth. In the ImR-LPP group, mean skin pH was slightly, but significantly, higher at both interdigital and palmoplantar sites. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated more frequently, and scores for bacterial growth were also significantly higher. However, mean skin temperatures were not significantly different from those in the control group. The isolation of S. pseudintermedius was significantly associated with ImR-LPP, with the single exception of isolates on Columbia blood agar from the palmoplantar region. However, pH and temperature were not significantly associated with the disease, and were not associated with the isolation of S. pseudintermedius at most sites sampled. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was not isolated from all feet sampled in dogs with ImR-LPP. Taken together, these data would suggest that S. pseudintermedius infection is most likely to be a secondary phenomenon in dogs with ImR-LPP, and that changes in skin pH and temperature are not significant risk factors for this disease. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Correlation between skin temperature and heart rate during exercise and recovery, and the influence of body position in these variables in untrained women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Cunha, Raphael Martins; Rosa, Claudio; Antunes, Natacha Sousa; Felisberto, Ivo Miguel Vieira; Vilaça-Alves, José; Reis, Victor Machado

    2016-03-01

    It was known that the thermal response varies according to some variables. Until now, there are no studies that have investigated the relationship of skin temperature and heart rate during and after the workout, either the thermal behavior during postural changes. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of skin temperature and heart rate, during exercise and up to an hour of recovery (with postural change), performed in two different intensities sessions (70% and 85% of 10 repetitions maximum) and observe the correlation between them. Method: This was a short longitudinal study, carried out with women aged from 18 to 30 years. A sample of 31 untrained women, aged 18 and 30 was used. The volunteers were randomized into two groups: Biceps Group (BG), with 15 women, and Quadriceps Group (QG) with 16 women. Results: During and after completion of the exercise session, there was a significant reduction in skin temperature on the active muscles in both groups (BG and QG), with similar thermal responses for the two intensities studied (70% and 85%) to the minute 15 (which marks the end of the recovery in the standing position). From minute 15 to minute 20-60, the skin temperature increases abruptly and significantly, returning to levels close to those observed before exercise. Conclusion: There were no statistical differences in thermal response to exercises in 70% or 85% of 10RM. There is a negative correlation between heart rate and skin temperature when untrained women perform anaerobic exercise. It was observed that after a change of posture (from a standing position to a sitting posture) skin temperature increased abruptly and significantly.

  17. In vitro Effects of Ice, Skin Refrigerant, and CO2 Snow on Intra-Pulpal Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-11

    subsequent histological findings in the pulp. They found that 53% of teeth with partial or total pulp necrosis responded to the electrical pulp tester...showed histologically , as early as 1937, that the test was not only easy and sure, but safe for the pulp. Given the apparent usefulness of the CO2 pencil...probe was placed intrapulpally next to the dentin , directly under the spot where cold tests were applied, to allow temperature monitoring. The pulp

  18. Fabrication of High-Temperature Heat Exchangers by Plasma Spraying Exterior Skins on Nickel Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, P.; Yugeswaran, S.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.; Coyle, T. W.

    2016-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed heat exchangers were tested at high temperatures (750 °C), and their performances were compared to the foam heat exchangers made by brazing Inconel sheets to their surface. Nickel foil was brazed to the exterior surface of 10-mm-thick layers of 10 and 40 PPI nickel foam. A plasma torch was used to spray an Inconel coating on the surface of the foil. A burner test rig was built to produce hot combustion gases that flowed over exposed face of the heat exchanger. Cooling air flowed through the foam heat exchanger at rates of up to 200 SLPM. Surface temperature and air inlet/exit temperature were measured. Heat transfer to air flowing through the foam was significantly higher for the thermally sprayed heat exchangers than for the brazed heat exchangers. On an average, thermally sprayed heat exchangers show 36% higher heat transfer than conventionally brazed foam heat exchangers. At low flow rates, the convective resistance is large (~4 × 10-2 m2 K/W), and the effect of thermal contact resistance is negligible. At higher flow rates, the convective resistance decreases (~2 × 10-3 m2 K/W), and the lower contact resistance of the thermally sprayed heat exchanger provides better performance than the brazed heat exchangers.

  19. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after specific ultrasound-guided blocking of the musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar, and median nerves in the upper extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H W; Jansen, T; Asghar, S

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic block causes vasodilatation and increases in skin temperature (T(s)). However, the T(s) response after specific nerve blocking is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that T(s) would increase after specific blocking of the nerve innervating that area.......Sympathetic block causes vasodilatation and increases in skin temperature (T(s)). However, the T(s) response after specific nerve blocking is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that T(s) would increase after specific blocking of the nerve innervating that area....

  20. Dental impression compound as an effective splint for maintenance of ear elevation in microtia reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padam Singh Bhandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear projection is an important goal to be achieved after stage two (ear elevation in cases of microtia. This is a retrospective study conducted on patients with microtia who underwent staged reconstruction for the same. This study has been carried out over a period of 10 years with 211 patients. Dental impression compound was used as a splint after ear elevation and split skin grafting to maintain the projection of the ear. Projection of the ear was measured both pre- and post-procedure and at every follow-up using goniometer and photographic documentation was simultaneously done. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Patients were reviewed every month and splint was continued until 6 months post-surgery. The splint was very effective in maintaining the ear projection of more than 20° even after prolonged follow-up of upto 2 years. There were no complications associated with the splint application or prolonged use.

  1. The visible ear simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Mads Solvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2009-01-01

    material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume......, 2D, or optional anaglyph stereoscopic 3D was achieved on a standard Core 2 Duo personal computer with a GeForce 8,800 GTX graphics card, and surgical interaction was provided through a relatively inexpensive (approximately $2,500) Phantom Omni haptic 3D pointing device. CONCLUSION: This prototype...

  2. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...... of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...

  3. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Mouth and Dental Disorders Older People’s Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Symptoms ALL ...

  4. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  5. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  6. Prediction of mean skin temperature for use as a heat strain scale by introducing an equation for sweating efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper made the heat balance equation (HBE) for nude or minimally clad subjects a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk) by applying new equations for sweating efficiency ( η sw) and thermoregulatory sweat rate ( S wR). As the solution of the HBE, the equation predicting t sk was derived and used for a heat strain scale of subjects. The η sw was proportional to the reciprocal of S w/ E max ( S w, sweat rate; E max maximum evaporative capacity) and the S wR was proportional to t sk with a parameter of the sweating capacity of the subject. The errors of predicted t sk from observations due to the approximation of η sw were examined based on experimental data conducted on eight young male subjects. The value of errors of t sk was -0.10 ± 0.42 °C (mean ± sample standard deviation (SSD)). We aim to apply the predicted t sk of a subject at a level of sweating capacity as a heat strain scale of a function of four environmental factors (dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, radiation, and air velocity) and three human factors (metabolic rate, sweating capacity, and clothing (≤0.2clo)).

  7. Bionic ear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerini, R; Faccioli, N; Barillari, M; De Iorio, M; Carner, M; Colletti, V; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the different imaging features of middle and inner ear implants, brainstem implants and inferior colliculus implants. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) images of 468 patients with congenital or acquired transmissive or neurosensory hearing loss who underwent surgery. The implants examined were: 22 Vibrant Soundbridge implants, 5 at the long limb of the incus and 17 at the round window, 350 cochlear implants, 95 brainstem implants and 1 implant at the inferior colliculus. All patients underwent a postoperative CT scan (single or multislice scanner) and/or a Dentomaxillofacial cone-beam CT scan (CBCT) (axial and multiplanar reconstruction), and/or a plain-film radiography to visualise the correct position of the implant. The CBCT scan depicts Vibrant site of implant better than plain-film radiography, with a lower radiation dose compared to CT. For cochlear implants, a single plain radiograph in the Stenvers projection can directly visualise the electrodes in the cochlea. All patients with brainstem or inferior colliculus implants underwent postoperative CT to exclude complications and the assess correct implantation, but the follow-up of these implants can be performed by plain radiography alone. CT and CBCT scans are reliable and relatively fast methods for precisely determining the location of middle ear implants. CBCT is preferable to CT because of the lower radiation dose administered; a single plain-film radiograph is enough to visualise and follow-up cochlear, brainstem and inferior colliculus implants.

  8. Thermography Examination of Abdominal Area Skin Temperatures in Individuals With and Without Focal-Onset Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hollis H; Cayce, Charles Thomas; Herrin, Jeph

    Early osteopathic theory and practice, and the work of the medical intuitive Edgar Cayce suggested that the abdominal areas of individuals with epilepsy would manifest "cold spots." The etiology for this phenomenon was thought to be abdominal adhesions caused by inflammation and viscero-somatic reflexes caused by adhesions or injury to visceral or musculoskeletal system structures. Indeed, until that advent of electroencephalography in the 1930s, medical practice regarding epilepsy focused on abdominal neural and visceral structures. Following two hypotheses were formulated to evaluate any abdominal temperature phenomena: (1) an abdominal quadrant division analysis would find one or more quadrants "colder" in the focal-onset epilepsy group (ICD9-CM 345.4 and 345.5) compared to controls. (2) Total abdominal areas of individuals with focal-onset epilepsy wound be colder than a control group. Overall, 50 patients with the diagnosis of focal-onset epilepsy were recruited from the office of the Epilepsy Foundation of Florida and 50 control subjects with no history of epilepsy were recruited through advertising to the public. Under controlled room conditions all subjects had infrared thermographic images made and recorded by Med-Hot Model MH-731 FLIR equipment. There were no significant demographic difference between experimental patients and control subjects, though the control group tended to be younger and more often male; however, these were controlled for in all analyses. In the quadrant analysis, there were significant differences in that more epileptic patients had colder left upper abdominal quadrant temperatures than the control group (66.8% versus 44.9%; P = .030). In the total abdominal analysis, however, there were no significant differences. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with focal-onset epilepsy have colder abdominal areas. If substantiated in further research, present study results will require further examination of the mechanisms of

  9. Thermal perceptions and skin temperatures during continuous and intermittent ventilation of the torso throughout and after exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sarah L; Barwood, Martin J; Tipton, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent cooling in air-perfused vests (APV) will not only maintain thermal balance but, due to cyclical activations of cutaneous thermoreceptors, also enhance thermal perceptions. Ten physically active males completed four conditions where they exercised (walking: 5 km h(-1), 2 % gradient) in a hot environment (~34.0 °C, 50 % RH) for 72 min, followed by a 33-min period of rest. They wore an APV throughout. The four conditions differed in respect to the profile of ambient air that was perfused through the APV: continuous perfusion (CP); intermittent perfusion of 6 min ON/OFF periods (IPonoff); a steady increase and decrease in flow rate in equal increments (IPramp); and an initial step-increase in the flow rate followed by an incremental decrease to zero flow rate (IPtriang). Whole body and torso thermal comfort (TC, TTC), whole body and torso temperature sensation (TS, TTS), whole body and torso skin temperature ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), local relative humidity ([Formula: see text]) and rectal temperature (T re) were measured. There were no significant differences in T re, absolute whole body and local [Formula: see text], TC, TTC and TS between the cooling profiles. However, TTS was cooler in CP and IPramp than IPonoff and IPtriang. Even though intermittent cooling did not significantly enhance thermal perceptions in CP, a trend existed for TC (P = 0.063) to become less favourable over time. To reduce the power consumption and extend the battery life of an APV, it is recommended that an intermittent cooling profile should be adopted.

  10. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after specific ultrasound-guided blocking of the musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar, and median nerves in the upper extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H W; Jansen, T; Asghar, S

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic block causes vasodilatation and increases in skin temperature (T(s)). However, the T(s) response after specific nerve blocking is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that T(s) would increase after specific blocking of the nerve innervating that area....

  11. Black light induction of skin tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, S; Fowler, E; Krause, A L

    1976-12-01

    Albino inbred mice (A/J strain exposed to 40-w black light fluorescent lamps (BLB) for 12 hr a day for up to a year developed inflammatory and hyperplastic responses on hairless ear and tail skin, but not on back skin covered by hair. After 1 year of such exposure, many individuals developed papillomas, carcinomas, and sarcomas on their ears and tails. It may be concluded that black light is a skin carcinogen for A/J mice.

  12. Thermographic imaging in sports and exercise medicine: A Delphi study and consensus statement on the measurement of human skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Costello, Joseph T; Brito, Ciro J; Adamczyk, Jakub G; Ammer, Kurt; Bach, Aaron J E; Costa, Carlos M A; Eglin, Clare; Fernandes, Alex A; Fernández-Cuevas, Ismael; Ferreira, José J A; Formenti, Damiano; Fournet, Damien; Havenith, George; Howell, Kevin; Jung, Anna; Kenny, Glen P; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Maley, Matthew J; Merla, Arcangelo; Pascoe, David D; Priego Quesada, Jose I; Schwartz, Robert G; Seixas, Adérito R D; Selfe, James; Vainer, Boris G; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The importance of using infrared thermography (IRT) to assess skin temperature (tsk) is increasing in clinical settings. Recently, its use has been increasing in sports and exercise medicine; however, no consensus guideline exists to address the methods for collecting data in such situations. The aim of this study was to develop a checklist for the collection of tsk using IRT in sports and exercise medicine. We carried out a Delphi study to set a checklist based on consensus agreement from leading experts in the field. Panelists (n = 24) representing the areas of sport science (n = 8; 33%), physiology (n = 7; 29%), physiotherapy (n = 3; 13%) and medicine (n = 6; 25%), from 13 different countries completed the Delphi process. An initial list of 16 points was proposed which was rated and commented on by panelists in three rounds of anonymous surveys following a standard Delphi procedure. The panel reached consensus on 15 items which encompassed the participants' demographic information, camera/room or environment setup and recording/analysis of tsk using IRT. The results of the Delphi produced the checklist entitled "Thermographic Imaging in Sports and Exercise Medicine (TISEM)" which is a proposal to standardize the collection and analysis of tsk data using IRT. It is intended that the TISEM can also be applied to evaluate bias in thermographic studies and to guide practitioners in the use of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ENGINEERING DESIGN: EICOSANE MICROCAPSULES SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION IN POLYURETHANE FOAMS AIMING TO DIMINISH WHEELCHAIR CUSHION EFFECT ON SKIN TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA M. BERETTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort of wheelchairs still requires improvements, since users remain on the chair for as long as 12 h a day. Increased sweating makes the skin more susceptible to colonization by fungi and bacteria, and may cause pressure ulcers. In this sense, the microencapsulation of Phase-Change Materials (PCMs may help to enhance wheelchair cushion comfort by regulating heat exchange. This study describes the production of PCM microcapsules and their application in flexible polyurethane foams after expansion, and assesses improvements in heat exchange. Microcapsules with eicosane core coated with melamine-formaldehyde were produced. Eicosane is a thermoregulation agent whose phase-change temperature is near that of the human body’s. Microcapsules were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, microcapsules were applied on polyurethane foams by vacuum filtration and high-pressure air gun. Samples were exposed to a heat source and analysed by infrared thermography. The results indicate that thermal load increased in samples treated with microcapsules, especially by pressure air gun, and show that it is possible to enhance thermal comfort in wheelchair seats. Thereby, this study contributes to enhance quality of life for wheelchair users, focusing on thermal comfort provided by cushion seats made from PU foam.

  14. Circadian Impairment of Distal Skin Temperature Rhythm in Patients With Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The Effect of CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Guaita, Marc; Santamaría, Joan; Montserrat, Josep M; Rol, María Ángeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the circadian rhythm of distal skin temperature (DST) in sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), its relation to excessive daytime sleepiness and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on DST. Eighty SDB patients (53.1 ± 1.2 years old, 27.6% women) and 67 healthy participants (52.3 ± 1.6 years old, 26.9% women) wore a temperature data logger for 1 week. On the last day of that week, SDB patients underwent a polysomnography followed by a Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), Multiple Sleep Latency Test, and Sustained Attention to Response Task protocol to objectively quantify daytime sleepiness. A subset of 21 moderate to severe SDB patients were treated with CPAP during at least 3 months and revaluated with the same procedure. A nonparametric analysis was performed to characterize DST to assess differences between groups and associations among DST, polysomnography, and daytime sleepiness measures. SDB patients showed an unstable, fragmented, flattened, phase-advanced, and less robust DST rhythm as compared to healthy participants. The more severe the SDB, the worse the DST pattern was, as indicated by the correlation coefficient. Sleepiness, according to MWT sleep latencies, was also associated with the higher fragmentation, lower amplitude, and less robustness of the DST rhythm. Treatment with CPAP improved DST pattern regularity and robustness. DST is altered in SDB, exhibiting a direct relationship to the severity of this condition, and improves with CPAP treatment. DST independently correlates with sleepiness, thus, its measurement may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of sleepiness in these patients.

  15. Effects of single application of a moisturizer: evaporation of emulsion water, skin surface temperature, electrical conductance, electrical capacitance, and skin surface (emulsion) lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichmann, C W; Serup, J; Winther, A

    1989-01-01

    Effects of single application of an oil in water emulsion were studied on the forearm skin of 12 healthy volunteers. Five different non-invasive methods were used. Values were followed for 360 min after application of the emulsion, with the contralateral forearm as untreated control. The evaporation of emulsion water from the skin surface immediately rose to high values, but within 15 min returned to the original level. A parallel initial increase in conductance was observed; however, this was followed by a slightly increased level throughout the 360 min study. Electrical capacitance was also slightly increased throughout the study. Skin surface lipids, dominated by emulsion lipids, were increased, with high values for at least 120 min, followed by a gradual decline toward normal. Single application of emulsion is characterized by an initial evaporation phase, with evaporation of emulsion water, which lasts less than 15 min, followed by a lipidization phase, which lasts at least 360 min, dominated by the oil-constituent of the emulsion undergoing epidermal absorption. During the lipidization phase, epidermal hydration parameters are slightly but consistently improved.

  16. The anatomical study of the major signal points of the court-type Thai traditional massage on legs and their effects on blood flow and skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravud, Yadaridee; Apichartvorakit, Angkana; Mutirangura, Pramook; Plakornkul, Vasana; Roongruangchai, Jantima; Vannabhum, Manmas; Laohapand, Tawee; Akarasereenont, Pravit

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between major signal points (MaSPs) of the lower extremities used in court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) and the corresponding underlying anatomical structures, as well as to determine the short-term changes in blood flow and skin temperature of volunteers experiencing CTTM. MaSPs were identified and marked on cadavers before acrylic color was injected. The underlying structures marked with acrylic colors were observed and the anatomical structures were determined. Then, pressure was applied to each MaSP in human volunteers (lateral side of leg and medial side of leg) and blood flow on right dorsalis pedis artery was measured using duplex ultrasound while skin temperature changes were monitored using an infrared themographic camera. Short-term changes in the blood flow parameters, volume flow and average velocity, compared to baseline (P massage can stimulate skin blood flow because results showed increased skin temperature and blood flow characteristics. While these results were statistically significant, they may not be clinically relevant, as the present study focused on the immediate physiological effect of manipulation, rather than treatment effects. Thus, this study will serve as baseline data for further clinical studies in CTTM.

  17. Does wearing thermal underwear in mild cold affect skin temperatures and perceived thermal sensation in the hands and feet of the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Myung-Ju; Choi, Jeong-Wha; Stone, Eric A; Hauver, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    The present study was to investigate whether increasing thermal insulation affects thermal sensation in the hands and feet; and whether aging is an influential factor in the relationship between thermal responses and subjective thermal perceptions. Six young males (YM), 5 young females (YF), 6 elderly males (OM), and 6 elderly females (OF) volunteered as subjects. Subjects conducted two trials at a constant air temperature of 19 degrees C: One condition included thermal underwear (19CUW) while the other did not (19C). The results showed that (1) rectal temperature (T(re)) did not show any significant differences between conditions with and without thermal underwear. The T(re) of the OF was greater than that of the YF (pcold did not affect local skin temperatures and thermal sensation in the hands and feet for the elderly male and female groups. Adding thermal underwear in mild cold affected the hand skin temperature and thermal sensation of the young female group. In particular, elderly females had specific features concerning local skin temperatures and thermal sensations distinguished from elderly males and young groups.

  18. Preliminary trial to investigate temperature of the iPulse intense pulsed light (IPL) glass transmission block during treatment of Fitzpatrick II, IV, V, and VI skin types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, C; Town, G A; Martin, G R

    2007-03-01

    The glass transmission block, a key component of all intense pulsed light (IPL) devices, is responsible for the delivery of IPL energy from the xenon discharge lamp to hair and skin structures during treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in temperature of the quartz glass block used in the iPulse (CyDen, Swansea, UK) handset during typical hair removal treatments of Asian and Afro-Caribbean skin types. Initial results from four subjects indicated that the temperature of the glass transmission block did not exceed 45 degrees C during any of the treatments. Furthermore, the development of the temperature measurement methodology described in this paper will enable the comparison of data from different IPL systems to be undertaken in a subsequent larger scale trial.

  19. A pilot study testing the feasibility of skin temperature monitoring to reduce recurrent foot ulcers in patients with diabetes--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafjeld, Anita; Iversen, Marjolein M; Holme, Ingar; Ribu, Lis; Hvaal, Kjetil; Kilhovd, Bente K

    2015-10-09

    Although monitoring foot skin temperatures has been associated with diabetic foot ulcer recurrence, no studies have been carried out to test the feasibility among European Caucasians. Moreover, the educational and/or motivational models that promote cognitive or psychosocial processes in these studies are lacking. Thus, we conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to test the feasibility of monitoring foot skin temperatures in combination with theory-based counselling to standard foot care to reduce diabetic foot ulcer recurrence. In a single-blinded nurse-led 1-year controlled trial, conducted at a hospital setting in Norway, 41 patients with diabetic neuropathy and previous foot ulcer were randomized to the intervention (n = 21) or control groups (n = 20). All participants were instructed in foot care and recording observations daily. Additionally, the intervention group was taught how to monitor and record skin temperature at baseline, and received counselling every third month supporting them to use the new treatment. Subjects observing temperature differences > 2.0 °C between corresponding sites on the left and right foot on two consecutive days were asked to contact the study nurse and reduce physical activity. Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the proportion of subjects with a foot ulcer. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare the two groups in regard to the time to development of a foot ulcer. In the intervention group, 67 % (n = 14/21) monitored and recorded skin temperatures ≥ 80 % of the time while 70 % (n = 14/20) of the controls recorded foot inspections. Foot ulcer incidence was 39 % (7/21) vs. 50 % (10/20) in the intervention and control groups, respectively (ns). This feasibility study showed that the addition of counselling to promote self-monitoring of skin temperature to standard care to prevent recurrence of foot ulcer is feasible in patients with diabetes in Norway. Home skin

  20. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing? Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? First Aid: Earaches Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) Preparing Your Child for Surgery Hearing Evaluation in Children Anesthesia Basics ...

  1. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  2. Comparison of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and Gaussian processes for machine learning (GPML) algorithms for the prediction of skin temperature in lower limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Arjan

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used impeding the required consistent positioning of the temperature sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the in-socket residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. In this work, we propose to implement an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference strategy (ANFIS) to predict the in-socket residual limb temperature. ANFIS belongs to the family of fused neuro fuzzy system in which the fuzzy system is incorporated in a framework which is adaptive in nature. The proposed method is compared to our earlier work using Gaussian processes for machine learning. By comparing the predicted and actual data, results indicate that both the modeling techniques have comparable performance metrics and can be efficiently used for non-invasive temperature monitoring. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyper immunoglobulin-E syndrome: a case with chronic ear draining mimicking polypoid otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görür, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz; Unal, Murat; Akbaş, Yücel; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf

    2003-04-01

    The hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare, complex immunoregulatory disorder characterized by pruritic dermatitis, recurrent staphylococcus skin abscesses and extremely elevated levels of IgE in serum. In this report, an 8-year-old girl with hyper-IgE syndrome is presented. She had pruritic dermatitis and skin abscesses on her extremities and scalp. Discharge and granulation tissue in right external ear canal were recognized in otorhinolaryngologic examination. Cultures of the suppuration of the external ear canal yielded S. aureus. Biopsy of the lesion was reported as granulation tissue. Local treatment of the ear canal was performed with ear wick soaked with steroid and antibiotic solutions two times per day.

  4. Body segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and 3D displacement and the estimation of heat balance during locomotion in hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Alan; Collard, Mark; Nelson, Andrew

    2008-06-18

    The conventional method of estimating heat balance during locomotion in humans and other hominins treats the body as an undifferentiated mass. This is problematic because the segments of the body differ with respect to several variables that can affect thermoregulation. Here, we report a study that investigated the impact on heat balance during locomotion of inter-segment differences in three of these variables: surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. The approach adopted in the study was to generate heat balance estimates with the conventional method and then compare them with heat balance estimates generated with a method that takes into account inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. We reasoned that, if the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement affect heat balance during locomotion is correct, the estimates yielded by the two methods should be statistically significantly different. Anthropometric data were collected on seven adult male volunteers. The volunteers then walked on a treadmill at 1.2 m/s while 3D motion capture cameras recorded their movements. Next, the conventional and segmented methods were used to estimate the volunteers' heat balance while walking in four ambient temperatures. Lastly, the estimates produced with the two methods were compared with the paired t-test. The estimates of heat balance during locomotion yielded by the two methods are significantly different. Those yielded by the segmented method are significantly lower than those produced by the conventional method. Accordingly, the study supports the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement impact heat balance during locomotion. This has important implications not only for current understanding of heat balance during locomotion in hominins but also for how future research on this topic should be approached.

  5. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  6. What Is an Ear Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En ... otoscope, the doctor can see your eardrum , the thin membrane between your outer and middle ear. The ...

  7. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the pressure in the ear. When Else Are Antibiotics Needed? Antibiotics can be the right treatment for ... down with the bottle. Prevent exposure to secondhand smoke, which can increase the number and severity of ...

  8. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  9. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-05

    Although pharmacological blockade of both dopamine (DA) and opiate receptors has an inhibiting effect on appetitive motivated behaviors, it is still unclear which physiological mechanisms affected by these treatments underlie the behavioral deficit. To clarify this issue, we examined how pharmacological blockade of either DA (SCH23390+eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg each) or opioid receptors (naloxone 1 mg/kg) affects motor activity and temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin associated with motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior in rats. In drug-free conditions, presentation of a cup containing 5 ml of Coca-Cola induced locomotor activation and rapid NAcc temperature increases, which both transiently decreased during drinking, and phasically increased again after the cup was emptied. Muscle temperatures followed this pattern, but increases were weaker and more delayed than those in the NAcc. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, remained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during post-consumption behavioral activation. By itself, DA receptor blockade induced robust decrease in spontaneous locomotion, moderate increases in brain and muscle temperatures, and a relative increase in skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic activation coupled with adynamia. Following this treatment (approximately 180 min), motor activation to cup presentation and Coca-Cola consumption were absent, but rats showed NAcc and muscle temperature increases following cup presentation comparable to control. Therefore, DA receptor blockade does not affect significantly central and peripheral autonomic responses to appetitive stimuli, but eliminates their behavior-activating effects, thus disrupting appetitive behavior and blocking consumption. Naloxone alone slightly decreased brain and muscle temperatures and increased skin temperatures, pointing at the enhanced heat loss and possible minor inhibition of basal

  10. A Dynamic Approach to Addressing Observation-Minus-Forecast Mean Differences in a Land Surface Skin Temperature Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Clara; Reichle, Rolf; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Scarino, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    In land data assimilation, bias in the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals is typically removed from the observations prior to assimilation by rescaling the observations to have the same long-term mean (and higher-order moments) as the corresponding model forecasts. Such observation rescaling approaches require a long record of observed and forecast estimates, and an assumption that the O-F mean differences are stationary. A two-stage observation bias and state estimation filter is presented, as an alternative to observation rescaling that does not require a long data record or assume stationary O-F mean differences. The two-stage filter removes dynamic (nonstationary) estimates of the seasonal scale O-F mean difference from the assimilated observations, allowing the assimilation to correct the model for synoptic-scale errors without adverse effects from observation biases. The two-stage filter is demonstrated by assimilating geostationary skin temperature (Tsk) observations into the Catchment land surface model. Global maps of the O-F mean differences are presented, and the two-stage filter is evaluated for one year over the Americas. The two-stage filter effectively removed the Tsk O-F mean differences, for example the GOES-West O-F mean difference at 21:00 UTC was reduced from 5.1 K for a bias-blind assimilation to 0.3 K. Compared to independent in situ and remotely sensed Tsk observations, the two-stage assimilation reduced the unbiased Root Mean Square Difference (ubRMSD) of the modeled Tsk by 10 of the open-loop values.

  11. Ear reconstruction with porous polyethylene implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, Alexander; Stelter, Klaus; Naumann, Andreas; Hempel, John Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using porous polyethylene as the framework material for ear reconstruction. In comparison to the use of rib cartilage, porous polyethylene - first described by Berghaus in 1982 - provides better definition and projection as well as congruency with the opposite side. Hospitalization time is significantly shorter. There are less surgical interventions than with traditional microtia operations that use rib cartilage, and the patient is spared the additional procedure needed to remove the rib cartilage, with all the associated complications as well as the resulting thorax scar. Also, reconstruction can take place at an earlier age, which is advantageous for those concerned. Using porous polyethylene as the frame material, a temporoparietal flap and full-thickness skin cover, we have been able to achieve very convincing results over recent years. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Influence of maceration temperature in red wine vinification on extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2007-04-01

    The extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of the grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, during red wine maceration and the influence of different temperature conditions (cold soak and/or heating at the end of maceration) were examined. Phenolics contained mainly in berry skins, viz., anthocyanin, flavonol, and epigallocatechin units within proanthocyanidins, were extracted during the early stage of maceration, whereas those in seeds, viz., gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers, and epicatechin-gallate units within proanthocyanidins, were gradually extracted. In addition to their localization, the molecular size and composition of the proanthocyanidins possibly influenced the kinetics of their extraction. Cold soak reduced the extraction of phenolics from the seeds. Heating at the end of maceration decreased the concentration of proanthocyanidins. Thus, modification of the temperature condition during maceration affected the progress of the concentration of phenolics, resulting in an alteration of their make-up in the finished wine.

  13. Relationship of serum IL-6, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and knee skin temperature after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsawek, Sittisak; Deepaisarnsakul, Benjamad; Tanavalee, Aree; Sakdinakiattikoon, Manoon; Ngarmukos, Srihatach; Preativatanyou, Kanok; Bumrungpanichthaworn, Piyanuch

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of severe pain and functional limitation. Total knee arthroplasty is an effective procedure to relieve pain, restore knee function, and improve quality of life for patients with end stage knee arthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory process in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis before surgery and in subsequent periods following total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study of 49 patients undergoing primary total knee replacements was conducted. The patients were evaluated by monitoring serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), knee skin temperature, and clinical status. Measurements were carried out preoperatively and postoperatively on day one and at two, six, 14, and 26 weeks during follow-up review in the knee clinic. The serum IL-6 and CRP were elevated on the first postoperative day but fell to preoperative values at two weeks postoperatively. Both returned to within the normal range by six weeks postoperatively. In addition, the postoperative ESR showed a slow rise with a peak two weeks after surgery and returned to the preoperative level at 26 weeks postoperatively. The difference in skin temperature between operated and contralateral knees had a mean value of +4.5°C at two weeks. The mean value decreased to +3.5°C at six weeks, +2.5°C at 14 weeks, and +1.0°C at 26 weeks. The difference in skin temperature decreased gradually and eventually there was no statistically significant difference at 26 weeks after surgery. A sustained elevation in serum IL-6, CRP, ESR, and skin temperature must raise the concern of early complication and may suggest the development of postoperative complication such as haematoma and/or infection.

  14. [Anterior approach otoplasty for treatment of prominent ears in children. A minimally invasive technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambudio, G; Ruiz, J I; Guirao, M J; Sánchez, J M; Girón, O; Gutiérrez, M A

    2007-04-01

    In adult patients, it has been reported that prominent ears can be treated by mattress sutures placed through the anterior aspect of the ear, with a minimally invasive technique. In order to verify the utility of this method in children, we used this technique in our patients. Twenty-two prominent ears were treated in 12 patients between 8 and 11 years of ages. All were operated under general anesthesia. The anterior surface of the auricular cartilage is scored with a rasp. The antihelix shape is obtained, and mattress sutures are placed through the anterior surface of the ear. A good aesthetic result was obtained in all the cases. Superficial skin necrosis happened in three. Partial loss of correction in the superior pole was noted in four ears. In 6, some knots were visible through the skin. This repair is a simple technique for the treatment of the prominent ears in children, of good aesthetic results, that it avoids the necessity of dorsal skin resection and produces folds of antihelix more naturally curved. In children, to avoid the exteriorization of the suture material, the knots must be placed in the posterior surface of de auricular cartilage.

  15. Fertilisation rate obtained with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid using a single insemination timed according to vulvar skin temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; Grandía, Juan; Ansó, Trinidad; De Blas, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of sows with frozen-thawed semen usually results in lower pregnancy rates and litter sizes than the use of liquid preserved semen. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of vulvar skin temperature changes as a predictor of ovulation in sows and determined the fertility rates obtained after AI with frozen-thawed semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA). Semen was collected from mature boars and cryopreserved in experimental extenders supplemented with or without 105 μM of RA. Multiparous sows were inseminated with a single dose of semen when vulvar skin temperature decreased to a value below 35 °C. Intrauterine insemination was performed using 1.5 × 109 spermatozoa. The sows were slaughtered 48 h after AI and the embryos and oocytes were recovered from the oviducts. Total and progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in RA-supplemented semen samples compared with the control. Fertilisation occurred in all sows inseminated in the study, although there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Sows inseminated with RA-supplemented semen showed a slight increase in the number of embryos recovered as compared to sows inseminated with control semen. In conclusion, insemination according to vulvar skin temperature changes resulted in successful fertilisation in all sows, although supplementation of the freezing media with RA did not improve the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  16. Wearable, Flexible, and Multifunctional Healthcare Device with an ISFET Chemical Sensor for Simultaneous Sweat pH and Skin Temperature Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Shogo; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2017-03-24

    Real-time daily healthcare monitoring may increase the chances of predicting and diagnosing diseases in their early stages which, currently, occurs most frequently during medical check-ups. Next-generation noninvasive healthcare devices, such as flexible multifunctional sensor sheets designed to be worn on skin, are considered to be highly suitable candidates for continuous real-time health monitoring. For healthcare applications, acquiring data on the chemical state of the body, alongside physical characteristics such as body temperature and activity, are extremely important for predicting and identifying potential health conditions. To record these data, in this study, we developed a wearable, flexible sweat chemical sensor sheet for pH measurement, consisting of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) integrated with a flexible temperature sensor: we intend to use this device as the foundation of a fully integrated, wearable healthcare patch in the future. After characterizing the performance, mechanical flexibility, and stability of the sensor, real-time measurements of sweat pH and skin temperature are successfully conducted through skin contact. This flexible integrated device has the potential to be developed into a chemical sensor for sweat for applications in healthcare and sports.

  17. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  18. Development of ear asymmetry in the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Markus; Rosskamp, Laura; Wagner, Hermann

    2017-12-02

    Owls are known for their nocturnal hunting capability. Many owl species are able to localize prey in complete darkness just by hearing. Sound localization of strictly nocturnal owls is improved by asymmetrically arranged outer ears. According to Norberg (1977), who worked with adult owls, asymmetrical ears evolved at least four times independently among owls. What is unknown so far is how the ear asymmetry develops in the embryo. Here we examine the embryonic development of ear asymmetry in the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola) in the frame of the 42 stages suggested by Köppl et al. (2005). In this species, the left ear opening in the skin is located higher than its counterpart on the right. Micro-CT scans show that in an anatomically defined coordinate system, the ear openings initially appear symmetrically as does the skull as well as the eyes, the nasal openings, the stapes and the squamosum. The ear openings are initially located ventrally in the skull. Soon after their appearance, the ear openings start to move dorso-occipitally. At the developmental stages 36-39, the left ear opening moves faster than the right one. In this way, an ear asymmetry develops within a few developmental stages. The skull and the other anatomical markers remain symmetrical. Thus, these data show that the soft tissue asymmetry in the barn owl develops already before hatching. It will be interesting to compare the time course described here with the time course of development in owl species with bony ear asymmetries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  20. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  1. Development of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) effects on metabolism, body temperatures, skin condition, and egg production as a function of hen MHC haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Amy C; Chappell, Mark A; Owen, Jeb P; Mullens, Bradley A

    2016-11-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is the most damaging ectoparasite on egg-laying hens in the United States. One potential strategy for management is breeding for mite resistance. Genes of white leghorn chickens linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were previously identified as conferring more (B21 haplotype) or less (B15 haplotype) mite resistance. However, immune responses can be energetically costly to the host and affect the economic damage incurred from mite infestations. We tested energy costs (resting metabolic rate) of mite infestations on egg-laying birds of both MHC B-haplotypes. Resting metabolic rates were documented before (pre-) mite infestation, during (mid-) infestation, and after peak (late) mite infestation. Mite scores, economic parameters (egg production, feed consumption), and physiological aspects such as skin inflammation and skin temperature were recorded weekly. Across experiments and different infestation time points, resting metabolic rates generally were not affected by mite infestation or haplotype, although there were instances of lower metabolic rates in infested versus control hens. Skin temperatures were recorded both at the site of mite feeding damage (vent) and under the wing (no mites), which possibly would reflect a systemic fever response. Ambient temperatures modified skin surface temperature, which generally was not affected by mites or haplotype. Feed conversion efficiency was significantly worse (4.9 to 17.0% depending on trial) in birds infested with mites. Overall egg production and average egg weight were not affected significantly, although there was a trend toward reduced egg production (2 to 8%) by infested hens. The MHC haplotype significantly affected vent skin inflammation. Birds with the mite-resistant B21 haplotype showed earlier onset of inflammation, but a reduced overall area of inflammation compared to mite-susceptible B15 birds. No significant differences in resting energy

  3. Rehabilitation with ear prosthesis linked to osseointegrated implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo C; dos Santos, Daniela M; Haddad, Marcela F; Moreno, Amália

    2012-06-01

    The absence of an ear, which can be the result of a congenital malformation, surgical tumour resection or traumatic injury, is a significant aesthetic problem. Attachment of ear prostheses with adhesives can cause local irritation for the wearer and affect the colour of the prostheses. Use of implants in craniofacial reconstruction can improve the retention and stability of prostheses giving to patient greater comfort and security relative to adhesive attachment. The aim of this report was to present a clinical case of a mutilated patient who was rehabilitated by means of installing an ear prosthesis fixed through osseointegrated implants. The patient had two implants installed in the mastoid region that were linked by a bar, and a clip-type system was used. The ear prosthesis was constructed from medical-use silicone, pigmented to match the patient's skin colour and linked to the retention system. The patient's rehabilitation was satisfactory from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view, making it possible for the patient to return to a normal social life and regain lost self-esteem. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Application of shortwave diathermy to lower limb increases arterial blood flow velocity and skin temperature in women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves De; Guirro, Elaine Caldeira De Oliveira; Calió, João Guilherme; Queluz, Mariane Cristina De; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto De Jesus

    Shortwave diathermy (SWD) and microwave diathermy (MWD) are frequently used by physical therapists to treat musculoskeletal conditions. The therapeutic benefits are usually associated with an increase in tissue temperature; however, there is no consensus on the changes in blood flow. 1) To evaluate the behavior of temperature and arterial blood flow after the application of SWD and MWD to the lower limb of healthy women aged 18-30 and 2) to assess whether changes in limb positioning can influence SWD response. Among the subjects analyzed, 40 women were eligible to participate in the trial and were randomly allocated to the SWD group or the MWD group. Each group received 20min of diathermy. After receiving the interventions, all patients crossed over to the other group, but the devices were detuned (sham). SWD was applied to the posterior compartment of the thigh and leg, with the knee in 0° and 90° of flexion, and the MWD applied to the posterior thigh. Skin temperature evaluation (digital infrared thermography) and assessment of blood flow velocity (Doppler ultrasound) were performed immediately before and 10 and 20min after the application. Arterial blood flow increased after SWD diathermy (vs. Sham), but not after MWD diathermy. SWD promoted skin heating at the end of therapy in all areas analyzed, remaining above baseline even 20min after the end of the application. MWD diathermy promoted skin heating in the posterior thigh, reflecting a rise in the temperature of the popliteal fossa area that remained for 10min after the end of the application. The increase in arterial blood flow velocity depends on the size of the heating area, since it was only observed in the application of the SWD. However, after 20min of application, the position of the lower leg did not affect the heating. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  6. External ear: An analysis of its uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Purkait

    2016-06-01

    Hence, the individuality of every ear has been confirmed which may find use in personal identification studies. The study is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting ear evidence in the Court of Law.

  7. DESING OF CYLINDIRICAL EAR OF POLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar KARAGÖZ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Plough is an agricultural tool which is used for preparing land to male it ready for sowing. The funotion of lough is to break the compact land into small pieces and to allow a suitable condition for living of culture plants. The ear is the most important part of active plough surface. The geometrical form of ear determines the form of active surface together with the front iron tip. Ploughs are divided into two categories which are European and American types. There are important differencies betucen the European and American tyges with respect to ?, ß and ? angles. Gorjatschkin described the ear form of European ploughs under four main groups which are: 1. Cylindirical ear type, 2. Culture-form ear type, 3. Semi-curled ear type, 4. Curled ear type. In this work, the designing of cylindirical ear was studied.

  8. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  9. Surgical correction of ear curling caused by scar tissue formation in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Sabrina; Vlaminck, Lieven E; Cokelaere, Stefan M; Martens, Ann M

    2005-10-01

    An 18-month-old Belgian Warmblood mare was evaluated because it had injured the outer convex aspect of the left auricle. Second intention healing of the wound area caused tissue contracture, which resulted in the tip of the ear curling backward. By use of a technique involving undermining of the skin and a flap of granulation tissue on the medial aspect of the wound area and multiple incisions of the auricular cartilage, the curling was relieved and the ear regained a more normal shape. A skin graft was applied to cover the existing wound defect in an attempt to accelerate wound healing; thermoplastic material was contoured to fit the inner concave surface of the ear for immobilization and fixation of the ear in its final shape after surgery. Thirty days after surgery, the graft had healed completely and the ear had a normal conformation. The successful outcome of this treatment suggests that correction of an ear deformity secondary to scar tissue formation by use of an adapted surgical technique and appropriate materials can be achieved with good cosmetic results in horses.

  10. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  11. Ear canal collapse prevalence and associated factors among users of a center of prevention and rehabilitation for disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana Costa Dourado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to investigate the prevalence of the ear canal collapse when using supra-aural earphones and to verify if this event is influenced by sex, age, color of the skin and prominent ear. Methods: the collapse was assessed by a visual inspection after the positioning of a detached cushion, pressured against the external ear. Results: a total of 436 individuals, aged 3 to 97 years, participated in the study. Ear canal collapse was observed in 11.4% of the subjects, being mostly bilateral (90.0%. The prevalence ranged from 6.3% to 36.6% across age groups. Males, aged 65 years or above and presence of prominent ear were independently identified as associated factors for the occurrence of ear canal collapse (p<0.05. Despite a higher prevalence for those self-identified as white skinned when compared to non-whites, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: the ear canal collapse, when supra-aural earphones are used, is more likely to occur in men, in elderly people, and among those with prominent ears. The prevalence of the event in this population raises the necessity of a careful examination, previous to any evaluation using supra-aural earphones.

  12. Use of a platysma myocutaneous flap for the reimplantation of a severed ear: experience with five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Veríssimo de Mello-Filho

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The traumatic loss of an ear greatly affects the patient because of the severe aesthetic deformity it entails. The characteristic format of the ear, with a fine skin covering a thin and elastic cartilage, is not found anywhere else in the human body. Thus, to reconstruct an ear, the surgeon may try to imitate it by sculpting cartilage and covering it with skin. OBJECTIVE: To use a platysma myocutaneous flap for the reimplantation of a severed ear in humans. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Emergency unit of the university hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto - USP. CASE REPORT: Five cases are reported, with whole ear reimplantation in 3 of them and only segments in 2 cases. The surgical technique used was original and was based on the principle of auricular cartilage revascularization using the platysma muscle. We implanted traumatically severed auricular cartilage into the platysma muscle. The prefabricated ear was later transferred to its original site in the form of a myocutaneous-cartilaginous flap. Of the 5 cases treated using this technique, 4 were successful. In these 4 cases the reimplanted ears showed no short- or long-term problems, with an aesthetic result quite close to natural appearance. In one case there was necrosis of the entire flap, with total loss of the ear. The surgical technique described is simple and utilizes the severed ear of the patient. Its application is excellent for skin losses in the auricular region or for the ear itself, thus obviating the need for microsurgery or the use of protheses or grafts.

  13. Skin temperature and heart rate can be used to estimate physiological strain during exercise in the heat in a cohort of fit and unfit males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, John S; Buller, Mark; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the previously developed physiological strain index (PSI) model using heart rate and skin temperature to provide further insight into the detection and estimation of thermal and physiological heat strain indices. A secondary aim was to characterize individuals who excel in their performance in the heat. 56 male participants completed 2 walking trials (3.5 miles per hour, 5% grade) in controlled environments of 43.3 °C and 15.5 °C (40% humidity). Core and skin temperature, along with heart rate and PSI, were continually monitored during exercise. Participants completed a physical fitness test. The logistic regression model exhibited 4 false positives and 1 false negative at the 40% decision boundary. The "Not at Risk" group (N = 33) had higher body weight (84 ± 13 vs. 77 ± 10 kg, respectively) compared to the "At Risk" (N = 23) group, p Heat Trial, the "At Risk" group had a higher rating of perceived exertion at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the "Not at Risk" group (13.5 ± 2.8 vs. 11.5 ± 1.8 and 14.8 ± 3.2 vs. 12.2 ± 2.0 for "At Risk" vs. "Not at Risk" at 60 and 90 minutes, respectively), p rate and skin temperature to PSI is highly accurate at assessing heat risk status. Participants classified as "At Risk" had lower physical performance scores and different body weights compared to the "Not at Risk" group and perceived themselves as working harder during exercise in the heat. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Oxytetracycline depletion from skin-on fillet tissue of coho salmon fed oxytetracycline medicated feed in freshwater at temperatures less than 9°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Evered, Joy A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent approved in the USA for treating certain bacterial diseases in salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures greater than or equal to 9°C. This study was conducted to provide the information necessary to expand the OTC label to include treatment of diseased salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures below 9°C. The study was designed to treat juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with OTC-medicated feed and determine the depletion of OTC from the skin-on fillet tissue. Oxytetracycline depletion was evaluated in juvenile coho salmon (weight range, 13–62 g) fed OTC-medicated feed at a rate of 88.2 mg OTC/kg body weight/day for 10 days. Pairs of skin-on fillets were taken from individual fish on days 4 and 10 during the treatment phase and on days 1, 4, 8, 14, and 19 during the depletion phase. Water temperatures during the study period ranged from 4.1°C to 8.5°C. The OTC concentrations in medicated feed and skin-on fillets were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The maximum mean OTC concentration in fillet tissue was 932 ng/g, 1 day after the last treatment and decreased to 32 ng/g 19 days after the last treatment. The log-linear loss of OTC from the fillet tissue was biphasic with a terminal phase half-life of 4.9 days.

  15. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  16. Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

  17. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  18. ENGINEERING DESIGN: EICOSANE MICROCAPSULES SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION IN POLYURETHANE FOAMS AIMING TO DIMINISH WHEELCHAIR CUSHION EFFECT ON SKIN TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    ELISA M. BERETTA; WAGNER S. ROSSI; WILSON KINDLEIN JR; LIANE ROLDO; TATIANA L. AVILA DE CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort of wheelchairs still requires improvements, since users remain on the chair for as long as 12 h a day. Increased sweating makes the skin more susceptible to colonization by fungi and bacteria, and may cause pressure ulcers. In this sense, the microencapsulation of Phase-Change Materials (PCMs) may help to enhance wheelchair cushion comfort by regulating heat exchange. This study describes the production of PCM microcapsules and their application in flexible polyurethane foams ...

  19. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  20. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in ear punch samples collected from bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Waldbillig, Jill; Neill, John D

    2009-05-01

    Fourteen first-calf heifers were tested free of antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) by serum neutralization and free of BVDV by polymerase chain reaction. Twelve were exposed to BVDV-1b strain CA0401186a at 84-86 days of gestation, and 2 were exposed to mock inoculum and served as negative controls. Fetuses were harvested by cesarean section at 115-117 days of gestation. The 12 fetuses removed from the BVDV-exposed heifers were BVDV positive based on virus isolation from kidney, thymus, cerebellum, and spleen. It can be assumed that these fetuses would have developed into persistently infected calves had they been allowed to go to term. Virus was not isolated from the fetuses of control animals. Ear punch samples were collected from all fetuses at time of harvest. Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE), using a commercial kit, was performed on ear punch samples that were frozen within 5 hr of collection and stored at -20 degrees C until tested, tested after storage for 7 days at room temperature (18-25 degrees C), or tested after storage for 7 days at 37 degrees C. Samples stored for 7 days at room temperature or 37 degrees C lost an average of 34% of their starting weight. All samples from BVDV isolation-positive fetuses tested positive by ACE, whereas samples from nonexposed fetuses tested negative, regardless of storage conditions. These results suggest that ACE testing of skin samples collected from aborted fetuses and stillborn calves found in the field may represent a practical surveillance method for BVDV-induced reproductive disease.

  1. Ethno-Veterinary Drug Therapy for Ear Mange in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D.Hagawane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep from two flocks showed scab lesions around nostrils, eyes and on the face with facial alopecia and thickening of the skin. The case was confirmed as ear mite (Psorcopt ovis by microscopic examination of skin scrapings. Percent incidence in flock I and Flock II recorded was 12.5, 11.4 respectively. Affected sheep were divided into two groups each containing nine animals. Group I was treated with preparation containing 50ml Azadirachta indica oil, 50ml Pogamia pinnata oil, 25gm Camphor, 50gm Sulphur powder and 500ml coconut oil applied on an affected skin twice a day for 15 days and Group II treated with preparation having 50gm of Curcuma longa rhizome and 25gm of Azadirachta indica oil applied once a day for 15 days. The first preparation was found highly effective against ear mange in sheep. It was found to be very convenient for use in field conditions, did not cause any adverse reaction locally as well as systemically. [Vet. World 2010; 3(6.000: 295-296

  2. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  3. CASE WITH SKIN ERUPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Kumari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 50 years old male patient presented with fever, cough and dyspnea of 45 days duration and skin lesions of 20 days duration which he related to the local application of dettol after shaving. Examination revealed anemia, left basal pneumonitis and non pruritic, non tender, reddish purple nodular lesions over the face, behind the ear, chest and lower back (picture. There was no involvement of oral cavity or mucocutaneous junction. Peripheral nerves not thickened and there were no hypo-pigmented patches in the skin or organomegaly. Investigation revealed microcytic anemia, no abnormal cells in the peripheral smear. X ray showed left basal pneumonitis. Patient was treated with antibiotics and blood transfusion.

  4. Free-Flight Skin Temperature and Pressure Measurements on a Slightly Blunted 25 Deg Cone-Cylinder-Flare Configuration to a Mach Number of 9.89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Aleck C.; Rumsey, Charles B.

    1957-01-01

    Skin temperatures and surface pressures have been measured on a slightly blunted cone-cylinder-flare configuration to a maximum Mach number of 9.89 with a rocket-propelled model. The cone had a t o t a l angle of 25 deg and the flare had a 10 deg half-angle. Temperature data were obtained at eight cone locations, four cylinder locations, and seven flare locations; pressures were measured at one cone location, one cylinder location, and three flare locations. Four stages of propulsion were utilized and a reentry type of trajectory was employed in which the high-speed portion of flight was obtained by firing the last two stages during the descent of the model from a peak altitude of 99,400 feet. The Reynolds number at peak Mach number was 1.2 x 10(exp 6) per foot of model length. The model length was 6.68 feet. During the higher speed portions of flight, temperature measurements along one element of the nose cone indicated that the boundary layer was probably laminar, whereas on the opposite side of the nose the measurements indicated transitional or turbulent flow. Temperature distributions along one meridian of the model showed the flare to have the highest temperatures and the cylinder generally to have the lowest. A maximum temperature of 970 F was measured on the cone element showing the transitional or turbulent flow; along the opposite side of the model, the maximum temperatures of the cone, cylinder, and flare were 545 F, 340 F, and 680 F, respectively, at the corresponding time.

  5. A bulk similarity approach in the atmospheric boundary layer using radiometric skin temperature to determine regional surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Sugita, Michiaki

    1991-01-01

    Profiles of wind velocity and temperature in the outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were used together with surface temperature measurements, to determine regional shear stress and sensible heat flux by means of transfer parameterizations on the basis of bulk similarity. The profiles were measured by means of radiosondes and the surface temperatures by infrared radiation thermometry over hilly prairie terrain in northeastern Kansas during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). In the analysis, the needed similarity functions were determined and tested.

  6. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Jayaprakash, G; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  7. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  8. Developmental morphology of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, K; Anniko, M

    1997-01-01

    The development of the murine middle ear was monitored both qualitatively and morphometrically by scanning electron microscopy from the 19th gestational day to the adult stage. At birth, the middle ear was less well developed than the inner ear. The tympanic membrane (TM) was obscured by occlusion of the external auditory canal. Ciliated cells and secretory granules were present in the middle ear epithelium already 5 days after birth (DAB). Keratin debris was discerned on the external layer of the TM 9 DAB. By 12 DAB, mesenchymal tissue had resorbed from the middle ear cavity, except around the upper part of the ossicles. The middle ear was immature at birth but developed rapidly until 12 DAB. When compared with the avian middle ear the mouse middle ear was basically similar to that of humans, although in the human the stapedial artery is vestigial whereas in the mouse it persists as an important vessel. In man, there is no orbicular apophysis and no gonial of the malleus. The hypotympanum of the human middle ear is less developed than that of the murine middle ear. The mouse external auditory canal matures postnatally until 12 DAB, while in humans its development is complete at birth.

  9. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Procedure Safety Results en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would ... skin infections, such as staph diseases, such as cancer other medical problems that may affect the skin, ...

  10. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1994-01-01

    Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent...

  11. Melanoma of the ear: results of a cartilage-sparing approach to resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Melissa A; Lentsch, Eric J; Cerrati, Eric W; Stadelmann, Wayne K

    2013-11-01

    Melanoma of the ear is often treated by composite resection of the skin and cartilage and, occasionally, by total auriculectomy. This review analyzes the oncologic, functional, and esthetic results of cartilage-sparing wide local excision for melanoma of the ear. This retrospective study reviewed patients with ear melanoma treated between 1997 and 2002. All patients were treated with cartilage-sparing wide local excision, and ears were reconstructed with skin grafts and/or local flaps. The majority of patients were men (16/18 patients) who ranged in age from 42 to 82 years. The most common sites of occurrence were the helical rim (7/18 patients) and the earlobe (6/18 patients). The average depth of invasion was 2.02 mm (range 0.4-6.0 mm). Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 13 cases, of which only one was positive. The local control rate was 100 %, overall survival was 72 % (13/18 patients), and disease-specific survival was 89 % (16/18 patients). Average follow-up was 30.5 months (range 1-61). The rates for local control, overall survival, and disease-specific survival were excellent. These data indicate that for the majority of ear melanomas, cartilage-sparing wide local excision is an acceptable means of treatment.

  12. Mechanical sensibility of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fast-conducting afferents is modulated by skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, M Danilo; Eisenach, James C; Ririe, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to distinguish mechanical from thermal input is a critical component of peripheral somatosensory function. Polymodal C fibers respond to both stimuli. However, mechanosensitive, modality-specific fast-conducting tactile and nociceptor afferents theoretically carry information only about mechanical forces independent of the thermal environment. We hypothesize that the thermal environment can nonetheless modulate mechanical force sensibility in fibers that do not respond directly to change in temperature. To study this, fast-conducting mechanosensitive peripheral sensory fibers in male Sprague-Dawley rats were accessed at the soma in the dorsal root ganglia from T11 or L4/L5. Neuronal identification was performed using receptive field characteristics and passive and active electrical properties. Neurons responded to mechanical stimuli but failed to generate action potentials in response to changes in temperature alone, except for the tactile mechanical and cold sensitive neurons. Heat and cold ramps were utilized to determine temperature-induced modulation of response to mechanical stimuli. Mechanically evoked electrical activity in non-nociceptive, low-threshold mechanoreceptors (tactile afferents) decreased in response to changes in temperature while mechanically induced activity was increased in nociceptive, fast-conducting, high-threshold mechanoreceptors in response to the same changes in temperature. These data suggest that mechanical activation does not occur in isolation but rather that temperature changes appear to alter mechanical afferent activity and input to the central nervous system in a dynamic fashion. Further studies to understand the psychophysiological implications of thermal modulation of fast-conducting mechanical input to the spinal cord will provide greater insight into the implications of these findings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Determining the emissivity of pig skin for accurate infrared thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dennis D.; Clausen, Sønnik; Mercer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    for the ear base (p euthanasia) tended to be lower (p = 0.06) compared with the emissivity of the skin areas when perfused with blood. The results of this study confirm that it is valid to use the human skin...

  14. [Experimental research of correlation between anatomy structure of rabbit ear and creating hypertrophic scar animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gui-Ying; Xu, Bin; Cai, Jing-Long

    2008-05-01

    To observe the anatomy structure of rabbit ear and the effect of different operation methods and post-operative treatments on the formation of hypertrophic scar. The experimental animals were 25 New Zealand white rabbits. 6 pieces of full skin specimens were obtained from each of the ears in 5 rabbits for histological examination. 6 full-thickness skin wounds (d = 8 mm) were made on different sites of ventral side of each ear in the other 20 rabbits. The total number of the wounds was 240. 120 wounds in 10 rabbits were divided into 4 groups randomly to receive different treatments on day 7 postoperatively. No treatment was performed in the other 120 wounds. The wounds healing and the scar formation were observed for six months. The scars were harvested 4 weeks and 8 weeks after operation for pathologic examination and measurement of scar elevation index (SEI). Histological analysis showed that the anatomy structure was different in different sites of the rabbit ear. The best sites for creating hypertrophic scar model were on the medial margin of the middle- and inferior part of ear. The depth of the wound should reach the cartilage membrane of the ear to facilitate the formation of hypertrophic scar. The second strip crust on day 7 postoperatively enhanced the wounds healing and minimized the scar proliferation and hypertrophy. There is a close correlation between the anatomy structure of the ear and the creation of hypertrophic scar animal model. The wound site, the depth of wound and the post-operative treatment will affect the formation of hypertrophic scar. The study can help to improve the successful rate of creating hypertrophic scar animal model.

  15. Finite element modelling of the canine and feline outer ear canal: benefits for local drug delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefstaedt, Patrick; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Nolte, Ingo; Bouguecha, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Current therapeutic regimes of outer ear infections in dogs and cats aim at the application of efficient local therapeutics after cleaning of the acoustic meatus. One so far insufficiently answered question is if the local application of these substances results in an individually suitable drug concentration in the external ear canal. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a finite element model to calculate the values of the different areas of the external acoustic meatus in dogs and cats in order to provide a tool for the benefit of an appropriate local drug dosage determination. A 3D finite element model (FEM), based on computer tomographic (CT) data sets of four dogs and two cats, was generated to determine areas and volumes of the outer ear canal. Furthermore, various ear therapeutics and cleansers were tested concerning their optimal distribution on 5 cm2 dog and cat skin. The data shows major variations of the area values of the external auditory canal in case of the different dogs but not in the examined cats. These results suggest that manufacturer's recommendations of the pharmaceuticals might be insufficient in terms of achieving an optimal drug concentration in the outer ear canal especially in larger dogs. In conclusion, the developed finite element model has shown to be suitable to calculate areas of the outer ear canal in cats and dogs and could be of help in context with the definition of optimal drug concentrations for a local drug delivery.

  16. Effect of Lipid Composition on In Vitro Release and Skin Deposition of Curcumin Encapsulated Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethi Pamunuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomal encapsulation improves numerous physiochemical and biological properties of curcumin. The aim of this work was to impart slow release and skin delivery of curcumin via liposomal encapsulation. Liposomes were made using egg yolk phosphatidylcholine as the staple lipid while incorporating polysorbate 80 and stearylamine to prepare hybrid liposomes and positively charged liposomes, respectively. Negatively charged liposomes exhibited the highest encapsulation efficiencies (87.8±4.3% and loading capacities (3.4±0.2%. The sizes of all formulations were about 250 nm, while stearylamine increased the polydispersity index. Positively charged liposomes showed lower degradation temperatures than negatively charged liposomes by 10–15°C, attributable to the presence of stearylamine. The melting temperatures of positively charged liposomes (40–50°C were much higher than those of negatively charged liposomes (14-15°C, which may have affected release and skin deposition behavior of liposomes. The positively charged liposomes exhibited the slowest release of curcumin in phosphate buffered saline (pH 6.8 and the release profiles of all liposomal formulations conformed to the Gompertz model. The negatively charged liposomes facilitated the highest skin deposition of curcumin as revealed by studies conducted using excised pig ear skin. Concisely, positively and negatively charged liposomes were optimal for slow release and skin deposition of curcumin, respectively.

  17. Automatic sleep monitoring using ear-EEG

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of sleep patterns without patient’s inconvenience or involvement of a medical specialist is a clinical question of significant importance. To this end, we propose an automatic sleep stage monitoring system based on an affordable, unobtrusive, discreet, and long-term wearable in-ear sensor for recording the electroencephalogram (ear-EEG). The selected features for sleep pattern classification from a single ear-EEG channel include the spectral edge frequency and multi-scale fuzzy...

  18. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, i...

  19. Study of circadian rhythmicity of physiological response and skin temperature of sheep during summer and winter in semi-arid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Naqvi, Syed Mohammed Khursheed

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the circadian rhythmicity of some physiological variables, including rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and skin temperature (ST) in sheep during the summer and winter in semi-arid tropical environment. Eight Malpura rams of 3-4year of age with an average body weight of 37.1±1.99kg were selected for the study. All the animals were fed individually for a maintenance requirement on a body weight basis. The RT, RR, HR and ST values were measured in each animal at 3hour intervals for 24 consecutive hours. Ambient temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) was also recorded inside the shed at the time of physiological parameter study. The cosinor analysis showed a daily circadian rhythm (Psemi-arid environment. The RR, HR and ST differ significantly (P<0.05) between summer and winter. The amplitude of RR, RT and ST differ significantly (P<0.05) between the seasons. The results indicate that the circadian rhythmicity of RR, HR, RT and ST during summer and winter changed as expected in compliance to the seasonal requirements of animal's adaptability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Oncoplastic technique for the elimination of the lateral "dog ear" during mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Krishna B; Massey, Eleanore J D; Mahadev, G K; Kaufman, Gabriel J; Nos, Claude; Sarfati, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Following a mastectomy, both the cosmetic and functional results can be impaired by the presence of a lateral "dog ear." This is a particular problem in women with a large body habitus giving an increased amount of adipose tissue lateral to the breast. The standard approaches to this operation of horizontal or oblique incisions often results in an uncomfortable, unsightly lateral "dog ear". We describe a modification to the standard mastectomy incision that allows extensive excision of the lateral adipose tissue, re-draping the skin over the chest wall, thus eliminating the "dog ear." The mastectomy is performed through two oblique incisions originating in the axillary skin crease encompassing the nipple areolar complex, followed by extensive lateral fat excision. A distance of 2-3 cm is kept between the superior limit of the two incisions. At closure the lateral skin flap is advanced superiomedially on the chest wall without tension. This simple and reproducible technique improves cosmesis and patient satisfaction following modified radical mastectomy by eliminating the lateral "dog ear." © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evolutionary adaptation of muscle power output to environmental temperature: force-velocity characteristics of skinned fibres isolated from antarctic, temperate and tropical marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, I A; Altringham, J D

    1985-09-01

    Single fast fibres were isolated from the myotomal muscles of icefish (Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg, Antarctica), North Sea Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Pacific Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans Wakiya, Hawaii). Fibres were chemically skinned with the non-ionic detergent Brij-58. Maximum tensions (Po, kN m-2) developed at the characteristic body temperature of each species are 231 for icefish (-1 degree C), 187 for cod (8 degrees C) and 156 for marlin (20 degrees C). At 0 degree C Po is 7 times higher for fibres from the icefish than from the marlin. Fibres from icefish and cod failed to relax completely following activations at temperatures above approximately 12 degrees C. The resultant post-contraction force is associated with a proportional increase in stiffness, suggesting the formation of a population of Ca-insensitive cross bridges. At 10 degrees C there is little interspecific variation in unloaded contraction velocity (Vmax) among the three species. Vmax (muscle lengths s-1) at normal body temperatures are 0.9 for icefish (-1 degree C), 1.0 for cod (8 degrees C) and 3.4 for marlin (20 degrees C). The force-velocity (P-V) relationship becomes progressively more curved with increasing temperature for all three species. Maximum power output for the fast muscle fibres from the Antarctic species at -1 degree C is around 60% of that of the tropical fish at 20 degrees C. Evolutionary temperature compensation of muscle power output appears largely to involve differences in the ability of cross bridges to generate force.

  2. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  3. Assessment of surface turbulent fluxes using geostationary satellite surface skin temperatures and a mixed layer planetary boundary layer scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, George R.; Stewart, Tod R.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the fluxes of sensible and latent heating at the land surface, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes in a composite surface layer-mixed layer representation of the planetary boundary layer. The basic prognostic model is tested by comparison with synoptic station information at sites where surface evaporation climatology is well known. The remote sensing version of the model, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes, is then used to quantify the sharp spatial gradient in surface heating/evaporation across the central United States. An error analysis indicates that perhaps five levels of evaporation are recognizable by these methods and that the chief cause of error is the interaction of errors in the measurement of surface temperature change with errors in the assigment of surface roughness character. Finally, two new potential methods for remote sensing of the land-surface energy balance are suggested which will relay on space-borne instrumentation planned for the 1990s.

  4. EEG recorded from the ear: Characterizing the ear-EEG method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Bjarke Mikkelsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigour, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references.The paradigms probed of auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady state response and alpha power attenuation.By comparing event related potential (ERP waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings, but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency-domain analyses.

  5. [Aged skin and skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, E

    2015-06-01

    Aged skin is the sum of chronological und UV-induced aging. Light-exposed skin is unattractive, with irregular pigmentation, roughness und scaliness. The skin is often dry and itches. The present paper provides an overview of diseases of aging skin and describes how to prevent or reduce disease by prophylactic and therapeutic skin care. Aged skin can develop into several skin diseases, e.g., different types of eczema and skin cancer. In the body folds we often find an irritant contact eczema caused by friction from skin to skin, sweating, and urinary and fecal incontinence. In the bedridden, bed sores can also develop. Furthermore, there is a delay in wound healing owing to old age. Use of adequate creams and ointments is very helpful in preventing and improving most skin diseases of mature skin. However, the knowledge of aged people and healthcare professionals about the importance of skin care is low. Older people are often unable to care for their skin because they are lacking the physical and mental ability. Healthcare professionals are not sufficiently trained about the value of proper skin care. Adequate studies on the role of skin care and selection of the correct preparation in various aged-related diseases are lacking.

  6. Extremely preterm infants tolerate skin-to-skin contact during the first weeks of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    To determine if clinically stable extremely preterm infants can maintain their temperature during skin-to-skin contact and to screen for other negative effects.......To determine if clinically stable extremely preterm infants can maintain their temperature during skin-to-skin contact and to screen for other negative effects....

  7. Middle ear structure in relation to function : the rat in middle ear research

    OpenAIRE

    Albiin, Nils

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the rat as a model for middle ear re­search. The rat was chosen primarily because the gross structure of its middle ear shows several similarities to that of man. It was considered of great importance to make a thorough structural study of the rat middle ear and to compare the results with those reported for the human middle ear. The thesis therefore includes indepen­dent studies on various aspects of rat middle ear structure and function as well a...

  8. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    life. Ear-EEG may therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. In this study we investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  9. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  10. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  11. Why do elephants flap their ears?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimations. Reasons are advanced for believing that ear blood flow is controlled in the interests of thermoregulation. Behavioural fanning activity and the large ear surface area and surface to volume ratio suggest that this organ is of major. importance in thermoregulation under warm environmental conditions. s. Afr. J. Zool.

  12. Adsorption behavior of modified Iron stick yam skin with Polyethyleneimine as a potential biosorbent for the removal of anionic dyes in single and ternary systems at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bian, Wei; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The skin of Iron stick yam (ISY) was modified with Polyethyleneimine (ISY@PEI) and evaluated for use as a potential biosorbent to remove the anionic dyes Sunset yellow (SY), Lemon yellow (LY), and Carmine (CM) from wastewater under low temperature conditions (5-15°C) in single and ternary dye systems. Both in the single and ternary systems, experimental data showed that adsorption capacity reached the highest value at 5°C, and adsorption capacity decreased when the temperature increased (10-50°C). The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model and the extended Langmuir isotherm, for the single and ternary systems, respectively. The maximum adsorption capability was 138.92, 476.31, and 500.13mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a single system and 36.63, 303.31, and 294.12mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a ternary system. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that it was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skin rubdown with a dry towel, 'kanpu-masatsu' is an aerobic exercise affecting body temperature, energy production, and the immune and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Takano, Osamu; Tomiyama, Chikako; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Abo, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Skin rubdown using a dry towel (SRDT) to scrub the whole body is a traditional therapy for health promotion. To investigate its mechanism, 24 healthy male volunteers were studied. Body temperature, pulse rate, red blood cells (RBCs), serum levels of catecholamines and cortisol, blood gases (PO(2), sO(2), PCO(2) and pH), lactate and glucose, and the ratio and number of white blood cells (WBCs) were assessed before and after SRDT. After SRDT, pulse rate and body temperature were increased. PO(2), sO(2) and pH were also increased and there was no Rouleaux formation by RBCs. Lactate level tended to increase, whereas that of glucose did not. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels increased, indicating sympathetic nerve (SN) dominance with increase in granulocytes. WBC number and ratio were divided into two groups according to granulocyte ratio (≤ or < 60%) before SRDT: a normal group and a SN group. Only in the SN group did the granulocyte ratio decrease and the lymphocyte ratio and number increase after SRDT. It is suggested that SRDT is a mild aerobic, systemic exercise that might affect the immune system via the autonomic nervous system.

  14. [The infections of the ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Catherine; Tanaka, Lei; Bobin, Serge; Nevoux, Jérôme

    2017-11-01

    In front of external otitis in spite of a well-conducted treatment, especially in immunodeficient patient, it is always necessary to look for an osteomyelitis of the skull base that requires an urgent parenteral antibiotic treatment of several weeks. Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial infection of the child. In children under 2 years with purulent AOM, antibiotic therapy with amoxicilline is systematic for a period of 8-10 days. After 2 years of age and with mild symptoms of AOM, symptomatic treatment may be justified as first-line treatment. Chronic otitis media is frequent after an episode of AOM and becomes chronic only after 3 months of evolution. Grommets reduce the frequency of AOM episodes. All AOM complicated with meningitis requires monitoring by audiogram and MRI of the ear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Pica and the elephant's ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailidou, Helen; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Paspalaki, Penelope; Borgia, Pelagia; Mantzouranis, Evangelia

    2002-11-01

    This is a case report of an otherwise healthy 2-year-old boy with a history of pica, associated with iron deficiency anemia. This boy was referred to our department for a neurologic evaluation because of an acute episode of sialorrhea, difficulty in speaking, dysphagia, and repeated swallowing movements. An uncertain episode of a brief-duration still gaze was also reported. In addition, the history revealed that the child had earlier ingested a leaf from a poisonous houseplant called Colocasia esculenta, also known as "elephant's ear." The habit of pica subsided after treatment with iron supplements. A 9-month follow-up period was uneventful. Neurologic manifestations can accompany accidental intoxications of some non-nutrient substances. Thus, pica must be suspected in children with acute behavior alterations.

  16. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. The effect of skin moisture, pH, and temperature on the density of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis (Acari: Demodicidae) in students and staff of the Erzincan University, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytun, Erhan; Tilki, Engin; Doğan, Salih; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Yani

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and density of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis in students and staff of the Erzincan University, Turkey, and to define the influence of age, gender, educational level, and hygiene as well as skin moisture, pH, and temperature on the presence of Demodex mites. Healthy people without apparent facial dermatoses from nine faculties and five vocational schools of the university were included in the study. The measurements for moisture, pH, and temperature were conducted in the cheek region, while samples for mite presence were taken from the same region using the standard superficial skin biopsy technique. A total of 538 healthy people, 385 students and 153 university staff, were included in the study. Demodex mites were detected in 50.1% of the students (mean 7.1/cm2 ) and in 69.3% of the university staff (mean 13.1/cm2 ). There were statistical differences between the groups of people who were cleaning their face one, two, three, or more times daily and between those who were using and not using personal towels. There was a borderline significant difference between the different age groups and people with different education levels. The density of mites was higher in those with a skin moisture of less than 50%, with a pH of 5-6.5 and temperature of 24-28 °C, however the differences between the groups with different skin moisture, skin pH, and skin temperature were not statistically significant. Demodex mites are very prevalent in healthy individuals of both sexes, and this should be taken into consideration when epidemiological and clinical studies are conducted with patients having different dermatological ailments. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Expected accuracy of proximal and distal temperature estimated by wireless sensors, in relation to their number and position on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longato, Enrico; Garrido, Maria; Saccardo, Desy; Montesinos Guevara, Camila; Mani, Ali R; Bolognesi, Massimo; Amodio, Piero; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Montagnese, Sara

    2017-01-01

    A popular method to estimate proximal/distal temperature (TPROX and TDIST) consists in calculating a weighted average of nine wireless sensors placed on pre-defined skin locations. Specifically, TPROX is derived from five sensors placed on the infra-clavicular and mid-thigh area (left and right) and abdomen, and TDIST from four sensors located on the hands and feet. In clinical practice, the loss/removal of one or more sensors is a common occurrence, but limited information is available on how this affects the accuracy of temperature estimates. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of temperature estimates in relation to number/position of sensors removed. Thirteen healthy subjects wore all nine sensors for 24 hours and reference TPROX and TDIST time-courses were calculated using all sensors. Then, all possible combinations of reduced subsets of sensors were simulated and suitable weights for each sensor calculated. The accuracy of TPROX and TDIST estimates resulting from the reduced subsets of sensors, compared to reference values, was assessed by the mean squared error, the mean absolute error (MAE), the cross-validation error and the 25th and 75th percentiles of the reconstruction error. Tables of the accuracy and sensor weights for all possible combinations of sensors are provided. For instance, in relation to TPROX, a subset of three sensors placed in any combination of three non-homologous areas (abdominal, right or left infra-clavicular, right or left mid-thigh) produced an error of 0.13°C MAE, while the loss/removal of the abdominal sensor resulted in an error of 0.25°C MAE, with the greater impact on the quality of the reconstruction. This information may help researchers/clinicians: i) evaluate the expected goodness of their TPROX and TDIST estimates based on the number of available sensors; ii) select the most appropriate subset of sensors, depending on goals and operational constraints.

  19. General regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype, temperature and time for use in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for predicting survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype (Typhimurium, Kentucky, Hadar), temperature (5 to 50C) and time (0 to 8 h) was developed. Poultry isolates of Salmonella with natural r...

  20. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M.; Jeyakumar, S.; Manimaran, A.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Sivaram, M.; Ramesha, K. P.; Das, D. N.; Kataktalware, Mukund A.; Jayaprakash, G.; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (psubclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis-affected quarters were 38.08±0.17 °C and 38.25±0.33 °C, respectively, which is 0.72 and 1.05 °C higher than the USST temperature of unaffected quarters. The USST was positively correlated with EC (r=0.95) and SCC (r=0.93). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a higher sensitivity for USST in early prediction of SCM with a cut-off value of >37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows. PMID:28096610

  1. Patient satisfaction and aesthetic outcomes after ear reconstruction with a Branemark-type, bone-anchored, ear prosthesis: a 16 year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Ibby; Gault, David; Sabbagh, Walid; Kang, Norbert V

    2010-10-01

    Reconstruction of the human ear with a bone-anchored prosthesis is a widely accepted alternative when autologous reconstruction is technically impossible or declined by the individual. However, there are relatively few data in the literature documenting patient satisfaction with this form of reconstruction. This study examines different aspects of patient satisfaction using an eighteen-point postal questionnaire to measure patient outcomes against a Likert rating scale. The questionnaire was sent to 33 patients who completed prosthetic ear reconstruction over a 16 year period at a specialist plastic surgery unit in the United Kingdom. Medical case notes for these cases were also reviewed. Twenty completed questionnaires were returned. The response rate was 61%. The majority of patients were satisfied with the aesthetics, ease of handling and comfort of the bone-anchored implant and prosthesis. However, the majority of patients was only moderately satisfied or was dissatisfied with this method of reconstruction. Specifically, 15 of the respondents reported skin problems around the abutments of the bone-anchored implant with 10 patients reporting ongoing skin complications. Granulation tissue was the most common skin problem (12 cases) followed by local infection (10 cases). Interestingly, despite the chronic skin problems, most patients indicated that they would undergo the same procedure again or would recommend it to others. Our survey shows that patients fitted with a Branemark-type bone-anchored implant for ear reconstruction are pleased with the aesthetic appearance but experience multiple, chronic, skin complications and other implant related problems. These affect their satisfaction with this method of reconstruction. Our findings may have significant implications for patients and surgeons considering this form of reconstruction and for the institutions making decisions about funding this treatment. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess Contact Us Print Resources ...

  3. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  4. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits Become a member DermCare Team Professionalism and ethics My account Member directory Publications JAAD JAAD Case ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & ...

  5. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ...

  6. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Skin Pigment By Shinjita Das, MD, Instructor in Dermatology; ...

  7. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  8. Localization of antileukoprotease in middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, B; Ohlsson, K

    1983-01-01

    The localization of antileukoprotease was studied immunohistologically in normal middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at autopsy and in chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at middle ear surgery for chronic otitis media. In the sections of normal as well as in the sections of chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa, antileukoprotease localization was confined to PAS-positive goblet cells of surface epithelium and to PAS-positive goblet-like cells of submucosal glands and crypts, whereas ciliated mucosal cells and stratified squamous epithelial cells were devoid of anti-leukoprotease. In comparison with normal middle ear mucosa, an increased number of goblet cells--and thus an increased number of cells containing antileukoprotease--was present in the chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa. Since antileukoprotease is a potent inhibitor of granulocyte elastase and Cathepsin G, it was concluded that this proliferation of the respiratory epithelium during inflammatory processes in the middle ear indicates an increased activity of the biologic defence system against the action of granulocyte proteases.

  9. The Ear-Brain Connection: Older Ears and Older Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent research from our laboratory on the topic of aging, and the ear-brain system, as it relates to hearing aid use and auditory rehabilitation. The material described here was presented as part of the forum on the brain and hearing aids, at the 2014 HEaling Across the Lifespan (HEAL) conference. The method involves a narrative review of previously reported electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from our laboratory as they relate to the (a) neural detection of amplified sound and (b) ability to learn new sound contrasts. Results from our studies add to the mounting evidence that there are central effects of biological aging as well as peripheral pathology that affect a person's neural detection and use of sound. What is more, these biological effects can be seen as early as middle age. The accruing evidence has implications for hearing aid use because effective communication relies not only on sufficient detection of sound but also on the individual's ability to learn to make use of these sounds in ever-changing listening environments.

  10. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a little waterproofing. previous continue Skin Can Warm and Cool You Your skin can help if you're feeling too hot or too cold. Your blood ... you're ice-skating or sledding? When you're cold, your blood vessels keep your ... and keeping the warm blood away from the skin's surface. You might ...

  11. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  12. The effects of the court-type Thai traditional massage on anatomical relations, blood flow, and skin temperature of the neck, shoulder, and arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakornkul, Vasana; Vannabhum, Manmas; Viravud, Yadaridee; Roongruangchai, Jantima; Mutirangura, Pramook; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee

    2016-09-15

    Court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) has specific major signal points (MaSP) for treating musculoskeletal conditions. The objectives of this study are to investigate the anatomical surfaces and structures of MaSPs, and to examine blood flow (BF) and skin temperature (ST) changes after applying pressure on the MaSPs on neck, shoulder, and arm areas. In the anatomical study, 83 cadavers were dissected and the anatomical surfaces and structures of the 15 MaSPs recorded. In human volunteers, BF, peak systolic velocity (PS), diameter of artery (DA), and ST changes were measured at baseline and after pressure application at 0, 30, 60, 180, and 300 s. There was no statistical difference in anatomical surfaces and structures of MaSP between the left and right side of the body. The 3 MaSPs on the neck were shown to be anatomically separated from the location of the common carotid arteries. The BF of MaSPs of the neck significantly and immediately increased after pressure application for 30 s and for 60 s in the arm (p massages were mainly directed towards muscles. MaSPs can cause significant, but brief, increases in BF and ST. Further studies are suggested to identify changes in BF and ST for all of the MaSPs after actual massage treatment sessions as well as other physiological effects of massage.

  13. [A comparison of the effects of intravenous fluid warming and skin surface warming on peri-operative body temperature and acid base balance of elderly patients with abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyosun; Yoon, Haesang

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intravenous fluid warming and skin surface warming on peri-operative body temperature and acid base balance of abdominal surgical patients under general anesthesia. Data collection was performed from January 4th, to May 31, 2004. The intravenous fluid warming(IFW) group (30 elderly patients) was warmed through an IV line by an Animec set to 37 degrees C. The skin surface warming (SSW) group (30 elderly patients) was warmed by a circulating-water blanket set to 38 degrees C under the back and a 60W heating lamp 40 cm above the chest. The warming continued from induction of general anesthesia to two hours after completion of surgery. Collected data was analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA, and Bonferroni methods. SSW was more effective than IFW in preventing hypothermia(p= .043), preventing a decrease of HCO(3)(-)(p= .000) and preventing base excess (p= .000) respectively. However, there was no difference in pH between the SSW and IFW (p= .401) groups. We conclude that skin surface warming is more effective in preventing hypothermia, and HCO(3)(-) and base excess during general anesthesia, and returning to normal body temperature after surgery than intravenous fluid warming; however, skin surface warming wasn't able to sustain a normal body temperature in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia.

  14. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  15. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth; Stolcke, Andreas; Peskin, Barbara; Ang, Jeremy; Hillard, Dustin; Ostendorf, Mari; Tomalin, Marcus; Woodland, Phil; Harper, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Both human and automatic processing of speech require recognition of more than just words. In this paper we provide a brief overview of research on structural metadata extraction in the DARPA EARS rich transcription program...

  16. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  17. Mast cells and middle ear effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, L E; Albiin, N; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Widemar, L

    1985-01-01

    The mast cell--an important component of connective tissue--carries in its cytoplasmic granules various biologically active substances, such as heparin, histamine, and a broad spectrum of enzymes. This cell type plays a prominent role in inflammatory and allergic conditions. In the middle ear, the mast cells are mainly localized in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and beneath the tracts of secretory and ciliated cells in the middle ear mucosa. Degranulation of the mast cells by the histamine liberator compound 48/80 causes histamine-rich effusion material to accumulate in the middle ear. Plugging of the eustachian tube and/or tympanic isthmus will bring about a similar accumulation. It would thus seem that mast cells in some way participate in the production of middle ear effusion, probably via their potent mediators.

  18. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  19. Role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 in rat inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorodchenko, Alina; Rupprecht, Anne; Fuchs, Julia; Gross, Johann; Pohl, Elena E

    2011-08-01

    The uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) belongs to the mitochondrial anion transporter family. Protein tissue distribution and functions are still a matter of debate. Using an antibody we have previously shown that UCP4 appears in neurons and to a lesser extent in astrocytes of murine neuronal tissue as early as days 12-14 of embryonic development (Smorodchenko et al., 2009). Here we demonstrated for the first time that neurosensory cells such as hair cells of the inner ear and mechanosensitive Merkel cells in skin also express a significant amount of UCP4. We tested the hypothesis about whether UCP4 contributes to the regulation of oxidative stress using the model of oxygen deprivation. For this we compared the protein expression level in freshly isolated explants of organ of Corti, modiolus and stria vascularis from neonatal rats with explants cultured under hypoxia. Western blot analysis revealed that the UCP4 level was not increased under hypoxic conditions, when compared to the mitochondrial outer membrane protein VDAC or to the anti-oxidative enzyme SOD2. We moreover demonstrated that UCP4 expression is differently regulated during postnatal stages and is region-specific. We hypothesized that UCP4 may play an important role in functional maturation of the rat inner ear. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Middle ear implants: functional gain in mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernotti, Mario Emilio; Gregorio, Maria Fernanda Di; Sarasty, Andrea C Bravo

    2012-02-01

    Osseous atresia and chronic otitis media are diseases benefit with middle ear implants. Surgery for atresia is technically complicated, has significant number of complications and functional results are often poor. The osseointegrated hearing aids are an alternative. They provide a very good functional gain, but have many problems with the skin and osseointegration. In chronic otitis media, the ossiculoplasty solved partially the hearing problem. Unfortunately in some cases of otitis media and in open cavities fitted with conventional hearing aids the gain is unsatisfactory. To determine the usefulness of an active middle ear implant. Longitudinal Study. Vibrant-Soundbrigde was implanted in eight patients with severe mixed hearing loss. Four patients had chronic otitis media and four had unilateral atresia. The placement of the stimulator (FMT or Floating Mass Transducer) was in five patients on round window, two in stapes and one in the oval window. Functional gain was 35 dB, 40 dB, 48.7 dB and 50 dB for the frequencies 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz, respectively. Vibrant-Soundbrigde is an excellent option in hearing recovery in severe and profound mixed hearing loss. It also provides an excellent functional gain in diseases difficult to treat with conventional hearing aids.

  1. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  2. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  3. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... A middle ear mold is made of materials such as polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene, silicone... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

  4. HB-EGF expression as a potential biomarker of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shumin; Wang, Xiaoli; Ren, Hongmiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jihao; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) plays an essential role in the development and invasiveness of cholesteatoma. This study may help to realize the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and make HB-EGF a promising target for drug intervention of cholesteatoma. To detect HB-EGF expression in human surgical specimens of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of epithelial keratinocytes hyperproliferation. A total of 34 patients who underwent surgical treatment for middle ear cholesteatoma were recruited in the study. The mRNA and protein expression of HB-EGF in middle ear cholesteatoma tissues and normal postauricular skin tissues was investigated by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. The correlation between bone resorption degree and HB-EGF expression was also analyzed. On average, compared with normal postauricular skin, expression of HB-EGF mRNA in the cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly elevated 2.41-fold by RT-qPCR, and HB-EGF protein significantly upregulated 2.32-fold by western blot. Positive HB-EGF immunostaining observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly stronger than in normal postauricular skin. Meanwhile, an obviously positive correlation between HB-EGF protein expression and bone resorption degree was discovered.

  5. Ear fibroblasts derived from Taiwan yellow cattle are more heat resistant than those from Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Peng, Shao-Yu; Li, Hung; Lee, Jai-Wei; Kesorn, Piyawit; Wu, Hsi-Hsun; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Perng-Chih

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerances of ear fibroblasts derived from Holstein (H) and Taiwan yellow cattle (Y) and their apoptosis-related protein expressions with (1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h) or without heat shock treatment. The results showed that the vaginal temperatures of Y (38.4-38.5°C) were (Pderived from Y (6h: 1.1%; 12h: 1.6%; 24h: 2.6%) were lower (Pderived from H (6h: 1.8%; 12h: 4.0%; 24h: 6.9%), respectively, after heat shock (42°C). The expression level of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in ear fibroblasts derived from H was higher (Pderived from Y after the heat shock treatment for 6h and 12h, respectively. The level of cytochrome c of ear fibroblasts derived from H was higher (Pderived from Y after the heat shock treatment for 1-12h, respectively. The abundances of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 of ear fibroblasts derived from H were higher (Pderived from Y after 12h and 24h of heat shock, respectively; the Bcl-2/Bax ratios of ear fibroblasts derived from H were lower (Pderived fibroblasts after heated for 1-24h. The expression level of HSP-70 of Y-derived ear fibroblasts was also higher (Pderived from Taiwan yellow cattle was better than that of cells derived from Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious case, you might need medical help. Impetigo —A skin infection caused by bacteria. Usually the ... and form a thick crust. You can treat impetigo with antibiotics. Melanoma © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Melanoma — ...

  7. [Reconstruction of the external ear in children. Contribution of the clay model cartilage sculpture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disant, F; Truy, E; Kauffmann, I; Morgon, A

    1990-01-01

    The use of rib cartilage graft in ear reconstruction gives good cosmetic results after the age of 8. However three main conditions must be taken into account: 1) a perfect framework sculpture; 2) good quality of the skin in order to provide a soft tissue free of scars and able to drape the framework in all the details of the sculpture; 3) a soft but useful succion system allowing a good coaptation between the framework and the skin without vascular damage. Most of the surgical failures are due to skin scars which compromise the elasticity of the cutaneous pocket. The authors recommend to wait until the age of 8 before any surgery in order to keep the skin intact and to let the ribs grow. The problem of hearing can be treated as secondary.

  8. Successful Treatment of Two Cases of Squamous Cell Carcinoma on the Ear with Intra-Arterial Administration of Peplomycin through a Superficial Temporal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Haga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer and tends to develop in sun-exposed cosmetic areas, including the ear. In this report, we describe two cases of SCC on the ear successfully treated with intra-arterial administration of peplomycin through a superficial temporal artery. In addition to this selective chemotherapy, we administered oral tegafur, which achieved complete remission of the tumor. These findings suggest that intra-arterial administration of peplomycin with tegafur is one of the optimal therapies for the treatment of SCC developing on the ear.

  9. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were...... found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple model may be elaborated to provide a rapid, economical screening tool for potential skin irritants....

  10. Compensating for Deviant Middle Ear Pressure in Otoacoustic Emission Measurements, Data, and Comparison to a Middle Ear Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Janny R.; de Kleine, Emile; Avan, Paul; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Koopmans, Peter J.; van Dijk, Pim

    Objective: Deviant middle ear pressure has a negative effect on the forward and backward transmission of stimulus and emissions through the middle ear. Resolving this deviant middle ear pressure is expected to lead to better middle ear transmission and, as a result of this, stronger otoacoustic

  11. Effects of Kinesio taping compared to arterio-venous Impulse System™ on limb swelling and skin temperature after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Christoph; Brodt, Steffen; Röhner, Eric; Matziolis, Georg

    2017-02-01

    It is an established fact that post-operative (p.o.) soft-tissue swelling and lymphoedema after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have a major influence on the p.o. early functional outcome. Kinesio taping has a proven clinical effect in increasing lymph drainage. Despite the decades of experience gained and the assumed positive effects, hardly any investigations have been conducted to date on the influence of Kinesio taping on the p.o. healing process after TKA. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Kinesio taping used as a lymph application leads to a reduction of p.o. soft-tissue swelling. As a secondary objective, it was to be tested whether there is an effect on skin temperature as a surrogate parameter for dermal micro-circulation. In this prospective study with a historical control (A-V Impulse System™ group), 42 subjects were included and treated with Kinesio taping after implantation of a TKA. The patients of the study group were treated immediately p.o. with Kinesio® Tex Gold™ fan cut tape as a lymph application with a common base. A thermographic temperature determination of the knee joint operated on was performed on each patient in the supine position every day from the first to the seventh p.o. day. The leg circumference was documented daily at eight specified measuring points on both lower limbs. As a statistical analytical approach, the so-called principal component analysis was used. An analysis of variance was performed. The significance level was set at p Kinesio taping study group and the A-V Impulse System™ group. In contrast, the temperature course of the lateral wound aspect showed a reproducibly higher temperature in the Kinesio tape group than in the control group (0.6 °C (0.5-0.8), p Kinesio taping as a lymph application induces a reduction of soft-tissue swelling after TKA must be rejected on the basis of the present data. Solely the temperature of the lateral wound aspect was higher in the Kinesio

  12. Static analysis of C-shape SMA middle ear prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalski, Jarosław; Rusinek, Rafał

    2017-08-01

    Shape memory alloys are a family of metals with the ability to change specimen shape depending on their temperature. This unique property is useful in many areas of mechanical and biomechanical engineering. A new half-ring middle ear prosthesis design made of a shape memory alloy, that is undergoing initial clinical tests, is investigated in this research paper. The analytical model of the studied structure made of nonlinear constitutive material is solved to identify the temperature-dependent stiffness characteristics of the proposed design on the basis of the Crotti-Engesser theorem. The final integral expression for the element deflection is highly complex, thus the solution has to be computed numerically. The final results show the proposed shape memory C-shape element to behave linearly in the analysed range of loadings and temperatures. This is an important observation that significantly simplifies the analysis of the prototype structure and opens wide perspectives for further possible applications of shape memory alloys.

  13. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  14. The Effects of Silicone and Acrylic Ear Mold Materials on Outer Ear Canal Resonance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnıaçık Erdoğan, Asuman; Arslan, Şeyda Nur

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of earmolds made of silicone and acrylic on outer ear canal resonance characteristics in terms of resonance frequency and amplitude measured in a hearing aid fitting. Outer ear canal resonance frequencies and amplitudes in open ears and those measured with silicone and acrylic ear molds were obtained from 30 participants between the ages of 20 and 25 years (average age, 22.0 years; 18 females and 12 males) with a real ear gain measurement. To observe the changes depending on probe tube placement, test-retest variation was investigated in 10 participants before the study. There was no statistically significant difference between open ear canal resonance frequencies and those measured with silicone and acrylic earmolds (p>0.05). the silicone earmold resonance amplitude values were statistically significantly lower than the open ear canal resonance amplitudes when compared to those of the acrylic earmolds (p<0.05). Depending on the changes occurring in outer ear resonance features as a result of earmold materials used in hearing aid fittings, the application of earmolds should be done by experienced specialists.

  15. Use of laser speckle contrast imaging to reveal changes in temperature and blood perfusion in the skin of healthy subjects after administration of heated moxa sticks and daiwenjiu ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyan; Yang, Jinsheng; Wang, Liang; Deng, Zi; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Li; Wu, Peng; Li, Liang

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the influence of heated moxa sticks ("moxibustion") and Daiwenjiu ointment (DO) on changes in temperature and blood perfusion volume on the skin of the backs of healthy subjects. DO was spread on the left side of the body, and the right side of the body was treated with a heated moxa stick. Images denoting blood perfusion and body temperature were collected 7-8 cm lateral to the spinous process of the sixth thoracic vertebra using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). Data obtained from eight-frame images were analyzed and used to calculate the mean blood perfusion volume. Simultaneously, blood-perfusion images were collected from the body surface and used to compare the change in blood flow on the body surface and the actual position of imaging. After moxibustion, a rapid increase in blood perfusion volume and body temperature was noted in the local skin surface. The maximum blood perfusion volume and body temperature was noted at 20 min (P temperature (P temperature after treatment with moxibustion, but the respective changes seen in the DO group were gradual and moderate.

  16. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help identify the cause of the infection. Treatment You can apply moist heat (such as warm compresses) to help the abscess ... if you develop new symptoms during or after treatment of a skin abscess. Prevention ... the skin around minor wounds clean and dry to prevent infection. Call your provider if you ...

  17. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk [Koryo general Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  18. Middle ear cholesteatoma: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C G; Meyerhoff, W L; Burns, D K

    1985-01-01

    Topical otic preparations now in clinical use contain a variety of antibiotics and solvents that may produce severe inflammation if they reach the middle ear cavity. This report describes the response of the chinchilla middle ear to direct application of one such preparation that appears to act as a nonspecific irritant. Cortisporin otic suspension (containing neomycin, polymyxin B, hydrocortisone, and propylene glycol) was introduced into the bullae of 32 chinchillas that were kept alive for four days to five months before histologic examination of their temporal bones. All the experimental animals had tissue damage and inflammation within the middle ear. The changes observed included proliferation of ciliated and secretory columnar cells, formation of granulation tissue, bone erosion, and osteoneogenesis. Some areas of the mucosa underwent metaplasia to stratified squamous epithelium; this metaplastic epithelium, however, did not produce keratin. In the majority of animals kept for two months or more, cholesteatoma was identified in the middle ear. The cholesteatomas appeared to develop as a result of penetration of external canal epidermis through intact tympanic membranes or as the result of migration of epidermis through perforations. The experimental cholesteatomas behaved like those seen clinically in humans, with extensive erosion of bony structures within the middle ear.

  19. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Panconi, M.; Bartolozzi, C. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine; Berettini, S.; Sellari Franceschini, S.; Forli, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Neuroscience

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. (orig.)

  20. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  1. Winter activity of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-07-04

    Jul 4, 1988 ... Diumal activity budgets of bat-eared foxes Otocyon mega/otis in winter (June) at the Postberg Nature. Reserve, West Coast National Park, were analysed to determine the influence of environmental factors on their activity. Abiotic factors such as effective temperature, wind speed, cloud cover and rainfall ...

  2. Hibernacula selection by Townsend's big-eared bat in Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.; Schorr, Robert A.; Navo, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In western United States, both mine reclamations and renewed mining at previously abandoned mines have increased substantially in the last decade. This increased activity may adversely impact bats that use these mines for roosting. Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) is a species of conservation concern that may be impacted by ongoing mine reclamation and renewed mineral extraction. To help inform wildlife management decisions related to bat use of abandoned mine sites, we used logistic regression, Akaike's information criterion, and multi-model inference to investigate hibernacula use by Townsend's big-eared bats using 9 years of data from surveys inside abandoned mines in southwestern Colorado. Townsend's big-eared bats were found in 38 of 133 mines surveyed (29%), and occupied mines averaged 2.6 individuals per mine. The model explaining the most variability in our data included number of openings and portal temperature at abandoned mines. In southwestern Colorado, we found that abandoned mine sites with more than one opening and portal temperatures near 0°C were more likely to contain hibernating Townsend's big-eared bats. However, mines with only one opening and portal temperatures of ≥10°C were occasionally occupied by Townsend's big-eared bat. Understanding mine use by Townsend's big-eared bat can help guide decisions regarding allocation of resources and placement of bat-compatible closures at mine sites scheduled for reclamation. When feasible we believe that surveys should be conducted inside all abandoned mines in a reclamation project at least once during winter prior to making closure and reclamation recommendations.

  3. Ear damage caused by leisure noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, M.; Babisch, W.; Bachmann, K. D.; Ising, H.; Lehnert, G.; Plath, P.; Plinkert, P.; Rebentisch, E.; Schuschke, G.; Spreng, M.; Stange, G.; Struwe, V.; Zenner, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Noise is a health risk. Recent findings suggest that leisure noise is a substantial danger especially to children, teenagers and young adults. Epidemiological studies of teenagers with no occupational noise exposure show an increasing number with a substantial and measurable irreversible inner ear damage. This is basically due to the wide spread exposition to very loud toys (pistols and squibs), crackers and exposure to electronically amplified music, e.g. from personal cassette players (PCP), at discos or concerts etc. Protection against irreversible ear damage by leisure noise has an important impact in preventive medical care. Therefore the general public must be informed that loud leisure activities may cause damage to the ear. In order to protect children, young people and adults, the legislature ought to set limits for sound levels in discos, concert halls and for music equipment and toys by establishing the necessary standards and regulations.

  4. Lymphatic drainage of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; le Roux, Cara Michelle; Levy, Sidney M; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy reveals inconsistencies in our knowledge of the lymphatic anatomy of the external ear. Fifteen external ears from 9 unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Six percent hydrogen peroxide was used to find the lymphatic vessels using a surgical microscope. They were injected with a radio-opaque mixture, dissected, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate lymphatic vessels in the tissue. Final results were transferred to the computer for analysis. Four groups of lymph collecting vessels were found. The anterior branch, in all specimens, drained directly or indirectly (having merged with a vessel descending from the scalp) into the preauricular lymph nodes. The superior, middle, and inferior (lobule) branches drained to their multiple first tier lymph nodes. An accurate lymphatic map of the external ear is described to upgrade our anatomic knowledge. It will be of benefit for the clinical management of malignancies in this region. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  5. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  6. Anteverted concha: A new ear deformational anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Schönauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most auricular deformities involve the helix and the antihelix (Stahl's bar, lop and prominent ear; an isolated conchal deformity is uncommon in an otherwise normal ear. When a convexity rather than a concavity of the concha is present, it can be defined as “anteverted concha”. The anteverted concha causes not only aesthetic but also functional problems. It may be so severe as to occlude the external auditory meatus. In a newborn ear amenable to moulding, anteverted concha can be treated non-surgically by splinting. If this time window has passed, then surgical excision of the conchal bulge can give good results in the adult. We present two such cases and their treatment.

  7. Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Human Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Che Hsu

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle ear cholesteatoma is destructive to auditory ossicles and temporal bone, and treatment usually includes surgical removal of all epithelial content in the tympanomastoid cavity. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a 170 kd to 180 kd transmembrane glycoprotein and its distribution density is related to the ability of the keratinocytes to differentiate and their state of differentiation. We used the avidinbiotin complex technique and EGFR monoclonal antibody to evaluate the expression of EGFR in 29 cases of cholesteatoma and 34 samples of normal postauricular skin. Of patients with cholesteatoma, 79% (23 cases had EGFR-positive cells in the basal layer, 66% (19 cases in the parabasal layer, and 62% (18 cases in the upper layer of the epithelial tissue. Among patients with normal postauricular skin, 85% (29 cases had EGFR-positive cells in the basal layer, 79% (27 cases in the parabasal layer, and 79% (27 cases in the upper layer of the epithelial tissue. No statistical difference in EGFR expression between each layer of cholesteatoma and postauricular skin was noted. However, there was an intensity gradient of positive EGFR immunoreactivity from the basal to the higher layers in cholesteatoma. Our results showed that the distribution of EGFR in middle ear cholesteatoma is not deranged, but is similar to that in normal skin tissue.

  8. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magariños

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  9. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Marta; Pulido, Sara; Aburto, María R; de Iriarte Rodríguez, Rocío; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  10. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  11. Ultrastructure of the middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentzer, E

    1984-01-01

    Light- and electron microscopic studies of recent years have definitely concluded that the epithelium of the middle ear is a modified respiratory epithelium with ciliated and secretory cells including goblet cells. Goblet cells are secretory cells completely filled with secretory granules. Secretory cells and ciliated cells are both derived from the basal cell. The subepithelial layer which consists of loose connective tissue is a structure of just as great importance as the epithelial layer. It is still not clear whether the dark granulated cell is the site of production of the serous middle ear effusion or whether it merely represents an immature stage of the mucigen-producing cell.

  12. Environmental influences in the evolution of tetrapod hearing sensitivity and middle ear tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Narins, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    Vertebrates inhabit and communicate acoustically in most natural environments. We review the influence of environmental factors on the hearing sensitivity of terrestrial vertebrates, and on the anatomy and mechanics of the middle ears. Evidence suggests that both biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect the evolution of bandwidth and frequency of peak sensitivity of the hearing spectrum. Relevant abiotic factors include medium type, temperature, and noise produced by nonliving sources. Biotic factors include heterospecific, conspecific, or self-produced sounds that animals are selected to recognize, and acoustic interference by sounds that other animals generate. Within each class of tetrapods, the size of the middle ear structures correlates directly to body size and inversely to frequency of peak sensitivity. Adaptation to the underwater medium in cetaceans involved reorganization of the middle ear for novel acoustic pathways, whereas adaptation to subterranean life in several mammals resulted in hypertrophy of the middle ear ossicles to enhance their inertial mass for detection of seismic vibrations. The comparative approach has revealed a number of generalities about the effect of environmental factors on hearing performance and middle ear structure across species. The current taxonomic sampling of the major tetrapod groups is still highly unbalanced and incomplete. Future expansion of the comparative evidence should continue to reveal general patterns and novel mechanisms.

  13. 3D Printed "Earable" Smart Devices for Real-Time Detection of Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroki; Chao, Minghan; Gao, Yuji; Wu, Eric; Tai, Li-Chia; Chen, Kevin; Matsuoka, Yasutomo; Iwai, Kosuke; Fahad, Hossain M; Gao, Wei; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Lin, Liwei; Javey, Ali

    2017-07-28

    Real-time detection of basic physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate is an important target in wearable smart devices for healthcare. Among these, the core body temperature is one of the most important basic medical indicators of fever, insomnia, fatigue, metabolic functionality, and depression. However, traditional wearable temperature sensors are based upon the measurement of skin temperature, which can vary dramatically from the true core body temperature. Here, we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) printed wearable "earable" smart device that is designed to be worn on the ear to track core body temperature from the tympanic membrane (i.e., ear drum) based on an infrared sensor. The device is fully integrated with data processing circuits and a wireless module for standalone functionality. Using this smart earable device, we demonstrate that the core body temperature can be accurately monitored regardless of the environment and activity of the user. In addition, a microphone and actuator are also integrated so that the device can also function as a bone conduction hearing aid. Using 3D printing as the fabrication method enables the device to be customized for the wearer for more personalized healthcare. This smart device provides an important advance in realizing personalized health care by enabling real-time monitoring of one of the most important medical parameters, core body temperature, employed in preliminary medical screening tests.

  14. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared (Plecotus auritus) and one small-eared (Glossophaga soricina), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  16. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  17. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  18. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    the processing of low-frequency directional signals, while higher frequency signals appear to be progressively uncoupled. In both lizards and crocodilians, the increased directionality of the coupled ears leads to an effectively larger head and larger physiological range of ITDs. This increased physiological...... range is reviewed in the light of current theories of sound localization....

  19. BK Channels in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyott, S. J.; Duncan, R. K.; Contet, C

    2016-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic stimuli begins with the deconstruction of sound into its frequency components. This spectral processing occurs first and foremost in the inner ear. In vertebrates, two very different strategies of frequency analysis have evolved. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the

  20. Evaluation of the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear operations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Naeimi; Kiarash Ghazvini K; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri MT; Merangiz Kaboli; Mahmood Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Bacteremia following middle ear surgeries occurs in a significant number of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients who where candidates for middle ear operation were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained from each patient immediately before and after operation for bacteriologic analysis. Demographic and middle ear disease characteristics were also record...

  1. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  2. Middle Ear Barotrauma in Student Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Heob; Cho, Kyoung Rai

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports the clinical features of middle ear barotrauma in student pilots in the Republic of Korea Air Force. The authors reviewed medical records of student pilots with barotrauma. The grade of barotrauma was assigned using Teed's classification. This study included nasal symptoms, endoscopic findings of the nasal cavity, and clinical course (duration, recurrence). The relationship between middle ear barotrauma and the nasal airway was also evaluated. There were 57 cases in 51 pilots included. There were 49 cases (86.0%) that showed unilateral disease and 4 subjects experienced relapse. Two subjects (3.9%) had chronic rhinosinusitis and four subjects (7.8%) had allergic rhinitis. Ear fullness was reported in all cases, while hearing loss and persistent ear pain were reported in 3 cases (5.3%) and 19 cases (33.3%), respectively. Stuffy nose (26 cases, 45.6%) and rhinorrhea (24 cases, 42.1%) were relatively common. Most cases were Grade 0 (23 cases, 40.3%) or Grade III (27 cases, 47.4%) according to Teed's classification. Septal deviation was observed in 12 cases (21.0%), while turbinate hypertrophy was seen in 53 cases (93.0%) and increased nasal discharge in 33 cases (57.9%). The grade of barotrauma varied significantly according to the severity of turbinate hypertrophy and nasal discharge. The mean duration of disease was 6.8 d. Nasal symptoms and endoscopic findings showed some association with the grade and duration of barotrauma. Most cases resolved within a week; however, barotrauma showed persistence or relapse in some cases.Sohn JH, Cho KR. Middle ear barotrauma in student pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):406-412.

  3. Analysis of the microcirculation after soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in patients with severe burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Fabian; Medesan, Raluca; Rothenberger, Jens Martin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Schoeller, Thomas; Manoli, Theodora; Weitgasser, Lennart; Naumann, Aline; Weitgasser, Laurenz

    2016-07-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the ear with burns remains one of the most difficult tasks for the reconstructive surgeon. Although numerous reconstructive options are available, the results are often unpredictable and worse than expected. Besides full and split skin grafting, local random pattern flaps and pedicled flaps are frequently utilized to cover soft tissue defects of the outer auricle. Because of the difficulty and unpredictable nature of outer ear reconstruction after burn injury, a case-control study was conducted to determine the best reconstructive approach. The microcirculatory properties of different types of soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in six severely burned Caucasian patients (three men and three women; mean age, 46 years (range, 22-70)) were compared to those in the healthy tissue of the outer ear using the O2C device (Oxygen to See; LEA Medizintechnik, Gießen, Germany). The results of this study revealed that the investigated microcirculation parameters such as the median values of blood flow (control group: 126 AU), relative amount of hemoglobin (control group: 59.5 AU), and tissue oxygen saturation (control group: 73%) are most similar to those of normal ear tissue when pedicled flaps based on the superficial temporal artery were used. These findings suggest that this type of reconstruction is superior for soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in contrast to random pattern flaps and full skin grafts regarding the microcirculatory aspects. These findings may improve the knowledge on soft tissue viability and facilitate the exceptional and delicate process of planning the reconstruction of the auricle with burns. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  5. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...

  6. The Design and Evaluation of an Artificial Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wideband artificial ear for the calibration of supraaural audiometric earphones was designed and constructed. The device consisted of three...acoustic impedance measuring device was developed to aid in the evaluation of this artificial ear. Plots of experimentally determined acoustic impedance...of this and other artificial ears are presented and discussed. Comparison of the experimentally determined acoustic impedance of the subject

  7. AETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF EAR DISCHARGE: A TWO YEAR RE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Background: The discharging ear is a common presentation in medical practice affecting all age groups but primarily children. This study shows the current aetiological causes of ear discharge and their antibiograms, data which would guide empirical treat- ment of ear infections, and also form ...

  8. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... terna(10.1%), hearing impairment (7.3%) and foreign body in the ear (5.7%) were the most commonly diagnosed ear-related problems. Conclusion: Ear-related problems among children presenting at the UNTH Enugu were not uncommon. However, otitis me- dia was the most commonly diagnosed ailment ...

  9. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ear swabs of discharging ears aseptically collected from 102 patients of various age groups attending Ear, Nose, and Throat out-patient clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were cultured for bacterial agents using blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Culture plates were incubated ...

  10. Observation of Dog-Ear Regression by Anatomical Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Thomas A; Keane, James C; Varma, Rajat; Walsh, Stephanie B; Huang, Conway C

    2017-11-01

    When an excision is performed by a method other than elliptical excision, direct primary wound closure can result in standing cones or "dog-ears." In 2008, Lee and colleagues noted that dog-ears of <8 mm in height have a statistically greater tendency to resolve without further surgical correction than larger dog-ears. To stratify dog-ears by anatomic location and inform on the need for correction at the time of surgery. After tumor extirpation, patients were counseled that primary closure of the surgical wound would result in dog-ears at the wound apices. Dog-ears were left uncorrected in participating patients. At 6 months, patients were assessed for resolution of the dog-ears and asked to rate the appearance of the scar. A total of 140 dog-ears were observed in the study period. Anatomical locations included the hand/foot, trunk, limb, and head/neck. Among these dog-ears, 114/140 (81%) showed complete resolution. Patient satisfaction with the scar appearance correlated well with the dog-ear resolution, with most patients rating the appearance of the scar as good to excellent. This study suggests that dog-ears on the hand and dog-ears ≤4 mm on the trunk may be observed without any final cosmetic penalty.

  11. Finite element modelling of sound transmission from outer to inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areias, Bruno; Santos, Carla; Natal Jorge, Renato M; Gentil, Fernanda; Parente, Marco Pl

    2016-11-01

    The ear is one of the most complex organs in the human body. Sound is a sequence of pressure waves, which propagates through a compressible media such as air. The pinna concentrates the sound waves into the external auditory meatus. In this canal, the sound is conducted to the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane transforms the pressure variations into mechanical displacements, which are then transmitted to the ossicles. The vibration of the stapes footplate creates pressure waves in the fluid inside the cochlea; these pressure waves stimulate the hair cells, generating electrical signals which are sent to the brain through the cochlear nerve, where they are decoded. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model of the human ear is developed. The model incorporates the tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, part of temporal bone (external auditory meatus and tympanic cavity), middle ear ligaments and tendons, cochlear fluid, skin, ear cartilage, jaw and the air in external auditory meatus and tympanic cavity. Using the finite element method, the magnitude and the phase angle of the umbo and stapes footplate displacement are calculated. Two slightly different models are used: one model takes into consideration the presence of air in the external auditory meatus while the other does not. The middle ear sound transfer function is determined for a stimulus of 60 dB SPL, applied to the outer surface of the air in the external auditory meatus. The obtained results are compared with previously published data in the literature. This study highlights the importance of external auditory meatus in the sound transmission. The pressure gain is calculated for the external auditory meatus.

  12. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  13. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2017-10-20

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Melanin deposition ruled out as cause of color changes in the red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Gong, Shiping; Yang, Jiangbo; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Wei, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Animal coloration primarily depends on the presence of pigments and the mixing ratio of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The color of red-eared slider's carapace varies with age, from an olive green to a yellow green, and then to a yellow brown in juveniles, generally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this color change is related to the difference in melanin expression. Melanin deposition levels were examined in the carapace, skin, eye and muscle of the three color-types using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of red-eared slider turtle melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes TYR, TYRP1, MITF and SLC24A5 were cloned, sequenced and quantitatively analyzed. Both histological view of melanin deposition and quantitative real-time PCR test of melanin-regulated gene expressions showed that there are significant differences among different tissues of red-eared slider, but no significant difference among different color-types, indicating that melanin deposition is not associated with ontogenetic color change in the carapace of red-eared slider. This study initially explore the melanin deposition and the mRNA expression of melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes in red-eared slider, which serve as a foundation for further insight into the pigmentation patterns and the mechanism of body color change in turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstruction of a Large Anterior Ear Defect after Mohs Micrographic Surgery with a Cartilage Graft and Postauricular Revolving Door Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Nemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel postauricular revolving door island flap and cartilage graft combination was employed to correct a large defect on the anterior ear of an 84-year-old man who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery for an antihelical squamous cell carcinoma. The defect measured 4.6 × 2.4 cm and spanned the antihelix, scapha, a small portion of the helix, and a large segment of underlying cartilage, with loss of structural integrity and anterior folding of the ear. The repair involved harvesting 1.5 cm2 of exposed cartilage from the scaphoid fossa and then sculpting and suturing it to the remnant of the antihelical cartilage in order to recreate the antihelical crura. The skin of the posterior auricle was then incised just below the helical rim and folded anteriorly to cover the cartilage graft. The flap remained attached by a central subcutaneous pedicle, and an island designed using the full-thickness defect as a stencil template was pulled through the cartilage window anteriorly to resurface the anterior ear. This case demonstrates the use of the revolving door flap for coverage of large central ear defects with loss of cartilaginous support and illustrates how cartilage grafts may be used in combination with the flap to improve ear contour after resection.

  16. Characterization of the n_TOF EAR-2 neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Le Naour, C.; Durán, I.; Casarejos, E.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, J. I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The experimental area 2 (EAR-2) at CERNs neutron time-of-flight facility (n_TOF), which is operational since 2014, is designed and built as a short-distance complement to the experimental area 1 (EAR-1). The Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) monitor experiment was performed to characterize the beam pro↓le and the shape of the neutron 'ux at EAR-2. The prompt γ-flash which is used for calibrating the time-of-flight at EAR-1 is not seen by PPAC at EAR-2, shedding light on the physical origin of this γ-flash.

  17. Characterization of the n_TOF EAR-2 neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y.H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental area 2 (EAR-2 at CERNs neutron time-of-flight facility (n_TOF, which is operational since 2014, is designed and built as a short-distance complement to the experimental area 1 (EAR-1. The Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC monitor experiment was performed to characterize the beam pro↓le and the shape of the neutron 'ux at EAR-2. The prompt γ-flash which is used for calibrating the time-of-flight at EAR-1 is not seen by PPAC at EAR-2, shedding light on the physical origin of this γ-flash.

  18. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n = 86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  19. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Johnson

    Full Text Available Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE, shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6 torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, and 83% (n=86 of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  20. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.