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Sample records for ear pressure control

  1. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  2. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  3. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    2002-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  4. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  5. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  6. Subharmonic distortion in ear canal pressure and intracochlear pressure and motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stanley; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2012-08-01

    When driven at sound pressure levels greater than ~110 dB stimulus pressure level, the mammalian middle ear is known to produce subharmonic distortion. In this study, we simultaneously measured subharmonics in the ear canal pressure, intracochlear pressure, and basilar membrane or round window membrane velocity, in gerbil. Our primary objective was to quantify the relationship between the subharmonics measured in the ear canal and their intracochlear counterparts. We had two primary findings: (1) The subharmonics emerged suddenly, with a substantial amplitude in the ear canal and the cochlea; (2) at the stimulus level for which subharmonics emerged, the pressure in scala vestibuli/pressure in the ear canal amplitude relationship was similar for the subharmonic and fundamental components. These findings are important for experiments and clinical conditions in which high sound pressure level stimuli are used and could lead to confounding subharmonic stimulation.

  7. Middle Ear Pressure Changes during Balloon Eustachian Tuboplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Tysome, James R

    2017-01-01

    Objective Balloon eustachian tuboplasty (BET) has entered clinical use as a treatment for eustachian tube dysfunction. Some surgeons perform myringotomy prior to BET due to concerns that the increase in middle ear (ME) pressure caused by BET may cause otic barotrauma. We investigated the ME pressure changes occurring during BET in cadavers. Study design Human cadaver investigation of a surgical technique Setting Laboratory study at a tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods ME pressures were recorded from fresh-frozen cadavers, and BET was performed with the Bielefeld balloon catheter inflated to 10 bar. Peak ME pressures were recorded during catheter insertion, inflation, deflation, and removal. A second pressure measurement was taken 15 seconds after each stage to assess the residual pressures. All BET procedures were repeated at least once. Where transmastoid recordings were made, BET was repeated, measuring pressure via a myringotomy to ensure equivalence. Results Data from 25 procedures in 13 ears (9 heads) were analyzed. A consistent pattern of ME pressure change was observed in all cases. Positive pressures occurred on insertion (maximum, 26 daPa) and inflation (maximum, 99 daPa) and negative pressures on deflation (maximum, -46 daPa) and removal (maximum, -42 daPa). There were no significant pressure differences between first and second procedures, except at 15 seconds after insertion ( P = .04). Conclusion In adult cadaveric specimens, BET induces ME pressures within the normal physiologic range. On this basis, routine myringotomy prior to BET in adults is not necessary.

  8. Monitoring inner ear pressure changes in normal guinea pigs induced by the Meniett (R) 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2000-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during a series of complex escalating middle ear pressure changes induced by the Meniett(R)20 (Pascal Medical, Sweden), a possible therapeutic pressure generator to be used by patients with Meniere's disease. Middle ear pressure changes were t

  9. Monitoring inner ear pressure changes in normal guinea pigs induced by the Meniett (R) 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2000-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during a series of complex escalating middle ear pressure changes induced by the Meniett(R)20 (Pascal Medical, Sweden), a possible therapeutic pressure generator to be used by patients with Meniere's disease. Middle ear pressure changes were

  10. [Vertigo induced by noise or pressure to the left ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, D U; Dülks, A; Remmert, S

    2011-06-01

    A 49-year-old male patient presented with recently acquired vertigo induced by noise or pressure to the left ear. With appropriate stimulation, oscillopsia with a rotatory component could be reproduced in videooculography. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) showed increased amplitudes and a lowered threshold on the left side. CT of the petrous bone showed a bony dehiscence of the left superior semicircular canal. Conservative therapy was initiated as a first step.

  11. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was

  12. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    2003-01-01

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was approx

  13. Dynamics of inner ear pressure change caused by intracranial pressure manipulation in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, EO; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pressure changes in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment are transmitted to the inner ear. The main route for pressure transfer is the cochlear aqueduct, about which little is known with regard to its dynamic properties. In the present study, sudden intracranial press

  14. Dynamics of inner ear pressure change caused by intracranial pressure manipulation in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, EO; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ

    Previous studies have shown that pressure changes in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment are transmitted to the inner ear. The main route for pressure transfer is the cochlear aqueduct, about which little is known with regard to its dynamic properties. In the present study, sudden intracranial

  15. High Intensity Pressure Noise Transmission in Human Ear: A Three Dimensional Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Takumi; Gan, Rong; Leckness, Kegan

    2015-03-01

    High intensity pressure noise generated by explosions and jet engines causes auditory damage and hearing loss of the military service personals, which are the most common disabilities in the veterans. Authors have investigated the high intensity pressure noise transmission from the ear canal to middle ear cavity. A fluid-structure interaction with a viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane (TM) as well as the ossicular chain has been considered in the study. For the high intensity pressure simulation the geometry of the ear was based on a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear reported by Gan et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 2004). The model consists of the ear canal, TM, ossicular chain, and the middle ear cavity. The numerical approach includes two steps: 1) FE based finite-volume method simulation to compute pressure distributions in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity using CFX; and 2) FE modeling of TM and middle ear ossicles in response to high intensity sound using multi-physics analysis in ANSYS. The simulations provide the displacement of the TM/ossicular chain and the pressure fields in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. These results are compared with human temporal bone experimental data obtained in our group. This work was supported by DOD W81XWH-14-1-0228.

  16. Ear barotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air ... body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  17. Measurement of middle ear pressure changes during balloon eustachian tuboplasty: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Ingo; Abdel-Aziz, Tarek; Mittmann, Philipp; Lehmann, Martin; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sudhoff, Holger

    2017-05-01

    The middle ear pressure changes detected during BET can be directly attributed to the balloon inflation and may represent a second, immediate, mechanism of action of BET. BET seems to be safe with respect to the risk of a barotrauma. Further human studies are now necessary to confirm the results and gain more insight into the mechanism of action of BET. Since the introduction of Balloon Eustachian Tuboplasty (BET) as a treatment of chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, the precise mechanism of action is unknown. Long-term effects of BET may be related to observed microfractures of the Eustachian tube cartilage. However, clinical observations indicate a second, immediate mode of action. Therefore, this study investigated and characterized middle ear pressure changes occurring directly during BET procedure. Using a micro-optical pressure sensor, pressure changes during BET were monitored transtympanically in a cadaveric animal study using heathland sheep. Middle ear pressure amplitudes during BET are dependent on the speed of balloon inflation as well as the maximum inflation pressure. A 10-bar inflation pressure yielded a mean middle ear pressure of 5.34 mmHg (71.0 daPA). Negative pressure amplitudes occurring on withdrawal of the balloon catheter are influenced by the speed of withdrawal. No pressure amplitudes capable of causing barotrauma to membranous ear structures could be detected.

  18. A custom-made silicon mold for pressure therapy to ear keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, B; Yazar, M; Alyanak, A; Guven, E

    2009-11-01

    Keloids are raised reddish nodules that develop at the site of an injury. They are characterized histologically by an abundance of fibroblasts, thick collagen bundles, and ground substance. Auricular keloid formation is a known complication of ear piercing. Many types of treatments have been described for auricular keloids.Pressure therapy in combination with surgery, corticosteroid injection, or both is widely used to manage and prevent hypertrophic scarring. Many pressure devices and procedures have been developed. However, all of them are designed for the earlobe region. If a keloid grows in the posterior auricular region, none of the devices described in the literature will be effective. The authors developed a custom-made silicon ear mold that covers whole ear. With this mold, pressure can be applied homogeneously to the lobule and cartilaginous region, which the other devices described in the literature cannot affect. The preparation technique includes making the negative cast mold of the patient's ear, creating the positive cast mold from the negative cast mold, and forming the negative silicon mold from the positive cast. After all the processes, a silicon sheet has been designed according to the region needing to be pressurized. The designed silicon sheet is applied to the region, followed by placement of the silicon mold. A simple tennis head band can be used to stabilize the silicon cast. If the keloid extends to the posterior auricular region, pressurizing with clips or other devices described previously will be difficult. Application of pressure to the cartilaginous auricle needs custom-made devices. At this point, a pressure sore caused by a device applied to the ear is the most important problem. To prevent the ear from developing a pressure sore, the device should press to whole area homogeneously. For this reason, the device applied for pressure therapy to the ear must be custom made.

  19. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  20. Wideband energy reflectance measurements: effects of negative middle ear pressure and application of a pressure compensation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Mark D; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2013-07-01

    The wideband energy reflectance (ER) technique has become popular as a tool for evaluating middle ear function. Negative middle ear pressure (MEP) is a prevalent form of middle ear dysfunction, which may impact application of ER measurements in differential diagnosis. A negative MEP may be countervailed by application of an equivalent negative ear canal pressure. The present study examined ER in the same ears under normal and experimentally induced negative MEP conditions. Thirty-five subjects produced at least one negative MEP each (-40 to -225 daPa). Negative MEP significantly altered ER in a frequency-specific manner that varied with MEP magnitude. ER increased for low- to mid-frequencies with the largest change (~0.20 to 0.40) occurring between 1 and 1.5 kHz. ER decreased for frequencies above 3 kHz with the largest change (~-0.10 to -0.25) observed between 4.5 and 5.5 kHz. Magnitude of changes increased as MEP became more negative, as did the frequencies at which maximum changes occurred, and the frequency at which enhancement transitioned to reduction. Ear canal pressure compensation restored ER to near baseline values. This suggests that the compensation procedure adequately mitigates the effects of negative MEP on ER. Theoretical issues and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  2. Inner-ear sound pressures near the base of the cochlea in chinchilla: Further investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The middle-ear pressure gain GMEP, the ratio of sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV to sound pressure at the tympanic membrane PTM, is a descriptor of middle-ear sound transfer and the cochlear input for a given stimulus in the ear canal. GMEP and the cochlear partition differential pressure near the cochlear base ΔPCP, which determines the stimulus for cochlear partition motion and has been linked to hearing ability, were computed from simultaneous measurements of PV, PTM, and the sound pressure in scala tympani near the round window PST in chinchilla. GMEP magnitude was approximately 30 dB between 0.1 and 10 kHz and decreased sharply above 20 kHz, which is not consistent with an ideal transformer or a lossless transmission line. The GMEP phase was consistent with a roughly 50-μs delay between PV and PTM. GMEP was little affected by the inner-ear modifications necessary to measure PST. GMEP is a good predictor of ΔPCP at low and moderate frequencies where PV ⪢ PST but overestimates ΔPCP above a few kilohertz where PV ≈ PST. The ratio of PST to PV provides insight into the distribution of sound pressure within the cochlear scalae. PMID:23556590

  3. Middle Ear Pressure Regulation - Complementary Action of the Mastoid and Eustachian Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael; Dirckx, Joris J J; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS:: Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system. BACKGROUND:: MEP is a highly significant factor involved in many clinical conditions related to otitis media. Basic knowledge on its overall regulation remains insufficient...... of these distinct mechanisms were found. CONCLUSION:: The human mastoid as well as the Eustachian tube was capable of active counter-regulation of the MEP in short-term experimental pressure changes in healthy ears. Thus, these 2 systems seemed to function in a complementary way, where the mastoid was related...

  4. 76 FR 76085 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Vehicles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Vehicles and Related Items That the President Determines No.... The license requirements and other EAR-specific controls for such items also described in this notice... Category VII would be controlled by the EAR and its CCL if the President determines that the articles...

  5. Connectivity analysis of suggestive brain areas involved in middle ear pressure regulation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SA, Sami; Gaihede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    , MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases, combinations......HYPOTHESIS:: Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system. BACKGROUND:: MEP is a highly significant factor involved in many clinical conditions related to otitis media. Basic knowledge on its overall regulation remains insufficient...... of these distinct mechanisms were found. CONCLUSION:: The human mastoid as well as the Eustachian tube was capable of active counter-regulation of the MEP in short-term experimental pressure changes in healthy ears. Thus, these 2 systems seemed to function in a complementary way, where the mastoid was related...

  6. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and Related Items the President Determines No... requirements of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), if and after the President determines that such... USML. The licensing policies and other EAR-specific controls for such items that are also described...

  7. Effect of acute inner ear pressure changes on low-level distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, WL; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective - To determine a relation between acute inner ear pressure changes and cochlear function as measured by low-level 2f(1) - f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Material and Methods - During and after a change in inner ear pressure induced by injection or aspiration of per

  8. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  9. [Pressure relations between endocranial and intracochlear fluid spaces in patients with inner ear diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosepath, K; Maurer, J; Pelster, H; Thews, O; Mann, W

    1995-03-01

    Intracranial pressure is transmitted to the perilymph of the cochlea via the cochlear aquaeduct and via Reissner's membrane to the endolymph. The "Tympanic Membrane Displacement Analyser (TDA)" is a new device that may be a useful non-invasive method to show intracranial and intracochlear pressure changes indirectly measured by tympanic membrane displacement during stapedial reflex contraction. The TDA was utilised in 20 normal persons and in 29 patients with unilateral diseases of the inner ear. No significant differences in the tympanic membrane displacement were found between patients with sensorineural hearing loss, patients with Ménière's disease, and normal persons.

  10. The effects of ear acupressure, massage therapy and no therapy on symptoms of dementia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González López-Arza, María Victoria; Varela-Donoso, Enrique; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; González Sánchez, Blanca; Garrido-Ardila, Elisa María

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ear acupressure and massage vs. control in the improvement of pain, anxiety and depression in persons diagnosed with dementia. A pilot randomized controlled trial. Residential homes in Extremadura (Spain). A total of 120 elders with dementia institutionalized in residential homes. The participants were randomly allocated, in three groups. Control group - they continued with their routine activities; ear acupressure intervention group - they received ear acupressure treatment (pressure was applied to acupressure points on the ear); and massage therapy intervention group - they received relaxing massage therapy. The variables pain, anxiety and depression were assessed with the Doloplus2, Cornell and Campbell scales. The study was carried out during five months; three months of experimental treatment and two months with no treatment. The assessments were done at baseline, each month during the treatment and at one and two months of follow-up. In the statistical analysis the three groups were compared with each other. A total of 111 participants completed the study. Their aged ranged from 67 to 91 years old and 86 of them (77.4%) were women. The ear acupressure intervention group showed better improvements than the massage therapy intervention group in relation to pain and depression during the treatment period and at one month of follow-up. The best improvement in pain was achieved in the last (3rd) month of ear acupressure treatment (p  massage therapy showed better results than the control group in relation to pain, anxiety and depression. However, ear acupressure achieved more improvements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Ho Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future.

  12. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future.

  13. Study Of The Effect Of Nasal- Septal Deviation On The Middle Ear Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motesaddi Zarandi M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube connects middle ear space to the nasopharyngeal space. Upper airway obstruction, with any cause, can derange Eustachian tube function. Nasal septal deviation is one of the prevalent causes of upper airway obstruction which can affects the ventilation function of Eustachian tube."nMaterials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to unilateral nasal obstruction in Amiraalam hospital from summer of 1378 till the spring of 1379."nResults: There was 140 patients whose data were as: female patients 34 (24.3% male patients 106 (75.7%, mean age (22.7. Median age (20 years and mode of age (18 years of age. they were from 12 to 40 years of age."nConclusion: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative middle ear pressures shows no any significant statistical difference (p=0.798.

  14. 76 FR 80291 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Submersible Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Regulations (EAR): Control of Submersible Vessels, Oceanographic Equipment and Related Articles That the... Administration Regulations (EAR), if and after the President determines that such articles no longer warrant... rule because such items already are not on the USML. The licensing policies and other...

  15. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  16. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-01-15

    Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey.

  17. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2 mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16 kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC.

  18. Chlorfenapyr ear tags to control Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Volpogni, M M; Scherling, N; Cobeñas, M M; Mangold, A J; Anziani, O S; Ioppolo, M; Doscher, M

    2000-11-01

    The efficacy of ear tags containing 30% chlorfenapyr (total tag weight=13g) to control natural Haematobia irritans (L.) infestations was evaluated for Holstein heifers in Rafaela, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. A group of heifers (TG) was treated with two ear tags (one tag per ear). A control group (ACG) was maintained in a paddock adjacent to the TG paddock and, a distant control group (DCG) was maintained 700m apart from the other groups. From day 4 to day 98 after treatment, H. irritans infestations of ACG were significantly higher (Pchlorfenapyr control period, with an efficacy higher than 90% to reduce horn fly populations, lasted for 9 weeks when TG infestation was compared to fly numbers in ACG, but increased to 12 weeks in comparison to DCG. The results of this study show that ear tags impregnated with chlorfenapyr are a useful alternative to pyrethroids and organo-phosphate compounds for horn fly control.

  19. 76 FR 80282 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Vessels of War and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Regulations (EAR): Control of Vessels of War and Related Articles the President Determines No Longer Warrant... requirements of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), if and after the President determines that such... policies and other EAR-specific controls for such items that are also described in this proposed...

  20. 76 FR 68675 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Aircraft and Related Items...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Aircraft and Related Items the President Determines No Longer... Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . The identification number for this rulemaking is BIS-2011-0033. By...

  1. Pressure Controlled Chemical Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Megan R; Batista, Bruno C; Steinbock, Oliver

    2016-06-30

    The dissolution of metal salts in silicate solution can result in the growth of hollow precipitate tubes. These "chemical gardens" are a model of self-organization far from the equilibrium and create permanent macroscopic structures. The reproducibility of the growth process is greatly improved if the solid salt seed is replaced by a salt solution that is steadily injected by a pump; however, this modification of the original experiment eliminates the membrane-based osmotic pump at the base of conventional chemical gardens and does not allow for analyses in terms of the involved pressure. Here we describe a new experimental method that delivers the salt solution according to a controlled hydrostatic pressure. In one form of the experiment, this pressure slowly decreases as zinc sulfate solution flows into the silicate-containing reaction vessel, whereas a second version holds the respective solution heights constant. In addition to three known growth regimes (jetting, popping, budding), we observe single tubes that fill the vessel in a horizontally undulating but vertically layered fashion (crowding). The resulting, dried product has a cylindrical shape, very low density, and one continuous connection from top to bottom. We also present phase diagrams of these growth modes and show that the flow characteristics of our experiments follow a reaction-independent Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

  2. 77 FR 25932 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Energetic Materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Regulations (EAR): Control of Energetic Materials and Related Articles That the President Determines No Longer... this proposed rule describing how energetic materials and related articles that the President determines no longer warrant control under Category V (Explosives and Energetic Materials, Propellants...

  3. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Akarere C. Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S.

    2009-01-01

    elicited considerable attention over the past decade owing to their association with animal disease syndromes. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate ecofriendly approaches by using a maize rhizosphere isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Trev.) Mig. and its formulation to control ear rot......Abstract BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the staple food crops grown in India. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is the most important fungal pathogen of maize, associated with diseases such as ear rot and kernel rot. Apart from the disease, it is capable of producing fumonisins, which have....... verticillioides and the level of fumonisins to a maximum extent compared with the other treatments. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the potential role of P. fluorescens and its formulations in ear rot disease management. The biocontrol potential of this isolate is more suited for fumonisin reduction in maize...

  4. Ear Playing and Aural Development in the Instrumental Lesson: Results from a "Case-Control" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Green, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a case-control experiment that was conducted in 2012 as part of the Ear Playing Project (EPP) at the Institute of Education, University of London. The EPP developed from the "informal learning" strand of Musical Futures and engaged instrumental students in the UK in learning from specially-created audio recordings…

  5. Ear Acupuncture for Post-Operative Pain Associated with Ambulatory Arthroscopic Knee Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-14

    E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 14 Jan 2014 Final Report Ear acupuncture for post-operative pain associated with ambulatory arthroscopic...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. The purpose of this study is to compare ear acupuncture plus standard therapy versus...3298 Ear Acupuncture for Post-operative Pa111 Assoc1ated With Ambulatory Arthroscopic Knee Surgery A Randomized Controlled Trial ’• V ’’ ’-’ I

  6. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Suaste-Gómez; Grissel Rodríguez-Roldán; Héctor Reyes-Cruz; Omar Terán-Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this pr...

  7. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  8. Inner ear tissue preservation by rapid freezing: improving fixation by high-pressure freezing and hybrid methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, A; Taylor, R R; Kachar, B; Moores, C; Fleck, R A; Forge, A

    2014-09-01

    In the preservation of tissues in as 'close to life' state as possible, rapid freeze fixation has many benefits over conventional chemical fixation. One technique by which rapid freeze-fixation can be achieved, high pressure freezing (HPF), has been shown to enable ice crystal artefact-free freezing and tissue preservation to greater depths (more than 40 μm) than other quick-freezing methods. Despite increasingly becoming routine in electron microscopy, the use of HPF for the fixation of inner ear tissue has been limited. Assessment of the quality of preservation showed routine HPF techniques were suitable for preparation of inner ear tissues in a variety of species. Good preservation throughout the depth of sensory epithelia was achievable. Comparison to chemically fixed tissue indicated that fresh frozen preparations exhibited overall superior structural preservation of cells. However, HPF fixation caused characteristic artefacts in stereocilia that suggested poor quality freezing of the actin bundles. The hybrid technique of pre-fixation and high pressure freezing was shown to produce cellular preservation throughout the tissue, similar to that seen in HPF alone. Pre-fixation HPF produced consistent high quality preservation of stereociliary actin bundles. Optimising the preparation of samples with minimal artefact formation allows analysis of the links between ultrastructure and function in inner ear tissues. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 61873 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL) Clearer; Final Rule #0;#0... 774 [Docket No. 110818512-3478-02] RIN 0694-AF37 Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations... in a proposed rule entitled Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make...

  10. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  11. Recipient government control under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna

    -scale infrastructure refurbishment, a key feature of the government‟s agenda at the time. During the 2008-2009 renegotiation phase, the Congolese government‟s ability to exercise control was gradually weakened due to pressure from the traditional donors to rearrange priorities and move macroeconomic concerns, notably...... agenda to secure both Chinese funding and HIPC debt relief. The paper thus concludes that recipient government control was retained, although it was under heavy pressure....

  12. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Siddhartha N; Goswami, Debahuti; Sarma, Hridip K; Cameotra, Swaranjit S; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs) has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.). F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l(-1) resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  13. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Narayan Borah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.. F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  14. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Siddhartha N.; Goswami, Debahuti; Sarma, Hridip K.; Cameotra, Swaranjit S.; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs) has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.). F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides. PMID:27708638

  15. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  16. Opuntia Extract Reduces Scar Formation in Rabbit Ear Model: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Quan; Huang, Chunlan; You, Chuangang; Ma, Shaolin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of Opuntia stricta H (Cactaceae) extract on suppression of hypertrophic scar on ventral surface wounds of rabbit ears. Full thickness skin defection was established in a rabbit ear to simulate hypertrophic scar. Opuntia extract was sprayed on the wounds in the experimental group, and normal saline was used in the control group. After the wounds healed with scar formation, the hypertrophic scar tissue was harvested on days 22, 39, and 54 for histological analysis. The expression of type I and type III collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the scar of the control group is more prominent compared with the opuntia extract group. The expression of type I collagen in the opuntia extract group was lower than the control group, while type III collagen in opuntia extract group gradually increased and exceeded control group. The expression of MMP-1 decreased in the opuntia extract group, while the control group increased over time, but the amount of MMP-1 was much higher than that in the control group on day 22. In conclusion, opuntia extract reduces hypertrophic scar formation by means of type I collagen inhibition, and increasing type III collagen and MMP-1.T he novel application of opuntia extract may lead to innovative and effective antiscarring therapies.

  17. Cauliflower Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  18. Swimmer's ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse when you pull on the outer ear Hearing loss Itching of the ear or ear canal ... reduce itching and inflammation Pain medicine, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ...

  19. Ear wax

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, George GG

    2008-01-01

    Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment, or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears.Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes.

  20. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they travel through the ... ear's main job is to take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  1. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  2. Ear trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  3. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-03-04

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  4. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Suaste-Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C. The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing. More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  5. Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall ... Not Alone / Keep Weight Off / Facts About Fat / Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Fall 2008 Issue: ...

  6. Ear Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... the Ears, Nose, and Throat Additional Content Medical News Ear Tumors ... NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  7. Ear Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You use all of them in hearing. Sound waves come in through your outer ear. They reach your middle ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, ...

  8. Use of insecticide-impregnated ear tags for the control of face flies and horn-flies on pastured cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R E; Westby, E J; Hendrix, K S; Lemenager, R P

    1981-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated ear tags in controlling face flies, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linn.), on pastured beef cattle. In one 16-week trial, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ear tags treated with stirofos (Rabon) insecticide reduced horn fly numbers by 79% (P less than .05) and face fly numbers by 30% (P less than .05). Coumaphos (Co-Ral) insecticide dust bags used in a separate herd produced an 86% (P less than .05) reduction in horn flies and an 18% (P less than .05) reduction in face flies. In the second study, 5 and 10% permethrin (Atroban), PVC-treated ear tags in a one-piece design were tested. In this 11 week trial, horn fly control averaged 95% (P less than .05) with the 10% tag and 77% (P less than .05) with the 5% tag. Face fly control averaged 49% (P less than .05) for 8 weeks with the 10% permethrin tag. No significant face fly control was achieved with the 5% permethrin tag. In a herd treated with coumaphos dust bags, horn fly control averaged 93% (P less than .05) and face fly control averaged 34% (P less than .05). The third study tested 5 and 10% permethrin, PVC-treated ear tags in a two-piece design and two-piece 5% permethrin-treated ear tags in a polyurethane matrix. Fourteen-week horn fly control averaged 88% (P less than .05) with the 10% PVC-treated tag, 83% (P less than .05) with the 5% PVC-treated tag, 71% (P less than .05) with the 5% polyurethane-treated tag and 74% (P less than .05) with coumaphos dust bags. Face fly control averaged less than 50% (P greater than .05) throughout the trial with all treatments.

  9. Elephant ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Elephant ear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002867.htm Elephant ear To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, ...

  10. Hydrostatic fluid pressure in the vestibular organ of the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Jonas J. -H.; Boeven, Jahn J.; Vogel, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen; Wit, Hero P.; Westhofen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since inner ear hair cells are mechano-electric transducers the control of hydrostatic pressure in the inner ear is crucial. Most studies analyzing dynamics and regulation of inner ear hydrostatic pressure performed pressure measurements in the cochlea. The present study is the first one reporting a

  11. Effect of a single session of ear acupuncture on pain intensity and postural control in individuals with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ushinohama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Ear Acupuncture (EA is a form of acupuncture in which needles are applied to the external ear and has been used in multiple painful conditions. Low back pain (LBP is highly prevalent in active individuals and causes high economic burden to health systems worldwide. LBP affects the person’s ability to keep balance, especially in challenging conditions. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a single session of EA on pain intensity and body sway during postural tasks. Method Eighty adults with LBP and pain intensity equal to or greater than 4 (0-10 scale were randomly allocated (1:1 to EA group (EAG or placebo group (PG. Initially, the level of pain intensity was assessed. Next, participants stood still on a force plate either with feet in parallel or in semi-tandem and with eyes open or closed. Then, the EAG was treated with EA for 20 min and the PG was treated with detuned ultrasound. After the treatment, pain intensity was assessed again and the postural test was repeated. Pain intensity was the primary outcome and center of pressure sway area and speed were the secondary outcomes measured. Results Results revealed that pain intensity decreased in both groups after treatment, but decreased more in the EAG. For postural control, no effect of treatment and no interaction between treatment and postural condition on body sway were found. Conclusion Those findings indicate that EA is better than placebo to reduce pain, but neither treatment has any effect on postural control.

  12. Blood pressure in young adults with and without a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease in Europe: the EARS study. [European arteriosclerosis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masana, L.; Farinaro, E.; Henauw, S. de; Nicaud, V.

    1996-01-01

    Objective : The European Arteriosclerosis Study (EARS) was designed to identify variables which discriminate subjects with a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) from controls and to study the distribution of these variables across Europe. In this article we report on the blood

  13. Ear Acupuncture Therapy for Masticatory Myofascial and Temporomandibular Pain: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ambrosio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear acupuncture works by reducing painful sensations with analgesic effect through microsystem therapy and has been demonstrated to be as effective as conventional therapies in the control of facial pain. This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the adjuvant action of auricular acupuncture through an observation of the evolution of temporomandibular and masticatory myofascial symptoms in two groups defined by the therapies elected: auricular acupuncture associated with occlusal splint (study and the use of the occlusal splint plate alone (control. We have selected 20 patients, who were randomly allocated into two groups of ten individuals. Symptoms were evaluated in five different moments, every seven days. We analyzed the orofacial muscle and joint palpation in order to measure the intensity of the experienced pain. Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in muscle and joint symptoms (p<0.05. However, comparisons between the groups showed an expressive and significant reduction of symptomatology in the study group (p<0.05 already on the first week of therapy. According to the results, to the methodological criteria developed and statistical analysis applied, the conclusion is that auricular acupuncture therapy has synergistic action on conventional occlusal splint treatment. It was demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of symptoms in the short term.

  14. Essential oils on the control of stem and ear rot in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Antonio Teixeira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem and ear rot caused by Stenocarpella maydis are responsible for severe losses in maize production. Treatment of seeds with fungicides may induce environmental damage. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of essential oils extracted from Cymbopogon winterianus, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, Corymbia citriodora, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Syzygium aromaticum on the development of in vitro S. maydis. In addition, maize seeds were treated with these essential oils to determine their possible mode of action and effects. The oils from S. aromaticum, C. zeylanicum, and T. vulgaris inhibited fungal development at concentrations higher than 0.025%. The oils from S. aromaticum and C. zeylanicum showed seed germination rates of 89.0% and 84.5%, which were higher than that of the control. The oils from S. aromaticum and C. zeylanicum reduced the pathogen incidence in the seeds to 39.0% and 28.0%, respectively. Further, these oils as well as that from T. vulgaris produced lower reduction of maize stand. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that essential oils from S. aromaticum and T. vulgaris acted directly on the conidia, impeding germination. The findings suggest that the oils from S. aromaticum, C. zeylanicum, and T. vulgaris are potential alternatives for maize seed treatment in the control of S. maydis.

  15. Ear Acupuncture Therapy for Masticatory Myofascial and Temporomandibular Pain: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; Grossmann, Eduardo; Januzzi, Eduardo; Gonçalves, Rafael Tardin Rosa Ferraz; Mares, Fernando Antonio Guedes; de Paula, Marcos Vinicius Queiroz; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires

    2015-01-01

    Ear acupuncture works by reducing painful sensations with analgesic effect through microsystem therapy and has been demonstrated to be as effective as conventional therapies in the control of facial pain. This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the adjuvant action of auricular acupuncture through an observation of the evolution of temporomandibular and masticatory myofascial symptoms in two groups defined by the therapies elected: auricular acupuncture associated with occlusal splint (study) and the use of the occlusal splint plate alone (control). We have selected 20 patients, who were randomly allocated into two groups of ten individuals. Symptoms were evaluated in five different moments, every seven days. We analyzed the orofacial muscle and joint palpation in order to measure the intensity of the experienced pain. Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in muscle and joint symptoms (p < 0.05). However, comparisons between the groups showed an expressive and significant reduction of symptomatology in the study group (p < 0.05) already on the first week of therapy. According to the results, to the methodological criteria developed and statistical analysis applied, the conclusion is that auricular acupuncture therapy has synergistic action on conventional occlusal splint treatment. It was demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of symptoms in the short term. PMID:26351510

  16. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 10,2017 The importance of stress ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  17. Pressure Points: Preventing and Controlling Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Pressure Points: Preventing and Controlling Hypertension Past Issues / Summer ... turn Javascript on. May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month, a good time for many Americans ...

  18. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  19. Application of adaptive fuzzy control technology to pressure control of a pressurizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ben-kun; BIAN Xin-qian; GUO Wei-lai

    2005-01-01

    A pressurizer is one of important equipment in a pressurized water reactor plant. It is used to maintain the pressure of primary coolant within allowed range because the sharp change of coolant pressure affects the security of reactor,therefor,the study of pressurizer's pressure control methods is very important. In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy controller is presented for pressure control of a pressurizer in a nuclear power plant. The controller can on-line tune fuzzy control rules and parameters by self-learning in the actual control process, which possesses the way of thinking like human to make a decision. The simulation results for a pressurized water reactor plant show that the adaptive fuzzy controller has optimum and intelligent characteristics, which prove the controller is effective.

  20. Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research project will develop Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes (PCHPs) for precise temperature control (milli-Kelvin level). Several...

  1. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cold or flu symptoms?YesNoDo you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear pain ... or 2 days, see your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA tooth problem can radiate pain to the ear on the same side.Self ...

  2. Ear acupuncture or local anaesthetics as pain relief during postpartum surgical repair: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, S; Klünder, L; Strøm, J

    2009-01-01

    -hour hands-on training in the use of ear acupuncture. All midwives (n= 36) in the department had previous experience in using acupuncture for obstetric pain relief. Pain and wound healing were evaluated using validated scores. Data collection was performed by research assistants blinded towards...... treatment allocation. Randomisation was computer assisted. A total of 207 women were randomised to receive ear acupuncture (105) and local anaesthetics (102), respectively. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was pain during surgical repair. Secondary outcomes were wound healing at 24-48 hours and 14...... days postpartum, participant satisfaction, revision of wound or dyspareunia reported 6 months postpartum. Results Pain during surgical repair was more frequently reported by participants allocated to ear acupuncture compared with participants receiving local anaesthetics (89 versus 54%, P

  3. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  4. Ear problems in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  5. Perilymphatic pressure dynamics following posture change in patients with Menière's disease and in normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosingh, H J; Wit, H P; Albers, F W

    1998-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure of the inner ear depends on the cerebrospinal fluid pressure through the cochlear aqueduct. The time-course of inner ear pressure change following rapid change in cerebrospinal fluid pressure is related to the aqueduct patency. In this study the patency of the cochlear aqueduct in 27 patients with Menière's disease (28 affected ears, 16 non-affected ears) and in 12 normal hearing subjects (18 control ears) was assessed non-invasively by means of the MMS-10 Tympanic Displacement Analyser. Following a rapid change in body position, changes in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid pressure were found to influence perilymphatic pressure within 1 min. No significant differences were found among affected ears, non-affected ears and control ears.

  6. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... classified in 0Y521 ECCNs by definition would only be items subject to the EAR. If an item were not subject... Administrative practice and procedure, Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR... and all other items which meet the definition of that term. For ease of reference and...

  7. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  8. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... additional information about ear infections? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...

  9. Airplane Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe hearing loss Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) Spinning sensation (vertigo) Vomiting resulting from vertigo Bleeding from ... the back of the nasal cavity and the top of the throat meet (nasopharynx). When an airplane ...

  10. Earth pressure balance control for EPB shield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the critical technology of earth pressure balance (EPB) control in shield tunneling. On the assumption that the conditioned soil in the working chamber of the shield is plasticized, a theoretical principle for EPB control is proposed. Dynamic equilibrium of intake volume and discharge volume generated by thrust and discharge is modeled theoretically to simulate the earth pressure variation during excavating. The thrust system and the screw conveyor system for earth pressure control are developed based on the electro-hydraulic technique. The control models of the thrust speed regulation of the cylinders and the rotating speed adjustment of the screw conveyor are also presented. Simulation for earth pressure control is conducted with software AMESim and MATLAB/Simulink to verify the models. Experiments are carried out with intake control in clay soil and discharge control in sandy gravel section, respectively. The experimental results show that the earth pressure variations in the working chamber can be kept at the expected value with a practically acceptable precision by means of real-time tuning the thrust speed or the revolving speed of discharge system.

  11. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity...... at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound...... pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons...

  12. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  13. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, ... heard a soft sound or a loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is ...

  14. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  15. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  16. Better Ear Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  17. How the Ear Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  18. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  19. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, H.M. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Research on pressure control of pressurizer in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling; Yang, Xuhong; Liu, Gang; Ye, Jianhua; Qian, Hong; Xue, Yang

    2010-07-01

    Pressurizer is one of the most important components in the nuclear reactor system. Its function is to keep the pressure of the primary circuit. It can prevent shutdown of the system from the reactor accident under the normal transient state while keeping the setting value in the normal run-time. This paper is mainly research on the pressure system which is running in the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. A conventional PID controller and a fuzzy controller are designed through analyzing the dynamic characteristics and calculating the transfer function. Then a fuzzy PID controller is designed by analyzing the results of two controllers. The fuzzy PID controller achieves the optimal control system finally.

  1. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Computer controlled vent and pressurization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslewicz, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Centaur space launch vehicle airborne computer, which was primarily used to perform guidance, navigation, and sequencing tasks, was further used to monitor and control inflight pressurization and venting of the cryogenic propellant tanks. Computer software flexibility also provided a failure detection and correction capability necessary to adopt and operate redundant hardware techniques and enhance the overall vehicle reliability.

  3. Oxygen partial pressure control for microgravity experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Michael; Brillo, Jürgen; Stenzel, Christian; Fritze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    A system consisting of a high-temperature yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) based oxygen ion pump and potentiometric sensor enables precise measurement and control of oxygen partial pressure, pO2, at elevated temperatures within 0.2 to 10^-20 bar.

  4. The strange case of the ear and the heart: the auricular vagus nerve and its influence on cardiac control

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, AR; Atkinson, L; Mahadi, MK; Deuchars, SA; Deuchars, J

    2016-01-01

    The human ear seems an unlikely candidate for therapies aimed at improving cardiac function, but the ear and the heart share a common connection: the vagus nerve. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN), a unique cutaneous subdivision of the vagus distributed to the external ear. Non-invasive electrical stimulation of this nerve through the skin may offer a simple, cost-effective alternative to the established method of vagus nerve ...

  5. Remote Pressure Control - Considering Pneumatic Tubes in Controller Design

    OpenAIRE

    Rager, David; Neumann, Rüdiger; Murrenhoff, Hubertus

    2016-01-01

    In pneumatic pressure control applications the influence of tubes that connect the valve with the control volume ist mainly neglected. This can lead to stability and robustness issues and limit either control performance or tube length. Modeling and considering tube behavior in controller design procedure allows longer tubes while maintaining the required performance and robustness properties without need for manual tuning. The author\\'s previously published Simplified Fluid Transmission Line...

  6. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-31

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial characteristics, incidence and progression of retinopathy, visual acuity, quality of life

  7. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  8. Weed control and green ear yield in maize Controle de plantas daninhas e rendimento de espigas verdes de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of weeding frequency on cultivar Centralmex green corn yield. Two experiments were conducted in Mossoró-RN (Brazil, with the use of sprinkler irrigation. A random block design with four replicates was used. It was observed that the total number and weight (TW of unhusked green ears, the number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and the number and weight of marketable husked ears were reduced under no weeding treatment. The number timing of weedings did not influence green corn yield, except for one weeding at 60 DAP, which was equivalent to the "no weeding" treatment, for TW. When maize is marketed considering the total number of green ears, higher net income is obtained when one weeding is carried out 45 days after planting.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as influências da freqüência de capinas sobre o rendimento de milho-verde do cultivar Centralmex. Dois experimentos foram realizados em Mossoró-RN, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que a ausência de capinas reduz o número e o peso (PT totais de espigas verdes empalhadas, o número e o peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e o número e o peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O número e a época de realização das capinas não influenciaram o rendimento de milho-verde, exceto uma capina aos 60 DAP, que é equivalente ao tratamento "sem capina", para PT. Quando o milho é comercializado considerando-se o número total de espigas verdes, maior receita líquida é obtida com a realização de uma capina, aos 45 dias após o plantio.

  9. Pressure regulation for earth pressure balance control on shield tunneling machine by using adaptive robust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haibo; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Huayong

    2016-05-01

    Most current studies about shield tunneling machine focus on the construction safety and tunnel structure stability during the excavation. Behaviors of the machine itself are also studied, like some tracking control of the machine. Yet, few works concern about the hydraulic components, especially the pressure and flow rate regulation components. This research focuses on pressure control strategies by using proportional pressure relief valve, which is widely applied on typical shield tunneling machines. Modeling of a commercial pressure relief valve is done. The modeling centers on the main valve, because the dynamic performance is determined by the main valve. To validate such modeling, a frequency-experiment result of the pressure relief valve, whose bandwidth is about 3 Hz, is presented as comparison. The modeling and the frequency experimental result show that it is reasonable to regard the pressure relief valve as a second-order system with two low corner frequencies. PID control, dead band compensation control and adaptive robust control (ARC) are proposed and simulation results are presented. For the ARC, implements by using first order approximation and second order approximation are presented. The simulation results show that the second order approximation implement with ARC can track 4 Hz sine signal very well, and the two ARC simulation errors are within 0.2 MPa. Finally, experiment results of dead band compensation control and adaptive robust control are given. The results show that dead band compensation had about 30° phase lag and about 20% off of the amplitude attenuation. ARC is tracking with little phase lag and almost no amplitude attenuation. In this research, ARC has been tested on a pressure relief valve. It is able to improve the valve's dynamic performances greatly, and it is capable of the pressure control of shield machine excavation.

  10. Comparison of the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard endotracheal tube and a cylindrical endotracheal tube after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunkyung; Park, Yongmin; Jeon, Younghoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Positional change affects the cuff pressure of an endotracheal tube (ETT) in treacheally intubated patients. We compared the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard ETT and a cylindrical ETT after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery. Methods: Fifty-two patients aged 18–70 years underwent a tympanomastoidectomy under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive endotracheal intubation with cylindrical (group C, n = 26) or TaperGuard ETTs (group T, n = 26). After endotracheal intubation, the ETT cuff pressure was set at 22 cmH2O in the neutral position of head. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure was measured again and readjusted to 22 cmH2O. In addition, the change of distance from the carina to the tip of the ETT was measured before and after the positional change. The incidence of cough, sore throat, and hoarseness was assessed at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no difference in demographic data between groups. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure significantly increased in group T (11.9 ± 2.3 cmH2O) compared with group C (6.0 ± 1.9 cmH2O) (P 30 cmH2O was higher in group T (96.2%) than in group C (30.8%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the degree of displacement of an ETT was greater in group T (11.0 ± 1.7 mm) than in group C (7.2 ± 2.6 mm) (P < 0.001). The overall incidences of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness, and cough at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery were comparable between two groups. Conclusion: The cuff pressure was higher in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT after positional change of head from neutral to lateral rotation. In addition, after a positional change, the extent of displacement of ETT was greater in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT. PMID:28272230

  11. Simulation research on control algorithm of differential pressure casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai Yan; Jie Wanqi; Yang Bo

    2009-01-01

    To improve the precision of the filling pressure curve of differential pressure casting controlled with PID controller,the model of differential pressure casting process is established and two pressure-difference control systems using PID algorithm and Dahlin algorithm are separately designed in MATLAB. The scheduled pressure curves controlled with PID algorithm and Dahlin algorithm,respectively,are comparatively simulated in MATLAB.The simulated pressure curves obtained show that the control precision with Dahlin algorithm is higher than that with PID algorithm in the differential pressure casting process,and it was further verified by production practice.

  12. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana V. Do

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure.OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes.METHODS:Search methods: We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria: We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis: Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We

  13. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  14. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae: Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Moriarty

    Full Text Available Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation.

  15. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  16. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  17. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  18. 78 FR 45026 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... military electronics and certain superconducting and cryogenic equipment and related items the President..., Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, which would amend the list of articles controlled by USML Category XI... CONTACT: Brian Baker, Director, Electronics and Materials Division, Office of National Security...

  19. 76 FR 41957 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Items the President...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    .... continues to control all WAML items. In addition, multinational companies that must deal with both the USML... there would be a significant volume of trade between and among private companies in the STA countries...

  20. 78 FR 31431 - Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... telemetry, tracking, and control of the ``spacecraft'' in paragraph 9A515.a. Paragraph .c would be reserved... Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (``Wassenaar Arrangement'') amended its definition of... are dual-use items that have commercial applications. Therefore, the application of this requirement...

  1. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  2. Exercise and dehydration: A possible role of inner ear in balance control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Djaballah, Karim; Mallié, Jean-Pierre; Perrin, Philippe P

    2010-12-01

    To study the effect of exercise and dehydration on the postural sensory-motor strategies, 10 sportsmen performed a 45 min-exercise on a cycle ergometer at intensity just below the ventilatory threshold without fluid intake. They performed, before, immediately and 20 min after exercise, a sensory organization test to evaluate balance control in six different sensory situations, that combine three visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and sway-referenced visual surround motion) with two platform conditions (stable platform, sway-referenced platform motion). Blood samples were collected before and after exercise. Exercise induced a mild dehydration, characterized by body mass loss and increase in proteinemia. Postural performances decreased immediately after exercise, mainly in the standard situation (eyes open, stable visual surround and platform) and when only the vestibular cue was reliable (eyes closed and sway-referenced platform). Moreover, the decreased use of vestibular input was correlated with the dehydration level. Finally, postural performances normalized 20 min after exercise. Even though muscular fatigue could explain the decrease in postural performances, vestibular fluid modifications may also be involved by its influence on the intralabyrinthine homeostasis, lowering thus the contribution of vestibular information on balance control.

  3. The ability of insecticidal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1987-01-01

    Jespersen, J.B. and K.-M. Vagn Jensen, 1987. The ability of insectici¬dal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers. In Thomas, G., H. J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (Editor): Summer Masitits (ISBN O-89838-982-8) pp. 166-172....

  4. The ability of insecticidal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1987-01-01

    Jespersen, J.B. and K.-M. Vagn Jensen, 1987. The ability of insectici¬dal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers. In Thomas, G., H. J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (Editor): Summer Masitits (ISBN O-89838-982-8) pp. 166-172....

  5. Effect of Water Needling and Ear Pressure on Blood Glucose in Diabetic Patients%水针偶刺配合耳压法对糖尿病患者血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕; 赵义刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of water needling ( acupoint injection plus auricular ) and mechanism on diabetic hypoglycemic function.Methods:46 patients were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group with 23 cases in each group.In two groups patients with primary diabetes received propaganda and education, controlling food, exercise and the original antidiabetic drug therapy,and the treat-ment group added water needling and ear pressure.Results:The clinical efficacy of the treatment group was bet-ter than that of the control group( P<0.01) .TCM syndrome and integral in the treatment group was also better than those in the control group ( P<0.05) .Conclusion:Water needling plus auricular method has an obviously hypoglycemic effect and can improve the TCM syndrome.%目的:观察水针(穴位注射)加耳压治疗糖尿病降糖的临床疗效及作用机制。方法:将46例糖尿病患者随机分为治疗组与对照组各23例,两组患者在原糖尿病宣教、控食、运动及原降糖药物治疗不变的基础上,治疗组加水针配合耳压治疗。结果:治疗组空腹降糖的临床疗效优于对照组(P<0.01),治疗组临床症候和体征积分也优于对照组( P<0.05)。结论:水针配合耳压法有明显的降糖疗效及改善中医证候的作用。

  6. Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of High Pressure Fuel Cell Back-Pressure Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactant pressure is crucial to the efficiency and lifespan of a high pressure PEMFC engine. This paper analyses a regulated back-pressure valve (BPV for the cathode outlet flow in a high pressure PEMFC engine, which can achieve precisely pressure control. The modeling, parameters identification, and nonlinear controller design of a BPV system are considered. The identified parameters are used in designing active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC. Simulations and extensive experiments are conducted with the xPC Target and show that the proposed controller can not only achieve good dynamic and static performance but also have strong robustness against parameters’ disturbance and external disturbance.

  7. The strange case of the ear and the heart: The auricular vagus nerve and its influence on cardiac control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aaron R; Atkinson, Lucy; Mahadi, Mohd K; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2016-08-01

    The human ear seems an unlikely candidate for therapies aimed at improving cardiac function, but the ear and the heart share a common connection: the vagus nerve. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN), a unique cutaneous subdivision of the vagus distributed to the external ear. Non-invasive electrical stimulation of this nerve through the skin may offer a simple, cost-effective alternative to the established method of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), which requires a surgical procedure and has generated mixed results in a number of clinical trials for heart failure. This review discusses the available evidence in support of modulating cardiac activity using this strange auricular nerve.

  8. Poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections: any relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3-12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was determined by using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Greene and Vermillion. The scores of 0-1 were classified as low, and of 2-3 as high oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The low OHI-S was taken as the control group (30 patients). The high OHI-S was taken as the study group (29 patients). The effusion scores, the compliance values and the middle ear pressure values in the two groups were compared. The difference between the effusion score values of the control and study groups was found to be statistically meaningful (p = 0.338, and the χ(2) = 2.167). The compliance values of the control and study groups did not differ meaningfully statistically (p = 0.671). However, there was a statistically meaningful low middle ear pressure (p = 0.044, χ(2) = 4.069) in the control group. Since this finding is expected in the study group, instead of the control group, we did not make an issue of this result. We conclude from these clinical results that there is no statistically meaningful relation between the oral hygiene index and the middle ear.

  9. Breathing-control lowers blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E; Grossman, A; Schein, M H; Zimlichman, R; Gavish, B

    2001-04-01

    We hypothesise that routinely applied short sessions of slow and regular breathing can lower blood pressure (BP). Using a new technology BIM (Breathe with Interactive Music), hypertensive patients were guided towards slow and regular breathing. The present study evaluates the efficacy of the BIM in lowering BP. We studied 33 patients (23M/10F), aged 25-75 years, with uncontrolled BP. Patients were randomised into either active treatment with the BIM (n = 18) or a control treatment with a Walkman (n = 15). Treatment at home included either musically-guided breathing exercises with the BIM or listening to quiet music played by a Walkman for 10 min daily for 8 weeks. BP and heart rate were measured both at the clinic and at home with an Omron IC BP monitor. Clinic BP levels were measured at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Home BP measurements were taken daily, morning and evening, throughout the study. The two groups were matched by initial BP, age, gender, body mass index and medication status. The BP change at the clinic was -7.5/-4.0 mm Hg in the active treatment group, vs -2.9/-1.5 mm Hg in the control group (P = 0.001 for systolic BP). Analysis of home-measured data showed an average BP change of -5.0/-2.7 mm Hg in the active treatment group and -1.2/+0.9 mm Hg in the control group. Ten out of 18 (56%) were defined as responders in the active treatment group but only two out of 14 (14%) in the control group (P = 0.02). Thus, breathing exercise guided by the BIM device for 10 min daily is an effective non-pharmacological modality to reduce BP.

  10. Fuzzy control applied to nuclear power plant pressurizer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Almeida, Jose C.S., E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.b, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs) the pressure control in the primary loop is very important for keeping the reactor in a safety condition and improve the generation process efficiency. The main component responsible for this task is the pressurizer. The pressurizer pressure control system (PPCS) utilizes heaters and spray valves to maintain the pressure within an operating band during steady state conditions, and limits the pressure changes, during transient conditions. Relief and safety valves provide overpressure protection for the reactor coolant system (RCS) to ensure system integrity. Various protective reactor trips are generated if the system parameters exceed safe bounds. Historically, a proportional-integral derivative (PID) controller is used in PWRs to keep the pressure in the set point, during those operation conditions. The purpose of this study has two main goals: first is to develop a pressurizer model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs); second is to develop a fuzzy controller for the PWR pressurizer pressure, and compare its performance with the P controller. Data from a simulator PWR plant was used to test the ANN and the controllers as well. The reference simulator is a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant with a total thermal output of 2785 MWth. The simulation results show that the pressurizer ANN model response are in reasonable agreement with the simulated power plant, and the fuzzy controller built in this study has better performance compared to the P controller. (author)

  11. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe Wanzala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita, were initially screened (at two doses for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg. Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%, dihydrotagetone (16.71%, piperitenone (10.15%, trans-tagetone (8.67%, 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10diene (6.47%, β-ocimene (3.25%, and cis-tagetone (1.95%, whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α-pinene (63.64%, β-pinene (15.00%, isocaryophyllene (7.62%, nerolidol (3.70%, 1-tridecanol (1.75%, limonene (1.52%, and sabinene (1.00%. The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus.

  12. Hearing Loss Controlled by Optogenetic Stimulation of Nonexcitable Nonglial Cells in the Cochlea of the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo P. Sato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light-gated ion channels and transporters have been applied to a broad array of excitable cells including neurons, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle cells and pancreatic β-cells in an organism to clarify their physiological and pathological roles. Nonetheless, among nonexcitable cells, only glial cells have been studied in vivo by this approach. Here, by optogenetic stimulation of a different nonexcitable cell type in the cochlea of the inner ear, we induce and control hearing loss. To our knowledge, deafness animal models using optogenetics have not yet been established. Analysis of transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 induced by an oligodendrocyte-specific promoter identified this channel in nonglial cells—melanocytes—of an epithelial-like tissue in the cochlea. The membrane potential of these cells underlies a highly positive potential in a K+-rich extracellular solution, endolymph; this electrical property is essential for hearing. Illumination of the cochlea to activate ChR2 and depolarize the melanocytes significantly impaired hearing within a few minutes, accompanied by a reduction in the endolymphatic potential. After cessation of the illumination, the hearing thresholds and potential returned to baseline during several minutes. These responses were replicable multiple times. ChR2 was also expressed in cochlear glial cells surrounding the neuronal components, but slight neural activation caused by the optical stimulation was unlikely to be involved in the hearing impairment. The acute-onset, reversible and repeatable phenotype, which is inaccessible to conventional gene-targeting and pharmacological approaches, seems to at least partially resemble the symptom in a population of patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Taken together, this mouse line may not only broaden applications of optogenetics but also contribute to the progress of translational research on deafness.

  13. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  14. Gain and maximum output of two electromagnetic middle ear implants: are real ear measurements helpful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Noten, J.F.P.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the output of two electronic middle ear implants: the Otologics MET device and the Vibrant Soundbridge device. Both devices were programmed in the linear amplification mode. Aided minus unaided sound pressure levels recorded in the ear canal (objective gain) were compared to unaided minu

  15. Organizational Pressure, Personal Ideology and Teacher Pupil Control Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blust, Ross S.; Willower, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that teachers' own views on pupil control predicted their pupil control behavior, while organizational pressures, represented by teacher perceptions of the pupil control views of colleagues and the principal, failed to do so. (Author/IRT)

  16. Laser Beam Duct Pressure Controller System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the axial flow of a conditioning gas within the laser beam duct, by matching the time rate of change of the pressure of the flowing conditioning gas...to the time rate of change of the pressure in the cavity of an operably associated laser beam turret.

  17. Servo Controlled Variable Pressure Modification to Space Shuttle Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering drawings show modifications made to the constant pressure control of the model AP27V-7 hydraulic pump to an electrically controlled variable pressure setting compensator. A hanger position indicator was included for continuously monitoring hanger angle. A simplex servo driver was furnished for controlling the pressure setting servovalve. Calibration of the rotary variable displacement transducer is described as well as pump performance and response characteristics.

  18. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  19. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Page Content Article Body What are the ... illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? The ...

  20. Ear surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Review Date 10/ ...

  1. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... By Mayo Clinic Staff Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the ... Society of Plastic Surgeons. http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Cosmetic-Procedures/Ear-Surgery.html. Accessed June 16, 2015. ...

  2. PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS OF CAVITATION CONTROL BY AERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhi-yong; LU Yang-quan; JU Wen-jie; CAI Xin-ming; DING Chun-sheng

    2005-01-01

    This experimental investigation was systematically conducted with the aid of a non-circulating water tunnel in the Hydraulics Laboratory at Zhejiang University of Technology in China.The test velocity is between 20m/s and 40m/s.The least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion lies between 1.7% and 4.5%.Pressure waveforms with and without aeration in cavitation and cavitation erosion regions were measured.Time-averaged pressure profiles with and without aeration were compared.Pressure characteristics corresponding to least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion in cavitation and cavitation erosion regions were analyzed.

  3. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections Print ... 3 years old. A Close Look at the Ear To understand how ear infections develop, let's review ...

  4. Pressure mapping to prevent pressure ulcers in a hospital setting: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunningberg, Lena; Sedin, Inga-Maj; Andersson, Sara; Pingel, Ronnie

    2017-07-01

    Pressure ulcers cause suffering to patients and costs to society. Reducing pressure at the interface between the patient's body and the support surface is a valid clinical intervention for reducing the risk of pressure ulcers. However, studies have shown that knowledge of how to reduce pressure and shear and to prevent pressure ulcers is lacking. To evaluate the effect of a pressure mapping system on pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence in a hospital setting. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial. A geriatric/internal medical ward with 26 beds in a Swedish university hospital. 190 patients were recruited (intervention: n=91; control: n=99) over a period of 9 months. Patients were eligible if they were over 50 years old, admitted to the ward between Sunday 4pm and Friday 4pm, and expected to stay in the ward ≥3 days. The continuous bedside pressure mapping system displays the patient's pressure points in real-time colour imagery showing how pressure is distributed at the body-mat interface. The system gives immediate feedback to staff about the patient's pressure points, facilitating preventive interventions related to repositioning. It was used from admittance to discharge from the ward (or 14 days at most). Both intervention and control groups received standard pressure ulcer prevention care. No significant difference in the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers was shown between intervention and control groups. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the intervention group was 24.2% on day 1 and 28.2% on day 14. In the control group the corresponding numbers were 18.2% and 23.8%. Seven of 69 patients (10.1%) in the intervention group and seven of 81 patients (8.6%) in the control group who had no pressure ulcers on admission developed category 1 and category 2 ulcers during their hospital stay. The incidence rate ratio between the intervention and control groups was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.34-3.79). This study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of a

  5. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  6. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing and balance. That's because the ear not ... Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. ... sounds or music notes hearing only certain or muffled sounds ringing ...

  7. Pressure sore survey. Part 3: Locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, M; Torrance, C

    1999-03-01

    This is the third in a three-part article which investigates the prevalence, knowledge and attitudes to pressure sores in one NHS trust. This study describes the methodology used in choosing and developing attitude scales to explore whether there are any relationships between the locus of control and pressure sore prevention. Factors to do with attitude and the value associated with pressure sore prevention have a central role. Attitudes and beliefs affect what we do and may contribute to pressure sore development.

  8. Nonlinear model predictive control of managed pressure drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Anirudh; Imtiaz, Syed

    2017-07-01

    A new design of nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC) is proposed for managed pressure drilling (MPD) system. The NMPC is based on output feedback control architecture and employs offset-free formulation proposed in [1]. NMPC uses active set method for computing control inputs. The controller implements an automatic switching from constant bottom hole pressure (CBHP) regulation to flow control mode in the event of a reservoir kick. In the flow control mode the controller automatically raises the bottom hole pressure setpoint, and thereby keeps the reservoir fluid flow to the surface within a tunable threshold. This is achieved by exploiting constraint handling capability of NMPC. In addition to kick mitigation the controller demonstrated good performance in containing the bottom hole pressure (BHP) during the pipe connection sequence. The controller also delivered satisfactory performance in the presence of measurement noise and uncertainty in the system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  10. Modeling Ear-Canal Acoustics, Incorporating Visco-Thermal Effects and the Influence of the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowdy, Lauren E.; Withnell, Robert H.

    2011-11-01

    The ear canal, below about 6 kHz, is well described by a uniform cylinder (sound propagates predominantly as plane waves) with the middle ear being a non-rigid termination. A non-rigid termination can be viewed as altering, as a function of frequency, the acoustic length and radius of the cylinder. It is generally assumed that sound transmission in the ear canal over this frequency range is lossless. This paper presents a method for calculating the influence of visco-thermal losses and the middle ear on ear canal acoustics. The acoustic input impedance was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal and then a nonlinear least-square-fit to the data with a one-dimensional model incorporating visco-thermal losses generated length, radius, and middle ear impedance parameters. It was found that a rigid wall assumption for visco-thermal calculations was insufficient to account for damping in the ear canal. The properties of the ear canal wall (not being a rigid, low-friction surface), incorporated into visco-thermal losses as a scaling factor, provided a better fit to the data. Viscous and thermal losses were both found to affect sound propagation in the ear canal, viscous losses being more significant, altering the acoustic input impedance of the ear primarily in the region of the standing wave frequency. The model data suggests that the middle ear influences ear canal acoustics up to about 3 kHz.

  11. Pressure Control in Distillation Columns: A Model-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Bisgaard, Thomas; Kristensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of pressure control in distillation columns is presented, including the consequences for composition control and energy consumption. Two types of representative control structures are modeled, analyzed, and benchmarked. A detailed simulation test, based on a real...... industrial distillation column, is used to assess the differences between the two control structures and to demonstrate the benefits of pressure control in the operation. In the second part of the article, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to establish the influence of pressure on relative volatility...

  12. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  13. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  14. Pressure control for reduced microbubble formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggin, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Microbubbles in leading-edge photoresist materials create a challenge to the demanding yield requirements of today's shrinking circuit designs. When microbubbles are dispensed onto a wafer surface, they can act as an additional lens in the exposure path, ultimately distorting the pattern and affecting yield. Proper filter selection, filter priming, and dispense settings chosen during process startup are critical to reducing microbubbles, but certain chemistries can continue to cause problems even if the process has been optimized. This paper presents the results of applying a small amount of positive pressure on the chemistry before the dispense nozzle to reduce microbubbles in top anti-reflective coating (TARC). A two-stage technology dispense system was utilized to adjust the pressure on the chemistry in the dispense line while an in-line optical particle counter monitored the microbubbles generated during the dispense process.

  15. Impact of home blood pressure telemonitoring and blood pressure control: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboni, Stefano; Guarda, Alessia

    2011-09-01

    Home blood pressure telemonitoring figures among the possible solutions that could help improve blood pressure control of hypertensive patients. To summarize the effectiveness of home blood pressure telemonitoring on blood pressure control from randomized, controlled studies. Electronic databases were searched for publications in English, reporting on randomized trials of home blood pressure telemonitoring vs. usual care. Outcome measures were office or ambulatory blood pressure changes, rate of blood pressure control, and number of antihypertensive drugs used by patients. A random effects model was applied. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. A high level of heterogeneity was found among studies for all the variables explored. Office blood pressure was reduced significantly more in patients randomized to home telemonitoring (systolic: 5.64 (95% confidence interval: 7.92, 3.36) mm Hg; diastolic: 2.78 (3.93, 1.62) mm Hg; 11 comparisons, n = 4,389). The effect on ambulatory blood pressure was smaller than on office blood pressure (systolic: 2.28 (4.32, 0.24); diastolic: 1.38 (3.55, +0.79) mm Hg; 3 comparisons, n = 655). The relative risk of blood pressure normalization (telemonitoring vs. the usual care group was 1.31 (1.06, 1.62) (5 comparisons, n = 2,432 subjects). Use of telemonitoring was associated with a significantly increased use of antihypertensive medications (+0.22 (+0.02, +0.43), 5 comparisons, n = 1,991). Home blood pressure telemonitoring may represent a useful tool to improve blood pressure control. However, heterogeneity of published studies suggests that well designed, large-scale, randomized, controlled studies are still needed to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of this technique.

  16. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  17. STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available      The performance of pressure control system and stability analysis was studied for different types of controllers. A theoretical model for closed-loop system is developed and dynamic behavior of the control system was studied by introducing a step change in the pressure of the inlet stream. The results show that the theoretical response is faster than the experimental response due to the lags of the control valve and measuring elements. The pressure control system is stable for all conditions and for different control action because the real parts of roots of characteristics equation are negative but the response at PID controller is oscillatory stable. when PID controller used the response is improve due to eliminate the offset and stabilizing effect of derivative allow the proportional gain to be increased and increasing the speed of response compared to proportional and proportional-integral controllers.  

  18. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  19. Adaptive Reference Control for Pressure Management in Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is an increasing problem worldwide and at the same time a huge amount of water is lost through leakages in the distribution network. It is well known that improved pressure control can lower the leakage problems. In this work water networks with a single pressure actuator and several...... consumers are considered. Under mild assumptions on the consumption pattern and hydraulic resistances of pipes we use properties of the network graph and Kirchhoffs node and mesh laws to show that simple relations exist between the actuator pressure and critical point pressures inside the network....... Subsequently, these relations are exploited in an adaptive reference control scheme for the actuator pressure that ensures constant pressure at the critical points. Numerical experiments underpin the results. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  20. Evaluation of the single part lapping station pressure control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentesana, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    The electro-pneumatic pressure control system of a single part lapping station was evaluated to determine operating characteristics and to establish operating procedures and the suitability of control loop components. The effects of variations in upstream pressure, bleed valve opening, lap head clearance, control valve position, and system leaks on steady-state gain and system stability were investigated. Operating methods were established for adjusting machine parameters to linearize steady-state gain over the entire design pressure range. Component changes and additions were recommended for improved system performance. Limits on lap head clearance based on lap head discharge coefficients were established.

  1. Active control of radiated sound using nearfield pressure sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ke'an; YIN Xuefei

    2004-01-01

    Based on nearfield sound pressure sensing to pick up error information, an approach for constructing active acoustic structure to effectively reduce radiated sound power at low frequency is proposed. The idea is that a nearfield pressure after active control is used as error signals and transformed into an objective function in adaptive active control process.Firstly sound power expression using near-field pressure radiated from a flexible structure is derived, and then three kind of nearfield pressure based active control strategies, I.e. Minimization of radiated sound power, minimization of sound power for dominant radiation modes and minimization of sound power for modified dominant radiation modes are respectively presented and applied to active control of radiated single and broadband noise. Finally computer simulations on sound power reduction under three strategies are conducted and it is shown that the proposed active control strategies are invalid and considerable reduction in radiated sound power can be achieved.

  2. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  3. Simulation Analysis of Computer-Controlled pressurization for Mixture Ratio Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Leslie A.; Bishop-Behel, Karen; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Kelley, Anthony; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    A procedural code (C++) simulation was developed to investigate potentials for mixture ratio control of pressure-fed spacecraft rocket propulsion systems by measuring propellant flows, tank liquid quantities, or both, and using feedback from these measurements to adjust propellant tank pressures to set the correct operating mixture ratio for minimum propellant residuals. The pressurization system eliminated mechanical regulators in favor of a computer-controlled, servo- driven throttling valve. We found that a quasi-steady state simulation (pressure and flow transients in the pressurization systems resulting from changes in flow control valve position are ignored) is adequate for this purpose. Monte-Carlo methods are used to obtain simulated statistics on propellant depletion. Mixture ratio control algorithms based on proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller methods were developed. These algorithms actually set target tank pressures; the tank pressures are controlled by another PID controller. Simulation indicates this approach can provide reductions in residual propellants.

  4. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, K.; Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 μL sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s-1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling as

  5. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, K; Mathys, A; Knorr, D [Berlin University of Technology, Department of Food Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 22, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Heinz, V [German Institute of Food Technology, p. o. box: 1165, D-49601, Quackenbrueck (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.mathys@tu-berlin.de

    2008-07-15

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 {mu}L sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s{sup -1} and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and

  6. Quantized pressure control in large-scale nonlinear hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    It was shown previously that semi-global practical pressure regulation at designated points of a large-scale nonlinear hydraulic network is guaranteed by distributed proportional controllers. For a correct implementation of the control laws, each controller, which is located at these designated poin

  7. Simulation of static pressure reset control in comfort ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems reduce fan power consumption compared to constant air volume (CAV) systems because they supply air according to the airflow demand. However VAV ventilation systems do not take fully into account the potential energy savings as the control strategy...... operates the terminal boxes and the air handling unit (AHU) independently without pressure integration. The pressure in the main duct is maintained at a constant static pressure (CSP) which corresponds to the pressure required under the design full load condition. Under part load conditions, the fan...... the fan generates only enough pressure to satisfy the airflow demand in the most critical zone. Consequently the airflow resistance of the ductwork is maintained at a minimum and the fan operation is optimized. There are various approaches to implement the control scheme of the SPR method; the state...

  8. The character and consequences of disturbing sound sensations in retraction type middle ear disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunne, M; Falk, B; Hellström, S; Magnuson, B

    1999-11-15

    Transient sound disturbances are common but neglected symptoms in retraction type middle ear disease (R-MED). The aim of this study was to explore and describe their character, their individual consequences, and their role in the development of tympanic membrane retractions. Fifty-three subjects with manifest retractions and experiences of disturbing sound and ear sensations were interviewed. A qualitative method was used for analysis of the transcribed interviews. Two different patterns emerged from the interviews. 1. Too weak sound was the least common and most tolerable disturbance. It occurred in 45% and was eliminated by Valsalva's inflation. 2. Sudden and transient sensations of too loud and piercing sound, and intermittent autophony frequently caused intense and intolerable discomfort, which might in turn cause loss of control of speech and conversation. These types occurred in 74% and 60%, respectively, and were eliminated by evacuating the middle ear, for example by sniffing. Subjects who described too loud sound or intermittent autophony commonly preferred a retracted tympanic membrane position. This may explain why pressure equalization by swallowing, and inflation by Valsalva's manoeuvre often elicited discomfort. Transient experiences of too loud sound or intermittent autophony may indicate a shift of sound preference towards the sound experienced at negative middle ear pressure, and an unreliable tubal function in the sense that it fails to stay closed to protect the ear from sounds and pressure variations in the nasopharynx. Such experiences of altered sound may trigger evacuation of the middle ear, which eliminates the sound disturbance. It is crucial to identify, interpret, and explain the disturbances correctly in the therapy and prevention of retractions, since habitual evacuation exposes the tympanic membrane to strong negative pressure loads and a subsequent risk of developing retraction.

  9. Simplified procedure for controlling pressure distribution of a scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scramjet engines are used at extreme temperatures and velocity. New control problems involving distributed parameter control have been found concerning investigations of the control of scramjet engines whose physical states are spatially interacted. Succeeding the existing theoretical studies on the distributed parameter control for scramjet engines, this paper puts forward a simplified distributed parameter control approach for scramjet engines aimed at engineering application. The simplified control procedure uses the classical proportional-integral (PI compensation to control the target pressure distribution of scramjet engines, which is effective and applicable for practical implements. Simulation results show the validation of the simplified distributed parameter control procedure.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF SUPPLIED PRESSURE FLUCTUATION ON OUTPUT ARACTERISTIC OF PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM OF ROLLING MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The infulence of supplied pressure fluctuation on output accuracy for the electro-hydraulic pressure control system of the rolling mill is discussed.Based on the bond graph theory and experimental study,the relationship between the variation of system output pressure and the supplied pressure fluctuation and the influence of the system bandwidth on system output pressure are provided.A theoretical base for determining the allowable fluctuation range of pressure and accurate design of constant pressure source system is obtained.

  11. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance ... Committees Contact Us Get Involved You are here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel ...

  12. Optimized damper control of pressure and airflow in ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Conventional control strategies in variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems do not take fully into advantage the potential energy savings since the system operation is based on maintaining a constant static pressure (CSP) set point in the main duct irrespective of the actual pressure demand....... The static pressure reset (SPR) control strategy can optimize the operation of the supply air fans by adjusting the pressure set point to be just enough to deliver the required airflow to the most critical zone. This study investigated the operation and energy savings potential of an SPR control algorithm...... by using the Simulink programming tool which is addon software to MATLAB mathematical programming language. A model of a VAV ventilation system was created in Simulink based on the International Building Physics Toolbox (IBPT); the IBPT thermal zone was remodelled in order to calculate dynamically...

  13. Effect on cochlea function of guinea pig after controlled release recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 transplanted into the middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-sheng; SUN Jian-jun; JIANG Wei; LIU Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Background The recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) has been used to induce osteogenesis in animals' middle ear and this technique is possible to be used to reconstruct the defects of ossicles. The side effects of the rhBMP-2 in middle ear should be observed before using in clinic. Thus we prepared the controlled release rhBMP-2 and implanted it into the acoustic bulla of guinea pigs. The effect on the cochlea was observed. Methods We prepared the acellular cancellous bone, accompanied with rhBMP-2. The material accompanied with rhBMP-2 was implanted into one acoustic bulla of the animal and the opposite side of the acoustic bulla was implanted with acellular cancellous bone without rhBMP-2. Totally 20 guinea pigs were undergone this procedure. After the operation, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of the animals was tested according to the time sequence. Three months after the operation, the animals were sacrificed. The osteogenesis induced by rhBMP-2, the acoustic bulla and cochlea affected by rhBMP-2 were observed. The structures of hair cells were observed after silver nitrate staining. Results The animals were recovered soon after surgery. The hearing thresholds of the animals were declined slightly just after the surgery and come back completely after 3 months. Also, the bulla and cochlea were normal in shape. The osteogenesis occurred in the pore of the acellular cancellous bone with rhBMP-2. There was not any abnormal hyperplasia of bone in the bulla and cochlea. The articulation between the stapes and oval window was not merged. The shapes of the hair cells were normal and there was no obvious deletion of the hair cells compared with control group. Conclusions The controlled release rhBMP-2 transplanted into the middle ear could induce osteogenesis in the bulla of the animals. It did not affect the shape of the bulla and the hearing threshold of the animal, and did not induce the abnormal hyperplasia of bone in the bulla and might

  14. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  15. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the ...

  16. Engine control system having pressure-based timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Martin L.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Montgomery, David T.; Gong, Weidong

    2011-10-04

    A control system for an engine having a first cylinder and a second cylinder is disclosed having a first engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the first cylinder and a first actuator associated with the first engine valve. The control system also has a second engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the second cylinder and a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a pressure within the first cylinder. The control system also has a controller that is in communication with the first actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to compare the pressure within the first cylinder with a desired pressure and selectively regulate the first actuator to adjust a timing of the first engine valve independently of the timing of the second engine valve based on the comparison.

  17. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: high-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2012-10-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of Y(TM,) the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. Y(TM) appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of Y(TM) decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ~0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz.

  18. Comparison of the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard endotracheal tube and a cylindrical endotracheal tube after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery: A single-blind, randomized clinical consort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunkyung; Park, Yongmin; Jeon, Younghoon

    2017-03-01

    Positional change affects the cuff pressure of an endotracheal tube (ETT) in treacheally intubated patients. We compared the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard ETT and a cylindrical ETT after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery. Fifty-two patients aged 18-70 years underwent a tympanomastoidectomy under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive endotracheal intubation with cylindrical (group C, n = 26) or TaperGuard ETTs (group T, n = 26). After endotracheal intubation, the ETT cuff pressure was set at 22 cmH2O in the neutral position of head. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure was measured again and readjusted to 22 cmH2O. In addition, the change of distance from the carina to the tip of the ETT was measured before and after the positional change. The incidence of cough, sore throat, and hoarseness was assessed at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery. There was no difference in demographic data between groups. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure significantly increased in group T (11.9 ± 2.3 cmH2O) compared with group C (6.0 ± 1.9 cmH2O) (P pressure >30 cmH2O was higher in group T (96.2%) than in group C (30.8%) (P sore throat, hoarseness, and cough at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery were comparable between two groups. The cuff pressure was higher in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT after positional change of head from neutral to lateral rotation. In addition, after a positional change, the extent of displacement of ETT was greater in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT.

  19. PLC-Based Pressure Control in Multi-Pump Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodovozov Valery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the centrifugal pumps represented the most popular type of pumping equipment used in different areas. The pressure control approach for variable speed driven (VSD parallel connected centrifugal pumps is reported. The goal of the study is optimization of some quality indices, such as efficiency, consumed power, productivity, energy carrier temperature, heat irradiation, etc. One of them – efficiency – has been studied in the paper more carefully. The mathematical model of pumping process is discussed and a vector-matrix description of the multi-pump application is given. The program-based pressure control system is developed which productivity is changed by regulating the number of working pumps. The paper introduces new pressure control algorithms based on the working point estimation intended for programmable logical controllers (PLC. Experiments prove correctness of the offered methodology.

  20. Active control of radiated pressure of a submarine hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xia; Tso, Yan; Juniper, Ross

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of the active control of low-frequency radiated pressure from submarine hulls is presented. Two typical hull models are examined in this paper. Each model consists of a water-loaded cylindrical shell with a hemispherical shell at one end and conical shell at the other end, which forms a simple model of a submarine hull. The conical end is excited by an axial force to simulate propeller excitations while the other end is free. The control action is implemented through a Tee-sectioned circumferential stiffener driven by pairs of PZT stack actuators. These actuators are located under the flange of the stiffener and driven out of phase to produce a control moment. A number of cost functions for minimizing the radiated pressure are examined. In general, it was found that the control system was capable of reducing more than half of the total radiated pressure from each of the submarine hull for the first three axial modes.

  1. Renoprotection, renin inhibition, and blood pressure control: the impact of aliskiren on integrated blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon-Ur Rashid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Haroon-Ur RashidDepartment of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Heart Institute, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Hypertension (HTN is an important factor in progressive loss of renal function. The kidney can be both a contributor to and a target of HTN. The functional integrity of the kidney is vital for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Chronic activation of the renin system causes HTN and, ultimately, end-organ damage. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs inhibit plasma renin activity (PRA, thereby preventing the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I; consequently, the levels of both Ang I and Ang II are reduced. There is no compensatory increase in PRA activity with DRIs as seen with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. There are reasons to speculate that renin inhibition might prove to be a superior strategy for blocking the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system compared with ACEIs or ARBs. Evidence for the efficacy of aliskiren (a DRI is considered to be relatively strong, based on published, short-term, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials showing that aliskiren is as effective as other antihypertensive agents in reducing blood pressure (BP, with no rebound effects on BP after treatment withdrawal. When combined with diuretics, fully additive BP reduction is seen. When given with an ACEI or ARB, aliskiren produces significant additional BP reduction indicative of complimentary pharmacology and more complete renin–angiotensin system blockade.Keywords: aliskiren, direct renin inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ACE inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus

  2. Graphene blisters with switchable shapes controlled by pressure and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddeti, Narasimha G; Liu, Xinghui; Long, Rong; Xiao, Jianliang; Bunch, J Scott; Dunn, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    We created graphene blisters that cover and seal an annular cylinder-shaped microcavity in a SiO2 substrate filled with a gas. By controlling the pressure difference between the gas inside and outside of the microcavity, we switch the graphene membrane between multiple stable equilibrium configurations. We carried out experiments starting from the situation where the pressure of the gas inside and outside of the microcavity is set equal to a prescribed charging pressure, p0 and the graphene membrane covers the cavity like an annular drum, adhered to the central post and the surrounding substrate due to van der Waals forces. We decrease the outside pressure to a value, pe which causes it to bulge into an annular blister. We systematically increase the charging pressure by repeating this procedure causing the annular blister to continue to bulge until a critical charging pressure pc(i) is reached. At this point the graphene membrane delaminates from the post in an unstable manner, resulting in a switch of graphene membrane shape from an annular to a spherical blister. Continued increase of the charging pressure results in the spherical blister growing with its height increasing, but maintaining a constant radius until a second critical charging pressure pc(o) is reached at which point the blister begins to delaminate from the periphery of the cavity in a stable manner. Here, we report a series of experiments as well as a mechanics and thermodynamic model that demonstrate how the interplay among system parameters (geometry, graphene stiffness (number of layers), pressure, and adhesion energy) results in the ability to controllably switch graphene blisters among different shapes. Arrays of these blisters can be envisioned to create pressure-switchable surface properties where the difference between patterns of annular versus spherical blisters will impact functionalities such as wettability, friction, adhesion, and surface wave characteristics.

  3. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  4. [Blood pressure control in patient with chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, J-M

    2014-06-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that high blood pressure is associated with deterioration of renal function in patients with renal disease. Target blood pressures in patients with renal diseases have been defined and proposed to the community in several national and international guidelines. However, some of these targets have been recently changed to take into account results of studies, including randomized clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to put into perspective the history of ideas regarding adequate blood pressure control in patients with renal disease in the light of these results, and explain how these trials have changed our perception, practice and guidelines. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Blood pressure control in patients with arterial hypertension in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Petek-Šter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure control is sub-optimal all over the world. The aim of the study was to find out about the quality of the blood pressure control in Slovenia.Patients and method: Randomly selected general practitioners fulfilled a questionnaire for each of the 20 conse cutive attenders with arterial hypertension. We collected data for 980 patients with arterial hypertension, who attended their general practitioners in September 2006. Data about blood pressure control was taken from the medical record; we took into account the last two blood pressure measurements in the office before the visit in which we selected the study sample.Results: In the sample of 980 patients there were 47.4 % male and 52.6 % female, who were from 20 to 97 years old (average 62.3 years, SD 11.9 years. The target blood pressure was reached in 388 (40.1 % patients with hypertension. 927 (94.6 % patients were given an advice on non-pharmacological measures. In 986 (98.8 % patients antihypertensive drugs were prescribed. 668 (68.2 % patients took a combined antihypertensive treatment. The most frequently prescribed drug classes were blockers of renin-angiotensine system in 843 (86.0 % patients, 225 (23.2 % patients took blockers of renin-angiotensine receptors. In 527 (53.8 % patients antihypertensive treatment was changed during the treatment. Physicians performed at least one measure to improve blood pressure control in 430 (74.3 % patients with uncontrolled hypertension; changes in drug treatment were made in 252 (43.5 % patients.Conclusions: More frequent advice on non-pharmacological measures, more intensive drug treatment and adaptation of treatment to patients lead to better blood pressure control.

  6. Mouse middle ear ion homeostasis channels and intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Morris

    Full Text Available HYPOTHESIS: The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation. BACKGROUND: The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear. METHODS: Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation. RESULTS: The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na(+,K(+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

  7. Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    the high pass filtered pressure gradient equal tozero is introduced. It yields lead compensation with a markedly improved performance. The sizing of the filter is described taking into account the bandwidth of the directional control valve. The suggested control scheme is implemented and examined......This paper is concerned with the inherent oscillatory nature of pressure compensated velocity control of a hydraulic cylinder subjected to a negative load and suspended by means of an over-center valve. Initially, a linearized stability analysis of such a hydraulic circuit is carried out clearly...... showing that without extra measures such a system will be unstable in a substantial part of the cylinder stroke. The stability criterion is expressed in hard quantities: Cylinder volumes, cylinder area ratio and overcenter valve pilot area ratio. A pressure feed back scheme that has as target to maintain...

  8. Wafer back pressure control and optimization in the CMP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Yanwu; Zhang Hui; Zhou Kai; Ye Peiqing

    2011-01-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing(CMP)is the most effective wafer global planarization technology.The CMP polishing head is one of the most important components,and zone back pressure control technology is used to design a new generation of polishing head.The quality of polishing not only depends on slurry,but also depends on the precise control of polishing pressures.During the CMP polishing process,the set pressure of each chamber is usually not the same and the presence of a flexible elastic diaphragm causes coupling effects.Because of the coupling effects,the identification of multi-chambers and pressure controls becomes complicated.To solve the coupling problem,this paper presents a new method of multi-chamber decoupled control,and then system identification and control parameter tuning are carried out based on the method.Finally,experiments of multichambers inflated at the same time are performed.The experimental results show that the presented decoupling control method is feasible and correct.

  9. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to ... can drain into the ear canal through a hole in the eardrum and cause it. What Are ...

  10. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stirrup. These are the smallest bones in your body. Together they are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which ... organizations Related Topics ...

  11. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness ...

  12. Nocturnal blood pressure and intraocular pressure measurement in glaucoma patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, P; Palotás, C; Süveges, I; Petrovits, A

    Daytime and nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) values and systemic blood pressure (BP) values were compared in 60 non-glaucomatous controls, 54 glaucoma patients with normal visual field, and 46 glaucoma patients with visual field loss. The daytime IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer and the nocturnal IOP with a Bio-Rad-Tono-Pen 2. The BP was measured with either a mercury manometer or with a Meditech ABPM-02 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor, which took BP readings at 60 minute intervals. A tendency towards increasing IOP and decreasing BP was detected in the non-glaucomatous controls, within normal limits, and pathological changes of IOP and BP were observed with a significantly high occurrence (5% > P > 2%; Pearson's chi 2-test) in the glaucoma group with visual field loss.

  13. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) KidsHealth > For Parents > Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Print A A A What's in ... result of taking the drugs. This is called ototoxicity or " ear poisoning ." Ototoxicity damages the inner ear — ...

  14. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  15. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  16. Intensive Blood-Pressure Control in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Lawrence J.; Wright, Jackson T.; Greene, Tom; Agodoa, Lawrence Y.; Astor, Brad C.; Bakris, George L.; Cleveland, William H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Contreras, Gabriel; Faulkner, Marquetta L.; Gabbai, Francis B.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Hebert, Lee A.; Jamerson, Kenneth A.; Kopple, Joel D.; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Lea, Janice P.; Lewis, Julia B.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Massry, Shaul G.; Miller, Edgar R.; Norris, Keith; Phillips, Robert A.; Pogue, Velvie A.; Randall, Otelio S.; Rostand, Stephen G.; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw J.; Toto, Robert D.; Wang, Xuelei

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In observational studies, the relationship between blood pressure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is direct and progressive. The burden of hypertension-related chronic kidney disease and ESRD is especially high among black patients. Yet few trials have tested whether intensive blood-pressure control retards the progression of chronic kidney disease among black patients. METHODS We randomly assigned 1094 black patients with hypertensive chronic kidney disease to receive either intensive or standard blood-pressure control. After completing the trial phase, patients were invited to enroll in a cohort phase in which the blood-pressure target was less than 130/80 mm Hg. The primary clinical outcome in the cohort phase was the progression of chronic kidney disease, which was defined as a doubling of the serum creatinine level, a diagnosis of ESRD, or death. Follow-up ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 years. RESULTS During the trial phase, the mean blood pressure was 130/78 mm Hg in the intensive-control group and 141/86 mm Hg in the standard-control group. During the cohort phase, corresponding mean blood pressures were 131/78 mm Hg and 134/78 mm Hg. In both phases, there was no significant between-group difference in the risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio in the intensive-control group, 0.91; P = 0.27). However, the effects differed according to the baseline level of proteinuria (P = 0.02 for interaction), with a potential benefit in patients with a protein-to-creatinine ratio of more than 0.22 (hazard ratio, 0.73; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In overall analyses, intensive blood-pressure control had no effect on kidney disease progression. However, there may be differential effects of intensive blood-pressure control in patients with and those without baseline proteinuria. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, and others.) PMID:20818902

  17. Pressure and volume controlled mechanical ventilation in anaesthetized pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J; Musk, G C

    2014-10-01

    Optimal mechanical ventilation of the pregnant ewe during anaesthesia is of vital importance for maintaining fetal viability. This study aimed to compare peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), oxygenation and cardiovascular parameters with pressure-control (PCV) or volume-control (VCV) mechanical ventilation of anaesthetized pregnant sheep. Twenty ewes at 110 days gestation underwent general anaesthesia in dorsal recumbency for fetal surgery in a research setting. All the sheep were mechanically ventilated; one group with PCV (n = 10) and another with VCV (n = 10) to maintain normocapnia. PIP, direct arterial blood pressure, heart rate, arterial pH and arterial oxygen tension were recorded. PIP was lower in the PCV group (P sheep anaesthetized in dorsal recumbency, though PCV may provide superior oxygenation at a lower PIP.

  18. Leak Rate Quantification Method for Gas Pressure Seals with Controlled Pressure Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Braun, Minel J.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement to the pressure decay leak rate method with mass point analysis solved deficiencies in the standard method. By adding a control system, a constant gas pressure differential across the test article was maintained. As a result, the desired pressure condition was met at the onset of the test, and the mass leak rate and measurement uncertainty were computed in real-time. The data acquisition and control system were programmed to automatically stop when specified criteria were met. Typically, the test was stopped when a specified level of measurement uncertainty was attained. Using silicone O-ring test articles, the new method was compared with the standard method that permitted the downstream pressure to be non-constant atmospheric pressure. The two methods recorded comparable leak rates, but the new method recorded leak rates with significantly lower measurement uncertainty, statistical variance, and test duration. Utilizing this new method in leak rate quantification, projects will reduce cost and schedule, improve test results, and ease interpretation between data sets.

  19. Monaural or binaural sound deprivation in postlingual hearing loss: Cochlear implant in the worse ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Andrea; Dalmasso, Giulia; Dagna, Federico; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Montuschi, Carla; Rosa, Rosalba Di; Albera, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether speech recognition scores (SRS) differ between adults with long-term auditory deprivation in the implanted ear and adults who received cochlear implant (CI) in the nonsound-deprived ear, either for hearing aid-assisted or due to rapidly deteriorating hearing loss. Retrospective study. Speech recognition scores at evaluations (3 and 14 months postimplantation) conducted with CI alone at 60-dB sound pressure level intensity were compared in 15 patients (4 with bilateral severe hearing loss; 11 with asymmetric hearing loss, 7 of which had contralateral hearing aid), all with long-term auditory deprivation (mean duration 16.9 years) (group A), and in 15 other patients with postlingual hearing loss (10 symmetric, 5 asymmetric with bimodal stimulation) (controls, group B). Comparison of mean percentage of correctly recognized words on speech audiometry at 3 and 14 months showed improvement within each group (P binaural sound deprivation [n = 4]) versus group B showed no significant differences at 3 (bimodal stimulation P = 0.16; binaural sound deprivation P = 0.19) or 14 months (bimodal stimulation P = 0.14; binaural sound deprivation P = 0.82). Speech recognition scores in monaural and binaural sound-deprived ears did not significantly differ from ears with unilateral cochlear implantation in nonsound-deprived ears when tested with CI alone. Improvement in the implanted worse ear indicates that it could be a potential candidate ear for cochlear implantation even when sound deprived. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1905-1910, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Based Flame Control and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Based Flame Control and Diagnostics 5a...to 10%)  Flame speed enhancement (>20%)  Extension of lean limit (factor of two)  Distributed ignition  Development of new diagnostics

  1. Analysis and control of flows in pressurized hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis, design and flow control problems in pressurized hydraulic networks such as water transmission and distribution systems consisting of pipes and other appurtenant components such as reservoirs, pumps, valves and surge devices are dealt with from the prospective of network synthesis aiming at

  2. Analysis and control of flows in pressurized hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis, design and flow control problems in pressurized hydraulic networks such as water transmission and distribution systems consisting of pipes and other appurtenant components such as reservoirs, pumps, valves and surge devices are dealt with from the prospective of network synthesis aiming at

  3. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  4. BIO-INSTRUMENTATION FOR CONTROL OF PRESSURE CHAMBERS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio -instrumentation for control of pressure chambers is designed to monitor the environment within altitudesimulation chambers and alert the...exposure. This report provides a complete description of the bio -instrumentation, in terms of the system as a whole and of the individual components

  5. Role of community programs in controlling blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwood, Robinson; Guyton-Krishnan, Jeanette; Wallace, Madeleine; Sommer, Ellen

    2006-12-01

    Despite more than 30 years of intense activity to improve control--and more recently prevention--high blood pressure continues to be a major public health problem. Evidence-based reviews have identified best practices and quality improvement strategies to address prevention and control. Since the 1970s, community-based programs have been instrumental in raising awareness, increasing knowledge, and promoting changes in health behavior to improve blood pressure control. Most of these programs have emphasized the use of partnerships and involvement of community residents in conducting screening and referral activities, implementing clinical practice guidelines, and increasing healthy eating and physical activity. Many also have used health care team approaches, including the use of trained community health workers to deliver targeted, culturally sensitive heart health education, particularly related to the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk factors in general and high blood pressure in particular. Increased focus on implementation of evidence-based lifestyle and clinical management strategies coupled with community-based approaches may help increase blood pressure control rates within communities.

  6. Specification of the acoustical input to the ear at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S M; Stinson, M R

    1985-02-01

    The sound fields that arise in the auditory canals of cats have been examined both experimentally and theoretically. Of particular interest was the spatial variation of sound pressure near the eardrum, where reference probes are typically located. Using a computer controlled data acquisition system, sound pressure was measured between 100 Hz and 33 kHz for constant driver input at 14 different locations in the ear canal of a cat, and the standing wave patterns formed. The shape of the patterns could be predicted quite well above 12 kHz using a theory that requires specification of only the geometry of the ear canal. This theory, an extension of the one-dimensional horn equation, applies to three-dimensional, rigid-walled tubes that have both variable cross section and curvature along their lengths. Large variations of sound pressure along the ear canal and over the surface of the eardrum are found above about 10 kHz. As a consequence it is not possible to define the acoustical input to the ear from sound pressure level measured at any single location. Even in comparative experiments, in which only the constancy of the acoustical input is important, any uncertainty in reference probe location would lead to an uncertainty in sound pressure level when different sets of measurements are compared. This error, calculated for various probe locations and frequencies, is especially large when the probe is near a minimum of the sound field. Spatial variations in pressure can also introduce anomalous features into the measured frequency response of other auditory quantities when eardrum sound pressure is used as a reference. This is illustrated with measurements of the round window cochlear microphonic.

  7. Impact of Placement of In-the-Ear Antenna on Ear-to-Ear Path Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    An in-the-ear antenna is rotated in the concha. For the different placements the ear-to-ear path gain is simulated and measured. The simulations and measurements show that the ear-to-ear path gain varies with more than 15 dB even though it is the same antenna that occupies the same volume, which...... has only been rotated. This illustrates the importance of the correct placement of the antenna. The variation of the ear-to-ear path gain is compared with the far-field efficiency in order to explain part of the variation. The best and worst placements’ radiation patterns are analyzed....

  8. Inner ear disturbances related to middle ear inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Michihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions.

  9. Protective effect of unilateral and bilateral ear plugs on noise-induced hearing loss: Functional and morphological evaluation in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the following study is to evaluate immediate protective effect of ear plug from noise morphologically and functionally. An 1-month aged 29 male C57BL/6 mice. Subjects were divided into four groups as normal control(G1, bilaterally plugged group (G2, unilaterally plugged group (G3 and noise control group (G4 and later 3 groups were exposed to 110 sound pressure level white noise for 60 min. Immediately after noise exposure, audiologic tests were performed and cochlear morphology and expression levels of a-synuclein in the cochlea were investigated. There were no functional changes in G2 and plugged ears of G3 after noise exposure, whereas unplugged ears of G3 and G4 showed significant hearing loss. In morphological study, there were a significant degeneration of the organ of Corti and mean number and diameter of efferent buttons, in unplugged ears of G3 and G4. Plugged ears of G3 also showed mild changes in morphological study. Reduction of a-synuclein was observed at the efferent terminals or cochlear extracts after noise exposure. The protective effect of ear plug on noise exposure was proven morphologically and functionally in the animal model of noise-induced hearing loss. Further study on cellular or ultrastructural level with ear plug will be needed to reveal more precise mechanism.

  10. Pressure control valve using proportional electro-magnetic solenoid actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, So Nam; Ham, Young Bog; Park, Pyoung Won [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents an experimental characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional pressure control valve. In this study, poppet and valve body which are assembled into the proportional solenoid were designed and manufactured. The constant force characteristics of proportional solenoid actuator in the control region should be independent of the plunger position in order to be used to control the valve position in the fluid flow control system. The stroke-force characteristics of the proportional solenoid actuator is determined by the shape (or parameters) of the control cone. In this paper, steady state and transient characteristics of the solenoid actuator for electro-hydraulic proportional valve are analyzed using finite element method and it is confirmed that the proportional solenoid actuator has a constant attraction force in the control region independently on the stroke position. The effects of the parameters such as control cone length, thickness and taper length are also discussed.

  11. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, C; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Möller, K

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's 'optimized' settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.

  12. RUN TO RUN CONTROL OF TIME-PRESSURE DISPENSING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yixiang; Li Hanxiong; Ding Han; Xiong Youlun

    2004-01-01

    In electronics packaging the time-pressure dispensing system is widely used to squeeze the adhesive fluid in a syringe onto boards or sub-strates with the pressurized air.However,complexity of the process,which includes the air-fluid coupling and the nonlinear uncertainties,makes it diffi-cult to have a consistent process per-formance.An integrated dispensing process model is first introduced and then its input-output regression rela-tionship is used to design a run to run control methodology for this process.The controller takes EWMA scheme and its stability region is given.Ex-perimental results verify the effective-ness of the proposed run to run control method for dispensing process.

  13. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  14. Global Instability and Control of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Methodos Numericos in Ingenieria 2005, Granada Y 3 rd Symposium on Global Flow Instability and Control September 2005 Crete, Greece. * AIAA San...valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To...31-03-2006 Final 01-02-2003 To 31-12-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Global Instability and Control of Low Pressure Turbine Flows 5b

  15. Theoretical analysis of a pressure setting and control system with PWM direction control valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, M.; Duminică, D.; Cartal, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper tackles theoretical aspects concerning an original automated system that sets and controls the pressure inside a tank chamber of fixed volume. The structure of the system integrates an original device developed and designed by the authors. The device digitally controls the one way flow of the working fluid using pulse width modulation, allowing the free flow in the other way. The purpose of this research stage was the theoretical establishing of the variation law of the pressure inside the controlled chamber.

  16. Effect of Residual Noncondensables on Pressurization and Pressure Control of a Zero-Boil-Off Tank in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Hylton, Sonya; Kartizova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment is a small-scale experiment that uses a transparent ventless Dewar and a transparent simulant phase-change fluid to study sealed tank pressurization and pressure control with applications to on-surface and in-orbit storage of propellant cryogens. The experiment will be carried out under microgravity conditions aboard the International Space Station in the 2014 timeframe. This paper presents preliminary results from ZBOT's ground-based research that focuses on the effects of residual noncondensable gases in the ullage on both pressurization and pressure reduction trends in the sealed Dewar. Tank pressurization is accomplished through heating of the test cell wall in the wetted and un-wetted regions simultaneously or separately. Pressure control is established through mixing and destratification of the bulk liquid using a temperature controlled forced jet flow with different degrees of liquid jet subcooling. A Two-Dimensional axisymmetric two-phase CFD model for tank pressurization and pressure control is also presented. Numerical prediction of the model are compared to experimental 1g results to both validate the model and also indicate the effect of the noncondensable gas on evolution of pressure and temperature distributions in the ullage during pressurization and pressure control. Microgravity simulations case studies are also performed using the validated model to underscore and delineate the profound effect of the noncondensables on condensation rates and interfacial temperature distributions with serious implications for tank pressure control in reduced gravity.

  17. A Computer Controlled Precision High Pressure Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, S.; Yadav, S.; Jha, N.; Gupta, V. K.; Agarwal, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Saxena, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    A microcontroller (AT89C51) based electronics has been designed and developed for high precision calibrator based on Digiquartz pressure transducer (DQPT) for the measurement of high hydrostatic pressure up to 275 MPa. The input signal from DQPT is converted into a square wave form and multiplied through frequency multiplier circuit over 10 times to input frequency. This input frequency is multiplied by a factor of ten using phased lock loop. Octal buffer is used to store the calculated frequency, which in turn is fed to microcontroller AT89C51 interfaced with a liquid crystal display for the display of frequency as well as corresponding pressure in user friendly units. The electronics developed is interfaced with a computer using RS232 for automatic data acquisition, computation and storage. The data is acquired by programming in Visual Basic 6.0. This system is interfaced with the PC to make it a computer controlled system. The system is capable of measuring the frequency up to 4 MHz with a resolution of 0.01 Hz and the pressure up to 275 MPa with a resolution of 0.001 MPa within measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. The details on the hardware of the pressure measuring system, associated electronics, software and calibration are discussed in this paper.

  18. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  19. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  20. Tank Pressure Control Experiment/thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. M.; Knoll, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The 'Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)' is a reflight of the tank pressure control experiment (TPCE), flown on STS-43 in a standard Get-Away Special (GAS) container in August 1991. The TPCE obtained extensive video and digital data of the jet induced mixing process in a partially filled tank in low gravity environments. It also provided limited data on the thermal processes involved. The primary objective of the reflight of TPCE is to investigate experimentally the phenomena of liquid superheating and pool nucleate boiling at very low heat fluxes in a long duration low gravity environment. The findings of this experiment will be of direct relevance to space based subcritical cryogenic fluid system design and operation. Experiment hardware and results from the first TPCE are described in outline and graphic form.

  1. Blood pressure control to prevent decline in cognition after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihle-Hansen H

    2015-06-01

    between achieved goal blood pressure or blood pressure reduction after 1 year and the diagnoses of MCI or dementia (P=0.32–0.56.Conclusion: Treatment of hypertension is important for primary and secondary prevention of stroke. Showing a potential beneficial effect of blood pressure control on cognitive function, however, probably needs longer follow-up. Keywords: cognitive impairment, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, risk factor management, secondary prevention

  2. Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    711th Human Performance Wing U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Int’l Expeditionary Educ & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical ...International Expeditionary Education & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical Skills Institute/C-STARS Cincinnati 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0008 Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight Thomas C. Blakeman

  3. Fracture control plan for propellant and pressurant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    To assure the functional integrity of the GLL-RPM fuel and pressurized gas tank, all activities during entire lifetime of the tank, from manufacture to the end of the mission, must be monitored. Specifications are given for all procedures which influence the tank structure including design, manufacture, cleaning, test operations, and storage. Tests to be conducted to demonstrate that requirements of the fracture control plan are satisfied include static tests, cyclic load tests, proof tests, He-leak test, and acceptance tests.

  4. Diving injuries to the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J C

    1977-01-01

    Most of the previous literature concerning otologic problems in compressed gas environments has emphasized middle ear barotrauma. With recent increases in commercial, military, and sport diving to deeper depths, inner ear disturbances during these exposures have been noted more frequently. Studies of inner ear physiology and pathology during diving indicate that the causes and treatment of these problems differ depending upon the phase and type of diving. Humans exposed to simulated depths of up to 305 meters without barotrauma or decompression sickness develop transient, conductive hearing losses with no audiometric evidence of cochlear dysfunction. Transient vertigo and nystagmus during diving have been noted with caloric stimulation, resulting from the unequal entry of cold water into the external auditory canals, and with asymmetric middle ear pressure equilibration during ascent and descent (alternobaric vertigo). Equilibrium disturbances noted with nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, hypercarbia, or hypoxia appear primarily related to the effects of these conditions upon the central nervous system and not to specific vestibular end-organ dysfunction. Compression of humans in helium-oxygen at depths greater than 152.4 meters results in transient symptoms of tremor, dizziness, and nausea plus decrements in postural equilibrium and psychomotor performance, the high pressure nervous syndrome. Vestibular function studies during these conditions indicate that these problems are due to central dysfunction and not to vestibular end-organ dysfunction. Persistent inner ear injuries have been noted during several phases of diving: 1) Such injuries during compression (inner ear barotrauma) have been related to round window ruptures occurring with straining, or a Valsalva's maneuver during inadequate middle ear pressure equilibration. Divers who develop cochlear and/or vestibular symptoms during shallow diving in which decompression sickness is unlikely or during

  5. The Role of Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring for Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Joo; Park, Sungha

    2016-09-01

    Despite improvements in hypertension awareness and treatment, the blood pressure (BP) control rate still remains at around 50%. One of the major determinants of low BP control results from therapeutic inertia of the physician and suboptimal compliance of the patients. Home BP self-measurement and monitoring improves patients' awareness and helps the management of hypertension. Recent technological advances are allowing for accurate measurement and telemonitoring of home BP, with a number of randomized clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of telemonitoring for BP control. Home BP telemonitoring combined with self-adjustment based on prespecified treatment algorithms has been shown to improve BP control. Additionally, telemonitoring with active intervention by medical professionals has been shown to improve drug compliance and increase the target BP achievement rate. Although nothing can replace the tried and tested doctor-patient relationship in the office, telemonitoring of home BP will be an important tool for treating hypertension in the future.

  6. Wastegate Actuator Modeling and Tuning of a PID Controller for Boost Pressure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Thomasson, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In some turbochargers, boost pressure is reduced by opening the wastegate valve. In a modern turbo charged car, the most common way for opening the wastegate is with a pneumatic actuator and an air control solenoid, controlled by the ECU. In the control systems studied the ECU utilizes a static feedforward and a PID controller, for the purpose of making the boost pressure follow its reference value. With no systematic method for tuning the controller, this can be time consuming, and a set of ...

  7. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  8. Impedance matching, optimum velocity, and ideal middle ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, W T; Rosowski, J J

    1991-05-01

    One way to assess an ear's performance as a receiver of acoustic power is to consider impedance matching at the tympanic membrane. Assumptions about some of the impedances involved have lead to the idea of an optimum velocity magnitude (per unit pressure), which has been used as a test of middle-ear performance. We show that this approach is not a realistic way to assess effectiveness of power absorption at the tympanic membrane. More generally, we suggest that, if the performance of the combined external-and-middle ear in collecting acoustic power and delivering it to the inner ear is considered, the external- and middle-ear power-transfer efficiencies, as well as impedance matching, are involved in relating performance to an ideal.

  9. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  10. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location (Mo

  11. Ear Acupuncture versus  local anaestethic for pain relief during perineal repair - a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, Sara

    2007-01-01

    ACUPUNCTURE OR LOCAL ANAESTETICS FOR PAIN RELIEF DURING PERINEAL REPAIR AFTER VAGINAL DELIVERY: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.   By:  Sara Kindberg. Midwife and PhD student, Sønderborg Hospital, Denmark. Objective: To evaluate acupuncture as a new method of pain relief for postpartum perineal...... as photos of the acupuncture points. Perspectives:  Basic midwifery services such as providing sufficient pain relief during perineal repair still need improvement. Clinical practice should be improved continuously and thus produce reliable evidence on different pain relief methods. Website:        http...

  12. A static pressure reset control system with a new type of flow damper for use in low pressure ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The control strategy for mechanical ventilation systems has significant impact on the performance of the system, in terms of energy consumption and correct air distribution. This paper presents a static pressure reset control system employing a new type of flow damper with lower pressure loss...... for use in low pressure ventilation systems. The flow damper has a droplet shape that minimizes turbulence generation and the resulting pressure loss. The performance of the damper was examined by making measurements of pressure loss and airflow. These were used to determine the required pressure loss...... for operation and the airflow accuracy. Results were compared to similar tests carried out with conventional flat plate dampers. A static pressure reset control algorithm was programmed and analyzed on a test system consisting of three dampers, representing three office rooms. The comparison of the dampers...

  13. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  14. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  15. A Fuzzy Logic Based Supervisory Hierarchical Control Scheme for Real Time Pressure Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Kanagaraj; P.Sivashanmugam; S.Paramasivam

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisory hierarchical fuzzy controller (SHFC) for regulating pressure in a real-time pilot pressure control system.The input scaling factor tuning of a direct expert controller is made using the error and process input parameters in a closed loop system in order to obtain better controller performance for set-point change and load disturbances.This on-line tuning method reduces operator involvement and enhances the controller performance to a wide operating range.The hierarchical control scheme consists of an intelligent upper level supervisory fuzzy controller and a lower level direct fuzzy controller.The upper level controller provides a mechanism to the main goal of the system and the lower level controller delivers the solutions to a particular situation. The control algorithm for the proposed scheme has been developed and tested using an ARM7 microcontroller-based embedded target board for a nonlinear pressure process having dead time.To demonstrate the effectiveness,the results of the proposed hierarchical controller,fuzzy controller and conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller are analyzed.The results prove that the SHFC performance is better in terms of stability and robustness than the conventional control methods.

  16. The analysis of ear canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Gen

    In this thesis complex 3-D ear canal finite element models are simplified using transfer matrices to 1-D models. This simplification allows analysis on the sound propagation in the ear, which results in potentially using a non-invasive probe to determine the acoustical properties of the ear.

  17. Ear Acupuncture versus  local anaestethic for pain relief during perineal repair - a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, Sara

    2007-01-01

    ACUPUNCTURE OR LOCAL ANAESTETICS FOR PAIN RELIEF DURING PERINEAL REPAIR AFTER VAGINAL DELIVERY: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.   By:  Sara Kindberg. Midwife and PhD student, Sønderborg Hospital, Denmark. Objective: To evaluate acupuncture as a new method of pain relief for postpartum perineal...... are conducted at day 1 or 2, at day 14 and 6 months after delivery. A validated tool for wound healing assessment and pain score is used. Randomisation is stratified on episiotomies and epidural is used for pain during delivery. Main outcome measures: 1. Need for additional pain relief during perineal repair. 2....... Pain experienced during perineal repair reported 1 day after delivery. 3. Wound healing evaluated 1 and 14 days after delivery. 4. Patient satisfaction with the allocated pain relief during perineal repair. Results:  The trial is ongoing until July 2007. Preliminary results will be presented as well...

  18. The assessment and management of inner ear barotrauma in divers and recommendations for returning to diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Smart, David R

    2014-12-01

    Inner ear barotrauma (IEBt) constitutes a spectrum of pressure-related pathology in the inner ear, with antecedent middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) common. IEBt includes perilymph fistula, intralabyrinthine membrane tear, inner ear haemorrhage and other rarer pathologies. Following a literature search, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of IEBt in divers and best-practice recommendations for returning to diving were reviewed. Sixty-nine papers/texts were identified and 54 accessed. Twenty-five case series (majority surgical) provided guidance on diagnostic pathways; nine solely reported divers. IEBt in divers may be difficult to distinguish from inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS), and requires dive-risk stratification and careful interrogation regarding diving-related ear events, clinical assessment, pure tone audiometry, a fistula test and electronystagmography (ENG). Once diagnosed, conservative management is the recommended first line therapy for IEBt. Recompression does not appear to cause harm if the diagnosis (IEBt vs IEDCS) is doubtful (limited case data). Exploratory surgery is indicated for severe or persisting vestibular symptoms or hearing loss, deterioration of symptoms, or lack of improvement over 10 days indicating significant pathology. Steroids are used, but without high-level evidence. It may be possible for divers to return to subaquatic activity after stakeholder risk acceptance and informed consent, provided: (1) sensorineural hearing loss is stable and not severe; (2) there is no vestibular involvement (via ENG); (3) high-resolution computed tomography has excluded anatomical predilection to IEBt and (4) education on equalising techniques is provided. There is a need for a prospective data registry and controlled trials to better evaluate diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  19. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. D.; Otto, J. M.; Cody, J. C.; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Gautney, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cryogenic propellant is an essential element in future space exploration programs. Therefore, NASA and its industrial partners are committed to an advanced development/technology program that will broaden the experience base for the entire cryogenic fluid management community. Furthermore, the high cost of microgravity experiments has motivated NASA to establish government/aerospace industry teams to aggressively explore combinations of ground testing and analytical modeling to the greatest extent possible, thereby benefitting both industry and government entities. One such team consisting of ManTech SRS, Inc., Edwards Air Force Base, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was formed to pursue a technology project designed to demonstrate technology readiness for an SRS liquid hydrogen (LH2) in-space propellant management concept. The subject testing was cooperatively performed June 21-30, 2000, through a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement between SRS, MSFC, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. The joint statement of work used to guide the technical activity is presented in appendix A. The key elements of the SRS concept consisted of an LH2 storage and supply system that used all of the vented H2 for solar engine thrusting, accommodated pressure control without a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), and minimized or eliminated the need for a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD). The strategy was to balance the LH2 storage tank pressure control requirements with the engine thrusting requirements to selectively provide either liquid or vapor H2 at a controlled rate to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity environment of space operations. The overall test objective was to verify that the proposed concept could enable simultaneous control of LH2 tank pressure and feed system flow to the thruster without necessitating a TVS and a capillary LAD. The primary program objectives were designed to demonstrate technology readiness of the SRS concept

  20. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  1. Fuzzy Coordinated PI Controller: Application to the Real-Time Pressure Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kanagaraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the real-time implementation of a fuzzy coordinated classical PI control scheme for controlling the pressure in a pilot pressure tank system. The fuzzy system has been designed to track the variation parameters in a feedback loop and tune the classical controller to achieve a better control action for load disturbances and set point changes. The error and process inputs are chosen as the inputs of fuzzy system to tune the conventional PI controller according to the process condition. This online conventional controller tuning technique will reduce the human involvement in controller tuning and increase the operating range of the conventional controller. The proposed control algorithm is experimentally implemented for the real-time pressure control of a pilot air tank system and validated using a high-speed 32-bit ARM7 embedded microcontroller board (ATMEL AT91M55800A. To demonstrate the performance of the fuzzy coordinated PI control scheme, results are compared with a classical PI and PI-type fuzzy control method. It is observed that the proposed controller structure is able to quickly track the parameter variation and perform better in load disturbances and also for set point changes.

  2. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2012-03-21

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design and operation a challenging task. This work presents a detailed optimization-based approach for simultaneously incorporating PSA design, operational, and control aspects under the effect of time variant and invariant disturbances. It is applied to a two-bed, six-step PSA system represented by a rigorous mathematical model, where the key optimization objective is to maximize the expected H2 recovery while achieving a closed loop product H2 purity of 99.99%, for separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 feed. The benefits over sequential design and control approach are shown in terms of closed-loop recovery improvement of more than 3%, while the incorporation of explicit/multiparametric model predictive controllers improves the closed loop performance. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Pressure Control System Design for a Closed Crop Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, K.; Blackwell, C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is an area of active research at NASA. CELSS is a plant-based bioregenerative life support system for long term manned space flights where resupply is costly or impractical. The plants in a CELSS will function to convert the carbon dioxide (exhaled by the crew) into oxygen, purify non-potable water into potable quality water, and provide food for the crew. Prior to implementing a CELSS life support system, one must have knowledge on growing plants in a closed chamber under low gravity. This information will come from research to be conducted on the CELSS Test Facility that will operate on the Space Station Freedom. Currently a ground-based CELSS Test Facility is being built at NASA Ames Research Center. It is called the EDU (Engineering Development Unit). This system will allow researchers to identify issues that may cause difficulties in the development of the CELSS Test Facility and aid in the development of new needed technologies. The EDU consists of a 1 m2 crop growth chamber that is surrounded by a containment enclosure. The containment enclosure isolates the system so there is very little mass and thermal exchange with the ambient. The leakage rate is on the order of 1 % of the enclosure's volume per day (with 0.2S psi pressure difference). The thermal leakage is less than 0.5% of the electrical power supplied to the system per degree Celsius difference from the surrounding. The pressure in the containment enclosure is regulated at 62.5 Pa below the ambient by an active controller. The goal is to maintain this set point for a variety of conditions, such as a range of operating temperatures, heat load variations that occur when the lights are turned on and off, and fluctuations in ambient pressure. In addition certain transition tracking performance is required. This paper illustrates the application of some advanced systems control methods to the task of synthesizing the EDU's pressure control system.

  4. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear.

  5. Influence and Utilisation of Pressure Propagation in Pipelines for Secondary Controlled Discrete Displacement Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    Efficient discrete force control of cylinders may be realised by having multi-chambered cylinders, where the pressure of the chambers are shifted between fixed pressure levels of a secondary controlled system. However, the pressure shifting on a volume where the dynamics of pressure propagation i...

  6. Influence and Utilisation of Pressure Propagation in Pipelines for Secondary Controlled Discrete Displacement Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    Efficient discrete force control of cylinders may be realised by having multi-chambered cylinders, where the pressure of the chambers are shifted between fixed pressure levels of a secondary controlled system. However, the pressure shifting on a volume where the dynamics of pressure propagation...

  7. nEar 05

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S&C Labs

    2005-01-01

    Ego Systems简称ESI或Ego-Sys,这问韩国公司一向以制造低价格、高性能的专业音频产品闻名于专业音频制作领域。其产品涵盖了专业录音卡、监听音箱和USB声卡等。在大家的印象中,可能还记得MAYA录音卡、nEar 08监听音箱,以及MAYA EX系列USB声卡。其中,nEar08监听音箱曾在本刊2001年第18期报道过,那是它首次在国内媒体上亮相。经过四年多的市场检验,

  8. Controlled Microdroplet Transport in an Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma

    CERN Document Server

    Maguire, P D; Kelsey, C P; Bingham, A; Montgomery, E P; Bennet, E D; Potts, H E; Rutherford, D; McDowell, D A; Diver, D A; Mariotti, D

    2015-01-01

    We report the controlled injection of near-isolated micron-sized liquid droplets into a low temperature He-Ne steady-state rf plasma at atmospheric pressure. The H2O droplet stream is constrained within a 2 mm diameter quartz tube. Imaging at the tube exit indicates a log-normal droplet size distribution with an initial count mean diameter of 15 micrometers falling to 13 micrometers with plasma exposure. The radial velocity profile is approximately parabolic indicating near laminar flow conditions with the majority of droplets travelling at >75% of the local gas speed and having a plasma transit time of < 100 microseconds. The maximum gas temperature, determined from nitrogen spectral lines, was below 400 K and the observed droplet size reduction implies additional factors beyond standard evaporation, including charge and surface chemistry effects. The successful demonstration of controlled microdroplet streams opens up possibilities for gas-phase microreactors and remote delivery of active species for pla...

  9. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  10. Linear servo-controlled pressure generator for forced oscillation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, P L; Werneck, M M; Giannella-Neto, A

    1998-01-01

    In respiratory input impedance measurements, the low-frequency range contains important clinical and physiological information. However, the patient's spontaneous ventilation can contaminate the data in this range, leading to unreliable results. Unbiased estimators are a good alternative to overcome this problem, provided that the generator is considered linear. This condition is not fulfilled by most existing generators as they are based on loudspeakers, which have strong nonlinearities. The present work aims to contribute to the solution of this problem, and describes a pressure generator that minimises the nonlinearities by an optical sensor placed in a position feedback loop. The static evaluation shows a high linearity for the optical system. The well known frequency response of pressure transducers is used in the dynamic evaluation of the instrument. The analysis of the generator shows that the use of position feedback improved the frequency response. The total harmonic distortion (THD) measurement shows that closed loop resulted in an effective decrease in the nonlinearities. The reduction of THD achieved by the servo-controlled generator can contribute to the practical implementation of the unbiased estimators, increasing the reliability of the impedance data, especially in the low-frequency range. This system is compared with conventional generators and with another servo-controlled system.

  11. Pressure retarded osmosis as a controlling system for traditional renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravetta, Armando; Fecarotta, Oreste; La Rocca, Michele; Martino, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a viable but still not diffused form of renewable energy (see Maisonneuve et al., 2015 for a recent literature review). In PRO, water from a low salinity feed solution permeates through a membrane into a pressurized, high salinity draw solution, giving rise to a positive pressure drop; then energy is obtained by depressurizing the permeate through a hydro-turbine and brackish water is discharged. Many technological, environmental and economical aspects are obstacles in the diffusion of PRO, like the vulnerability of the membranes to fouling, the impact of the brackish water on the local marine environment, the high cost of membranes, etc. We are interested in the use of PRO as a combined form of energy with other renewable energy source like solar, wind or mini hydro in water supply networks (WSN). For the wide diffusion of renewables one of the major concerns of commercial power companies is to obtain very stable form of energy to comply with prescriptions of electricity grid operators and with the instant energy demand curve. Renewables are generally very variable form of energy, for the influence of climatic conditions on available power, and of the fluctuation in water demand in WSN. PRO is a very flexible technology where with appropriate turbines and control system power can be varied continuously to compensate for variation of other source of energy. Therefore, PRO is suitable to be used as a balancing system for commercial power system. We will present a simulation of the performance of a PRO used in combination with three different renewables. In the first two scenarios PRO compensate the difference between energy demand and energy production of a solar power plant and hydro power plant in a WSN. In the third scenario PRO is used to compensate daily variation of energy production in a wind power plant. Standard curves of energy production and energy demand for southern Italy are used. In order to control PRO production an

  12. Using a pressure controlled vortex design method to control secondary flow losses in a turbine stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qingfeng; Zheng Qun; Yue Guoqiang; Zhang Hai; Luo Mingcong

    2013-01-01

    A turbine design method based on pressure controlled vortex design (PCVD) is presented to design a small-size turbine stage. Contrary to the conventional controlled vortex design (CVD) method, the main objective of PCVD is to control the axial velocity and radial pressure in the sta-tor-rotor gap. Through controlling axial velocity, the PCVD establishes a direct tie to meridional stream surface. Thus stream surface variation is induced, resulting in a large secondary flow vortex covering the full blade passage in the respective stator and rotor. This secondary flow vortex could be dedicated to control the secondary flow mitigation and migration. Through radial pressure, the PCVD is also associated with the macroscopic driving force of fluid motion. So the better benefit of CVD can be achieved. The core concept behind PCVD is to mainly control the spanwise pressure gradient by altering profile loading at various spanwise locations. Therefore not only the local pro-file lift is affected, but also the resulting throat widths, stage reaction degree, and massflow rate are altered or redistributed respectively. With the PCVD method, the global stage efficiency is increased successfully while the mass flow rate keeps constant. Additionally there is no endwall shape optimi-zation, stacking optimization, or pitch/chord variations, concentrating solely on varying blade pro-file deflections and stagger.

  13. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva; Wulke, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90%) and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations) or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and externa...

  14. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  15. Application of computer programs for rock pressure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shick, V.M.; Bykova, O.G.; Nefyodov, M.V.; Starikov, G.B. [State Research Institute of Mining, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    For practical purposes of the use of information resources in the field of geomechanics and mine surveying with accepted mining technology in mines, the authors have developed the packaged software programs of the survey-geomechanical information system with database objects of mine field. This system enables to execute the graphical representation of workings layout in preset scale, axonometric projection, the zones of higher ground pressure: program packages for calculations of rock pressure manifestations and for selection of suitable support facilities for the permanent, development and active workings and vertical shafts based on the information resources of the State Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics & Mine Surveying (VNIMI). The program packages are applied at coal mines in Russia and in Kazakhstan. The profitable operation of coal mines can be reached only by the combined optimal engineering decisions in mine working`s laying-out and their reliability and safety at the stages of their designing and exploitation, and with minimal harm of the environment as well. This problem is being complicated by the fact that today the mining-practicing engineers and designers are ordinarily facing the problem {open_quotes}of an information barrier{close_quotes}, when the complexity of controlling systems exceeds the potentialities of traditional management of production practice. Coal mine is a typical representative of complicated systems, because the information about geological structure, physicomechanical properties and stress-strain state of rock mass are of fragmentary character and insufficiently reliable.

  16. Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Features and KFDA

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuan; Zhichun Mu

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the s...

  17. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  18. Low-Pressure Turbine Separation Control: Comparison With Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2002-01-01

    The present work details a computational study, using the Glenn HT code, that analyzes the use of vortex generator jets (VGJs) to control separation on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade at low Reynolds numbers. The computational results are also compared with the experimental data for steady VGJs. It is found that the code determines the proper location of the separation point on the suction surface of the baseline blade (without any VGJ) for Reynolds numbers of 50,000 or less. Also, the code finds that the separated region on the suction surface of the blade vanishes with the use of VGJs. However, the separated region and the wake characteristics are not well predicted. The wake width is generally over-predicted while the wake depth is under-predicted.

  19. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. 玉米穗腐病药剂防治研究∗%Study on Chemical Control of Maize Ear Rot Caused by Fusarium gra-minearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宝慧; 吴庠玉; 刘燕妮; 南楠; 夏纬跃; 马贵龙; 高洁

    2014-01-01

    Indoor toxicity of thirteen fungicides against Fusarium graminearum was tested by myceli⁃um growth rate method. The results showed that the toxicity of carbendazim, flusilazole, triflumizole, propiconazole, mancozeb and diniconazole to the pathogen was stronger than that of others,and EC50 value was 0.11, 0.22, 0.26, 0.88, 1.09 and 2.99μg/mL, respectively. Field efficiency trials of four fungicides, carbendazim, flusilazole, propiconazole and mancozeb, indicated that propiconazole and flusilazole had relatively high control efficiency on maize ear rot, 66.14% and 66.04% respec⁃tively in field at active ingredient dosage of 150.00 g/hm2 and 51.00 g/hm2 . The results of yield de⁃termination showed that the plot treated by propiconazole at active ingredient dosage of 150.00 g/hm2 had the highest yield,followed by flusilazole at dosage of 51.00 g/hm2%采用菌丝生长速率法测定了13种杀菌剂对玉米穗腐病菌( Fusarium graminearum)的室内毒力。试验结果表明:多菌灵、氟硅唑、氟菌唑、丙环唑、代森锰锌和烯唑醇6种杀菌剂对穗腐病菌抑菌效果较好,其EC50值分别为0�11,0�22,0�26,0�88,1�09,2�99μg/mL。对多菌灵、氟硅唑、丙环唑和代森锰锌4种药剂进一步进行了田间药效试验,有效成分用量丙环唑150�00 g/hm2、氟硅唑51�00 g/hm2在发病初期穗部喷施对玉米穗腐病的田间防治效果分别达66�14%和66�04%。产量测定结果表明:丙环唑用量为150�00 g/hm2处理的小区产量最高,增产效果显著,其次是氟硅唑用量为51�00 g/hm2。

  1. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  2. Automated Human Identification Scheme using Ear Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics identification methods have proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. Biometrics methods truly identify humans, not keys and cards they posses or passwords they should remember. Ear on the other hand, has a more uniform distribution of color, so almost all information is conserved when converting the original image into gray scales. We propose the ear as a biometric and investigate it with both 2D and 3D data. The ICP-based algorithm also demonstrates good scalability with size of dataset. These results are encouraging in that they suggest a strong potential for 3D ear shape as a biometric. Multi-biometric 2D and 3D ear recognition are also explored. The proposed automatic ear detection method will integrate with the current system, and the performance will be evaluated with the original one. The investigation of ear recognition under less controlled conditions will focus on the robustness and variability of ear biometrics. Multi-modal biometrics using 3D ear images will be explored, and the performance will be compared to existing biometrics experimental results.

  3. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  4. WORKING LIQUID PRESSURE AND ITS CONTROL IN HYDRAULIC DRAWING PROCESSES OF CUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A method of setting up a pressure-stroke characteristic of the working liquid in hydraulic drawing is studied. A pressure-stroke characteristic and software for controlling its forming process are also developed. And a set of pressure controlling devices with PLC as a central processor are designed. It can be got from the relevant experiments that the pressure-stroke characteristic is correct and its control for forming process is available.

  5. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction.

  6. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  7. ORION Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Suit Loop and Pressure Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Brad; Conger, Bruce; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA's ORION Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Project at Johnson Space Center's (JSC), the Crew and Thermal Systems Division has developed performance models of the air system using Thermal Desktop/FloCAD. The Thermal Desktop model includes an Air Revitalization System (ARS Loop), a Suit Loop, a Cabin Loop, and Pressure Control System (PCS) for supplying make-up gas (N2 and O2) to the Cabin and Suit Loop. The ARS and PCS are designed to maintain air quality at acceptable O2, CO2 and humidity levels as well as internal pressures in the vehicle Cabin and during suited operations. This effort required development of a suite of Thermal Desktop Orion ECLSS models to address the need for various simulation capabilities regarding ECLSS performance. An initial highly detailed model of the ARS Loop was developed in order to simulate rapid pressure transients (water hammer effects) within the ARS Loop caused by events such as cycling of the Pressurized Swing Adsorption (PSA) Beds and required high temporal resolution (small time steps) in the model during simulation. A second ECLSS model was developed to simulate events which occur over longer periods of time (over 30 minutes) where O2, CO2 and humidity levels, as well as internal pressures needed to be monitored in the cabin and for suited operations. Stand-alone models of the PCS and the Negative Pressure relief Valve (NPRV) were developed to study thermal effects within the PCS during emergency scenarios (Cabin Leak) and cabin pressurization during vehicle re-entry into Earth's atmosphere. Results from the Orion ECLSS models were used during Orion Delta-PDR (July, 2014) to address Key Design Requirements (KDR's) for Suit Loop operations for multiple mission scenarios.

  8. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  9. Integrated high pressure microhydraulic actuation and control for surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, A J M; De Volder, M F L; Reynaerts, D

    2012-08-01

    To reduce the surgical trauma to the patient, minimally invasive surgery is gaining considerable importance since the eighties. More recently, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery was introduced to enhance the surgeon's performance in these procedures. This resulted in an intensive research on the design, fabrication and control of surgical robots over the last decades. A new development in the field of surgical tool manipulators is presented in this article: a flexible manipulator with distributed degrees of freedom powered by microhydraulic actuators. The tool consists of successive flexible segments, each with two bending degrees of freedom. To actuate these compliant segments, dedicated fluidic actuators are incorporated, together with compact hydraulic valves which control the actuator motion. Especially the development of microvalves for this application was challenging, and are the main focus of this paper. The valves distribute the hydraulic power from one common high pressure supply to a series of artificial muscle actuators. Tests show that the angular stroke of the each segment of this medical instrument is 90°.

  10. Role of aliskiren in blood pressure control and renoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Trimarchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hernán TrimarchiDepartment of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: Patients with chronic renal disease are at increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, which is the main cause of death in this growing population. Among the risk factors involved, hypertension and proteinuria are major contributors to kidney damage and, if not controlled, may eventually lead to the progression of renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Both proteinuria and hypertension can be primary pathologic events or can appear as complications of other disease processes. Initially, these two factors may operate separately but, as progression ensues, both processes generally combine, potentiating their effects and hastening renal damage. Therefore, strategies to reduce blood pressure and proteinuria are essential in order to slow the worsening of many nephropathies. Therapies that target the renin–angiotensin system offer particular benefit, as hypertension and proteinuria can be precisely reduced with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers. However, with this intervention, plasma renin activity remains high, and although primary endpoints may be controlled, elevated renin concentration can contribute to cardiovascular damage. Aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, is the first example of a novel class of antihypertensive drugs with potent antiproteinuric effects, which, alone or combined, can contribute to delaying the progression of kidney disease.Keywords: aliskiren, proteinuria, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, renoprotection

  11. [Development of open cycling air pressure control system used for glaucoma research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Gui-gang; Wang, Xue-fang; Hu, Wei-kun; Xie, Er-juan; Chen, Lian-yi; Shan, Chang-mei; Zhao, Guo-hong

    2006-06-01

    To develop and set up a new culture system, which can apply pressure to cultured cells with open cycling air. The effects of this new system on the pH value, HCO(3)(-) concentration, O(2) pressure (pO(2)), CO2 pressure (pCO(2)) and the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were tested to evaluate its efficiency in the study of glaucoma. In the open cycling air pressure control culture system, the pressure inside the culture flasks was controlled by increase or decrease of the perfuse airflow. The influence of different culture systems (normal pressure culture system, open cycling air pressure control system and occlusive pressure control system) on the pH value, HCO(3)(-) concentration, pO(2), pCO(2) and proliferation of RPE were tested. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. The open cycling air pressure control culture system worked effectively, the pressure inside the culture flask can be controlled from 0 to 100 mm Hg. The difference of pH value, HCO(3)(-) concentration, pO(2), and pCO(2) of culture medium and the proliferation of RPE between normal pressure culture system and open cycling air pressure control system were not significant (P = 0.927, 0.887, 0.818, 0.770, 0.719, respectively). There was significant difference in these data between normal pressure culture system and occlusive pressure control system (P = 0.001, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). A new designed standard culture system applying pressure to cells with open cycling air was effective at pressure controlling and pH value, HCO(3)(-) concentration, pO(2) and pCO(2) controlling. This system may act as an ideal model in the experimental study of glaucoma.

  12. Reducing energy consumption and leakage by active pressure control in a water supply system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Poznań, in the Midwest of Poland. For the optimal automatic pressure control of the clear water pumping station, nine pressure measuring points were installed in the distribution network, and an active pressure control model was

  13. Reducing energy consumption and leakage by active pressure control in a water supply system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Poznań, in the Midwest of Poland. For the optimal automatic pressure control of the clear water pumping station, nine pressure measuring points were installed in the distribution network, and an active pressure control model was develope

  14. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  15. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-12-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Liver Suction-Mediated Transfection in Mice Using a Pressure-Controlled Computer System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Zhang, Guangyuan; Kawakami, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Yota; Hayashi, Kouji; Hashida, Mitsuru; Konishi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, in the present study, we assembled a computer system to control the suction pressure and investigate the effects of the suction pressure conditions on the efficiency of the liver suction...

  17. Comparative Study of pressure-control ventilation and volume-control ventilation in treating traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 沈美亚; 徐哲荣

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect and side effect of pressure-control ventilation (PCV) on traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared with volume-control ventilation (VCV).Methods: Forty patients with traumatic ARDS were hospitalized in our department from June 1996 to December 2002. Twenty were treated with PCV (PCV group) and 20 with VCV (VCV group). The changes of the peak inflating pressure and the mean pressure of the airway were observed at the very beginning of the mechanical ventilation and the following 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The transcutaneous saturation of oxygen pressure, the pressure of oxygen in artery, the mean blood pressure, the central venous pressure, the heart rate and the incidence of the pressure injury were also monitored before ventilation and 12 hours after ventilation.Results: The pressure of oxygen in artery, the transcutaneous saturation of oxygen pressure, the heart rate and the respiratory rate in the PCV group were obviously improved after ventilation treatment. The peak inflating pressure, the mean pressure of the airway and the central venous pressure in the PCV group were lower than in the VCV group. The incidence of pressure injury was 0 in the PCV group while 10% in the VCV group. Conclusions: The clinical effect of PCV on traumatic ARDS is better and the incidence rate of pressure injury is lower than that of VCV. PCV has minimal effects on the hemodynamics.

  18. Pressure ulcer prevention in intensive care - a randomised control trial of two pressure-relieving devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theaker, C; Kuper, M; Soni, N

    2005-04-01

    Pressure sores are a potential complication of intensive care. Modern methods of pressure sore prevention centre around the use of pressure-relieving devices. Few studies exist that confirm the effectiveness of these devices. This study evaluates the effectiveness of two devices, the Hill-Rom Duo mattress and the KCI TheraPulse. High-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two devices. We excluded those patients who had pressure sores upon admission. Those patients that did develop a pressure sore had their wound digitally photographed and graded by two independent tissue viability nurses. Sixty-two patients were included (30 TheraPulse, 32 Duo. Nine developed a pressure sore (6 Duo, 3 TheraPulse). No statistical differences between the two devices could be found. The longer a patient was nursed on a device, the greater the risk of pressure sore development. Despite the use of these devices, pressure sores can still develop in the Intensive Care patient population.

  19. The Healing Effect of Low-Temperature Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma in Pressure Ulcer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuangsuwanich, Apirag; Assadamongkol, Tananchai; Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2016-08-31

    Pressure ulcers are difficult to treat. Recent reports of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma (LTAPP) indicated its safe and effectiveness in chronic wound care management. It has been shown both in vitro and vivo studies that LTAPP not only helps facilitate wound healing but also has antimicrobial efficacy due to its composition of ion and electron, free radicals, and ultraviolet ray. We studied the beneficial effect of LTAPP specifically on pressure ulcers. In a prospective randomized study, 50 patients with pressure ulcers were divided into 2 groups: Control group received standard wound care and the study group was treated with LTAPP once every week for 8 consecutive weeks in addition to standard wound care. We found that the group treated with LTAPP had significantly better PUSH (Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing) scores and exudate amount after 1 week of treatment. There was also a reduction in bacterial load after 1 treatment regardless of the species of bacteria identified.

  20. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K; Ridley, Christopher J; Bocian, Artur; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J Paul; Kamenev, Konstantin V

    2014-04-01

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO3 have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  1. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J. Paul; Kamenev, Konstantin V.

    2014-04-01

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO3 have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  2. Blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-01-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and essential hypertension are common conditions that are frequently present together. Both are considered risk factors for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications and therefore treatment of both conditions is essential. Many papers were published on blood pressure (BP) targets in diabetic patients, including several works published in the last 2 years. As a result, guidelines differ in their recommendations on BP targets in diabetic patients. The method by which to control hypertension, whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological, is also a matter of debate and has been extensively studied in the literature. In recent years, new medications were introduced for the treatment of DM, some of which also affect BP and the clinician treating hypertensive and diabetic patients should be familiar with these medications and their effect on BP. In this manuscript, we discuss the evidence supporting different BP targets in diabetics and review the various guidelines on this topic. In addition, we discuss the various options available for the treatment of hypertension in diabetics and the recommendations for a specific treatment over the other. Finally we briefly discuss the new diabetic drug classes and their influence on BP.

  3. Neural Control of Blood Pressure in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Brent; Faulk, Katelynn; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Sleep apnea (SA) is increasing in prevalence and is commonly comorbid with hypertension. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in SA, and through this paradigm, the mechanisms that underlie SA-induced hypertension are becoming clear. Cyclic hypoxic exposure during sleep chronically stimulates the carotid chemoreflexes, inducing sensory long-term facilitation, and drives sympathetic outflow from the hindbrain. The elevated sympathetic tone drives hypertension and renal sympathetic activity to the kidneys resulting in increased plasma renin activity and eventually angiotensin II (Ang II) peripherally. Upon waking, when respiration is normalized, the sympathetic activity does not diminish. This is partially because of adaptations leading to overactivation of the hindbrain regions controlling sympathetic outflow such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The sustained sympathetic activity is also due to enhanced synaptic signaling from the forebrain through the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). During the waking hours, when the chemoreceptors are not exposed to hypoxia, the forebrain circumventricular organs (CVOs) are stimulated by peripherally circulating Ang II from the elevated plasma renin activity. The CVOs and median preoptic nucleus chronically activate the PVN due to the Ang II signaling. All together, this leads to elevated nocturnal mean arterial pressure (MAP) as a response to hypoxemia, as well as inappropriately elevated diurnal MAP in response to maladaptations.

  4. 精细控压钻井控压响应时间浅析%Analysis on pressure controlling response time of delicate controlled pressure drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余金海; 孙宁; 刘健

    2011-01-01

    精细控压钻井通过PWD随钻测压、计算机控制、回压泵和节流阀等闭环调节井口回压,精细控制井底压力,以满足安全、快速钻井的需要.判断精细控压钻井系统性能高低的一个重要指标就是压力控制的响应时间.短的控压响应时间可以很快平衡井底压力变化,维持钻进在井底压力基本恒定下进行.以回压从井口传到井底的时间为研究对象,建立了回压在环空传播速度的计算模型,分析了影响回压传播速度的主要因素钻井液密度、气体含量和岩屑含量,并以控压钻井实例数据计算为例、分析了精细控压钻井的控压响应时间,为精细控压钻井提供理论支持.%Through PWD, surface computer control system, back pressure pump and choke etc., delicate controlled pressure drilling system could adjust the wellhead back pressure and delicately controls the bottom hole pressure to meet the needs of safe and fast drilling.The important index reflecting the performance level of delicate controlled pressure drilling system is the response time.Short time can quickly balance off bottom hole pressure variation and keep drilling basically under constant bottom-hole pressure.The pressure controlling response time is consisted of three parts: PWD signal transmission time, the time from analyzing signal to adjusting wellhead back pressure by surface control system and the time of back pressure propagating from wellhead to bottom.This paper regarded the third part-the time of back pressure propagating from wellhead to bottom, as the research object.The computational mode of back pressure propagation velocity in annular was established, and the main factors affecting the velocity were analyzed, which were drilling fluid density, gas content and cutting content.Field data were used to calculate and analyze the pressure controlling response time.Finally theoretical supports were provided for delicate controlled pressure drilling.

  5. Injuries of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, J; Renner, G J

    1990-10-01

    Ear injuries occur in people of all ages but predominate in active people such as wrestlers, boxers, and bike riders. The types and extent of injury are a function of the force causing the injury. Shearing forces of moderate intensity cause hematoma formation, whereas greater force causes lacerations or even amputation. Sharp objects cause lacerations determined by the force, direction, and point of impact. The high ratio of surface area to mass makes the auricle vulnerable to extremes of temperature. People participating in high-risk activities should wear protective headgear. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal contours while preventing infection. Hematoma results in disfigurement by organization or chondritis. Evacuation and pressure dressings using sterile technique correct the condition. Second-degree burns are treated by regular cleansing and application of topical antimicrobials. Deeper burns require debridement, biologic dressings, or burying the cartilage subcutaneously for later reconstruction. Simple lacerations are closed under aseptic technique using either skin-to-skin sutures only or sutures of the skin combined with intercartilage sutures. Extensive and complex lacerations require meticulous care to match all fragments and prevent infection or loss of tissue. Bare cartilage must be covered with vascularized tissue. The treatment of total amputation is controversial. Some advocate reattachment as a composite graft using intravenous low molecular weight dextrans and heparin as adjuvants. Mladick dermabrades the amputated pinna, reattaches it with sutures, and then slips it into a pocket of elevated postauricular skin for 2 weeks. Others urge microvascular reanastomosis of the small nutrient vessels. Brent and Byrd separate the cartilage from its overlying skin and envelope it first with vascularized temporoparietal fascia and then a split-thickness skin graft. Chondritis is the most feared complication of injury or surgery of the pinna. It

  6. Controlling the position and the dislocation of the middle ear transducer with high-resolution computed tomography and digital volume tomography: implications for the transducers' design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Giesemann, Anja M; Witt, Thomas; Goetz, Friedrich; Schwab, Burkard

    2012-04-01

    A minimal tip dislocation of the middle ear transducer (MET(®), Otologics Ltd) may result in poor hearing performance. Our objective was to examine if a defined MET dislocation can be diagnosed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) or digital volume tomography (DVT). A human cadaver head was sequentially implanted with different MET tips (incus application) including a ceramic tip (T 1c), a titanium tip (T 1t), a new, thinner titanium tip (T 2), and a spherical titanium tip (Ts). HRCT and DVT studies were performed. Afterward, the tips were pulled back 0.5 mm, so that they were not attached to the incus. HRCT and DVT scans were repeated to identify the dislocation. Using the best plain in HRCT images, the dislocation of the transducer could be measured reliably and reproducibly in half of the cases. In particular, the precise positioning and the dislocation could be identified when T 1t and Ts were implanted, with the Ts showing the best visibility. DVT failed in recognizing the dislocation in all cases. The identification of MET tip's dislocation with HRCT depends on the shape, size, and material of the tip. This knowledge is useful for the design of the implants, as determination of the right position of the middle ear transducer may be proven important for the hearing outcome. In some cases, however, surgical exploration may still be required. Although DVT represents a promising imaging method for the otologists, it can barely help when MET dislocation is suspected.

  7. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  8. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The investi......The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head...

  9. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  10. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.

  11. Parameter-less remote real-time control for the adjustment of pressure in water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, Philip R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing pressure in a water distribution system leads to a decrease in water leakage, decreased cracks in pipes, and consumption decreases. Pressure management includes an advanced type called remote real-time control. Here pressure control valves...

  12. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  13. A Pressure Control Method for Emulsion Pump Station Based on Elman Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize pressure control of emulsion pump station which is key equipment of coal mine in the safety production, the control requirements were analyzed and a pressure control method based on Elman neural network was proposed. The key techniques such as system framework, pressure prediction model, pressure control model, and the flowchart of proposed approach were presented. Finally, a simulation example was carried out and comparison results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient and outperformed others.

  14. The use of differential pressure feedback in an automatic flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D. W.; Roskam, J.; Finn, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study has been performed to evaluate the performance of a system whereby a control surface is positioned with differential pressure as the feedback variable. Analogous to a position command system, the control surface is commanded to move until a certain differential pressure is achieved at a given point on the surface. Frequency response tests and theoretical considerations indicate that the pressure feedback transfer function is first order, with a break frequency up to 50 rad/sec. There exist applications to the outer loops of flight control systems as well. Stability augmentation, gust alleviation, and stall prevention appear to be possible by feeding back differential pressure across lifting and control surfaces.

  15. The ear region of Latimeria chalumnae: functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The anatomy of Latimeria chalumnae has figured prominently in discussions about tetrapod origins. While the gross anatomy of Latimeria is well documented, relatively little is known about its otic anatomy and ontogeny. To examine the inner ear and the otoccipital part of the cranium, a serial-sectioned juvenile coelacanth was studied in detail and a three-dimensional reconstruction was made. The ear of Latimeria shows a derived condition compared to other basal sarcopterygians in having a connection between left and right labyrinths. This canalis communicans is perilymphatic in nature and originates at the transition point of the saccule and the lagena deep in the inner ear, where a peculiar sense end organ can be found. In most gnathostomes the inner ears are clearly separated from each other. A connection occurs in some fishes, e.g. within the Ostariophysi. In the sarcopterygian lineage no connections between the inner ears are known except in the Actinistia. Some fossil actinistians show a posteriorly directed duct lying between the foramen magnum and the notochordal canal, similar to the condition in the ear of Latimeria, so this derived character complex probably developed early in actinistian history. Because some features of the inner ear of Latimeria have been described as having tetrapod affinities, the problem of hearing and the anatomy of the otical complex in the living coelacanth has been closely connected to the question of early tetrapod evolution. It was assumed in the past that the structure found in Latimeria could exemplify a transitional stage in otic evolution between the fishlike sarcopterygians and the first tetrapods in a functional or even phylogenetic way. Here the possibility is considered that the canalis communicans does not possess any auditory function but rather is involved in sensing pressure changes during movements involving the intracranial joint. Earlier hypotheses of a putative tympanic ear are refuted.

  16. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.

  17. Solar radiation pressure used for formation flying control around the Sun-Earth libration point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-ping GONG; Jun-feng LI; He-xi BAOYIN

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation pressure is used to control the formation flying around the L2 libration point in the Sun-Earth system. Formation flying control around a halo orbit requires a very small thrust that cannot be satisfied by the latest thrusters. The key contribution of this paper is that the continuous low thrust is produced by solar radiation pressure to achieve the tight formation flying around the libration point. However, only certain families of formation types can be controlled by solar radiation pressure since the direction of solar radiation pressure is restricted to a certain range. Two types of feasible formations using solar radiation pressure control are designed. The conditions of feasible formations are given analytically. Simulations are presented for each case, and the results show that the formations are well controlled by solar radiation pressure.

  18. Clinical comparison of ears sudden deafness and sudden deafness in one ear%双耳与单耳突发性聋的临床对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and therapeutic efficacy of ears sudden deafness and sudden deafness in one ear.Methods Two hundred and twenty cases of sudden deafness in the first people's hospital of Shangqiu from December 2012 to December 2013 were selected.They were divided into control group (24 cases with ears sudden deafness) and observation group (196 cases with sudden deafness in one ear),and all were given comprehensive treatment.The clinical data of the two groups were retrospectively analyzed in order to investigate the clinical features and therapeutic efficacy.Results Observation group (sudden deafness in one ear) with age above 45 years old accounted for 53.06%,obviously lower than the control group(ears sudden deafness) which accounted for 79.17%.The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The incidence of hypertension,hyperlipidemia and diabetes of observation group was 17.35%,14.80% and 10.71%,which was obviously lower than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Total efficiency of observation group was 88.78%,which were obviously higher than that of the control group(58.33%,P <0.05).Conclusions Advanced age,high blood pressure,high cholesterol,diabetes and other complications are main factors of poor prognosis in patients with sudden deafness.Clinical features and therapeutic efficacy of ears sudden deafness and sudden deafness in one ear are different,so it should be given high attention.%目的 探讨双耳突发性聋与单耳突发性聋的临床特点及治疗效果.方法 选择商丘市第一人民医院2012年12月至2013年12月收治的220例突发性耳聋患者为研究对象,其中双耳突聋患者24例为对照组,单耳突聋患者196例为观察组,均采取综合治疗,且对两组患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,以探讨其临床特点和治疗效果.结果 观察组(单耳突聋)年龄≥45岁者占53.06%,显著

  19. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension ... achieved by a variety of medications. However, appro- ... aspirin, and 5 were non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Isometric ... Blood pressure was then measured at baseline (no treat- ment) ...

  20. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural sources of potassium. For example, a medium banana has about 420 mg of potassium and half ... high blood pressure. Learn more Get a fact sheet on following a heart-healthy diet: English | Spanish ...

  1. Blood pressure control and left ventricular hypertrophy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People with untreated or uncontrolled hypertension often run the risk of developing ... hypertensive subjects, based on office blood pressure, cardiac structural changes do remain despite ... complications, leading to high morbidity/ disability.

  2. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    included in the study and recorded all of the data. The presence or absence of ear pain was assessed over 3 days with a visual analog scale. Ear pain was assessed by a specially devised observational instrument based on previous reports. One side of the instrument consisted of a linear numbered scale, from 1 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain), and a corresponding color scale, ranging from blue to dark red. The reverse side contained a scale of 5 facial expressions, ranging from broad smile (no pain) to a sad and crying face (worst possible pain), and a corresponding color scale, ranging from blue to dark red. There were no significant between-group differences in patient age or gender, degree of fever, main symptoms, associated symptoms, and severity or laterality of acute otitis media. Each group had a statistically significant improvement in ear pain over the course of the 3 days. Patients who were given ear drops alone had a better response than patients who were given ear drops together with amoxicillin. Results were better in the NHED group than in the controls. Nevertheless, the findings indicated that the pain was mostly (80%) self-limited and could be explained simply by the time elapsed. The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery guidelines recommend topical medications as the first line of treatment for ear pain in the absence of systemic infection or serious underlying disease. Because no evidence was found that systemic antibiotics alone improved treatment outcome, if antibiotics do not change the natural course of otitis media, then the main goal of treatment, as in the present study, should be to alleviate the ear pain. The alternative, naturopathic herbal extract medications, may offer many new possibilities in the management of ear pain associated with AOM. Primary care physicians should be aware that at least 10% of their patients may have tried 1 or more forms of alternative/complementary medicine before presenting for consultation

  3. Modeling and estimating acoustic transfer functions of external ears with or without headphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huiqun; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The acoustic transfer functions of external ears with or without headphones affect the features of perceived sounds and vary considerably with listeners and headphones. A method for estimating the frequency responses of external-ear transfer functions from the sound at the entrance of a blocked ear canal (or from the input of a headphone) to the sound at the eardrum for different listeners and headphones is developed based on an acoustic signal model of external ears. The model allows for applying realistic data about individual external ears and headphones and is advantageous over current standard ear simulators with fixed structures limited to simulating average ear canals and eardrum impedances below 10 kHz. Given different eardrum impedances, ear canal shapes, lengths, and headphones, the frequency responses of external-ear transfer functions are estimated and presented. In addition, a method of determining the Norton equivalent volume velocity or Thevenien equivalent sound pressure sources of a headphone from sound pressure signals in an acoustic tube is presented. These methods are validated via direct measurements and expected to have applications in headphone sound reproduction, headphone and hearing aid design, and audiometric and psychoacoustic measurements to produce desired sounds at the eardrums of different listeners.

  4. Simulation of fuzzy control systems for nonferrous alloy vacuum counter-pressure casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qing-song; CAI Qi-zhou; WEI Bo-kang; YU Huan; YU Zi-rong

    2005-01-01

    Through simulation analyses of vacuum counter-pressure casting fuzzy control systems based on MATLAB, fuzzy control systems designed by simulation can track technical route established well. When transmission functions of vacuum counter-pressure casting controlled objects are changed in operation, fuzzy control systems can carry on self-regulation and stabilize quickly, and embody the advantages of fleet response velocity and little adjusting quantity. The design of vacuum counter-pressure casting fuzzy control systems is accelerated and improved greatly by simulation based on MATLAB. Meanwhile, their design is accurate and reliable. Moreover, microstructure and properties of thin-wall aluminum alloy castings are improved effectively by using fuzzy control systems.

  5. Control of arterial pressure in aquatic sea snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H B; Pough, F H

    1983-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses to head-up tilt, acutely graded hemorrhage, and pharmacologic stimulation by principal autonomic drugs were studied in four species of marine snakes, principally Aipysurus laevis (family Hydrophiidae). Arterial pressure varied inversely with tilt angle and blood volume deficit in conscious snakes outside of water, indicating that physiological regulation was poor or lacking. Calculated arterial pressures at head level typically diminished to zero in A. laevis tilted to angles greater than or equal to 30 degrees. Arterial pressure (corrected for external water pressure) did not change when these snakes were tilted in seawater. Changes of arterial pressure induced by tilt, blood loss, or autonomic drugs elicited reflex adjustments in heart activity, but the magnitude of these responses was less than that observed in terrestrial species of snake. It is concluded that baroreflexes are present but comparatively ineffective in sea snakes. Snakes tolerated large losses of blood volume, and extravascular fluids were absorbed into the circulation during hemorrhage; both hemorrhage and estimated hemodilution volumes exceeded 100% of the initial blood volume in Acalyptophis peronii. Thus, in marine snakes major fluid shifts between nonvascular and vascular compartments significantly compensate hypovolemia but, because of minor autonomic adjustments, do not result in a well-regulated arterial pressure.

  6. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  7. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  8. Pressure Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Controlled Ventilation System of a Lung Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is an important life support treatment of critically ill patients, and air pressure dynamics of human lung affect ventilation treatment effects. In this paper, in order to obtain the influences of seven key parameters of mechanical ventilation system on the pressure dynamics of human lung, firstly, mechanical ventilation system was considered as a pure pneumatic system, and then its mathematical model was set up. Furthermore, to verify the mathematical model, a prototype mechanical ventilation system of a lung simulator was proposed for experimental study. Last, simulation and experimental studies on the air flow dynamic of the mechanical ventilation system were done, and then the pressure dynamic characteristics of the mechanical system were obtained. The study can be referred to in the pulmonary diagnostics, treatment, and design of various medical devices or diagnostic systems.

  9. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  10. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  11. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009, and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage.

  12. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  13. Effects of low humidity on the rat middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, H M; McGuirt, W F; Ayres, P H; Hayes, A W; Coggins, C R; Sagartz, J

    1994-09-01

    Secretory otitis media is common in the winter, and the possible risk factors are numerous. This study examines the effect of low humidity on the middle ear using a Sprague-Dawley rat model: 23 test rats housed for 5 days in a low-humidity environment (10% to 12% relative humidity) and 23 control rats housed at 50% to 55% relative humidity. Microscopic ear examinations were graded for otitis media with effusion (OME) before testing and on test days 3 and 5. The mucosa of the middle ears and eustachian tubes was examined histopathologically. Significantly more effusions were observed in the low-humidity group on test days 3 (P = .003) and 5 (P = .01), but no intergroup histopathologic differences were noted. We conclude that a low-humidity environment contributed to the development of OME in the test animals, and that low-humidity warrants further investigation as a contributing factor in childhood middle ear disease.

  14. The chronically draining ear. Notes on management in the office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, J L

    1966-07-01

    THERE ARE THREE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSISTENCE OF DISCHARGE FROM A CHRONICALLY DRAINING EAR: Moisture, opportunistic bacteria, and debris and diseased tissue. In most cases, the discharge may be temporarily controlled or eliminated by office treatment:* Instruction of the patient in aural hygiene and impressing upon him the importance of avoiding getting water in the ear.* Thorough cleaning of the ear, by the physician initially, and by the patient as frequently as necessary to keep the ear free of discharge.* Antibiotics, used locally rather than systemically, and usually in the form of a powder applied by the patient daily at home.* Culture and sensitivity tests when the problem does not respond to routine office treatment as outlined.

  15. CMC blade with pressurized internal cavity for erosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Goike, Jerome Walter

    2016-02-02

    A ceramic matrix composite blade for use in a gas turbine engine having an airfoil with leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction side surfaces, a blade shank secured to the lower end of each airfoil, one or more interior fluid cavities within the airfoil having inlet flow passages at the lower end which are in fluid communication with the blade shank, one or more passageways in the blade shank corresponding to each one of the interior fluid cavities and a fluid pump (or compressor) that provides pressurized fluid (nominally cool, dry air) to each one of the interior fluid cavities in each airfoil. The fluid (e.g., air) is sufficient in pressure and volume to maintain a minimum fluid flow to each of the interior fluid cavities in the event of a breach due to foreign object damage.

  16. An Ultra-low Frequency Modal Testing Suspension System for High Precision Air Pressure Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiaoling Yuan; Jianhui Sun; Xiaohang Shan; Biqing Ye

    2014-01-01

      In this paper, as a resolution for air pressure control challenges in ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension systems, an incremental PID control algorithm with a dead band is applied to achieve...

  17. Inheritance of Ear Tip-Barrenness Trait in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhao-dong; ZHANG Fa-jun; DING Zhao-hua; SUN Qi; WANG Li-ming; GUO Qing-fa; WANG Hong-gang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the inheritance pattern of ear tip-barrenness trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Ear tipbarrenness trait in maize can be classified into two types, tip-barren and tip-barrenless. Two inbred lines, Ix01-3 (tipbarrenless type), wx04-1 (tip-barren type), and their F1, F2, BC1, BC2 generations were analyzed on their ear tip-barrenness types. Results showed that F1 was tip-barren type; the ratio of tip-barren type versus tip-barrenless type followed a 12.78∶1 ratio in F2 segregation population and a 2.75∶1 ratio in BC1. χ2 test indicated that the trait of ear tip-barrenness type followed an inheritance pattern of 2 duplicate dominant genes. SPSS analysis indicated that the trait of ear tip-barrenness length is of abnormal distribution. Above results mean that: (1) The trait of maize ear tip-barrenness type is controlled by2 duplicate dominant genes; tip-barren type is dominant over tip-barrenless type; (2) the trait of tip-barrenness length is a quantitative character controlled by polygene with major genes expected.

  18. Role of olmesartan in combination therapy in blood pressure control and vascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Carlos M; Smith, Ronald D

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers have emerged as a first-line therapy in the management of hypertension and hypertension-related comorbidities. Since national and international guidelines have stressed the need to control blood pressure to olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine in terms of blood pressure control and improvement of vascular function and target organ damage. PMID:20859541

  19. Noradrenaline: Central inhibitory control of blood pressure and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wybren de

    Noradrenaline injected bilaterally into the brainstem in the area of the nucleus tractus solitarii decreased systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats. The effect of noradrenaline was prevented by a preceding injection of the α-adrenergic blocking agent phentolamine, at

  20. Ventilatory strategy in ARDS focusing on pressure controlled ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kesecioglu (Jozef)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on comparison of different modes of ventilation in animals and patients with ARDS. The aim is to determine the immediate advantages of one mode over the other in terms of gas exchange, airway pressures,' hemodynamics and ventilation inhomogeneity.

  1. Pressure-control purge panel for automatic butt welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, E. J.; Van Wagner, B. H.

    1969-01-01

    Modification of a purge panel for use in an automatic butt weld reduces the drop in pressure between the regulators and the weld head and tube purge fitting. The invention affects air regulators for plants, regulating circuits for pneumatic valves, and automatic welding machines.

  2. Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    showing that without extra measures such a system will be unstable in a substantial part of the cylinder stroke. The stability criterion is expressed in hard quantities: Cylinder volumes, cylinder area ratio and overcenter valve pilot area ratio. A pressure feed back scheme that has as target to maintain...

  3. Noradrenaline: Central inhibitory control of blood pressure and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wybren de

    1974-01-01

    Noradrenaline injected bilaterally into the brainstem in the area of the nucleus tractus solitarii decreased systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats. The effect of noradrenaline was prevented by a preceding injection of the α-adrenergic blocking agent phentolamine, at th

  4. Oral Pseudoephedrine Decreases the Rate of Trans-mucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Martin, Brian S; Cullen Doyle, Brendan M.; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if oral pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle-ear exchange-rate of the perfusion-limited gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Study Design Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Methods Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle-ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical but for oral pretreatment with either pseudoephedrine HCL or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period) and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart-rate, blood-pressure and O2 saturation were monitored and bilateral middle-ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle-ear pressure-time function for the experimental period which estimates the volume N2O exchange-rate. Using repeated measures ANOVA, the effects of Group (disease history), Treatment (active vs. placebo) and Period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of Group, Treatment and Ear (left/right) on the middle-ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Results Statistically significant effects of Period on O2 saturation (Period 2>Period 1) and of Treatment on heart-rate (Active>Placebo) were documented. Only Treatment was statistically significant for the middle-ear pressure-time slope with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. Conclusion The volume exchange-rate across the middle-ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite Eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle-ear pressure regulation. PMID:26152838

  5. Magnetic resonance velocity imaging derived pressure differential using control volume analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is hindered by a lack of systemic understanding of the interrelationships between pressures and flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Control volume analysis provides a fluid physics approach to quantify and relate pressure and flow information. The objective of this study was to use control volume analysis and magnetic resonance velocity imaging to non-invasively estimate pressure differentials in vitro. Method A flow phantom was constructed and water was the experimental fluid. The phantom was connected to a high-resolution differential pressure sensor and a computer controlled pump producing sinusoidal flow. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements were taken and subsequently analyzed to derive pressure differential waveforms using momentum conservation principles. Independent sensor measurements were obtained for comparison. Results Using magnetic resonance data the momentum balance in the phantom was computed. The measured differential pressure force had amplitude of 14.4 dynes (pressure gradient amplitude 0.30 Pa/cm. A 12.5% normalized root mean square deviation between derived and directly measured pressure differential was obtained. These experiments demonstrate one example of the potential utility of control volume analysis and the concepts involved in its application. Conclusions This study validates a non-invasive measurement technique for relating velocity measurements to pressure differential. These methods may be applied to clinical measurements to estimate pressure differentials in vivo which could not be obtained with current clinical sensors.

  6. An in-ear pulse wave velocity measurement system using heart sounds as time reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusche R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulse wave measurements provide vital information in medical diagnosis. For this reason, a measurement system is developed for determining the transient time of the pulse wave between the heart and the ear. To detect pressure variations in the sealed ear canal, caused by the arriving pulse wave, an in-ear sensor is developed which uses heart sounds as time reference. Furthermore, for extracting the heart sounds from the pressure measurements and calculating the pulse wave transient time, a MATLAB-based algorithm is described. An embedded microcontroller based measurement board is presented, which realizes an interface between the sensor and the computer for signal processing.

  7. Simultaneous control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... Simultaneous control among drug-treated diabetes patients. 785 ... complications (i.e., diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic ..... awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus in mainland china from.

  8. Blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Alon; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and essential hypertension are common conditions that are frequently present together. Both are considered risk factors for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications and therefore treatment of both conditions is essential. Many papers were published on blood pressure (BP) targets in diabetic patients, including several works published in the last 2 years. As a result, guidelines differ in their recommendations on BP targets in diabetic patients. The method ...

  9. Adaptive Robust Tracking Control of Pressure Trajectory Based on Kalman Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jian; ZHU Xiaocong; TAO Guoliang; YAO Bin

    2009-01-01

    When adaptive robust control(ARC) strategy based on backstepping design is applied in pneumatic servo control, accurate pressure tracking in motion is especially necessary for both force and position trajectories tracking of rodless pneumatic cylinders, and therefore an adaptive robust pressure controller is developed in this paper to improve the tracking accuracy of pressure trajectory in the chamber when the pneumatic cylinder is moving. In the proposed adaptive robust pressure controller, off-line fitting of the orifice area and on-line parameter estimation of the flow coefficient are utilized to have improved model compensation, and meanwhile robust feedback and Kalman filter are used to have strong robustness against uncertain nonlinearities, parameter fluctuations and noise. Research results demonstrate that the adaptive robust pressure controller could not only track various pressure trajectories accurately even when the pneumatic cylinder is moving, but also obtain very smooth control input, which indicates the effectiveness of adaptive model compensation. Especially when a step pressure trajectory is tracked under the condition of the movement of a rodless pneumatic cylinder, maximum tracking error of ARC is 4.46 kPa and average tracking error is 0.99 kPa, and steady-state error of ARC could achieve 0.84 kPa, which is very close to the measurement accuracy of pressure transducer.

  10. Factors affecting blood pressure variability: lessons learned from two systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya M Musini

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews can often reveal much more than the original objective of the work. The objectives of this retrospective analysis were to answer three basic questions about blood pressure variability: 1 Does blood pressure entry criterion have an effect on baseline blood pressure variability? 2 Do thiazide diuretics have a significant effect on blood pressure variability? and 3 Does systolic blood pressure vary to the same degree as diastolic blood pressure? This analysis of blood pressure variability is based on resting standardized research setting BP readings from two systematic reviews evaluating blood pressure lowering efficacy of thiazide diuretics from double blind randomized controlled trials in 33,611 patients with primary hypertension. The standard deviation reported in trials was the focus of the research and the unit of analysis. When a threshold systolic or diastolic blood pressure value is used to determine entry into a trial, baseline variability is significantly decreased, systolic from 14.0 to 9.3 mmHg and diastolic from 8.4 to 5.3 mmHg. Thiazides do not change BP variability as the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between thiazide and placebo groups at end of treatment. The coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure was significantly greater than the coefficient of variation of diastolic blood pressure. Entry criterion decreases the baseline blood pressure variability. Treatment with a thiazide diuretic does not affect blood pressure variability. Systolic blood pressure varies to a greater degree than diastolic blood pressure.

  11. Prevalence of middle ear disorders in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempert, B.L.; Hopkinson, N.T.; Keith, R.W.; Motl, M.L.; Horine, J.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented from a study of the prevalence of middle and external ear disorders in coal miners who work underground. The study followed from an earlier NIOSH report (1976) that indicated a possibly large number of otoscopic abnormalities in this population of workers. Otoscopic examinations, pure tone air- and bone-conduction audiometry tests, and impedance tests were administered to 350 underground miners and 150 industrial workers not associated with mining. The study was conducted completely within a hospital otolaryngology/audiology clinic setting. Results of the investigation showed a highly similar prevalence of middle ear and ear canal abnormalities in the miner group and the control group (19 percent). Middle ear abnormalities observed in the miners were judged by the examining otolaryngologists to have preceded their experience in the mines and were not related solely to underground noise exposure or coal dust. Nearly half of the subjects who had an air-bone gap had no middle ear abnormality observable by otoscopic examination. There was substantial agreement between the finding of abnormal otoscopy and abnormal tympanometry. By itself, acoustic reflex was not useful in identifying middle ear disorders, since this reflex may be absent for other reasons, including presence of severe sensorineural hearing loss.

  12. Vascular development in the retina and inner ear: control by Norrin and Frizzled-4, a high-affinity ligand-receptor pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wang, Yanshu; Dabdoub, Alain; Smallwood, Philip M; Williams, John; Woods, Chad; Kelley, Matthew W; Jiang, Li; Tasman, William; Zhang, Kang; Nathans, Jeremy

    2004-03-19

    Incomplete retinal vascularization occurs in both Norrie disease and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene, is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. One form of FEVR is caused by defects in Frizzled-4 (Fz4), a presumptive Wnt receptor. We show here that Norrin and Fz4 function as a ligand-receptor pair based on (1) the similarity in vascular phenotypes caused by Norrin and Fz4 mutations in humans and mice, (2) the specificity and high affinity of Norrin-Fz4 binding, (3) the high efficiency with which Norrin induces Fz4- and Lrp-dependent activation of the classical Wnt pathway, and (4) the signaling defects displayed by disease-associated variants of Norrin and Fz4. These data define a Norrin-Fz4 signaling system that plays a central role in vascular development in the eye and ear, and they indicate that ligands unrelated to Wnts can act through Fz receptors.

  13. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  14. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  15. CoCo trial: Color-coded blood pressure Control, a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmiel C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corinne Chmiel, Oliver Senn, Thomas Rosemann, Valerio Del Prete, Claudia Steurer-Stey Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Inadequate blood pressure (BP control is a frequent challenge in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine whether a color-coded BP booklet using a traffic light scheme (red, >180 mmHg systolic BP and/or >110 mmHg diastolic BP; yellow, >140–180 mmHg systolic BP or >90–110 mmHg diastolic BP; green, ≤140 mmHg systolic BP and ≤90 mmHg diastolic BP improves BP control and adherence with home BP measurement.Methods: In this two-group, randomized controlled trial, general practitioners recruited adult patients with a BP >140 mmHg systolic and/or >90 mmHg diastolic. Patients in the control group received a standard BP booklet and the intervention group used a color-coded booklet for daily home BP measurement. The main outcomes were changes in BP, BP control (treatment goal <140/90 mmHg, and adherence with home BP measurement after 6 months.Results: One hundred and twenty-one of 137 included patients qualified for analysis. After 6 months, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP was achieved in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups (16.1/7.9 mmHg in the intervention group versus 13.1/8.6 mmHg in the control group, P=0.3/0.7. BP control (treatment target <140/90 mmHg was achieved significantly more often in the intervention group (43% versus 25%; P=0.037; number needed to treat of 5. Adherence with home BP measurement overall was high, with a trend in favor of the intervention group (98.6% versus 96.2%; P=0.1Conclusion: Color-coded BP self-monitoring significantly improved BP control (number needed to treat of 5, meaning that every fifth patient utilizing color-coded self-monitoring achieved better BP control after 6 months, but no significant between-group difference was

  16. A pilot randomised controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy to treat grade III/IV pressure ulcers [ISRCTN69032034

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely promoted as a treatment for full thickness wounds; however, there is a lack of high-quality research evidence regarding its clinical and cost effectiveness. A trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III/IV pressure ulcers would be worthwhile but premature without assessing whether such a trial is feasible. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial was to assess the feasibility of conducting a future full trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III and IV pressure ulcers and to pilot all aspects of the trial. Methods This was a two-centre (acute and community), pilot randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were randomised to receive either NPWT or standard care (SC) (spun hydrocolloid, alginate or foam dressings). Outcome measures were time to healing of the reference pressure ulcer, recruitment rates, frequency of treatment visits, resources used and duration of follow-up. Results Three hundred and twelve patients were screened for eligibility into this trial over a 12-month recruitment period and 12/312 participants (3.8%) were randomised: 6 to NPWT and 6 to SC. Only one reference pressure ulcer healed (NPWT group) during follow-up (time to healing 79 days). The mean number of treatment visits per week was 3.1 (NPWT) and 5.7 (SC); 6/6 NPWT and 1/6 SC participants withdrew from their allocated trial treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.8 (NPWT) and 5.0 (SC) months. Conclusions This pilot trial yielded vital information for the planning of a future full study including projected recruitment rate, required duration of follow-up and extent of research nurse support required. Data were also used to inform the cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses, which were conducted alongside the pilot trial. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69032034. PMID:22839453

  17. A pilot randomised controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy to treat grade III/IV pressure ulcers [ISRCTN69032034

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashby Rebecca L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is widely promoted as a treatment for full thickness wounds; however, there is a lack of high-quality research evidence regarding its clinical and cost effectiveness. A trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III/IV pressure ulcers would be worthwhile but premature without assessing whether such a trial is feasible. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial was to assess the feasibility of conducting a future full trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III and IV pressure ulcers and to pilot all aspects of the trial. Methods This was a two-centre (acute and community, pilot randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were randomised to receive either NPWT or standard care (SC (spun hydrocolloid, alginate or foam dressings. Outcome measures were time to healing of the reference pressure ulcer, recruitment rates, frequency of treatment visits, resources used and duration of follow-up. Results Three hundred and twelve patients were screened for eligibility into this trial over a 12-month recruitment period and 12/312 participants (3.8% were randomised: 6 to NPWT and 6 to SC. Only one reference pressure ulcer healed (NPWT group during follow-up (time to healing 79 days. The mean number of treatment visits per week was 3.1 (NPWT and 5.7 (SC; 6/6 NPWT and 1/6 SC participants withdrew from their allocated trial treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.8 (NPWT and 5.0 (SC months. Conclusions This pilot trial yielded vital information for the planning of a future full study including projected recruitment rate, required duration of follow-up and extent of research nurse support required. Data were also used to inform the cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses, which were conducted alongside the pilot trial. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69032034.

  18. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI 1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the middle ear reflex on sound transmission to the inner ear of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, P K; Ostwald, J; Kreiter, A; Schnitzler, H U

    1997-03-01

    The effect of the acoustic middle ear reflex (MER) was quantified using electrodes chronically implanted in the middle ears of rats. Cochlear microphonics (CM) and middle ear muscle EMG were measured under light Ketamin anesthesia after stimulation with tone pulses of 5-20 kHz ranging between 75 and 120 dB SPL. With increasing intensity, the CM measured before the onset of the MER increased to a maximum amplitude and then decreased with higher SPLs. At 10 kHz this maximum was reached at 95 dB SPL, for other stimulus frequencies at higher SPLs. After a latency of 10-20 ms, CM to 10 kHz stimuli of 80-95 dB SPL were decreased by the attenuating action of the MER. The lowest threshold of the MER was also measured at 10 kHz (77 dB SPL in the mean). To stimuli greater than 100 dB SPL after a latency of 6-10 ms, the CM amplitude was increased. That this CM increase to intense stimuli is caused by the action of the MER was confirmed by control experiments such as cutting the tendons of the middle ear muscles. The CM decrease to stimuli below 100 dB SPL, as well as the increase to very intense stimuli, can be explained by sound attenuation caused by the MER, together with the nonlinear dependence of CM amplitude on stimulus level. The observed shift of the maxima of the CM input-output function by the MER to higher stimulus levels probably indicates an increase of the dynamic range of the ear.

  20. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  1. Analysis of Deformation of the Human Ear and Canal Caused by Mandibular Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Many hearing aid users experience physical discomfort when wearing their device. The main contributor to this problem is believed to be deformation of the ear and ear canal caused by movement of the mandible. Physical discomfort results from added pressure on soft tissue areas in the ear. Identif......Many hearing aid users experience physical discomfort when wearing their device. The main contributor to this problem is believed to be deformation of the ear and ear canal caused by movement of the mandible. Physical discomfort results from added pressure on soft tissue areas in the ear....... Identifying features that can predict potential deformation is therefore important for identifying problematic cases in advance. A study on the physical deformation of the human ear and canal due to movement of the mandible is presented. The study is based on laser scannings of 30 pairs of ear impressions...... and propagated to the shape model, enabling the building of a deformation model in the reference frame of the shape model. A relationship between the two models is established, showing that the shape variation can explain approximately 50% of the variation in the deformation model. An hypothesis test...

  2. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  3. Azilsartan/chlorthalidone combination therapy for blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng JW

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Judy WM ChengMassachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Edarbyclor® is a combined angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB and thiazide-like diuretic (azilsartan and chlorthalidone, and was approved on December 20, 2011 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for hypertension management.Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, tolerability, and role of azilsartan plus chlorthalidone for hypertension management.Methods: Peer-reviewed clinical trials, review articles, and relevant treatment guidelines, were identified from the databases MEDLINE and Current Contents (both 1966 to February 15, 2013, inclusive using search terms “azilsartan”, “chlorthalidone”, “pharmacology”, “pharmacokinetics”, “pharmacodynamics”, “pharmacoeconomics”, and “cost-effectiveness”. The FDA website, as well as manufacturer prescribing information, was also reviewed to identify other relevant information.Results: Azilsartan is a new ARB with high affinity for the angiotensin 1 receptor, approved by the FDA for hypertension management. Unlike other ARBs, azilsartan has no clinical data supporting improvement in cardiovascular outcomes, and is not approved for indications other than hypertension, which a select few other ARBs may be used for (eg, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. Chlorthalidone is a longer acting thiazide-like diuretic that has been demonstrated to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Combination treatment with azilsartan/chlorthalidone is effective for reducing blood pressure. Compared to olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide and azilsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combinations, azilsartan/chlorthalidone appears to be more efficacious for reducing blood pressure.Conclusions: Azilsartan/chlorthalidone can be considered an antihypertensive therapy option in patients for whom combination therapy is required (blood pressure >20 mmHg systolic or

  4. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  5. Effects of glycerol intake and body tilt on otoacoustic emissions reflect labyrinthine pressure changes in Menière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mom, Thierry; Gilain, Laurent; Avan, Paul

    2009-04-01

    It is known that by influencing stapes stiffness thus the ear's impedance, changes in intracranial and intralabyrinthine pressure induce a characteristic phase shift in otoacoustic emissions (OAE) around 1 kHz in human ears. Thus, if the regulation of pressure in intralabyrinthine compartments were abnormal in Menière patients, OAEs might help detect it. Body tilt, which acts on intracranial pressure, and administration of an osmotically active substance provide two simple ways of manipulating intralabyrinthine pressure. Here, 14 patients with typical signs of an attack of unilateral endolymphatic hydrops were submitted to postural changes and a glycerol test. Their OAEs initially collected in upright position served as references, then OAEs were measured in supine position, and back to the upright posture one and 3h after glycerol intake. Twenty control subjects were also tested for body tilt. The main effect of body tilt and glycerol was a phase rotation of OAEs peaking around 1 kHz. Its frequency dependence matched the one due to a pressure-related change in stapes or basilar membrane stiffness predicted by the ear model of Zwislocki (1962). The average glycerol-induced phase shifts were similar in size in Menière vs. asymptomatic ear and audiometric thresholds were stable after glycerol intake in line with the model predicting little change in the magnitude of the transfer function. These data support a simple conductive pressure-related mechanism explaining the action of glycerol on inner ear responses. The fact that the mean postural shift was three times larger in Menière than asymptomatic and control ears suggests an additional effect in allegedly hydropic ears.

  6. Blood pressure control in resistant hypertension: new therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Quarti-Trevano, Fosca; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Seravalle, Gino

    2010-11-01

    Resistant hypertension, namely the hypertensive state characterized by the inability of multiple antihypertensive drug interventions to lower blood pressure to goal levels, represents a condition frequently detected in clinical practice. Its main features are represented by its heterogeneous etiology as well as its very high cardiovascular risk. This latter peculiarity has implemented the research for new approaches to the treatment of the disease. This article will focus on two of them, namely carotid baroreceptor electric stimulation and the renal denervation procedure. Clinical studies and large-scale clinical trials are presently ongoing with the aim of defining the long-term efficacy and safety profile of the two interventions.

  7. Manufacturing and in vivo inner ear visualization of MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles encapsulating gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Paavo KJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of inner ear diseases remains a problem because of limited passage through the blood-inner ear barriers and lack of control with the delivery of treatment agents by intravenous or oral administration. As a minimally-invasive approach, intratympanic delivery of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs carrying genes or drugs to the inner ear is a future therapy for treating inner ear diseases, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and Meniere's disease. In an attempt to track the dynamics and distribution of nanoparticles in vivo, here we describe manufacturing MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles by encapsulating gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA (abbreviated as LPS+Gd-DOTA and their distribution in the inner ear after either intratympanic or intracochlear administration. Results Measurements of relaxivities (r1 and r2 showed that LPS+Gd-DOTA had efficient visible signal characteristics for MRI. In vivo studies demonstrated that LPS+Gd-DOTA with 130 nm size were efficiently taken up by the inner ear at 3 h after transtympanic injection and disappeared after 24 h. With intracochlear injection, LPS+Gd-DOTA were visualized to distribute throughout the inner ear, including the cochlea and vestibule with fast dynamics depending on the status of the perilymph circulation. Conclusion Novel LPS+Gd-DOTA were visible by MRI in the inner ear in vivo demonstrating transport from the middle ear to the inner ear and with dynamics that correlated to the status of the perilymph circulation.

  8. Pressure treatment versus gentamicin for Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odkvist, L

    2001-01-01

    Ménière's disease may be treated in different ways. After obtaining a case history and performing auditory and vestibular tests the diagnosis should be obvious. In terms of treatment, the first steps are to provide the patient with information, institute a low-salt diet and regulate internal medical disorders. The next step is pharmacological treatment using diuretics, betahistine and other drugs. Local pulsated pressure treatment in the ear canal has been used in a placebo-controlled study and showed significant improvement, primarily of vertigo, but also in terms of tinnitus and hearing. Hence, this form of treatment can be used in some phases of the disease. In more severe cases gentamicin treatment has proved successful; in the present study, vertigo was cured in all but 3 of 35 patients. On average, no extra hearing loss was caused: however, one ear became deaf, some ears showed improvement and some ears showed a certain degree of hearing loss. In cases of escalation of Ménière's disease, pressure treatment should be used initially, followed by gentamicin. These two methods of treatment are not in competition as they are used to treat different stages of the disease.

  9. As-needed intravenous antihypertensive therapy and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Melissa; Moser, Lynette R; Petrovitch, Elizabeth A; Farber, Margo; Flack, John M

    2016-03-01

    Hospitalized patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) in most cases should be treated with intensification of oral regimens, but are often given intravenous (IV) antihypertensives. To determine frequency of prescribing and administering episodic IV antihypertensives and outcomes. Retrospective review. Urban academic hospital. Non-critically ill, hospitalized patients with an IV antihypertensive order for enalaprilat, labetalol, hydralazine, or metoprolol. We analyzed BP thresholds for ordering and administering IV antihypertensives, the types and frequencies of IV antihypertensives administered, and the effect of IV antihypertensive use on short-term BP and adverse outcomes. The BP change during hospitalization was contrasted in those receiving IV antihypertensives between those who did and did not receive subsequent intensification of chronic oral antihypertensive regimens. Two hundred forty-six patients had an episodic IV antihypertensive order. One hundred seventy-two patients received 458 doses, with 48% receiving a single dose. Over 98% of episodic IV antihypertensive doses were administered for systolic blood pressure (SBP) antihypertensives, the oral inpatient medication regimen was adjusted in 52% of patients; these patients had a greater reduction in SBP from admission to discharge than patients with no change to their oral regimens. A total of 32.6% of patients receiving treatment experienced a BP reduction of more than 25% within 6 hours. IV antihypertensive drugs are ordered and administered in patients with asymptomatic, uncontrolled BP for levels unassociated with substantive immediate cardiovascular risk, which may cause adverse effects. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Analysis of and H∞ Controller Design For An Electro-Hydraulic Servo Pressure Regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    -circuit pumps are still hydraulically controlled, there is however still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure. The focus of the current paper is on the analysis and controller design of an electrohydraulic servo pressure regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure for a variable...... displacement pump based on an electrical reference. The paper first presents the considered system and an experimentally verified model of this. A linearized model and a stability analysis is then presented, based on which an H∞control strategy is selected. A nominal performance and a robustly stable...

  11. A switched energy saving position controller for variable-pressure electro-hydraulic servo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivay, Ali; Zareinejad, Mohammad; Rezaei, S Mehdi; Baghestan, Keivan

    2014-07-01

    The electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) demonstrates a relatively low level of efficiency compared to other available actuation methods. The objective of this paper is to increase this efficiency by introducing a variable supply pressure into the system and controlling this pressure during the task of position tracking. For this purpose, an EHSS structure with controllable supply pressure is proposed and its dynamic model is derived from the basic laws of physics. A switching control structure is then proposed to control both the supply pressure and the cylinder position at the same time, in a way that reduces the overall energy consumption of the system. The stability of the proposed switching control system is guaranteed by proof, and its performance is verified by experimental testing.

  12. CoCo trial: Color-coded blood pressure Control, a randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Del Prete, Valerio; Steurer-Stey, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate blood pressure (BP) control is a frequent challenge in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine whether a color-coded BP booklet using a traffic light scheme (red, >180 mmHg systolic BP and/or >110 mmHg diastolic BP; yellow, >140–180 mmHg systolic BP or >90–110 mmHg diastolic BP; green, ≤140 mmHg systolic BP and ≤90 mmHg diastolic BP) improves BP control and adherence with home BP measurement. Methods In this two-group, randomized controlled trial, general practitioners recruited adult patients with a BP >140 mmHg systolic and/or >90 mmHg diastolic. Patients in the control group received a standard BP booklet and the intervention group used a color-coded booklet for daily home BP measurement. The main outcomes were changes in BP, BP control (treatment goal <140/90 mmHg), and adherence with home BP measurement after 6 months. Results One hundred and twenty-one of 137 included patients qualified for analysis. After 6 months, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP was achieved in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups (16.1/7.9 mmHg in the intervention group versus 13.1/8.6 mmHg in the control group, P=0.3/0.7). BP control (treatment target <140/90 mmHg) was achieved significantly more often in the intervention group (43% versus 25%; P=0.037; number needed to treat of 5). Adherence with home BP measurement overall was high, with a trend in favor of the intervention group (98.6% versus 96.2%; P=0.1) Conclusion Color-coded BP self-monitoring significantly improved BP control (number needed to treat of 5, meaning that every fifth patient utilizing color-coded self-monitoring achieved better BP control after 6 months), but no significant between-group difference was observed in BP change. A markedly higher percentage of patients achieved BP values in the normal range. This simple, inexpensive approach of color-coded BP self-monitoring is user-friendly and applicable in primary care

  13. Effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Brooks, Maria M; Rai, Madhur; Balk, Judith L; Rai, Sandeep

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure control. The prospective observational cohort study enrolled two study groups: those receiving treatment from the International Sahaja Yoga Research and Health Center (meditation group) and those receiving treatment from the Mahatma Gandhi Mission Hospital (control group). Researchers measured quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure before and after treatment. Sixty-seven (67) participants in the meditation group and 62 participants in the control group completed the study. The two groups were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics. At baseline, the meditation group had higher quality of life (p<0.001) than controls but similar anxiety level (p=0.74) to controls. Within-group pre- versus post-treatment comparisons showed significant improvement in quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure in the meditation group (p<0.001), while in controls, quality of life deteriorated and there was no improvement in blood pressure. The improvement in quality of life, anxiety reduction, and blood pressure control was greater in the meditation group. The beneficial effect of meditation remained significant after adjusting for confounders. Meditation treatment was associated with significant improvements in quality of life, anxiety reduction, and blood pressure control.

  14. Numerical simulation of wave propagation in a realistic model of the human external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Mohaddeseh; Abouali, Omid; Emdad, Homayoun; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a numerical investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of high-pressure sinusoidal and blast wave's propagation around and inside of a human external ear. A series of computed tomography images are used to reconstruct a realistic three-dimensional (3D) model of a human ear canal and the auricle. The airflow field is then computed by solving the governing differential equations in the time domain using a computational fluid dynamics software. An unsteady algorithm is used to obtain the high-pressure wave propagation throughout the ear canal which is validated against the available analytical and numerical data in literature. The effects of frequency, wave shape, and the auricle on pressure distribution are then evaluated and discussed. The results clearly indicate that the frequency plays a key role on pressure distribution within the ear canal. At 4 kHz frequency, the pressure magnitude is much more amplified within the ear canal than the frequencies of 2 and 6 kHz, for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study, attributable to the '4-kHz notch' in patients with noise-induced hearing loss. According to the results, the pressure distribution patterns at the ear canal are very similar for both sinusoidal pressure waveform with the frequency of 2 kHz and blast wave. The ratio of the peak pressure value at the eardrum to that at the canal entrance increases from about 8% to 30% as the peak pressure value of the blast wave increases from 5 to 100 kPa for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study. Furthermore, incorporation of the auricle to the ear canal model is associated with centerline pressure magnitudes of about 50% and 7% more than those of the ear canal model without the auricle throughout the ear canal for sinusoidal and blast waves, respectively, without any significant effect on pressure distribution pattern along the ear canal for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study.

  15. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The investi......The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head....... The investigation is done by SAM head phantom measurements and HFSS simulations. The investigations include setups where some propagation paths are blocked by an absorbing material. It is found that the characteristics of the head may cause constructive or destructive interference that may result in up to 10 d...

  16. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90% and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and external auditory canal, EAC, middle ear and inner ear, not infrequently in combination. Formal classification is advisable in order to be able to predict the prognosis and compare treatment schedules. Various classifications have been proposed: pinna and EAC malformations according to Weerda [1], middle ear malformations according to Kösling [2], and inner ear malformations according to Jackler [3], [4], to Marangos [5] and to Sennaroglu [6]. Additionally, we describe Altmann’s classification of atresia auris congenita [7] and the Siegert-Mayer-Weerda score [8] for EAC and middle ear malformations, systems of great practicability that are in widespread clinical use. The diagnostic steps include clinical examination, audiological testing, genetic analysis and, especially, CT and MRI. These imaging methods are most usefully employed in combination. Precise description of the malformations by means of CT and MRI is indispensable for the planning and successful outcome of operative ear reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures, including cochlear implantation.

  17. Patient related factors for optimal blood pressure control in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Province, PR China. 3. School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia. ... Board of our hospital, and written consent form ..... community-based case-control study in Singapore.

  18. PRESSURE FORCE CONTROL FOR FABRICATION OF PLASTIC MICROFLUIDIC CHIPS WITH HOT EMBOSSING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chong; LIAO Junfeng; WANG Xiaodong; WANG Liding

    2007-01-01

    A pressure force control system for hot embossing of microfluidic chips is designed with a moment motor and a ball bearing lead screw. Based on the numeric PID technique, the algorithm of pulsant integral accelerated PID control is presented and the negative effects of nonlinearity from friction, clearance and saturation are eliminated. In order to improve the quick-response characteristic, independent thread technique is adopted. The method of pressure force control based on pulsant integral accelerated PID control and independent thread technique is applied with satisfactory control performance.

  19. Strict blood pressure control associates with decreased mortality risk by APOL1 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Elaine; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Appel, Lawrence J; Parsa, Afshin; Gassman, Jennifer; Glidden, David V; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Although APOL1 high-risk genotype partially accounts for the increased susceptibility of blacks to chronic kidney disease (CKD), whether APOL1 associates differentially with mortality risk remains controversial. Here we evaluate the association between APOL1 genotype and risk of death and determine whether APOL1 status modifies the association between strict versus usual blood pressure control and mortality risk. We performed a retrospective analysis of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension trial that randomized black participants with CKD to strict versus usual blood pressure control from 1995 to 2001. This included 682 participants with known APOL1 genotype (157 with high-risk genotype) previously assigned to either strict (mean arterial pressure [MAP] 92 mm Hg or less) versus usual blood pressure control (MAP 102-107 mm Hg) during the trial. During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, risk of death did not differ between individuals with high- versus low-risk APOL1 genotypes (unadjusted hazard ratio 1.00 [95% confidence interval 0.76-1.33]). However, a significant interaction was detected between the APOL1 risk group and blood pressure control strategy. In the APOL1 high-risk group, the risk of death was 42% lower comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control (0.58 [0.35-0.97]). In the APOL1 low-risk group, the risk of death comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control was not significantly different (1.09 [0.84-1.43]). Thus, strict blood pressure control during CKD associates with a lower risk of death in blacks with the high-risk CKD APOL1 genotype. Knowledge of APOL1 status could inform selection of blood pressure treatment targets in black CKD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental research on charging characteristics of a solar photovoltaic system by the pressure-control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHU; Zhang-lu XU; Zi-juan CAO

    2011-01-01

    The charging characteristics of the valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery driven by solar energy were experimentally studied through the pressure-control method in this paper. The aims of the research were to increase charging efficiency to make the most of solar energy and to improve charging quality to prolong life of battery. The charging process of a 12 V 12 A.h VRLA battery has been tested under the mode of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. Results show that the pressure-control method can effectively control PV charging of the VRLA battery and make the best of PV cells through the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The damage of VRLA battery by excess oxygen accumulation can be avoided through the inner pressure control of VRLA battery. Parameters such as solar radiation intensity, charging power, inner pressure of the battery, and charging current and voltage during the charging process were measured and analyzed.

  1. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  2. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  3. DESING OF CYLINDIRICAL EAR OF POLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar KARAGÖZ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Plough is an agricultural tool which is used for preparing land to male it ready for sowing. The funotion of lough is to break the compact land into small pieces and to allow a suitable condition for living of culture plants. The ear is the most important part of active plough surface. The geometrical form of ear determines the form of active surface together with the front iron tip. Ploughs are divided into two categories which are European and American types. There are important differencies betucen the European and American tyges with respect to ?, ß and ? angles. Gorjatschkin described the ear form of European ploughs under four main groups which are: 1. Cylindirical ear type, 2. Culture-form ear type, 3. Semi-curled ear type, 4. Curled ear type. In this work, the designing of cylindirical ear was studied.

  4. Does home blood pressure monitoring improve patient outcomes? A systematic review comparing home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaux-Shropshire TL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tonya L Breaux-Shropshire,1,2 Eric Judd,1 Lee A Vucovich,3 Toneyell S Shropshire,4 Sonal Singh5 1Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Veterans Administration, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Lister Hill Library, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Physical Therapy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Objective: Our objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM on blood pressure (BP control and patient outcomes. Design: A systematic review was conducted. We also appraised the methodological quality of studies. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL. Inclusion criteria: Randomized control trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, observational studies, and case-control studies published in English from any year to present that describe HBPM and 24-hour ABPM and report on systolic and/or diastolic BP and/or heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and/or all-cause mortality for adult patients. Due to the nature of the question, studies with only untreated patients were not considered. Results: Of 1,742 titles and abstractions independently reviewed by two reviewers, 137 studies met predetermined criteria for evaluation. Nineteen studies were identified as relevant and included in the paper. The common themes were that HBPM and ABPM correlated with cardiovascular events and mortality, and targeting HBPM or ABPM resulted in similar outcomes. Associations between BP measurement type and mortality differed by study population. Both the low sensitivity of office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM to detect optimal BP control by ABPM and the

  5. Possibilities of obtaining and controlling high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the type of furnace charging melting, refining and modification silumins 226 and 231 on the porosity and microstructure of castings. It was shown that in order to reduce or eliminate the porosity of the castings is necessary to the refining ECOSAL-AL113 of liquid silumin both in the melting furnace, and in the ladle and an additional nitrogen, in the heat furnace modified and refining with nitrogen. To control the effects of refining and modifying the TDA method was used. It was found that based on crystal- lization curve can be qualitatively assess the gas porosity of the castings. In order to control and quality control silumins author developed a computer program using the method of TDA, which sets out: Rm, A5, HB and casting porosity P and the concentration of hydrogen in them. The program also informs the technological procedures to be performed for liquid silumin improper preparation.

  6. Comparison of sound transmission in human ears and coupler loaded by audiometric earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    earphones, which is related to coupling of these earphones to human ears and to the coupler. This is done by measurements of the transfer functions from input voltage of the earphone terminals to the entrance of the ear canal in two situations: open, and blocked. Similar measurements were carried out......The thresholds of hearing are usually determined using audiometric earphones. They are calibrated by means of a standardized acoustical coupler. In order to have determined thresholds independent of the earphone type, the coupler should approximate the average human ear closely. Nevertheless...... in the coupler, but since the "ear canal entrance" is not well-defined for the coupler, the mentioned measurements were done at different depths in the coupler. The sound transmission and coupling were described in terms of the pressure division at the entrance of the ear canal and the transmissions in human...

  7. Simulation of Utilisation of Pressure Propagation for Increased Efficiency of Secondary Controlled Discrete Displacement Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    A key component of upcoming secondary controlled fluid-power systems for e.g. wave energy is the implementation of discrete force control of cylinders by discrete variation of the cylinder displacement. However, as the discrete control is implemented by shifting between fixed system pressures in ...

  8. Mechanics of the frog ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the f

  9. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  10. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    April 2004 Vol.22 No.4 CME. 193. KAREN COHEN. MB ChB ... the ear canal and they are usually in the 40 - 50-year age group. ... Treatment. The treatment of choice is intravenous antibiotics consisting of aminoglyco- side, piperacillin and ...

  11. Pressure Control for a Hydraulic Cylinder Based on a Self-Tuning PID Controller Optimized by a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the hydraulic support electro-hydraulic control system test platform, a self-tuning proportion integration differentiation (PID controller is proposed to imitate the actual pressure of the hydraulic support. To avoid the premature convergence and to improve the convergence velocity for tuning PID parameters, the PID controller is optimized with a hybrid optimization algorithm integrated with the particle swarm algorithm (PSO and genetic algorithm (GA. A selection probability and an adaptive cross probability are introduced into the PSO to enhance the diversity of particles. The proportional overflow valve is installed to control the pressure of the pillar cylinder. The data of the control voltage of the proportional relief valve amplifier and pillar pressure are collected to acquire the system transfer function. Several simulations with different methods are performed on the hydraulic cylinder pressure system. The results demonstrate that the hybrid algorithm for a PID controller has comparatively better global search ability and faster convergence velocity on the pressure control of the hydraulic cylinder. Finally, an experiment is conducted to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  12. Satellite de-orbiting via controlled solar radiation pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Sanchez, Diogo Merguizo; de Almeida Prado, Antonio Fernando Bertachini; Smirnov, Georgi

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the present research was to study the use of solar radiation pressure to place a satellite in an orbit that makes it to re-enter the atmosphere of the Earth. This phase of the mission is usual, since the orbital space around the Earth is crowded and all satellites have to be discarded after the end of their lifetimes. The technique proposed here is based on a device that can increase and decrease the area-to-mass ratio of the satellite when it is intended to reduce its altitude until a re-entry point is reached. Equations that predict the evolution of the eccentricity and semi-major axis of the orbit of the satellite are derived and can be used to allow the evaluation of the time required for the decay of the satellite. Numerical simulations are made, and they show the time required for the decay as a function of the area-to-mass ratio and the evolution of the most important orbital elements. The results show maps that indicate regions of fast decays as a function of the area-to-mass ratio and the initial inclination of the orbit of the satellite. They also confirmed the applicability of the equations derived here. The numerical results showed the role played by the evection and the Sun-synchronous resonances in the de-orbiting time.

  13. Design of hydrodynamically confined microfluidics: controlling flow envelope and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Kevin V; Turner, Kevin T

    2011-04-21

    Closed-channel microfluidic devices are widely used in a number of chemical and biological applications; however, it is often difficult to interact with samples, such as cells, that are enclosed inside them. Hydrodynamically confined microflows (HCMs) allow microfluidic-type flows to be generated in open liquid environments, such as Petri dishes, thus greatly increasing the flexibility of microfluidic approaches. HCMs have previously been used for protein patterning and selective cell treatment applications, but the underlying fluid mechanics is not fully understood. Here, we examine the effect of device geometry and flow parameters on the properties of the flow envelope and pressure drop of several two-port HCM devices using a combination of experiments and modeling. A three-port device, which allows for different flow envelope shapes to be generated, is also analyzed. The experimental results agree well with the 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulations, with the majority of the measurements within 10% of the simulations. The results presented provide a framework for understanding the fluid mechanics of HCMs and will aid in the design of HCM devices for a broad range of applications.

  14. Prognostic and diagnostic value of moderate intensity stress test with blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of age and blood pressure values at rest,hypertensive response to moderate intensity stress testingis characterized by increasing ofprobable beginning of cardiac infarction, stroke or coronary disease in 1.36 times. The hypertensive response to stress test in people with normal blood pressure values at rest (independent of other risk factors is characterized by increasing risk of future hypertension more than in 2 times. Antihypertensive drugs affect blood pressure values differently during the stress testing. The prognosis of blood pressure values during daily physical activity is necessary for antihypertensive treatment. Low availability of convenient instruments and methodological tools for continuous measurement of blood pressure (similar to Spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph, Finapres duringthe dosed physical loads constrain wide use of stress tests with controlled blood pressure in medical practice.

  15. Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Features and KFDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. The Effect of Lifestyle Changes on Blood Pressure Control among Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Hwa; Kang, Seo Young; Lee, Jung Ah; Kim, Young Sik; Sung, Eun Ju; Lee, Ka-Young; Kim, Jun-Su; Oh, Han Jin; Kang, Hee Chul; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent among patients who visit primary care clinics. Various factors and lifestyle behaviors are associated with effective blood pressure control. We aimed to identify factors and lifestyle modifications associated with blood pressure control among patients prescribed antihypertensive agents. This survey was conducted at 15 hospital-based family practices in Korea from July 2008 to June 2010. We prospectively recruited and retrospectively assessed 1,453 patients prescribed candesartan. An initial evaluation of patients' lifestyles was performed using individual questions. Follow-up questionnaires were administered at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We defined successful blood pressure control as blood pressure pressures were included. In the univariate analysis of the change in performance index, weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52 to 3.11; Ppressure control. Salt intake also showed a significant association. Multivariate ORs were calculated for age, sex, body mass index, education, income, alcohol consumption, smoking status, salt intake, comorbidity, and family history of hypertension. In the multivariate analysis, sex (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 2.02 to 6.26; Ppressure control. Weight gain, physical inactivity, and high salt intake were associated with inadequate blood pressure control.

  18. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Too Short All About Puberty Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  20. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  1. Clevidipine for Perioperative Blood Pressure Control in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Bergese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various pharmacologic agents have been used for perioperative BP control in pediatric patients, including sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, β-adrenergic antagonists, fenoldopam, and calcium channel antagonists. Of the calcium antagonists, the majority of the clinical experience remains with the dihydropyridine nicardipine. Clevidipine is a short-acting, intravenous calcium channel antagonist of the dihydropyridine class. It undergoes rapid metabolism by non-specific blood and tissue esterases with a half-life of less than 1 minute. As a dihydropyridine, its cellular and end-organ effects parallel those of nicardipine. The clevidipine trials in the adult population have demonstrated efficacy in rapidly controlling BP in various clinical scenarios with a favorable adverse effect profile similar to nicardipine. Data from large clinical trials regarding the safety and efficacy of clevidipine in children is lacking. This manuscript aims to review the commonly used pharmacologic agents for perioperative BP control in children, discuss the role of calcium channel antagonists such as nicardipine, and outline the preliminary data regarding clevidipine in the pediatric population.

  2. Blood pressure control among hypertensives managed in a specialised health care setting in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isezuo, A S; Njoku, C H

    2003-03-01

    In spite of the plethora of anti-hypertensives, hypertension remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among Nigerian hypertensive population. To determine blood pressure control rate, defined as the proportion of treated hypertensive population with systolic and diastolic blood pressures less than 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg respec tively. One hundred and ten (110) treated adult Nigerian hypertensives aged 28-80 (mean 46.02 +/- 15.20) years with male: female ratio of 1:1.4 who have been commenced on treatment for at least 6 months were selected by simple random sampling for determination of blood pressure control rate and its determinant factors using clinic blood pressures. Blood pressure control rate was 42.70%. Pre-treatment mean blood pressure was significantly higher than the value at least 6 months post commencement of treatment: (170.09 +/- 15.20/108.98 +/- 15.85 mmHg versus 146.10 +/- 24.50/93.8 +/- 21.90 mmHg) (t=8.73; pmmHg in 42 (66.6%), rose by 10.50 +/- 1.0 mmHg in 8 (12.70%) and was unchanged in 13 (20.66%) patients. Diastolic blood pressure fell by 22.22 +/- 14.58 mmHg in 32 (50.8%), rose by 7.88 +/- 6.66 mmHg in 16 (25.40%) and was unchanged in 15 (23.80%) patients. Clinic compliance and family history of hypertension were associated with satisfactory blood pressure control. Blood pressure control rate among the study population was low. Compliance and family re-enforcement should be encouraged.

  3. Analysis of an controller design for an electro-hydraulic servo pressure regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Madsen, A. M.;

    2009-01-01

    of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure, as e.g. almost all open-circuit pumps are hydraulically controlled. The focus of the current paper is therefore on the analysis and controller design an electro-hydraulic servo pressure...... regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure based on an electrical reference, hereby synergistically integrating knowledge from all parts of the mechatronics area. The servo pressure regulator is used to generate the LS-signal for a variable displacement pump, and the paper rst presents...... to generate a controlled leakage  ow that aids in stabilising the system. The robustness of the system is then discussed in relation to dierent pilot line volumes and pump dynamics. Finally experimental results are presented, where the performance is compared to that of a similar hydraulic reference system...

  4. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  5. A randomized, controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy of pressure ulcers via a novel polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Marcus James Dermot; Driver, Sara; Coghlan, Patrick; Greenwood, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to look for any local, clinically apparent response, within and around a debrided wound, to a novel biocompatible polyurethane foam during repeated, short-term implantation, and (2) to assess the material's efficacy as a negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) interface compared with a widely used, commercially available foam. Twenty pressure ulcers in 18 patients underwent surgical debridement, then randomization to receive novel treatment or control foam as the wound interface for NPWT. Dressing changes every 2-3 days allowed qualitative wound assessment and quantitative measurement to compare outcomes. No adverse reaction was observed in any patient receiving the new foam. The new "novel foam" performed as a NPWT interface as effectively as the control "standard foam." In deep wounds, the new foam was easier to remove, fragmented less, and showed less retention than the control foam. No marginal in-growth occurred, making removal less traumatic and reducing bleeding from cavity wall granulations. The results support previous large animal studies, and independent ISO10993 testing, that the new foam is safe and biocompatible. Its efficacy as an NPWT interface, nontraumatic removal with low fragmentation and retention rate, favors the new material, especially in deep cavity wounds.

  6. The forced-response test does not discriminate ears with different otitis media expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Seroky, James T; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J

    2014-11-01

    Test the hypothesis that the eustachian tube (ET) function measured using standard manometric test methods is different between groups of ears with tympanostomy tubes inserted for recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) and for chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). A cross-sectional study of ET function in populations of young children with different otitis media expressions. The results for forced-response testing of ET function were compared using a general linear model between 37 ears of 26 children and 34 ears of 26 children, aged 3 and 4 years, with ventilation tubes inserted for COME and RAOM, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in either the active measure of ET opening function, dilatory efficiency, or in the passive measures reflecting the magnitude of the forces that tend to hold the ET lumen closed, the opening and closing pressures, and passive trans-ET conductance. The results do not support the hypothesis that ET closing forces are less in ears with RAOM when compared to ears with COME, and from the results of earlier studies, ears without disease. Both groups were characterized by a low ET opening efficiency (referenced to ears of adults with no disease history). Because both disease expressions present the same pattern of ET dysfunction, other factors are required to explain why a subset of ears with that type of dysfunction develop RAOM, as opposed to the default expression of COME. 2b © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Control of Variable-Speed Pressurization Fan for an Offshore HVAC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    of the inlet channel in the considered Heating Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) system, or the pressurization system located inside the inlet channel, or both of them in a coordinated way. A Model-Predictive Control (MPC) solution to control the inlet throttle has been proposed in our previous work....... This paper proposes a set of control solutions to regulate the variablespeed pressurization fan system such that the energy efficiency of the considered HVAC system can be explicitly considered. A combined feed-forward with a PI-based feedback control solution, and a MPC solution are proposed based...... on derived simple system models. Some preliminary simulation results exhibit that both control solutions can keep the indoor pressure and the air circulation in a very satisfactory and robust manner, even subject to the presence of severe disturbances....

  8. EFFECT OF POWER SUPPLY AND DUTY CONTROL IN CRANKCASE FLOW (CRANKCASE PRESSURE PORT OF ECV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. IQBAL MAHMUD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic control valve (ECV operated by solenoid in the external variable compressor with the swash plate type is the rising phenomenon. ECV controls the air conditioning compressor for automobile on the basis of the input signal of the pulse width modulation (PWM that supplied from the external controller. PWM technique is used to encode the information for transmission; its main use is to allow the control of the power to be supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads. The mechanism changes the swash plate angle inside the compressor by increasing or reducing the pressure of swash plate chamber by use of the functions of different pressure port within the ECV. Increasing and reducing the swash plate angle finally depends on the solenoid force acting on the rate of supply of current. This research paper investigates the effect of power supply and duty control during the crankcase flowing at Pc pressure port of ECV.

  9. Photoplethysmography for an independent measure of pulsatile pressure under controlled flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoum, Haneen; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2017-02-01

    Noninvasive continuous blood pressure measurements are desirable for patients and clinicians. This work proposes and validates a method for transmural pressure measurement using photoplethysmography (PPG) in an in vitro setup that allows control of pressure and flow conditions. The optimum pulsatile volume measure is obtained by comparing parameters extracted from the photoplethysmographic signal (AC amplitude, normalized pulse volume (NPV) and adjusted pulse volume (APV)). Pulsatile volume can then provide pressure measurements using the exponential pressure-volume (P-V) relationship and validated using the gold standard catheter pressure measurement. Pressure, red (R) and infrared (IR) PPG signals were recorded continuously in two arterial models with different cross-sectional areas (Model 1 and Model 2) utilising a pulsatile pump. Flow rates were controlled by varying pumping frequencies at low and high stroke volumes. The optimum method for estimation of the pulsatile volume is through APV, which had a highly significant correlation (r (2)  =  0.99, p  blood pressure measurement at different flow conditions.

  10. Ventless pressure control of two-phase propellant tanks in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Panzarella, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    This work studies pressurization and pressure control of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. A finite element model is developed that couples a lumped thermodynamic formulation for the vapor region with a complete solution of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations for the flow and temperature fields in the liquid. Numerical results show that buoyancy effects are strong, even in microgravity, and can reposition a vapor bubble that is initially at the center of the tank to a region near the tank wall in a relatively short time. Long-term tank pressurization with the vapor bubble at the tank wall shows that after an initial transient lasting about a week, the final rate of pressure increase agrees with a purely thermodynamic analysis of the entire tank. However, the final pressure levels are quite different from thermodynamic predictions. Numerical results also show that there is significant thermal stratification in the liquid due to the effects of natural convection. A subcooled jet is used to provide simultaneous cooling and mixing in order to bring the tank pressure back down to its initial value. Three different jet speeds are examined. Although the lowest jet speed is ineffective at controlling the pressure because of insufficient penetration into the liquid region, the highest jet speed is shown to be quite effective at disrupting thermal stratification and reducing the tank pressure in reasonable time.

  11. A MEMS-based passive hydrocephalus shunt for body position controlled intracranial pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Staffan B; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports a novel micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) valve with posture controlled flow characteristics for improved treatment of hydrocephalus, a disease that is characterized by elevated pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. In contrast to conventional differential pressure CSF valves, the CSF valve presented here features a third port which utilizes hydrostatic pressure from a pressure compensating catheter to adapt CSF drainage to optimized levels irrespective of body position. Prototypes have been fabricated using standard MEMS manufacturing processes and the experimental evaluation successfully showed that the flow rate was adjustable with a varying hydrostatic pressure on the third port. Measured data showed that flow rate was at near ideal values at laying body position and that the flow rate can be adjusted to optimal values at standing body position by selecting an appropriate length of the pressure compensating catheter. This is the first pressure balanced CSF valve intended for body position controlled CSF pressure regulation.

  12. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  13. A Survey on Human Ear Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient ear recognition technique which derives benefits from the local features of the ear and attempt to handle the problems due to pose, poor contrast, change in illumination and lack of registration. Recognizing humans by their ear have recently received significant attention in the field of research. Ear is the rich in characteristics. This paper provides a detailed survey of research done in ear detection and recognition. This survey paper is very useful in the current state-of- art for those who are working in this area and also for those who might exploit this new approach.

  14. A simple ear splint for microtia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Venkata Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.

  15. A simple ear splint for microtia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, C J Venkata; Balaji, S M; Jain, Ashish R

    2015-01-01

    Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.

  16. Chronotherapy improves blood pressure control and reduces vascular risk in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Smolensky, Michael H; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Ríos, María T; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of increased blood pressure during sleep and blunted sleep-time-relative blood pressure decline (a nondipper pattern) is very high and increases substantially with disease severity. Elevated blood pressure during sleep is the major criterion for the diagnoses of hypertension and inadequate therapeutic ambulatory blood pressure control in these patients. Substantial, clinically meaningful ingestion-time-dependent differences in the safety, efficacy, duration of action and/or effects on the 24 h blood pressure pattern of six different classes of hypertension medications and their combinations have been substantiated. For example, bedtime ingestion of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers is more effective than morning ingestion in reducing blood pressure during sleep and converting the 24 h blood pressure profile into a dipper pattern. We have identified a progressive reduction in blood pressure during sleep--a novel therapeutic target best achieved by ingestion of one or more hypertension medications at bedtime--as the most significant predictor of decreased cardiovascular risk in patients with and without CKD. Recent findings suggest that in patients with CKD, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be used for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular disease risk, and that therapeutic strategies given at bedtime rather than on awakening are preferable for the management of hypertension.

  17. Digest of "Invariant Method of Load Independent Pressure Control in Steam Boiler"

    OpenAIRE

    Sniders, Andris; Komass, Toms

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers the possibility of steam production and supply process improvement by perfection of the steam boiler control system, applying invariance principle that makes possible preemptive compensation of the influence of steam expenditure as a disturbance on the control process quality and efficiency. For the development of invariant control system, the mathematical modeling and simulation in MATLAB - SIMULINK environment is made. The control unit is low pressure steam boiler with o...

  18. Scram simulation of a control rod drive mechanism of a pressurized water reactor under seismic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Ichinoo, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Eiji; Nambu, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Tomonori.

    1987-03-01

    Control rod drop verification experiments of Mitsubishi pressurized water reactor under seismic conditions are performed to confirm the insertion function of control rods into the core. To evaluate these tests, computer simulations are performed. The scram time of control rods under seismic conditions was confirmed to meet the scram function. The behavior of the dropping control rods and the scram time obtained by the computer simulation show a very good correspondence with the results of verification experiments.

  19. Numerical modeling of self-pressurization and pressure control by a thermodynamic vent system in a cryogenic tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok; Valenzuela, Juan; LeClair, Andre; Moder, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of a system-level test bed-the multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB) using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). MHTB is representative in size and shape of a space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank, and ground-based testing was performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to generate data for cryogenic storage. GFSSP is a finite volume-based network flow analysis software developed at MSFC and used for thermofluid analysis of propulsion systems. GFSSP has been used to model the self-pressurization and ullage pressure control by the Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS). A TVS typically includes a Joule-Thompson (J-T) expansion device, a two-phase heat exchanger (HEX), and a mixing pump and liquid injector to extract thermal energy from the tank without significant loss of liquid propellant. For the MHTB tank, the HEX and liquid injector are combined into a vertical spray bar assembly. Two GFSSP models (Self-Pressurization and TVS) were separately developed and tested and then integrated to simulate the entire system. The Self-Pressurization model consists of multiple ullage nodes, a propellant node, and solid nodes; it computes the heat transfer through multilayer insulation blankets and calculates heat and mass transfer between the ullage and liquid propellant and the ullage and tank wall. A TVS model calculates the flow through a J-T valve, HEX, and spray and vent systems. Two models are integrated by exchanging data through User Subroutines of both models. Results of the integrated models have been compared with MHTB test data at a 50% fill level. Satisfactory comparison was observed between tests and numerical predictions.

  20. The development of robot system for pressurizer in NPPs - The development of path planning for remote controller and control technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Woo; Kwon, Cheol; Lee, Sung Ryul [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The pressurizer-maintenance robot, the development goal in this research, performs replacement the malfunctioning electric heat tube existing under the pressurizer's manhole if malfunctions checked by naked eyes. At this time, it is needed robot's position control and minimizing vibration of wire caused by robot's operation. To control the vibration of wire, the mathematical modeling of 2-dimensional crane's motion performed by robot manipulator is achieved and controller is constructed on this foundation. As a model based controller, full state feed back controller is designed at first. And as a robust controller, sliding mode controller is designed. The pressurizer maintenance robot performs sensor processing by a camera. The visual information of wire is achieved by CCD camera and from this information the vibration angle of the wire can be known. Additionally by attaching CCD camera to system, checking inside pressurizer with naked eye is enabled from external safe places. 25 refs., 14 figs. (Author)

  1. Design of a new PID controller using predictive functional control optimization for chamber pressure in a coke furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming

    2016-11-25

    An improved proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller based on predictive functional control (PFC) is proposed and tested on the chamber pressure in an industrial coke furnace. The proposed design is motivated by the fact that PID controllers for industrial processes with time delay may not achieve the desired control performance because of the unavoidable model/plant mismatches, while model predictive control (MPC) is suitable for such situations. In this paper, PID control and PFC algorithm are combined to form a new PID controller that has the basic characteristic of PFC algorithm and at the same time, the simple structure of traditional PID controller. The proposed controller was tested in terms of set-point tracking and disturbance rejection, where the obtained results showed that the proposed controller had the better ensemble performance compared with traditional PID controllers.

  2. Racial differences in barriers to blood pressure control in a family practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan M; Spees, Colleen K; Taylor, Christopher A; Wexler, Randy

    2010-10-01

    Hypertension prevalence in the African American community is greater than in all other ethnic groups. Cultural perceptions of health and disease introduce barriers to providing effective care. The purpose of this study was to identify racial differences in the perceived causes of hypertension, current behaviors performed to control blood pressure, and perceived barriers to preventing or treating hypertension. A self-administered survey of patients seen for medical care in a primary care network was conducted. The survey was developed to measure perceptions of hypertension etiology and treatments. Data from African American (n = 69) and Caucasian (n = 218) respondents were used to assess racial differences in perceptions of blood pressure control. About half of respondents knew their current blood pressures. African American patients were significantly less likely to believe that hypertension was caused by a lack of exercise and obesity. Significantly more Caucasians were less likely to report cutting down on table salt and taking prescription medications for blood pressure control. Both African Americans and Caucasians believed that sodium reduction was the most easily changed behavior to control their blood pressure, while both groups identified weight loss as being the most difficult. Racial differences exist in the perceived causes and treatments of high blood pressure, indicating a need for further patient education. When treating and counseling patients, physicians and support staff members must be sensitive to racial diversity and strive to offer culturally relevant solutions, especially for behaviors perceived as most difficult to change.

  3. Technique for correction of lop ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsahy, N I

    1990-04-01

    Various techniques of correction of lop ear have been described. Minor lop ear deformity can easily be corrected with simple excision of the overhanging auricular cartilage. Moderate and severe lop ear deformities, on the other hand, are more difficult to correct because there is actual reduction in size of the upper third of the ear in addition to the overhanging auricular cartilage. The purpose of this paper was to present a new technique used to correct the moderate lop ear deformity. In addition to excising the overhanging cartilage, I rotate a cartilage flap from the anthelix upward where the missing superior crus was supposed to be. This flap increases the vertical height of the ear and creates a new superior crus. I applied this technique on three cases of moderate lop ear deformities with good results.

  4. Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Etuan; Beer, Gary Lee

    2015-11-10

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the tar sands formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A pressure in the portion of the formation is controlled such that the pressure remains below a fracture pressure of the formation overburden while allowing the portion of the formation to heat to a selected average temperature of at least about 280.degree. C. and at most about 300.degree. C. The pressure in the portion of the formation is reduced to a selected pressure after the portion of the formation reaches the selected average temperature.

  5. Analysis of and H∞ Controller Design For An Electro-Hydraulic Servo Pressure Regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole;

    2011-01-01

    -circuit pumps are still hydraulically controlled, there is however still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure. The focus of the current paper is on the analysis and controller design of an electrohydraulic servo pressure regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure for a variable......Currently mobile hydraulics is in a transition phase, where electronic sensors and digital signal processors are becoming standard on a high number of machines, hereby replacing hydraulic pilot lines and offering new possibilities with regard to both control and feasibility. As most open...... displacement pump based on an electrical reference. The paper first presents the considered system and an experimentally verified model of this. A linearized model and a stability analysis is then presented, based on which an H∞control strategy is selected. A nominal performance and a robustly stable...

  6. Regulation of renal function and blood pressure control by P2 purinoceptors in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusecum, Justin; Inscho, Edward W

    2015-04-01

    Kidneys are important regulators of extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) homeostasis. ECFV is a key regulatory component of long-term blood pressure control influenced by controlling tubular sodium transport. In recent decades, renal P2 purinoceptors (P2 receptors) have come to the forefront as a mechanism for regulating ECFV. P2 receptors are broadly distributed in renal tubular and vascular elements where they confer segmental control of renal vascular resistance, autoregulation, and tubular reabsorption. Activation or impairment of renal P2 purinoceptors is implicated in the regulating blood pressure or causing renal pathologies including hypertension. In this brief review, we discuss the role of renal vascular and tubular P2 purinoceptors in the regulation of renal hemodynamics, maintenance of ECFV, regulation of sodium reabsorption and the control of blood pressure.

  7. Equilibrating Pressure with Auto-Control Valve in Water Distribution Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟; 闫晓强; 张丽

    2003-01-01

    This paper probes into the feasibility of equilibrating pressure of water distribution network through using auto-control valves in theory and in the economy. An optimal valve control model is designed to minimize the sum of squares of residual pressure in the network. Such an analog simulation has been performed on the year 2003 programming network of a certain littoral district in North China, through which this paper confirms that it is feasible to equilibrate pressure with auto-control valves in theory. The research work has brought about a discovery of applicable conditions of valves in economic feasibility, which avoids a great economic loss due to the wild use of auto-control valve. In addition, simulated annealing algorithm is applied to optimize valve settings and shown to identify global optimum or near-optimum.

  8. Inner Time and Inner Ear

    CERN Document Server

    Rvachov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a mathematical necessity. It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

  9. Pressure intelligent control strategy of Waste heat recovery system of converter vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xugang; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jiayan; Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The converter gas evaporative cooling system is mainly used for absorbing heat in the high temperature exhaust gas which produced by the oxygen blowing reaction. Vaporization cooling steam pressure control system of converter is a nonlinear, time-varying, lagging behind, close coupling of multivariable control object. This article based on the analysis of converter operation characteristics of evaporation cooling system, of vaporization in a production run of pipe pressure variation and disturbance factors.For the dynamic characteristics of the controlled objects,we have improved the conventional PID control scheme.In Oxygen blowing process, we make intelligent control by using fuzzy-PID cascade control method and adjusting the Lance,that it can realize the optimization of the boiler steam pressure control.By design simulation, results show that the design has a good control not only ensures drum steam pressure in the context of security, enabling efficient conversion of waste heat.And the converter of 1800 flue gas through pipes and cool and dust removal also can be cooled to about 800. Therefore the converter haze evaporative cooling system has achieved to the converter haze temperature decrease effect and enhanced to the coal gas returns-ratio.

  10. Improving blood pressure control through provider education, provider alerts, and patient education: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, Christianne L; Elasy, Tom A; Greevy, Robert; Griffin, Marie R; Liu, Xulei; Stone, William J; Wallston, Kenneth A; Dittus, Robert S; Alvarez, Vincent; Cobb, Janice; Speroff, Theodore

    2006-08-01

    Inadequate blood pressure control is a persistent gap in quality care. To evaluate provider and patient interventions to improve blood pressure control. Cluster randomized, controlled trial. 2 hospital-based and 8 community-based clinics in the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System. 1341 veterans with essential hypertension cared for by 182 providers. Eligible patients had 2 or more blood pressure measurements greater than 140/90 mm Hg in a 6-month period and were taking a single antihypertensive agent. Providers who cared for eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive an e-mail with a Web-based link to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (provider education); provider education and a patient-specific hypertension computerized alert (provider education and alert); or provider education, hypertension alert, and patient education, in which patients were sent a letter advocating drug adherence, lifestyle modification, and conversations with providers (patient education). Proportion of patients with a systolic blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg at 6 months; intensification of antihypertensive medication. Mean baseline blood pressure was 157/83 mm Hg with no differences between groups (P = 0.105). Six-month follow-up data were available for 975 patients (73%). Patients of providers who were randomly assigned to the patient education group had better blood pressure control (138/75 mm Hg) than those in the provider education and alert or provider education alone groups (146/76 mm Hg and 145/78 mm Hg, respectively). More patients in the patient education group had a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or less compared with those in the provider education or provider education and alert groups (adjusted relative risk for the patient education group compared with the provider education alone group, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06 to 1.62]; P = 0

  11. Safe Distances From a High-Energy Capacitor Bank for Ear and Lung Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Fontaine, M. D.; Walsh, P. DC Arc Calculations – Arc -In-Open-Air & Arc -In-A- Box – Using A Simplified Approach (Multiplication Factor Method), IEEE Paper...banks may have a significant amount of residual energy after a test or malfunction. This presents distinct hazards from shock, arc flash, projectile...danger to the ear and lung from the over-pressure of an arc blast has not been satisfactorily established. This lung and ear danger is addressed in

  12. Dominantly-inherited lop ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K C; Kong, Albert Y F; Robson, W Lane M; McLeod, D Ross

    2007-10-01

    We describe a four-generation Chinese family that included five members who had an isolated bilateral lop ear anomaly. The presentation suggested a dominant mode of inheritance. The absence of male-to-male transmission does not exclude an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance. Since the phenotypic anomaly of the male proband was no more severe than the affected female members, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is most likely. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  13. Effect of Processing Pressure on Isolated Pore Formation during Controlled Directional Solidification in Small Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matthew C.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.; Grugel, RIchard N.; Lee, Chun P.

    2008-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments were performed, using succinonitrile saturated with nitrogen gas, to examine the effects of in-situ processing pressure changes on the formation growth, and evolution of an isolated, cylindrical gaseous pore. A novel solidification facility, capable of processing thin cylindrical samples (I.D. < 1.0 mm), under controlled pressure conditions, was used for the experiments. A new experimental method for growing the isolated pore from a seed bubble is introduced. The experimental results indicate that an in-situ processing pressure change will result in either a transient change in pore diameter or a complete termination of pore growth, indicating that pressure changes can be used as a control parameter to terminate bubble growth. A simple analytical model has been introduced to explain the experimental observations.

  14. Characteristics of wideband acoustic immittance in patients with middle-ear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Chris A; Brockett, Jeff E

    2014-05-01

    Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) measurements are a relatively new class of aural acoustic tests that have shown promise as useful tools for evaluating middle-ear status. A growing body of work has described WAI for infants, children, and adults with normal middle-ear function, but a relatively limited number of studies have investigated the influence of specific middle-ear disorders on WAI. Although emerging WAI research data show promising results, additional measurements from ears of patients with a variety of middle-ear disorders are needed. The aims of the present study were to (1) obtain WAI data from patients with a variety of middle-ear conditions, (2) examine relationships between WAI data relative to standard audiometric tests, and (3) identify patterns or profiles in WAI data within and among patients with different middle-ear conditions. A descriptive study. Participants included 30 children and two adults with a variety of middle-ear disorders who were recruited from clinical audiology settings. Experimental ambient and tympanometric WAI data were gathered along with standard audiometric test data as part of clinical audiology appointments. Single-subject and small-group data sets for ears of patients with suspected otitis media with effusion (sOME), pressure equalization (PE) tubes, negative tympanometric peak pressure (TPP), tympanoplasty, and cerumen impaction were obtained. Qualitative analysis and descriptive statistics (means and percentiles) were used to characterize the data. Group mean absorbance for ears in the sOME group was reduced across the majority of frequencies; absorbance for ears with negative TPP was also reduced, although to a lesser degree. Absorbance patterns for ears with PE tubes show even greater differences because of the effects of the tube and open middle-ear cavity. WAI from ears with a tympanoplasty and cerumen impaction was suggestive of middle-ear dysfunction in the presence of normal single-frequency tympanometry

  15. Effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua Xiao; Li Yang; Rong-Ping Chen; Wei-Dong Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery and its feasibility.Methods:A total of 80 patients who were admitted in ENT department from June, 2012 to June, 2015 for nasal endoscope surgery were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 40 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were given nifedipine delayed-release tablets for advanced blood pressure control before operation, and were given routine blood pressure control during operation; while the patients in the control group were only given blood pressure control during operation. The changes of blood pressure, mean central arterial pressure, and heart rate before anesthesia (T0), after intubation (T1), during operation (T2), extubation when waking (T3), 30 min after extubation (T4), and 3 h after back to wards (T5) in the two groups were compared. The intraoperative situation and the surgical field quality in the two groups were compared.Results: SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T1-5 in the two groups were significantly lower than those at T0. SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T2 were significantly lower than those at other timing points, and were gradually recovered after operation, but were significantly lower than those at T0. The effect taking time of blood pressure reducing, intraoperative nitroglycerin dosage, and postoperative wound surface exudation amount in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The surgical field quality scores in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group.Conclusions:Advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets can stabilize the blood pressure during the perioperative period in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery, and enhance the surgical field qualities.

  16. Development of Steam Turbine Inlet Control Valve for Supercritical Pressure at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    OpenAIRE

    Sors, Felix; Holm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The development in the steam turbine business is heading for applications with much higher steam parameters since this enables a raised efficiency. Steam parameters refer to the pressure and the temperature of the steam. The aim of this study was to generate concepts for steam turbine inlet control valves designed for higher pressure and temperature in comparison with the present design. Future steam power plants using solar energy, based on tower technology, request this kind of performance ...

  17. Controlling dielectric and pyroelectric properties of compositionally graded ferroelectric rods by an applied pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Woo, C. H.; Wang, Biao

    2007-06-01

    The polarization, charge offset, dielectric, and pyroelectric properties of a compositionally graded ferroelectric rod inside a high-pressure polyethylene tube are studied using a thermodynamic model based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire formulation. The calculated distribution of the polarization in the rod is nonuniform, and the corresponding charge offset, dielectric, and pyroelectric properties vary according to the applied pressure. This behavior may be used as a convenient means to control these properties for design optimization.

  18. Heart rate and blood pressure control in obesity - how to detect early dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorka, Michal; Turianikova, Zuzana; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Lazarova, Zuzana; Czippelova, Barbora; Javorka, Kamil

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is accompanied by many severe complications including various cardiovascular disorders. An impairment of cardiovascular control by autonomic nervous system could be one of the possible links between obesity and cardiovascular complications development. The aim of this study was to compare spontaneous heart rate and systolic blood pressure oscillations reflecting cardiovascular autonomic control of young obese subjects with normal control subjects by linear and nonlinear methods and to find sensitive markers of early autonomic dysregulation. Continuous recordings of beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure and RR intervals from ECG were obtained from 40 obese subjects (25 female, age 14·2 [13·1-16·1] (median [interquartile range]) years) and gender and age matched non-obese control subjects. In addition to linear measures (time and frequency domain), we performed recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and multiscale entropy analysis for both signals. While no significant differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure dynamics were detected by linear measures and MSE, analysis of recurrence plots from RR intervals time series showed significant differences - indices trapping time and maximal length of vertical from RQA were significantly higher in obese compared to control group. We conclude that heart rate and blood pressure control by autonomic nervous system in young obese subjects is relatively well preserved. However, novel RQA-related measures are able to detect early subtle abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control in obese subjects indicating decreased signal complexity. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Low-cost feedback-controlled syringe pressure pumps for microfluidics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, John R.; Heyde, Keith C.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics are widely used in research ranging from bioengineering and biomedical disciplines to chemistry and nanotechnology. As such, there are a large number of options for the devices used to drive and control flow through microfluidic channels. Commercially available syringe pumps are probably the most commonly used instruments for this purpose, but are relatively high-cost and have inherent limitations due to their flow profiles when they are run open-loop. Here, we present a low-cost ($110) syringe pressure pump that uses feedback control to regulate the pressure into microfluidic chips. Using an open-source microcontroller board (Arduino), we demonstrate an easily operated and programmable syringe pump that can be run using either a PID or bang-bang control method. Through feedback control of the pressure at the inlets of two microfluidic geometries, we have shown stability of our device to within ±1% of the set point using a PID control method and within ±5% of the set point using a bang-bang control method with response times of less than 1 second. This device offers a low-cost option to drive and control well-regulated pressure-driven flow through microfluidic chips. PMID:28369134

  20. Pressure observer based adaptive robust trajectory tracking control of a parallel manipulator driven by pneumatic muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a pressure observer based adaptive robust controller (POARC) for posture trajectory tracking of a parallel manipulator driven by three pneumatic muscles without pressure sensors. Due to model errors of the static forces and friction forces of pneumatic muscles, simplified average flow rate characteristics of valves, unknown disturbances of entire system,and unmeasured pressures, there exist rather severe parametric uncertainties, nonlinear uncertainties and dynamic uncertainties in modeling of the parallel manipulator. A nonlinear pressure observer is constructed to estimate unknown pressures on the basis of a single-input-single-output (SISO) decoupling model that is simplified from the actual multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)coupling model of the parallel manipulator. Then, an adaptive robust controller integrated with the pressure observer is developed to accomplish high precision posture trajectory tracking of the parallel manipulator. The experimental results indicate that the system with the proposed POARC not only achieves good control accuracy and smooth movement but also maintains robustness to disturbances.

  1. The impact of social pressure and monetary incentive on cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINA eLIČEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compare the effects of two prominent organizational control mechanisms—monetary incentive and social pressure—on cognitive control. Cognitive control underlies the human ability to regulate thoughts and actions in the pursuit of behavioral goals. Previous studies show that monetary incentives can contribute to goal-oriented behavior via the activation of proactive control. There is, however, much less evidence on the effect of social pressure on cognitive control and task performance. In a within-subject experimental design, we tested 47 subjects performing the AX-CPT task to compare the activation of cognitive control modes under monetary incentive and social pressure beyond mere instructions to perform better. We find that social pressure and monetary incentive have similar effects as mere instructions on cognitive control. All three lead to a significant shift from a reactive to a proactive control mode and a similar improvement in task performance. Our findings suggest that social control mechanisms and monetary incentives provide similar behavioral effects in stimulating a proactive cognitive control mode and performance.

  2. Theoretic analysis of middle ear gas composition under conditions of nonphysiologic ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, E J; Silberberg, A

    1992-05-01

    As gas flows in and out of the nasopharynx, the pressure in that region fluctuates. It drops below or rises above atmospheric pressure, which is itself not constant but is subject to changes in altitude and weather. Such pressure changes in the nasopharynx produce a pumping of gas into and out of the middle ear. The net amount of middle ear gas transferred from or to the nasopharynx will, component for component, in steady state exactly equal the amount of middle ear gas transferred to or from the microcirculation by means of diffusional absorption by (or release from) the mucosa. In the case of a permanently patulous eustachian tube, a single parameter, characteristic of the rate of ventilation through the open eustachian tube, is found to determine the gas composition in the middle ear, whereas in the case of a middle ear ventilated by tympanostomy, two rate-of-ventilation parameters, one for gas flow through the ventilation tube and one for flow through a periodically open eustachian tube, determine the steady state gas composition. A high rate of ventilation favors absorption of oxygen and venting of carbon dioxide from the middle ear in both cases.

  3. The optimum design of the pressure control spring of the relief valve based on neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-jin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the traditional optimization methods about the pressure control spring of the relief valve and combined with the advantages of neural network, this paper put forward the optimization method with many parameters and a lot of constraints based on neural network. The object function of optimization is transformed into the energy function of the neural network and the mathematical model of neural network optimization about the pressure control spring of the relief valve is set up in this method which also puts forward its own algorithm. An example of application shows that network convergence gets stable state of minimization object function E, and object function converges to the utmost minimum point with steady function, then best solution is gained, which makes the design plan better. The algorithm of solution for the problem is effective about the optimum design of the pressure control spring and improves the performance target.

  4. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRESSURE AND VACUUM CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID PUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel pressure and vacuum continuous control system, which adopts a hybrid pump as pressure and vacuum source, is presented. The mathematical model of the system is developed. The theoretical simulation and analysis on the system are implemented in order to study the relationships among the characteristics, parameters and working points of the system. The experimental investigations on the system characteristics are presented with the adoption of a fuzzy-PID controller. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the pressure and vacuum continuous control system based on hybrid pump has good dynamic and static performance, strong robustness and satisfactory adaptability to various system parameters. According to the results, system can successfully gain high accuracy and fast response signal. Also, the mathematical model of system is also testified by the experimental results.

  5. LH2 tank pressure control by thermodynamic vent system (TVS) at zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Huang, Y. H.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, J. Y.; Li, P.; Sun, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    Thermodynamic vent system (TVS) is employed for pressure control of propellant tanks at zero gravity. An analytical lumped parameter model is developed to predict pressure variation in an 18.09 m3 liquid hydrogen tank equipped with TVS. Mathematical simulations are carried out assuming tank is filled up to 75% volume (liquid mass equals to 945 kg) and is subjected to heat flux of 0.76 W/m2. Tank pressure controls at 165.5-172.4, 165.5-179.3 and 165.5-182.2 kPa are compared with reference to number of vent cycles, vent duration per cycle and loss of hydrogen. Analysis results indicate that the number of vent cycles significantly decreases from 62 to 21 when tank pressure control increases from 6.9 to 20.4 kPa. Also, duration of vent cycle increases from 63 to 152 and cycle duration decreases from 3920 to 3200 s. Further, the analysis result suggests that LH2 evaporation loss per day decreases from 0.17 to 0.14%. Based on the results of analysis, TVS is found effective in controlling the propellant tank pressure in zero gravity.

  6. How internally coupled ears generate temporal and amplitude cues for sound localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedurmudi, A P; Goulet, J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2016-01-01

    In internally coupled ears, displacement of one eardrum creates pressure waves that propagate through air-filled passages in the skull and cause displacement of the opposing eardrum, and conversely. By modeling the membrane, passages, and propagating pressure waves, we show that internally couple...

  7. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  8. Pressure ulcers: effectiveness of risk-assessment tools. A randomised controlled trial (the ULCER trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Coleman, Kerrie; Mudge, Alison; Marquart, Louise; Gardner, Glenn; Stankiewicz, Monica; Kirby, Julie; Vellacott, Catherine; Horton-Breshears, Margaret; McClymont, Alice

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two pressure-ulcer screening tools against clinical judgement in preventing pressure ulcers. A single blind randomised controlled trial. A large metropolitan tertiary hospital. 1231 patients admitted to internal medicine or oncology wards. Patients were excluded if their hospital stay was expected to be 2 days or less. Participants allocated to either a Waterlow (n=410) or Ramstadius (n=411) screening tool group or to a clinical judgement group (n=410) where no formal risk screening instrument was used. Incidence of hospital acquired pressure ulcers ascertained by regular direct observation. Use of any devices for the prevention of pressure ulcers, documentation of a pressure plan and any dietetic or specialist skin integrity review were recorded. On admission, 71 (5.8%) patients had an existing pressure ulcer. The incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers was similar between groups (clinical judgement 28/410 (6.8%); Waterlow 31/411 (7.5%); Ramstadius 22/410 (5.4%), p=0.44). Significant associations with pressure injury in regression modelling included requiring a dietetic referral, being admitted from a location other than home and age over 65 years. The authors found no evidence to show that two common pressure-ulcer risk-assessment tools are superior to clinical judgement to prevent pressure injury. Resources associated with use of these tools might be better spent on careful daily skin inspection and improving management targetted at specific risks. The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinicat Trials Registry (ACTRN 12608000541303).

  9. Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Patients in the "Hiperdia Program": A Territory-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarita Silva de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic hypertension is highly prevalent and an important risk factor for cardiovascular events. Blood pressure control in hypertensive patients enrolled in the Hiperdia Program, a program of the Single Health System for the follow-up and monitoring of hypertensive patients, is still far below the desired level. Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile and to assess blood pressure control of patients enrolled in Hiperdia, in the city of Novo Hamburgo (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a stratified cluster random sample, including 383 adults enrolled in the Hiperdia Program of the 15 Basic Health Units of the city of Porto Alegre, conducted between 2010 and 2011. Controlled blood pressure was defined as ≤140 mmHg × 90 mmHg. The hypertensive patients were interviewed and their blood pressure was measured using a calibrated aneroid device. Prevalence ratios (PR with 95% confidence interval, Wald's χ2 test, and simple and multiple Poisson regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: The mean age was 63 ± 10 years, and most of the patients were females belonging to social class C, with a low level of education, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history positive for systemic hypertension. Diabetes mellitus (DM was observed in 31%; adherence to the antihypertensive treatment in 54.3%; and 33.7% had their blood pressure controlled. DM was strongly associated with inadequate BP control, with only 15.7% of the diabetics showing BP considered as controlled. Conclusion: Even for hypertensive patients enrolled in the Hiperdia Program, BP control is not satisfactorily reached or sustained. Diabetic hypertensive patients show the most inappropriate BP control.

  10. Two routes to closure: Time pressure and goal activation effects on executive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossowska Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the impact of need for cognitive closure (NFC manipulations via time pressure and explicit closure goal activation on executive control was investigated. Although there is some evidence that NFC, measured as an individual variable, is related to better performing in attentional tasks involving executive control, these results have never been validated across different manipulations of NFC. Thus, in the present study we induced NFC via internal and external time pressure and tested the impact of these manipulations on the performance in tasks that measure executive control, i.e., the Stroop and switching tasks. The results revealed that induced high (vs. low NFC, indeed boosted performance in executive control tasks. Moreover, there was no difference in the effect of both NFC manipulations on task performance. The implications regarding the role of executive control and specific NFC manipulations in social cognition are discussed.

  11. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    , and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP......Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  12. The great East Japan earthquake: blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Tani, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kimio; Asai, Jun; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2012-09-01

    At 1446 on 11 March 2011, northeastern Japan was struck by a major earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale. There have been several reports of transient blood pressure increases after a major earthquake, but the impact of a major earthquake on blood pressure in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not been fully investigated. Changes in clinic blood pressure following the earthquake were investigated in 132 hypertensive patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD who were residents of Fukushima City. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly elevated 1-3 weeks after the earthquake compared with before the earthquake (134 ± 19 mm Hg vs. 138 ± 20 mm Hg, P = 0.02 for systolic; 76 ± 13 mm Hg vs. 79 ± 12 mm Hg, P = 0.01 for diastolic), and these values returned to baseline by 5-7 weeks after the earthquake. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified male sex (odds ratio (OR), 0.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.86; P = 0.02), mean blood pressure at baseline (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.96; P earthquake in CKD patients. Blood pressure was significantly increased after a major earthquake in hypertensive patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD. During the first 3 weeks after the earthquake, blood pressure control was associated with the use of sympatholytic medications.

  13. Automated Kick Control Procedure for an Influx in Managed Pressure Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within drilling of oil and gas wells, the Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD method with active control of wellbore pressure during drilling has partly evolved from conventional well control procedures. However, for MPD operations the instrumentation is typically more extensive compared to conventional drilling. Despite this, any influx of formation fluids (commonly known as a kick during MPD operations is typically handled by conventional well control methods, at least if the kick is estimated to be larger than a threshold value. Conventional well control procedures rely on manual control of the blow out preventer, pumps, and choke valves and do not capitalize on the benefits from the instrumentation level associated with MPD. This paper investigates two alternative well control procedures specially adapted to backpressure MPD: the dynamic shut-in (DSI procedure and the automatic kick control (AKC procedure. Both methods capitalize on improvements in Pressure While Drilling (PWD technology. A commercially available PWD tool buffers high-resolution pressure measurements, which can be used in an automated well control procedure. By using backpressure MPD, the choke valve opening is tuned automatically using a feedback-feedforward control method. The two procedures are evaluated using a high fidelity well flow model and cases from a North Sea drilling operation are simulated. The results show that using AKC procedure reduces the time needed to establish control of the well compared to DSI procedure. It also indicates that the AKC procedure reduces the total kick size compared to the DSI procedure, and thereby reduces the risk of lost circulation.

  14. Influence of dental occlusion on postural control and plantar pressure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnweber, Benjamin; Adjami, Frederic; Schuster, Gabriele; Kopp, Stefan; Natrup, Jörg; Erbe, Christina; Ohlendorf, Daniela

    2016-10-20

    The number of studies investigating correlations between the temporomandibular system and body posture, postural control or plantar pressure distribution is continuously increasing. If a connection can be found, it is often of minor influence or for only a single parameter. However, small subject groups are critical. This study was conducted to define correlations between dental parameters, postural control and plantar pressure distribution in healthy males. In this study, 87 male subjects with an average age of 25.23 ± 3.5 years (ranging from 18 to 35 years) were examined. Dental casts of the subjects were analyzed. Postural control and plantar pressure distribution were recorded by a force platform. Possible orthodontic and orthopedic factors of influence were determined by either an anamnesis or a questionnaire. All tests performed were randomized and repeated three times each for intercuspal position (ICP) and blocked occlusion (BO). For a statistical analysis of the results, non-parametric tests (Wilcoxon-Matched-Pairs-Test, Kruskall-Wallis-Test) were used. A revision of the results via Bonferroni-Holm correction was considered. ICP increases body sway in the frontal (p ≤ 0.01) and sagittal planes (p ≤ 0.03) compared to BO, whereas all other 29 correlations were independent of the occlusion position. For both of the ICP or BO cases, Angle-class, midline-displacement, crossbite, or orthodontic therapy were found to have no influence on postural control or plantar pressure distribution (p > 0.05). However, the contact time of the left foot decreased (p ≤ 0.001) while detecting the plantar pressure distribution in each position. Persistent dental parameters have no effect on postural sway. In addition, postural control and plantar pressure distribution have been found to be independent postural criteria.

  15. Awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control in a rural community in Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuemu, V O; Okojie, O H; Omuemu, C E

    2007-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Udo, a rural community in Ovia South-west LGA of Edo State to assess the level of awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control. Cluster sampling method was used to select participants and data collection was by researcher administered questionnaire. Blood pressure measurement was by standardized method. A total of 590 respondents with mean age 30.7 +/- 14.6 years participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension was 20.2% using the WHO/ISH criteria of SBP > or = 140 mmHg and/or DBP > or = 90 mmHg. Twenty two (18.5%) of the hypertensives were aware of their high blood pressure status. Awareness was higher in females, increased with age and decreased with higher educational status. Of those aware of their condition, 77.3% were on treatment and ofthese, 29.4% had adequate blood pressure control. This study has revealed a low level of awareness of high blood pressure status and control in this rural community. Therefore, there is urgent need for regular community-based hypertension screening programmes.

  16. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  17. Optical assessment of middle ear inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, David S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of an optical device to assess the inflammatory state of the middle ear mucosa through the ear canal, after ventilation tube insertion in otitis media with effusion in children. An optical phantom of the middle ear was developed in order to allow repeatable experiments. The phantom consists of eardrum and mucosa while all other structures are neglected. The optical properties of the phantom were determined based on literature review and experiments on...

  18. ORAL NIFEDIPINE VERSUS INTRAVENOUS LABETALOL FOR CONTROL OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Kumari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of oral nifedipine and IV Labetalol in acute blood pressure control in severe preeclampsia. METHODS 200 women with blood pressure ≥160mmHg systolic and/or ≥110mmHg diastolic were randomized to receive oral nifedipine (10 mg tablet orally up to five doses or IV labetalol in escalating doses of 20mg, 40mg, 80mg, 80mg and 80mg. They were administered drugs every 15 minutes until blood pressure was less than or equal to 150mm Hg systolic and 100mm Hg diastolic. Crossover treatment was administered if the initial treatment failed. The time required to reduce blood pressure to target value, the number of doses required and the adverse effects were measured. The statistical value of significance was taken at P<0.05. RESULTS The patients who came in the inclusion criteria were treated with either nifedipine or labetalol based on their randomization number. It was found that oral nifedipine required 34.77±4.8 minutes whereas Inj. labetalol required 36.61±5.2 minutes to control blood pressure. The P value was 0.29.This indicates that the difference was not significant. Oral nifedipine required two doses each of 10mg to reduce blood pressure whereas Inj. labetalol required 3 doses, a total of 140mg to reduce blood pressure to the target level. The p-value calculated was 0.43 indicating the difference was not significant. Patients were also monitored for any side effects that may arise from the drugs. The adverse effects noted were dizziness, sweating, flushing, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, headache, shortness of breath and foetal tachycardia. Adverse effects observed were very few and of minor degree. There was no statistical difference in adverse effects noted in both the groups. CONCLUSIONS Oral nifedipine and IV labetalol are similarly effective in the control of severe hypertension in pregnancy.

  19. Development of pressure control system in counter gravity casting for large thin-walled A357 aluminum alloy components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-lei; HAO Qi-tang; JIE Wan-qi; ZHOU Yu-chuan

    2008-01-01

    Counter gravity casting equipments(CGCE) were widely used to produce large thin-walled A357 aluminum alloy components. To improve the pressure control precision of CGCE to get high quality castings, a pressure control system based on fuzzy-PID hybrid control technology and the digital assembled valve was developed. The actual pressure tracking experiment results show that the special system by applying PID controller and fuzzy controller to varied phases, is not only able to inherit the small error and good static stability of classical PID control, but also has fuzzy control's advantage of fully adapting itself to the object. The pressure control error is less than 0.3 kPa. By using this pressure control system, large complex thin-walled A357 aluminum alloy castings with high quality was successfully produced.

  20. Is the routine pressure dressing after thyroidectomy necessary? A prospective randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuttharak Warinthorn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An acute complication of thyroidectomy is fatal hematoma, which can produce an upper airway obstruction needing immediate intubation or tracheostomy. After neck surgery, we usually apply a pressure dressing with a non-woven, adhesive fabric to reduce bleeding and fluid collection at the operative bed. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate a pressure vs. a non-pressure dressing after thyroid surgery by monitoring blood and serum in the operative bed. Methods We studied 108 patients who underwent 116 thyroid surgeries at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, between December 2006 and September 2007. The patients were randomized to either the pressure dressing or non-pressure dressing group. Ultrasound of the neck was performed 24 ± 3 hours after surgery. The volume of fluid collection in the operative bed was calculated. All patients were observed for any post-operative respiratory distress, wound complications, tingling sensation or tetany. Results The distributions of age, sex, surgical indications and approaches were similar between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the volume of fluid collection in the operative bed (p = 0.150 and the collected drained content (p = 0.798. The average time a drain was retained was 3 days. One patient in the pressure dressing group suffered cutaneous bruising while one patient in the non-pressure dressing group developed immediate hemorrhage after the skin sutures. Conclusion Pressure dressing after thyroidectomy does not have any significant impact on decreasing fluid collection at the operative bed. The use of pressure dressing after thyroidectomy may not therefore be justified. Trial Registration NCT00400465, ISRCTN52660978

  1. Control of sodium excretion by angiotensin II: intrarenal mechanisms and blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J E

    1986-06-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is one of the body's most powerful regulators of Na excretion, operating through extrarenal mechanisms, such as stimulation of aldosterone secretion, as well as intrarenal mechanisms. Considerable evidence suggests that the intrarenal actions of ANG II are quantitatively more important than changes in aldosterone secretion in the normal day-to-day regulation of Na balance and arterial pressure. ANG II at physiological concentrations increases proximal tubular reabsorption, but further studies are needed to determine whether ANG II also has an important effect on more distal tubular segments. ANG II also markedly constricts efferent arterioles, tending to increase Na reabsorption by altering peritubular capillary physical forces and also helping to prevent excessive decreases in glomerular filtration rate. ANG II may also decrease Na excretion and increase urine concentrating ability by reducing renal medullary blood flow. Regulation of Na excretion by ANG II is closely linked with arterial pressure control and volume homeostasis through the renal pressure natriuresis mechanism. Under many physiological conditions, such as changes in Na intake, ANG II greatly multiplies the effectiveness of the pressure natriuresis mechanism to prevent fluctuations in body fluid volume and arterial pressure. In circumstances associated with circulatory depression, such as decreased cardiac function, reductions in blood pressure and increased ANG II formation cause Na retention until arterial pressure is restored to normal. However, in pathophysiological conditions in which ANG II is inappropriately elevated, increased arterial pressure (hypertension) is required for the kidney to "escape" the potent antinatriuretic actions of ANG II and to return Na excretion to normal via the pressure natriuresis mechanism.

  2. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-04-27

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  3. Better well control through safe drilling margin identification, influx analysis and direct bottom hole pressure control method for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeningen, Daan [National Oilwell Varco IntelliServ (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Currently, well control events are almost exclusively detected by using surface measurements. Measuring a volume increase in the 'closed loop' mud circulation system; a standpipe pressure decrease; or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide indicators of a kick. Especially in deep water, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the well bore, early kick detection is paramount for limiting the severity of a well bore influx and improve the ability to regain well control. While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools nearby the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and well bore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is one-directional, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown. High-bandwidth downhole data transmission system, via a wired or networked drill string system, has the unique capability to acquire real-time pressure and temperature measurement at a number of locations along the drill string. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data. The paper describes well control opportunities for deep water operations through the use of downhole data independent from surface measurements. First, the networked drill string provides efficient ways to identify pore pressure, fracture gradient, and true mud weight that comprise the safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection and improved ability to analyze an influx even with a heterogeneous mud column through distributed along-string annular pressure measurements. Third, a methodology is proposed for a direct measurement method using downhole real-time pressure for maintaining constant bottom hole pressure during well kills in deep water. (author)

  4. Dynamic plantar pressure distribution, strength capacity and postural control after Lisfranc fracture-dislocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Walther, Markus; Yilmaz, Tayfun

    2017-01-01

    of life. 17 consecutive patients suffering from a Lisfranc fracture dislocation were registered, underwent open reduction and internal fixation and were followed-up for 50.5±25.7months (Mean±SDM). Biomechanical analysis of muscle strength capacities, postural control and plantar pressure distribution...... correlated well with clinical outcome. Altered postural control was evident by a significant reduction in unilateral stance time, from which we calculated a strong correlation between stance time and the isokinetic strength measurement. Plantar pressure measurements revealed a significant reduction in peak...... pressure under the midfoot and of Force-Time Integral beneath the second metatarsal. Sufficient rehabilitation is crucial to the clinical outcome following anatomical open reduction of Lisfranc fracture-dislocation. The present study supports a rehabilitation approach focussing on restoring proprioception...

  5. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  6. Development and Integration of the Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Tucker, Abigail S

    2015-01-01

    The perception of our environment via sensory organs plays a crucial role in survival and evolution. Hearing, one of our most developed senses, depends on the proper function of the auditory system and plays a key role in social communication, integration, and learning ability. The ear is a composite structure, comprised of the external, middle, and inner ear. During development, the ear is formed from the integration of a number of tissues of different embryonic origin, which initiate in distinct areas of the embryo at different time points. Functional connections between the components of the hearing apparatus have to be established and maintained during development and adulthood to allow proper sound submission from the outer to the middle and inner ear. This highly organized and intimate connectivity depends on intricate spatiotemporal signaling between the various tissues that give rise to the structures of the ear. Any alterations in this chain of events can lead to the loss of integration, which can subsequently lead to conductive hearing loss, in case of outer and middle ear defects or sensorineural hearing loss, if inner ear structures are defective. This chapter aims to review the current knowledge concerning the development of the three ear compartments as well as mechanisms and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the coordination and integration process of the ear.

  7. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  8. The interaction between practice and performance pressure on the planning and control of fast target directed movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Jonathan E; Lawrence, Gavin P; Gray, Robert; Khan, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Pressure to perform often results in decrements to both outcome accuracy and the kinematics of motor skills. Furthermore, this pressure-performance relationship is moderated by the amount of accumulated practice or the experience of the performer. However, the interactive effects of performance pressure and practice on the underlying processes of motor skills are far from clear. Movement execution involves both an offline pre-planning process and an online control process. The present experiment aimed to investigate the interaction between pressure and practice on these two motor control processes. Two groups of participants (control and pressure; N = 12 and 12, respectively) practiced a video aiming amplitude task and were transferred to either a non-pressure (control group) or a pressure condition (pressure group) both early and late in practice. Results revealed similar accuracy and movement kinematics between the control and pressure groups at early transfer. However, at late transfer, the introduction of pressure was associated with increased performance compared to control conditions. Analysis of kinematic variability throughout the movement suggested that the performance increase was due to participants adopting strategies to improve movement planning in response to pressure reducing the effectiveness of the online control system.

  9. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management on blood pressure control: a cluster randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Karen L; Asche, Stephen E; Bergdall, Anna R; Dehmer, Steven P; Groen, Sarah E; Kadrmas, Holly M; Kerby, Tessa J; Klotzle, Krissa J; Maciosek, Michael V; Michels, Ryan D; O'Connor, Patrick J; Pritchard, Rachel A; Sekenski, Jaime L; Sperl-Hillen, JoAnn M; Trower, Nicole K

    2013-07-03

    Only about half of patients with high blood pressure (BP) in the United States have their BP controlled. Practical, robust, and sustainable models are needed to improve BP control in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. To determine whether an intervention combining home BP telemonitoring with pharmacist case management improves BP control compared with usual care and to determine whether BP control is maintained after the intervention is stopped. A cluster randomized clinical trial of 450 adults with uncontrolled BP recruited from 14,692 patients with electronic medical records across 16 primary care clinics in an integrated health system in Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota, with 12 months of intervention and 6 months of postintervention follow-up. Eight clinics were randomized to provide usual care to patients (n = 222) and 8 clinics were randomized to provide a telemonitoring intervention (n = 228). Intervention patients received home BP telemonitors and transmitted BP data to pharmacists who adjusted antihypertensive therapy accordingly. Control of systolic BP to less than 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP to less than 90 mm Hg (telemonitoring intervention group vs 30.0% (95% CI, 23.2% to 37.8%) of patients in the usual care group (P = .001). At 18 months (6 months of postintervention follow-up), BP was controlled in 71.8% (95% CI, 65.0% to 77.8%) of patients in the telemonitoring intervention group vs 57.1% (95% CI, 51.5% to 62.6%) of patients in the usual care group (P = .003). Compared with the usual care group, systolic BP decreased more from baseline among patients in the telemonitoring intervention group at 6 months (-10.7 mm Hg [95% CI, -14.3 to -7.3 mm Hg]; Ptelemonitoring intervention group at 6 months (-6.0 mm Hg [95% CI, -8.6 to -3.4 mm Hg]; Ptelemonitoring and pharmacist case management achieved better BP control compared with usual care during 12 months of intervention that persisted during 6 months of postintervention follow

  10. Effects of wet-cupping on blood pressure in hypertensive patients:a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nouran A Aleyeidi; Khaled S Aseri; Shadia M Matbouli; Albaraa A Sulaiamani; Sumayyah A Kobeisy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although cupping remains a popular treatment modality worldwide, its efficacy for most diseases, including hypertension, has not been scientifical y evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the efficacy of wet-cupping for high blood pressure, and the incidence of the procedure’s side effects in the intervention group. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This is a randomized control ed trial conducted in the General Practice Department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between May 2013 and February 2014. There were two groups (40 participants each):intervention group undergoing wet-cupping (hijama) in addition to conventional hypertension treatment, and a control group undergoing only conventional hypertension treatment. Three wet-cupping sessions were performed every other day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. The fol ow-up period was 8 weeks. RESULTS: Wet-cupping provided an immediate reduction of systolic blood pressure. After 4 weeks of fol ow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure in the intervention group was 8.4 mmHg less than in the control group (P = 0.046). After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences in blood pressures between the intervention and control groups. In this study, wet-cupping did not result in any serious side effects. CONCLUSION: Wet-cupping therapy is effective for reducing systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients for up to 4 weeks, without serious side effects. Wet-cupping should be considered as a complementary hypertension treatment, and further studies are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01987583.

  11. Controlling posture using a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback system

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    The present paper introduces an original biofeedback system for improving human balance control, whose underlying principle consists in providing additional sensory information related to foot sole pressure distribution to the user through a tongue-placed tactile output device. To assess the effect of this biofeedback system on postural control during quiet standing, ten young healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible with their eyes closed in two conditions of No-biofeedback and Biofeedback. Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements were recorded using a force platform. Results showed reduced CoP displacements in the Biofeedback relative to the No-biofeedback condition. The present findings evidenced the ability of the central nervous system to efficiently integrate an artificial plantar-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback for controlling control posture during quiet standing.

  12. Inflammatory responses to Hydroxyapatite implants in middle ear in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; JIANG Yi; WANG Xiao-yan; ZHENG Ke-fei

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study local inflammatory response after implantation of hydroxyapatite synthetic ossicular prosthesis. Methods Hydroxyapatite gantries were implanted in the bulla in 32 rats. Sham surgical procedures were performed in 10 rats as the control. Animals were sacrificed at 1 to 300 days after surgery. Bulla sections, stained with HE and Mallory's azan, were examined for numbers and percentages of various inflammatory cell types. Results Slightly more inflammatory reaction was seen in animals with the implant than in the controls, mostly during the early stage following the implantation procedure. Few inflammatory cells were observed at later times. There were satisfactory fibrosis in both implanted and control ears. Conclusion The results indicate that hydroxyapatite synthetic prosthesis is a biocompatible implantation material in the middle ear. Nonetheless, the presence of inflammatory reaction immediately following implantation implies that control of infection is important in the early times after the implantation procedure.

  13. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...

  14. Multimorbidity and blood pressure control in 37 651 hypertensive patients from Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maja Skov; Andersen, Morten; Thomsen, Janus L

    2013-01-01

    Patients with hypertension are primarily treated in general practice. However, major studies of patients with hypertension are rarely based on populations from primary care. Knowledge of blood pressure (BP) control rates in patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), who have...

  15. Numerical Study of Active Flow Control for a Transitional Highly-Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Count Using Vortex Generator Jet Separation Control,” ASME Paper GT-2002-30602, Jun. 2002. [16] Eulitz, F. and Engel , K., “Numerical Investigation of...Around a Low Pressure Turbine Blade,” Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation IV, ERCOFTAC Series Vol. 8 , edited by B. J. Guerts, R. Friedrich , and O

  16. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  17. Computer controlled vent and pressurization system. [of launch vehicle cryogenic propellant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslewicz, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper illustrates how the Centaur space launch vehicle airborne computer, which was primarily used to perform guidance, navigation, and sequencing tasks, was further used to monitor and control inflight pressurization and venting of the cryogenic propellant tanks. Computer software flexibility also provided a failure detection and correction capability necessary to adopt and operate redundant hardware techniques and enhance the overall vehicle reliability.

  18. Hypertension guidelines: Evidence-based treatments for maintaining blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Leslie Louise

    2015-06-11

    Approximately one in three adults in the United States has hypertension. This article provides an update on the latest JNC-8 guideline for treating hypertension in adults. Emphasis is placed on new and updated information and implications for primary care clinicians to help patients achieve and maintain better blood pressure control.

  19. Design issues of a back-pressure-based congestion control mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.; Mandjes, M.; Scheinhardt, W.; van den Berg, H.

    2010-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols - in this paper we assess the performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. Relying on our earlier results for feedback fluid queues, we deriv

  20. Design issues of a back-pressure-based congestion control mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, Richa; Mandjes, Michel; Scheinhardt, Werner; Berg, van den Hans

    2010-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols – in this paper we assess the performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. Relying on our earlier results for feedback fluid queues,we derive

  1. Why business unit controllers bias accounting figures: Involvement in management, social pressure and Machiavellianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Hartmann, F.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates why some business unit controllers are more likely to deliberately bias accounting data than others. Different from the existing literature, we argue that involvement in management and social pressure are neither necessary, nor sufficient conditions for biasing behavior.

  2. A new control valve with a push rod for intermediate-pressure cylinders of steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryankin, A. E.; Arianov, S. V.; Paramonov, A. N.; Gotovtsev, A. M.; Storozhuk, S. K.

    2007-11-01

    We describe a new design of a control valve for intermediate-pressure cylinders with a perforated cup and a push rod that ensures smaller loss under rated operating conditions and features better reliability. Model tests were carried out to check the main design solutions.

  3. Piezoelectric microvalve for precise control of gas flow at high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a normally open piezoelectric actuated micro valve, based on the novel concept of micro and fine machining technology. This new design allows a wide controllable range for high flow at a high pressure difference between inlet and outlet. This promising combination of micro and fine machin

  4. Electronic monitoring of adherence, treatment of hypertension, and blood pressure control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A. van; Verberk, W.J.; Kroon, A.A.; Kessels, A.G.; Neef, C.; Kuy, P.H. van der; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally acknowledged that electronic monitoring of adherence to treatment improves blood pressure (BP) control by increasing patients' awareness to their treatment, little information is available on the long-term effect of this intervention. METHODS: In this observation

  5. Big Stimulus, Little Ears: Safety in Administering Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan L A; Fitzpatrick, Denis; McCreery, Ryan; Janky, Kristen L

    2017-05-01

    Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become common clinical vestibular assessments. However, VEMP testing requires high intensity stimuli, raising concerns regarding safety with children, where sound pressure levels may be higher due to their smaller ear canal volumes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the range of peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels (peSPLs) in child and adult ears in response to high intensity stimuli (i.e., 100 dB normal hearing level [nHL]) commonly used for VEMP testing and make a determination of whether acoustic stimuli levels with VEMP testing are safe for use in children. Prospective experimental. Ten children (4-6 years) and ten young adults (24-35 years) with normal hearing sensitivity and middle ear function participated in the study. Probe microphone peSPL measurements of clicks and 500 Hz tonebursts (TBs) were recorded in tubes of small, medium, and large diameter, and in a Brüel & Kjær Ear Simulator Type 4157 to assess for linearity of the stimulus at high levels. The different diameter tubes were used to approximate the range of cross-sectional areas in infant, child, and adult ears, respectively. Equivalent ear canal volume and peSPL measurements were then recorded in child and adult ears. Lower intensity levels were used in the participant's ears to limit exposure to high intensity sound. The peSPL measurements in participant ears were extrapolated using predictions from linear mixed models to determine if equivalent ear canal volume significantly contributed to overall peSPL and to estimate the mean and 95% confidence intervals of peSPLs in child and adult ears when high intensity stimulus levels (100 dB nHL) are used for VEMP testing without exposing subjects to high-intensity stimuli. Measurements from the coupler and tubes suggested: 1) each stimuli was linear, 2) there were no distortions or nonlinearities at high levels, and 3) peSPL increased with decreased tube diameter

  6. Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudon M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Grossman1,4, Moshe Laudon2, Nava Zisapel2,31Department of Internal Medicine D and Hypertension Unit, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel and 3Department of Neurobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: Patients with nocturnal hypertension are at higher risk for cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular insult. Published studies inconsistently reported decreases in nocturnal blood pressure with melatonin.Methods: A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in ameliorating nocturnal blood pressure was performed using a random effects model of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, with subgroup analysis of fast-release versus controlled-release preparations.Results: Seven trials (three of controlled-release and four of fast-release melatonin with 221 participants were included. Meta-analysis of all seven studies did not reveal significant effects of melatonin versus placebo on nocturnal blood pressure. However, subgroup analysis revealed that controlled-release melatonin significantly reduced nocturnal blood pressure whereas fast-release melatonin had no effect. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly with controlled-release melatonin (-6.1 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.7 to -1.5; P = 0.009 but not fast-release melatonin (-0.3 mmHg; 95% CI -5.9 to 5.30; P = 0.92. Diastolic blood pressure also decreased significantly with controlled-release melatonin (-3.5 mmHg; 95% CI -6.1 to -0.9; P = 0.009 but not fast-release melatonin (-0.2 mmHg; 95% CI -3.8 to 3.3; P = 0.89. No safety concerns were raised.Conclusion: Add-on controlled-release melatonin to antihypertensive therapy is effective and safe in ameliorating nocturnal hypertension, whereas fast-release melatonin is ineffective. It is necessary

  7. Mammographic compression after breast conserving therapy: Controlling pressure instead of force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, J. E. de, E-mail: jerry.degroot@sigmascreening.com; Branderhorst, W.; Grimbergen, C. A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Broeders, M. J. M. [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, P.O. Box 6873, 6503 GJ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands and Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Heeten, G. J. den [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, P.O. Box 6873, 6503 GJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: X-ray mammography is the primary tool for early detection of breast cancer and for follow-up after breast conserving therapy (BCT). BCT-treated breasts are smaller, less elastic, and more sensitive to pain. Instead of the current force-controlled approach of applying the same force to each breast, pressure-controlled protocols aim to improve standardization in terms of physiology by taking breast contact area and inelasticity into account. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential for pressure protocols to reduce discomfort and pain, particularly the number of severe pain complaints for BCT-treated breasts. Methods: A prospective observational study including 58 women having one BCT-treated breast and one untreated nonsymptomatic breast, following our hospital's 18 decanewton (daN) compression protocol was performed. Breast thickness, applied force, contact area, mean pressure, breast volume, and inelasticity (mean E-modulus) were statistically compared between the within-women breast pairs, and data were used as predictors for severe pain, i.e., scores 7 and higher on an 11-point Numerical Rating Scale. Curve-fitting models were used to estimate how pressure-controlled protocols affect breast thickness, compression force, and pain experience. Results: BCT-treated breasts had on average 27% smaller contact areas, 30% lower elasticity, and 30% higher pain scores than untreated breasts (allp < 0.001). Contact area was the strongest predictor for severe pain (p < 0.01). Since BCT-treatment is associated with an average 0.36 dm{sup 2} decrease in contact area, as well as increased pain sensitivity, BCT-breasts had on average 5.3 times higher odds for severe pain than untreated breasts. Model estimations for a pressure-controlled protocol with a 10 kPa target pressure, which is below normal arterial pressure, suggest an average 26% (range 10%–36%) reduction in pain score, and an average 77% (range 46%–95%) reduction of the odds for severe

  8. Automatic Control System for the High Pressure CdTe Crystal Growth Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Praus

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available CdTe and (CdZnTe bulk single crystals have been widely used as substrates for MBE and LPE epitaxy of infrared (HgCdTe as well as gamma- and X-ray detectors. The Cd1-xZnxTe (x = 0.04-0.1 single crystals with diameter up to 100 mm and height at most 40 mm were prepared in our laboratory in a vertical arrangement by gradual cooling of the melt (the Vertical Gradient Freezing method. Achievement of excellent crystal quality required full control of Cd pressure during the growth process and application of high Cd pressures (up to 4 bar at growth temperature. An electronic control system was designed to control both temperature and internal pressure of two zones CZT crystal growth furnace by using two high performance PID controllers/setpoint programmers. Two wire current loop serial communication bus was used for the data exchange and computer control of the furnace electronics setup. Control software was written to supervise the crystal growth process and to collect all important data and parameters.

  9. A novel high-temperature and high-pressure hydraulic pump based on mononeuron control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linhui ZHAO; Xin FANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on structures and characteristics of traditional hydraulic pumps, this paper proposes a novel high-temperature and high-pressure hydraulic pump (HHHP) that can work under 150℃ and 28MPa to overcome problems of traditional high-temperature plun-ger pumps. The HHHP is designed with the structure of mechanical division and double cylinder parallel. The control signals of two cylinders are two separate triangle waveforms with 90℃ phase difference. Because the output waveforms of two cylinders have the same characteristics as the control signals, the HHHP can obtain a stable output after two separate waveforms are superposed. A mono-neuron self-adaptive PID control algorithm is also improved by modifying parameters K and η. Two improved controllers are used to control the two cylinders,respectively, making two displacements of plungers match each other. Therefore, reduced fluctuations and stable pressure output is obtained. Besides simulation, tests on the built prototype test system are carried out to verify the performance of HHHP. Results show that the improved control approach can limit fluctuations to a lower level and the HHHP system attains good outputs under different signal periods and different pressures.

  10. Liver suction-mediated transfection in mice using a pressure-controlled computer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Zhang, Guangyuan; Kawakami, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Yota; Hayashi, Kouji; Hashida, Mitsuru; Konishi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed an in vivo tissue suction-mediated transfection method (denoted as the tissue suction method) for naked nucleic acids, such as plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), in mice. However, it remains unclear whether the suction pressure conditions affect the results of this method. Therefore, in the present study, we assembled a computer system to control the suction pressure and investigate the effects of the suction pressure conditions on the efficiency of the liver suction transfection of naked pDNA that encodes luciferase in mice. Using the developed system, we examined the effects of the minimum magnitude of the suction pressure, suction pressure waveform, and suction times of the luciferase expression level in mice livers. We determined that the liver suction method at 5 kPa was not only effective but also caused the lowest hepatic toxicity in mice. Additionally, the results indicated that the suction pressure waveform affects the luciferase expression levels, and a single period of suction on the targeted portion of the liver is sufficient for transfection. Thus, the developed system is useful for performing the tissue suction method with high accuracy and safety.

  11. Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and sensory properties of puffed wheat snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağcı, Sibel

    2017-04-01

    In this study, research on the development of a puffed wheat snack using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process was carried out. Snack products were produced by expanding moistened wheat under various DIC processing conditions in order to obtain adequate puffing, followed by drying in a hot air dryer. The effects of operational variables such as wheat initial moisture content (11-23% w/w, wet basis), processing pressure (3-5 × 10(2) kPa) and processing time (3-11 min) on the physical (density, color and textural characteristics) and sensory properties of the product were investigated. The physical properties of the wheat snack were most affected by changes in processing pressure, followed by processing time and wheat moisture content. Increasing processing pressure and time often improved expansion and textural properties but led to darkening of the raw wheat color. The most acceptable snack in terms of physical properties was obtained at the lowest wheat moisture content. Sensory analysis suggested that consumer acceptability was optimal for wheat snacks produced at higher processing pressure, medium processing time and lower moisture content. The most desirable conditions for puffed wheat snack production using the DIC process were determined as 11% (w/w) of wheat moisture content, 5 × 10(2) kPa of processing pressure and 7 min of processing time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Dynamic baroreflex control of blood pressure: influence of the heart vs. peripheral resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huang-Ku; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Ringwood, John V; Barrett, Carolyn J; Leonard, Bridget L; Nguang, Sing-Kiong; Navakatikyan, Michael A; Malpas, Simon C

    2002-08-01

    The aim in the present experiments was to assess the dynamic baroreflex control of blood pressure, to develop an accurate mathematical model that represented this relationship, and to assess the role of dynamic changes in heart rate and stroke volume in giving rise to components of this response. Patterned electrical stimulation [pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS)] was applied to the aortic depressor nerve (ADN) to produce changes in blood pressure under open-loop conditions in anesthetized rabbits. The stimulus provided constant power over the frequency range 0-0.5 Hz and revealed that the composite systems represented by the central nervous system, sympathetic activity, and vascular resistance responded as a second-order low-pass filter (corner frequency approximately 0.047 Hz) with a time delay (1.01 s). The gain between ADN and mean arterial pressure was reasonably constant before the corner frequency and then decreased with increasing frequency of stimulus. Although the heart rate was altered in response to the PRBS stimuli, we found that removal of the heart's ability to contribute to blood pressure variability by vagotomy and beta(1)-receptor blockade did not significantly alter the frequency response. We conclude that the contribution of the heart to the dynamic regulation of blood pressure is negligible in the rabbit. The consequences of this finding are examined with respect to low-frequency oscillations in blood pressure.

  13. Association of Dermatological Conditions of External Ear with the Use of Cotton Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The habit of cleaning the external auditory canal with cotton buds is a common practice of the masses. It has strong association with neurodermatitis and contact dermatitis of the external ear. It is also associated with acute otitis externa, rupture of tympanic membrane causing bleeding and temporary hearing loss in some cases. In many cases the injury will heal but damage to minuscule bones deep inside the ear can cause permanent deafness. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of dermatological condition of external ear with the use of cotton buds. Materials and Methods: This case control study was done from January to October 2012 in the Ear Nose Throat Department of Pakistan Level III Hospital, Darfur, Sudan. Sixty seven patients with dermatological diseases of external ear were cases and 83 subjects without dermatological diseases of external ear were selected as controls. Results: Among 67 cases, 58 were cotton bud users and among 83 controls only 29 were cotton bud users. Different types of dermatological diseases were neurodermatitis (34.32%, otitis externa (28.36%, contact dermatitis (26.87% and wax impaction (8.95%. Ninety three percent of cotton bud users were ignorant of harmful effects of this bad habit. Conclusion: There is a strong association of dermatological diseases of external ear with the use of cotton bud which should be discouraged by fortifying the warning by manufacturers and health education at various educational levels.

  14. 九种杀菌剂对Fusarium verticillioides和F.graminearum毒力及玉米穗腐病的防治效果%Toxicity and Field Control Effect of Nine Fungicides Against Fusarium Ear Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋韵涵; 肖淑芹; 董雪; 薛春生; 陈捷

    2014-01-01

    采用含毒介质法分别测定玉米穗腐病菌禾谷镰孢菌和拟轮枝镰孢菌对9种药剂的敏感性,在田间进行防治玉米穗腐病的药效试验,综合评价化学和生物药剂以及不同施药处理对玉米穗腐病的防治效果。室内毒力测定结果表明,9种药剂在一定浓度下对玉米穗腐病均有毒力作用,10%苯醚甲环唑、70%甲基托布津对禾谷镰孢菌毒力较强;70%甲基托布津对轮枝镰刀菌毒力较强,10%苯醚甲环唑次之。田间药效试验结果表明,50%异菌脲可湿性粉剂防效为92.3%,5%井冈霉素为80.64%;且先接菌后喷药的防治效果优于先喷药后接菌处理。%Toxicity of nine fungicides to Fusarium verticillioide and Fusarium graminearum were tested by toxic media method in lab and control experiment was also conducted in the field. Control efficacy and treatment application of chemical and biological fungicide to corn ear rot were comprehensive evaluated. The result of toxicity indicated that Difenoconazole and Thiophanate-methyl showed strong toxicity against Fusarium graminearum, Thiophanate-methyl, Difenoconazole showed strong toxicity against Fusarium verticillioides. The results of field control indicated that the control efficacies of Iprodione and Jingangmeisu were 92.3%and 80.64%, and control efficacy of spraying fungicides after inoculation, was better than that of inoculation after spraying fungicides.

  15. Pressure- and flow-controlled media perfusion differently modify vascular mechanics in lung decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Palma, Renata K; Campillo, Noelia; Uriarte, Juan J; Oliveira, Luis V F; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    Organ biofabrication is a potential future alternative for obtaining viable organs for transplantation. Achieving intact scaffolds to be recellularized is a key step in lung bioengineering. Perfusion of decellularizing media through the pulmonary artery has shown to be effective. How vascular perfusion pressure and flow vary throughout lung decellularization, which is not well known, is important for optimizing the process (minimizing time) while ensuring scaffold integrity (no barotrauma). This work was aimed at characterizing the pressure/flow relationship at the pulmonary vasculature and at how effective vascular resistance depends on pressure- and flow-controlled variables when applying different methods of media perfusion for lung decellularization. Lungs from 43 healthy mice (C57BL/6; 7-8 weeks old) were investigated. After excision and tracheal cannulation, lungs were inflated at 10 cmH2O airway pressure and subjected to conventional decellularization with a solution of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Pressure (PPA) and flow (V'PA) at the pulmonary artery were continuously measured. Decellularization media was perfused through the pulmonary artery: (a) at constant PPA=20 cmH2O or (b) at constant V'PA=0.5 and 0.2 ml/min. Effective vascular resistance was computed as Rv=PPA/V'PA. Rv (in cmH2O/(ml/min)); mean±SE) considerably varied throughout lung decellularization, particularly for pressure-controlled perfusion (from 29.1±3.0 in baseline to a maximum of 664.1±164.3 (pperfusion (from 49.9±3.3 and 79.5±5.1 in baseline to a maximum of 114.4±13.9 and 211.7±70.5 (pperfusion mechanics throughout decellularization provides information relevant for optimizing the process time while ensuring that vascular pressure is kept within a safety range to preserve the organ scaffold integrity.

  16. Effect of Turkish classical music on blood pressure: a randomized controlled trial in hypertensive elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroğlu, Tansel; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ergün, Yusuf; Ekerbiçer, Hasan Çetin

    2013-06-01

    Existing studies suggest that music therapy can have favorable effects on hypertension and anxiety. We therefore set out to investigate the effect of Turkish classical music. To investigate whether Turkish classical music has positive effects on blood pressures and anxiety levels in elderly patients. This was a randomized controlled trial performed on 60 hypertensive patients living in a local elderly home in Adana, Turkey. Following the completion of a socio-demographic form for each patient, Hamilton anxiety scale was applied. Thereafter, the subjects were randomly divided into two equal-size groups and were allowed to either listen to Turkish classical music (music therapy group) or have a resting period (control group) for 25 min. The primary and secondary outcome measures were blood pressure and Hamilton anxiety scale scores, respectively. The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure was 13.00 mmHg in the music therapy group and 6.50 mmHg in the control group. The baseline adjusted between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (95% CI 6.80-9.36). The median reductions in diastolic blood pressures were 10 mmHg both in the music therapy and control groups. The between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.839). The mean reduction in HAMA-A was 1.63 in the music therapy group and 0.77 in the control group. The baseline adjusted between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.82-1.92). The study demonstrated that both Turkish classical music and resting alone have positive effects on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Telmisartan exerts sustained blood pressure control and reduces blood pressure variability in metabolic syndrome by inhibiting sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueta, Daisuke; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Hasegawa, Yu; Toyama, Kensuke; Uekawa, Ken; Katayama, Tetsuji; Ma, MingJie; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence on blood pressure (BP) reduction with various angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) show that the magnitudes and durations of BP control differ across ARBs. However, the mechanism of ARBs is unknown. This work was undertaken to compare telmisartan and valsartan in duration of BP control, BP variability, and effects on the autonomic nervous system. Using radiotelemetry combined with spectral analysis with a fast Fourier transformation algorithm, we compared the effects of various doses of telmisartan and valsartan on BP and its variability during dark (active phase) and light (inactive phase) periods over 5 weeks in SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+)(SHRcp) rats, a model of metabolic syndrome. We also compared the effects of these ARBs on autonomic nervous system, central oxidative stress, and inflammation in SHRcp rats. Telmisartan exerted a longer-lasting BP-lowering effect and greater attenuation of BP variability in SHRcp than valsartan. Telmisartan decreased low frequency power of systolic BP and increased spontaneous baroreflex gain in SHRcp during both the dark and light periods more than valsartan. Telmisartan reduced 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion more than valsartan. Furthermore, telmisartan attenuated oxidative stress and the numbers of gp91(phox)-positive cells and activated microglia and astrocytes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of SHRcp rats more than valsartan. The superiority of telmisartan over valsartan in sustained BP control and reduction of BP variability was attributed to more suppression of sympathetic activity and more improvement of baroreceptor reflex. The greater suppression of sympathetic activity by telmisartan appeared to be partially mediated by a stronger amelioration of central oxidative stress. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sodium pump α2 subunits control myogenic tone and blood pressure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Lee, Moo Yeol; Cavalli, Maurizio; Chen, Ling; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Balke, C William; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Patrizia; Hamlyn, John M; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Lingrel, Jerry B; Matteson, Donald R; Wier, W Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2005-01-01

    A key question in hypertension is: How is long-term blood pressure controlled? A clue is that chronic salt retention elevates an endogenous ouabain-like compound (EOLC) and induces salt-dependent hypertension mediated by Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX). The precise mechanism, however, is unresolved. Here we study blood pressure and isolated small arteries of mice with reduced expression of Na+ pump α1 (α1+/−) or α2 (α2+/−) catalytic subunits. Both low-dose ouabain (1–100 nm; inhibits only α2) and high-dose ouabain (≥1 μm; inhibits α1) elevate myocyte Ca2+ and constrict arteries from α1+/−, as well as α2+/− and wild-type mice. Nevertheless, only mice with reduced α2 Na+ pump activity (α2+/−), and not α1 (α1+/−), have elevated blood pressure. Also, isolated, pressurized arteries from α2+/−, but not α1+/−, have increased myogenic tone. Ouabain antagonists (PST 2238 and canrenone) and NCX blockers (SEA0400 and KB-R7943) normalize myogenic tone in ouabain-treated arteries. Only the NCX blockers normalize the elevated myogenic tone in α2+/− arteries because this tone is ouabain independent. All four agents are known to lower blood pressure in salt-dependent and ouabain-induced hypertension. Thus, chronically reduced α2 activity (α2+/− or chronic ouabain) apparently regulates myogenic tone and long-term blood pressure whereas reduced α1 activity (α1+/−) plays no persistent role: the in vivo changes in blood pressure reflect the in vitro changes in myogenic tone. Accordingly, in salt-dependent hypertension, EOLC probably increases vascular resistance and blood pressure by reducing α2 Na+ pump activity and promoting Ca2+ entry via NCX in myocytes. PMID:16166162

  19. Incremental costs associated with physician and pharmacist collaboration to improve blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Brooks, John M; Ardery, Gail; Newman, Dana; Carter, Barry L

    2012-08-01

    To compare costs associated with a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention with costs of usual care. Cost analysis using health care utilization and outcome data from two prospective, cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trials. Eleven community-based medical offices. A total of 496 patients with hypertension; 244 were in the usual care (control) group and 252 were in the intervention group. To compare the costs, we combined cost data from the two trials. Total costs included costs of provider time, laboratory tests, and antihypertensive drugs. Provider time was calculated based on an online survey of intervention pharmacists and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Cost parameters were taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for average wage rates, the Medicare laboratory fee schedule, and a publicly available Web site for drug prices. Total costs were adjusted for patient characteristics. Adjusted total costs were $774.90 in the intervention group and $445.75 in the control group (difference $329.16, pcosts between the two groups ranged from $224.27-515.56. The intervention cost required to have one additional patient achieve blood pressure control within 6 months was $1338.05, determined by the difference in costs divided by the difference in hypertension control rates between the groups ($329.16/24.6%). The cost over 6 months to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure 1 mm Hg was $36.25 and $94.32, respectively. The physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention increased not only blood pressure control but also the cost of care. Additional research, such as a cost-benefit or a cost-minimization analysis, is needed to assess whether financial savings related to reduced morbidity and mortality achieved from better blood pressure control outweigh the cost of the intervention. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Closed-loop controller for chest compressions based on coronary perfusion pressure: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfei; Zhang, Guang; Wu, Taihu; Zhan, Ningbo; Wang, Yaling

    2016-03-01

    High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation contributes to cardiac arrest survival. The traditional chest compression (CC) standard, which neglects individual differences, uses unified standards for compression depth and compression rate in practice. In this study, an effective and personalized CC method for automatic mechanical compression devices is provided. We rebuild Charles F. Babbs' human circulation model with a coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) simulation module and propose a closed-loop controller based on a fuzzy control algorithm for CCs, which adjusts the CC depth according to the CPP. Compared with a traditional proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) controller, the performance of the fuzzy controller is evaluated in computer simulation studies. The simulation results demonstrate that the fuzzy closed-loop controller results in shorter regulation time, fewer oscillations and smaller overshoot than traditional PID controllers and outperforms the traditional PID controller for CPP regulation and maintenance.

  1. Randomized controlled trial of a multipronged intervention to improve blood pressure control among stroke survivors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mayowa O; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Salako, Babatunde L; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is the second-leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries, but use of evidence-based therapies for stroke prevention in such countries, especially those in Africa, is extremely poor. This study is designed to enhance the implementation and sustainability of secondary stroke-preventive services following hospital discharge. The primary study aim is to test whether a Chronic Care Model-based initiative entitled the Tailored Hospital-based Risk reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES) significantly improves blood pressure control after stroke. This prospective triple-blind randomized controlled trial will include a cohort of 400 patients with a recent stroke discharged from four medical care facilities in Nigeria. The culturally sensitive, system-appropriate intervention comprises patient report cards, phone text messaging, an educational video, and coordination of posthospitalization care. The primary outcome is improvement of blood pressure control. Secondary endpoints include control of other stroke risk factors, medication adherence, functional status, and quality of life. We will also perform a cost analysis of THRIVES from the viewpoint of government policy-makers. We anticipate that a successful intervention will serve as a scalable model of effective postdischarge chronic blood pressure management for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa and possibly for other symptomatic cardiovascular disease entities in the region. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  2. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  3. Pressure management of water distribution systems via the remote real-time control of variable speed pumps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, Philip R

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Low and constant pressure can be maintained throughout a water distribution system by setting the pressure at remote consumer locations and using the pressure to control the speed of a variable speed pump (VSP). The prospect of incorporating...

  4. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Polygonum cuspidatum extract in the TPA model of mouse ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicker Louise

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested the ability of a characterized extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (PCE to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. Methods A 50% (wt:vol ethanolic solution of commercial 200:1 PCE was applied to both ears of female Swiss mice (n = 8 at 0.075, 0.15, 0.3, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/ear 30 min after TPA administration (2 μg/ear. For comparison, 3 other groups were treated with TPA and either 1 the vehicle (50% ethanol alone, 2 indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear, or 3 trans-resveratrol (0.62 mg/ear. Ear thickness was measured before TPA and at 4 and 24 h post-TPA administration to assess ear edema. Ear punch biopsies were collected at 24 h and weighed as a second index of edema. Myeloperoxidase activity was measured in each ear punch biopsy to assess neutrophil infiltration. Results PCE treatment at all doses significantly reduced ear edema compared to the TPA control. The PCE response was dose-dependent and 2.5 mg PCE significantly inhibited all markers of inflammation to a greater extent than indomethacin (0.5 mg. MPO activity was inhibited at PCE doses ≥ 1.25 mg/ear. Trans-resveratrol inhibited inflammation at comparable doses. Conclusion PCE inhibits development of edema and neutrophil infiltration in the TPA-treated mouse ear model of topical inflammation.

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after control of thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, P; Acosta, M; Sánchez, R; Fernández-Reyes, M J; Mon, C; Díez, J J

    2005-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have pronounced effects on the cardiovascular system. Thyrotoxicosis affects blood pressure (BP), modifying both diastolic (DBP) and systolic (SBP) pressures. There are no studies examining BP with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in hyperthyroidism before and after control of thyroid function. Our aims were (1) to analyse ABPM in a group of normotensive hyperthyroid patients before and after normalizing circulating thyroid hormones and (2) to compare these results with those obtained in a group of euthyroid subjects. We studied 20 normotensive hyperthyroid subjects [18 women; age (mean +/- SEM) 49.0 +/- 3.0 years] and 15 healthy subjects. Patients were evaluated by ABPM over 24 h, at diagnosis and after therapy (n = 18). The average 24-h, daytime and night-time SBP was significantly greater in hyperthyroid patients than in controls with no significant differences in DBP. Circadian BP rhythm, estimated by the difference between mean values of SBP, DBP and mean BP during daytime and night-time, was unchanged. The average 24-h and daytime SBP significantly decreased after normalizing thyroid function in the 18 hyperthyroid evaluated patients. Daytime SBP and DBP were higher than night-time values both before and after control of thyroid function. However, no differences in circadian BP rhythm were observed. Normotensive hyperthyroid patients exhibit higher ambulatory SBP throughout 24 h than normotensive euthyroid subjects. Control of hyperthyroidism decreases ambulatory SBP values. Mean nocturnal fall in BP is comparable in normotensive hyperthyroid patients and control subjects.

  6. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  7. How internally coupled ears generate temporal and amplitude cues for sound localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedurmudi, A P; Goulet, J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J;

    2016-01-01

    In internally coupled ears, displacement of one eardrum creates pressure waves that propagate through air-filled passages in the skull and cause displacement of the opposing eardrum, and conversely. By modeling the membrane, passages, and propagating pressure waves, we show that internally coupled...... ears generate unique amplitude and temporal cues for sound localization. The magnitudes of both these cues are directionally dependent. The tympanic fundamental frequency segregates a low-frequency regime with constant time-difference magnification from a high-frequency domain with considerable...

  8. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  9. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    life. Ear-EEG may therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. In this study we investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  10. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  11. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve...

  12. Effect of Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring and Pharmacist Management On Blood Pressure Control: The HyperLink Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Karen L.; Asche, Stephen E.; Bergdall, Anna R.; Dehmer, Steven P.; Groen, Sarah E.; Kadrmas, Holly M.; Kerby, Tessa J.; Klotzle, Krissa J.; Maciosek, Michael V.; Michels, Ryan D.; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Pritchard, Rachel A.; Sekenski, Jaime L.; Sperl-Hillen, JoAnn M.; Trower, Nicole K.

    2015-01-01

    Context Patients with high blood pressure (BP) visit a physician 4 times or more per year on average in the U.S., yet BP is controlled in only about half. Practical, robust and sustainable models are needed to improve BP control in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Objectives To determine whether an intervention combining home BP telemonitoring with pharmacist case management improves BP control compared with usual care and to determine whether BP control is maintained after the intervention stops. Design A clinic-randomized trial with 12 months of intervention and 6 months of post-intervention follow-up. Patients and Setting 450 adults with uncontrolled BP recruited from 14,692 patients with electronic medical records across sixteen primary care clinics in an integrated health system in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN. Interventions Eight clinics were randomized to provide usual care to their patients (n = 222) and 8 were randomized to provide the telemonitoring intervention (n = 228). Intervention patients received home BP telemonitors and transmitted BP data to pharmacists who adjusted antihypertensive therapy accordingly. Main Outcome Measures BP control to Telemonitoring Intervention patients and 30.0% (95% CI, 23.2% - 37.8%) of Usual Care patients, P=0.001. At 6 months, BP was controlled in 71.8 % (95% CI, 65.6% - 77.3%) of Telemonitoring Intervention patients and 45.2% (95% CI, 39.2% - 51.3%) of Usual Care patients, PTelemonitoring Intervention patients and 52.8% (95% CI, 45.4% - 60.2%) of Usual Care patients, P=0.005; and at 18 months BP was controlled in 71.8% (95% CI, 65.0% - 77.8%) of Telemonitoring Intervention patients and 57.1% (95% CI, 51.5% - 62.6%) of Usual Care patients, P=0.003. Systolic BP decreased from baseline more among Telemonitoring Intervention than Usual Care patients by 10.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 7.3-14.3) at 6 months, 9.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 6.0-13.4) at 12 months, and 6.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 2.5-10.7) at 18 months, all PTelemonitoring Intervention

  13. Effect of Interfacial Turbulence and Accommodation Coefficient on CFD Predictions of Pressurization and Pressure Control in Cryogenic Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga; Hylton, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Laminar models agree closely with the pressure evolution and vapor phase temperature stratification but under-predict liquid temperatures. Turbulent SST k-w and k-e models under-predict the pressurization rate and extent of stratification in the vapor but represent liquid temperature distributions fairly well. These conclusions seem to equally apply to large cryogenic tank simulations as well as small scale simulant fluid pressurization cases. Appropriate turbulent models that represent both interfacial and bulk vapor phase turbulence with greater fidelity are needed. Application of LES models to the tank pressurization problem can serve as a starting point.

  14. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-07

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  15. Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ishikawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (% from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. The pressure sensitivity was fairly constant in the range between 0.8 and 0.9 %/kPa. The time response is improved by lowering the polymer content. The variation of the time response is shown to be on the order of milliseconds to ten seconds. A weight coefficient is introduced to optimize the resultant PSPs. By setting the weight coefficient, we can optimize the PSP for sensing purposes.

  16. The effect of tiaprofenic acid on blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M D; Kupa, A; Weatherall, M; Henstridge, J D; Brooks, P M

    1985-01-01

    Eleven patients with osteoarthritis and mild hypertension completed an 8-week, double-blind crossover study in which 200 mg tiaprofenic acid 3-times daily or placebo were substituted for their normal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher on tiaprofenic acid therapy than on placebo and plasma renin activity was significantly lower on active treatment. No significant changes were seen in biochemical parameters, though the weight of the patient was also higher on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Duration of morning stiffness was also lower on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Blood pressure on tiaprofenic acid was not different from baseline readings on other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. This study suggests that tiaprofenic acid, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, may interfere with blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

  17. Active pneumatic vibration control by using pressure and velocity measurements and adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Liang, Jin-Wei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2013-07-02

    This paper presents an intelligent control strategy to overcome nonlinear and time-varying characteristics of a diaphragm-type pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI) system. By combining an adaptive rule with fuzzy and sliding-mode control, the method has online learning ability when it faces the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors during an active vibration control process. Since the proposed scheme has a simple structure, it is easy to implement. To validate the proposed scheme, a composite control which adopts both chamber pressure and payload velocity as feedback signal is implemented. During experimental investigations, sinusoidal excitation at resonance and random-like signal are input on a floor base to simulate ground vibration. Performances obtained from the proposed scheme are compared with those obtained from passive system and PID scheme to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent control.

  18. Active Pneumatic Vibration Control by Using Pressure and Velocity Measurements and Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent control strategy to overcome nonlinear and time-varying characteristics of a diaphragm-type pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI system. By combining an adaptive rule with fuzzy and sliding-mode control, the method has online learning ability when it faces the system’s nonlinear and time-varying behaviors during an active vibration control process. Since the proposed scheme has a simple structure, it is easy to implement. To validate the proposed scheme, a composite control which adopts both chamber pressure and payload velocity as feedback signal is implemented. During experimental investigations, sinusoidal excitation at resonance and random-like signal are input on a floor base to simulate ground vibration. Performances obtained from the proposed scheme are compared with those obtained from passive system and PID scheme to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent control.

  19. Effects of topical oxiconazole and boric acid in alcohol solutions to rat inner ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Süleyman; Tuncer, Ülkü; Tarkan, Özgür; Akar, Funda; Sürmelioğlu, Özgür

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the ototoxicity of topical oxiconazole and boric acid in alcohol solutions. Prospective controlled animal study. Research laboratory. Fifty adult Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups consisting of 10 animals each. The right tympanic membranes were perforated, and baseline and posttreatment distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were performed. The solutions were applied through the external ear canal to the middle ear twice a day for 14 days. The rats in group I and group II received 0.1 mL of oxiconazole-containing solution drops and 4% boric acid in alcohol solution drops, respectively. Group III received gentamicin solution (40 mg/mL) (ototoxic control), group IV received saline solution, and group V was followed without any medication. The baseline DPOAE results of the right ears of all animals tested were normal. Animals in groups I, II, IV, and V showed no statistically significant change in the DPOAE amplitudes. The rats in the gentamicin group showed a significant decrease. This study demonstrates that topically used oxiconazole and boric acid in alcohol solutions to the middle ear appear to be safe on the inner ear of rats. The safety of these drugs has not yet been confirmed in humans. Caution should be taken when prescribing these drugs, especially to patients who had tympanic membrane perforation. Ear drops should be chosen more carefully in an external ear infection for patients with tympanic membrane perforation to avoid ototoxicity.

  20. A 3-D analysis of the protympanum in human temporal bones with chronic ear disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauna, Henrique F; Monsanto, Rafael C; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-03-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction is believed to be an important factor to cholesteatoma development and recurrence of disease after surgical treatment. Although many studies have described prognostic factors, evaluation methods, or surgical techniques for Eustachian tube dysfunction, they relied on the soft tissues of its structure; little is known about its bony structure-the protympanum-which connects the Eustachian tube to the tympanic cavity, and can also be affected by several inflammatory conditions, both from the middle ear or from the nasopharynx. We studied temporal bones from patients with cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media (with and without retraction pockets), purulent otitis media, and non-diseased ears, looking for differences between the volume of the protympanum, the diameter of the Eustachian tube isthmus, and the distance between the anterior tympanic annulus and the promontory. Light microscopy and 3-D reconstruction software were used for the measurements. We observed a decrease of volume in the lumen of the four middle ear diseased ears compared to the control group. We observed a significant decrease in the volume of the protympanic space in the cholesteatoma group compared to the chronic otitis media group. We also observed a decrease in the bony space (protympanum space) in cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, and purulent otitis media compared to the control group. We found a correlation in middle ear diseases and a decrease in the middle ear space. Our findings may suggest that a smaller bony volume in the protympanic area may trigger middle ear dysventilation problems.