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Sample records for ear anomalies causing

  1. Inner ear anomalies causing congenital sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Buchon(Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Many congenital dysplasias of the osseous labyrinth have been identified, and the differential diagnosis of these dysplasias is essential for delivering proper patient management. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 20 children who had congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The children included cases of enlarged vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac (n=8), aplasia of the semicircular canal (n=4), lateral semicircular canal-vestibule dysplasia (n=3), common cavity malformations with a large vestibule (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with large vestibular aqueduct (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with a large vestibule (n=1), and small internal auditory canal (n=1). Six cases were unilateral. Nine cases had combined deformities, and nine cased had cochlear implants. CT was performed with a 1.0-mm thickness in the direct coronal and axial sections with using bone algorithms. MR was performed with a temporal 3D T2 FSE 10-mm scan and with routine brain images. We describe here the imaging features for the anomalies of the inner ear in patients suffering from congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

  2. Anteverted concha: A new ear deformational anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Schönauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most auricular deformities involve the helix and the antihelix (Stahl's bar, lop and prominent ear; an isolated conchal deformity is uncommon in an otherwise normal ear. When a convexity rather than a concavity of the concha is present, it can be defined as “anteverted concha”. The anteverted concha causes not only aesthetic but also functional problems. It may be so severe as to occlude the external auditory meatus. In a newborn ear amenable to moulding, anteverted concha can be treated non-surgically by splinting. If this time window has passed, then surgical excision of the conchal bulge can give good results in the adult. We present two such cases and their treatment.

  3. Inner ear anomalies seen on CT images in people with Down syndrome

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    Intrapiromkul, Jarunee; Aygun, Nafi; Yousem, David M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tunkel, David E. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carone, Marco [University of California, Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Although dysplasia of inner ear structures in Down syndrome has been reported in several histopathological studies, the imaging findings have not been widely studied. To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of inner ear anomalies detected on CT images in patients with Down syndrome. The temporal bone CT images of patients with Down syndrome were assessed for inner ear anomalies; clinical notes and audiograms were reviewed for hearing loss. Logistic regression models were employed to identify which CT findings were associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Inner ear anomalies were observed in 74.5% (38/51) of patients. Malformed bone islands of lateral semicircular canal (LSCC), narrow internal auditory canals (IACs), cochlear nerve canal stenoses, semicircular canal dehiscence (SCCD), and enlarged vestibular aqueducts were detected in 52.5% (53/101), 24.5% (25/102), 21.4% (21/98), 8.8% (9/102) and 2% (2/101) of patients' ears, respectively. IAC stenosis had the highest odds ratio (OR = 5.37, 95% CI: 1.0-28.9, P = 0.05) for SNHL. Inner ear anomalies occurred in 74.5% of our population, with malformed (<3 mm) bone island of LSCC being the most common (52.5%) anomaly. Narrow IAC was seen in 24.5% of patients with Down syndrome and in 57.1% of ears with SNHL. High-resolution CT is a valuable for assessing the cause of hearing loss in people with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  4. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trier, D.C. van; Nierop, J. van; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Burgt, I. van der; Kunst, H.P.; Croonen, E.A.; Admiraal, R.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by

  5. Ear damage caused by leisure noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, M.; Babisch, W.; Bachmann, K. D.; Ising, H.; Lehnert, G.; Plath, P.; Plinkert, P.; Rebentisch, E.; Schuschke, G.; Spreng, M.; Stange, G.; Struwe, V.; Zenner, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Noise is a health risk. Recent findings suggest that leisure noise is a substantial danger especially to children, teenagers and young adults. Epidemiological studies of teenagers with no occupational noise exposure show an increasing number with a substantial and measurable irreversible inner ear damage. This is basically due to the wide spread exposition to very loud toys (pistols and squibs), crackers and exposure to electronically amplified music, e.g. from personal cassette players (PCP), at discos or concerts etc. Protection against irreversible ear damage by leisure noise has an important impact in preventive medical care. Therefore the general public must be informed that loud leisure activities may cause damage to the ear. In order to protect children, young people and adults, the legislature ought to set limits for sound levels in discos, concert halls and for music equipment and toys by establishing the necessary standards and regulations.

  6. Management of surgical difficulties during cochlear implant with inner ear anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafeeri, Ahmad M; Alsanosi, Abdulrahman A

    2017-01-01

    To review the difficulties that can occur during cochlear implant surgery in patients with inner ear abnormalities and the management thereof. A retrospective chart review of 316 patients who received cochlear implants was conducted. The data collected included the types of inner ear anomalies, intraoperative findings, and the clinical management strategies. A review of the literature was also performed. A total of 24 patients with inner ear malformations who underwent 28 total cochlear implant procedures were identified. The anomalies included isolated large vestibular aqueducts in 8 (33.3%) patients, isolated semicircular canal dysplasia in 8 (33.3%) patients, classical Mondini malformation in 7 (29.1%) patients, and cochlear hypoplasia in 1 (4.1%) patient. Four (14.2%) patients exhibited intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gushers. One patient experienced delayed facial nerve paralysis, and an electrode was partially inserted into one patient. In 2 (7.14%) cases, the surgeries were aborted because of difficulties. Cochlear implantation for inner ear anomalies can be performed safely. Special attention should be given to preoperative imaging to anticipate the potential intraoperative risks that can occur in inner ear anomaly cases. Every surgery should be planned with a safe approach and specific requirements, e.g., regarding electrode type, and the surgeries must be performed by experienced surgeons who are capable of modifying their technique according to the surgical findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetically caused congenital anomalies of reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kurilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of congenital disorders, their frequency of occurrence in populations, and some terminology questions discussed in the review. Genetically caused congenital anomalies of reproductive system are outlined. Full information about genetic syndromes is stated in the book: Kozlova S.I., Demikova N.S. Hereditary syndromes and genetic counseling. M., 2007.

  8. Genetically caused congenital anomalies of reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kurilo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Classification of congenital disorders, their frequency of occurrence in populations, and some terminology questions discussed in the review. Genetically caused congenital anomalies of reproductive system are outlined. Full information about genetic syndromes is stated in the book: Kozlova S.I., Demikova N.S. Hereditary syndromes and genetic counseling. M., 2007.

  9. Can developmental venous anomalies cause seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaule, Claire; Masnou, Pascal; Nasser, Ghaïdaa; Archambaud, Frédérique; Cauquil-Michon, Cécile; Gagnepain, Jean-Paul; Bouilleret, Viviane; Denier, Christian

    2017-12-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are congenital anatomical variants of normal venous drainage of normal brain. Although DVAs are often discovered on the occasion of a seizure, their involvement in epilepsy is poorly studied. Our objective was to determine whether DVA can cause seizures, in the cases where there is no associated lesion, including no cavernoma or dysplasia. Based on clinical history, cerebral MRI, EEG recording, and 18 F-FDG PET, we report 4 patients with DVA revealed by seizures. The first patient had a convulsive seizure caused by a hemorrhagic infarction due to thrombosis of her DVA. The second patient had a left temporo-parietal DVA next to a nonspecific lesion, possibly a sequelae of a venous infarction. The last two patients disclosed an isolated and uncomplicated DVA with a concordant epileptic focus confirmed on ictal video EEG recording. We reviewed literature and identified 21 other published cases of seizures caused by complications of a DVA and 9 patients that may have a direct link between epilepsy and an isolated and uncomplicated DVA. Seizures are linked to a DVA in two main situations: presence of an associated epileptogenic lesion, such as cavernoma or dysplasia, and occurrence of a complication of the DVA. Before concluding that a seizure is caused by a DVA, it is essential to perform full MRI protocols to search them. It remains rare and uncertain that isolated and uncomplicated DVA can cause seizures. In this last situation, physiopathological processes are probably different in each patient.

  10. Ear discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotic medicines, which are placed in the ear. Antibiotics may be given by mouth if a ruptured eardrum from an ear infection is causing the discharge. Alternative Names Drainage from the ear; Otorrhea; Ear bleeding; ...

  11. A Case with Mega Cisterna Magna Renal and Ear Anomalies: Is This a New Syndrome?

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    Çapan Konca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extrarenal pathologies may be associated with renal position and fusion anomalies. According to the literature, our patient is the first horseshoe kidney case that had mega cisterna magna, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. Case Report. A 9-year-old boy admitted because of the myoclonic jerks. He had a dysmorphic face, low-set and cup-shaped ears, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. The patient’s laboratory findings were normal except for a mild leucocytosis and hypochromic microcytic anemia. His cerebrospinal fluid was cytologically and biochemically normal. Cranial MRI revealed 1.5 cm diametered mega cisterna magna in the retrocerebellar region. Although there were no significant epileptical discharges in the electroencephalography, there were slow wave discharges arising from the anterior regions of both hemispheres. Because he had stomachache, abdominal ultrasonography was performed, and horseshoe kidney was determined. Abdominal CT did not reveal any abnormalities except the horseshoe kidney. There were not any cardiac pathologies in echocardiography. He had normal 46XY karyotype and there were no repeated chromosomal derangements, but we could not evaluate for molecular and submicroscopic somatic changes. He was treated with valproic acid and myoclonic jerks did not repeat. Conclusion. We suggest that the presence of these novel findings may represent a newly recognized, separate syndrome.

  12. Analysis of Deformation of the Human Ear and Canal Caused by Mandibular Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Many hearing aid users experience physical discomfort when wearing their device. The main contributor to this problem is believed to be deformation of the ear and ear canal caused by movement of the mandible. Physical discomfort results from added pressure on soft tissue areas in the ear. Identif...... the outcome to the anatomy by using a single set of high resolution histological sectionings of the region of interest....

  13. Cochlear Implant Outcomes and Genetic Mutations in Children with Ear and Brain Anomalies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Busi, Micol; Rosignoli, Monica; Castiglione, Alessandro; Minazzi, Federica; Trevisi, Patrizia; Aimoni, Claudia; Calzolari, Ferdinando; Granieri, Enrico; Martini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    ...) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with sensorineural hearing loss who were candidates for cochlear implants and to analyse the anatomic abnormalities of the ear and brain in patients who underwent cochlear implantation...

  14. Acoustic load on the ear caused by headphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorländer, M

    2000-04-01

    The standardized method for measurement of complex impedances according to ISO 10534 Part 2 is applied to the acoustic impedance of the ear with an "open-pinna" condition and with different types of headphones. The method is based on measurement of the transfer function of two microphone locations in an impedance tube and subsequent signal processing of the complex signal spectra. The termination of the tube is interpreted as ear canal entrance, while the measurement direction is, apparently, from "inside" the head towards outside. A tube which was specifically designed for this purpose works well, even though extremely small impedances must be measured. The impedances of the free pinna are similar to the "soft" end condition in the open tube, approximately following the radiation impedance of a piston into free space. The headphone impedances can be separated according to the type of headphone. In addition, the absolute impedances as the differences to the open ear compared with a number of headphones are interesting and may be starting point for further investigations. One possibility is, of course, quality control of headphones. The results are also expected to be useful for psychoacoustic research, for better understanding of sound perception, and for use in development of audio equipment.

  15. Allergy caused by light-cured ear-moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, B; Pedersen, B

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was conducted after the occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis in three laboratory technicians all engaged in the production of UV-light-cured acrylate ear-moulds. Ninety patients fitted with such moulds claimed discomfort to the same extent as patients with traditionally made acryl moulds. Of thirteen patients seen for clinical examination, seven were tested for allergy in the same way as the technicians and four were found to be sensitized to monomere metacrylates in the wax. The handling of the base materials in the laboratory as well as the UV-light-curing procedure needs further investigation.

  16. A Newborn with Icthyosis, Corpus Callosum Hypoplasia, Microcephaly, Atrichia and Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR: AVariant of Icthyosis Follicularis Atrichia Photophobia (IFAP or Brain Anomalies, Retardation, Ectodermal Dysplasia, Skeletal Deformities, Hirschsprung Disease, Ear/Eye Anomalies, Cleft Palate, Cryptorchidism (BRESHECK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt S. Joshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A full term newborn small for gestational age Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR admitted with congenital dysmorphic features with icthyosis, atrichia, microcephaly and eye abnormalities, when explored further for other congenital malformations, revealed Corpus callosum hypoplasia and closely related features with two rare syndromes Icthyosis Follicularis Atrichia Photophobia (IFAP or Brain Anomalies Retardation, Ectodermal Dysplasia, Skeletal Deformities, Hirschsprung Disease, Hemivertebrae, Ear/Eye Anomalies, and Kidney Dysplasia (BRESHECK.

  17. Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  18. [Acute low tone sensorineural hearing loss caused by inner ear barotrauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Sasamori, S; Oikawa, T; Aigami, T; Endo, Y; Matsuki, C

    1989-09-01

    Three cases of inner ear barotrauma with subjective symptoms and hearing impairment which were similar to the low tone sudden deafness were reported. Case 1 was a 34-year-old man who developed a hearing loss in the next morning of taking an airplane and recovered four days after. Case 2 was a 42-year-old man who developed a hearing loss 2 days after flying in an airplane and hearing loss have recurred 4 times in his right ear for 3 months. Eight months after recovery of previous recurrent attack, a hearing loss occurred in his left ear without flying and recurred twice for 3 weeks. Case 3 was a 25-year-old woman who developed a hearing loss in the right ear after 24 meter depth scuba diving and recurred 4 times for 40 days. Those three patients complained of no vertigo at any attacks and were treated conservatively. From previous reports and the onset and the course of hearing disturbance, acute low tone sensorineural hearing loss in case 1 and case 2 was thought to be caused by circulatory disturbance of the inner ear and in case 3 thought to be caused by inner ear window rupture. But, endolymphatic hydrops was also needed to be take into account in those three cases as a common possible cause. Inner ear barotrauma and so called labyrinthine window rupture were considered to be one of the diseases needed to differentiate from low tone sudden deafness without reference to mono-attack type or recurrent type.

  19. Surgical correction of ear curling caused by scar tissue formation in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Sabrina; Vlaminck, Lieven E; Cokelaere, Stefan M; Martens, Ann M

    2005-10-01

    An 18-month-old Belgian Warmblood mare was evaluated because it had injured the outer convex aspect of the left auricle. Second intention healing of the wound area caused tissue contracture, which resulted in the tip of the ear curling backward. By use of a technique involving undermining of the skin and a flap of granulation tissue on the medial aspect of the wound area and multiple incisions of the auricular cartilage, the curling was relieved and the ear regained a more normal shape. A skin graft was applied to cover the existing wound defect in an attempt to accelerate wound healing; thermoplastic material was contoured to fit the inner concave surface of the ear for immobilization and fixation of the ear in its final shape after surgery. Thirty days after surgery, the graft had healed completely and the ear had a normal conformation. The successful outcome of this treatment suggests that correction of an ear deformity secondary to scar tissue formation by use of an adapted surgical technique and appropriate materials can be achieved with good cosmetic results in horses.

  20. Malfunction of the inner ear is the most frequent cause of dizziness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Mads; Vesterhauge, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Half of all dizziness patients suffer from a malfunction of the inner ear and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo causes 25-30% of these malfunctions. During the latest two decades new vestibular test equipment has been developed and has made it possible to refine the vestibular diagnoses...

  1. Primary Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the middle ear: A rare cause of facial nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maithrea

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve palsy can occur whenever any part of the facial nerve is affected. It can be complete or partial, unilateral or bilateral and upper motor or lower motor neurone type. Common causes of unilateral lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy include trauma, infections of the middle ear, neoplasms of the parotid, iatrogenic and idiopathic. Hodgkin lymphoma typically presents with an asymptomatic lymphadenopathy, but associated symptoms include constitutional symptoms, intermittent fever, chest pain, or shortness of breath. We present an extremely rare case of facial nerve palsy secondary to primary classical nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma, arising from the left middle ear extending into the external auditory canal.

  2. Mutations in OTOGL, encoding the inner ear protein otogelin-like, cause moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariz, Kemal O; Duman, Duygu; Zazo Seco, Celia; Dallman, Julia; Huang, Mingqian; Peters, Theo A; Sirmaci, Asli; Lu, Na; Schraders, Margit; Skromne, Isaac; Oostrik, Jaap; Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Young, Juan I; Tokgoz-Yilmaz, Suna; Konukseven, Ozlem; Shahin, Hashem; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Kanaan, Moien; Oonk, Anne M M; Edwards, Yvonne J K; Li, Huawei; Atalay, Semra; Blanton, Susan; Desmidt, Alexandra A; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Pennings, Ronald J E; Lu, Zhongmin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Kremer, Hannie; Tekin, Mustafa

    2012-11-02

    Hereditary hearing loss is characterized by a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. Here we present OTOGL mutations, a homozygous one base pair deletion (c.1430 delT) causing a frameshift (p.Val477Glufs(∗)25) in a large consanguineous family and two compound heterozygous mutations, c.547C>T (p.Arg183(∗)) and c.5238+5G>A, in a nonconsanguineous family with moderate nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. OTOGL maps to the DFNB84 locus at 12q21.31 and encodes otogelin-like, which has structural similarities to the epithelial-secreted mucin protein family. We demonstrate that Otogl is expressed in the inner ear of vertebrates with a transcription level that is high in embryonic, lower in neonatal, and much lower in adult stages. Otogelin-like is localized to the acellular membranes of the cochlea and the vestibular system and to a variety of inner ear cells located underneath these membranes. Knocking down of otogl with morpholinos in zebrafish leads to sensorineural hearing loss and anatomical changes in the inner ear, supporting that otogelin-like is essential for normal inner ear function. We propose that OTOGL mutations affect the production and/or function of acellular structures of the inner ear, which ultimately leads to sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  4. The flyby anomaly : An investigation into potential causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouannic, B.; Noomen, R.; Van den IJssel, J.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Since December 1990, a number of spacecraft have performed a flyby around Earth in which an unexpected change in velocity has been observed, which has not been explained so far: the so-called flyby anomaly. The effect on the excess velocity has been expressed in an empirical relation by Anderson,

  5. A Diagnostic Supportive Sign for the Cause of Death Diagonal Ear Lobe Crease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Demirel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is a major cause of natural death. The high incidence and mortality of these diseases arised a need to investigate possible risk factors beyond well known. Diagonal ear lobe crease (DEC, was the physical sign, described in 1973. We investigated the possibility of DEC as a helpful predictive sign in the postmortem examination of forensic sudden death cases. The angiographic results revealed that whenever the percentages of the stenosis in left descending coronary artery, circumflex artery and right coronary artery increased, the incidence of the DEC did so accordingly. These results were correlated with the previous studies reporting significant correlation between coronary artery disease and the DEC. Particularly, in the absence of supportive medical history and without a physical sign of trauma, the presence of DEC could well be a supportive sign for the physician to consider the coronary artery disease as a cause of death. Key words: Diagonal ear lobe crease, coronary artery disease, death investigation

  6. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  7. Complete absence of rib ossification, micrognathia and ear anomalies: extreme expression of cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Goldschmeding, R.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a newborn with complete absence of ossification of the ribs, extreme micrognathia, absence of external ear canals and the inner ears, and diminished mobility in the upper extremities. It is suggested that this represents an unusually severe expression of the cerebro-costo-mandibular

  8. Inferior vena cava anomalies-a common cause of DVT and PE commonly not diagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sudip; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Turki, Mohamed A

    2008-05-01

    A 62-year-old white male presented with recurrent pulmonary embolism (PE) despite having an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Investigations ruled out upper limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and IVC thrombus, the common causes for a PE in the presence of IVC filter. The culprit was double IVC with a persisting left supracardinal vein that allowed an alternate route for the leg DVT to cause PE. IVC anomalies have a propensity to cause lower limb DVT. Although rarely suspected recent studies have revealed that IVC anomalies are not rare if anticipated and evaluated. Chest CT scans in cases of suspected idiopathic PE should extend up to the renal veins as this will identify common IVC anomalies. Therapy to prevent recurrent DVT can be instituted. A good quality venacavagram should always precede any IVC filter placement as this will identify almost all IVC anomalies and appropriate steps can prevent a recurrent PE.

  9. Causes of Upper-Ocean Temperature Anomalies in the Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, A.; Foltz, G. R.; Perez, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Hurricane activity and regional rainfall are strongly impacted by upper ocean conditions in the tropical North Atlantic, defined as the region between the equator and 20°N. A previous study analyzed a strong cold sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly that developed in this region during early 2009 and was recorded by the Pilot Research Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) moored buoy at 4°N, 23°W (Foltz et al. 2012). The same mooring shows a similar cold anomaly in the spring of 2015 as well as a strong warm anomaly in 2010, offering the opportunity for a more comprehensive analysis of the causes of these events. In this study we examine the main causes of the observed temperature anomalies between 1998 and 2015. Basin-scale conditions during these events are analyzed using satellite SST, wind, and rain data, as well as temperature and salinity profiles from the NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System. A more detailed analysis is conducted using ten years of direct measurements from the PIRATA mooring at 4°N, 23°W. Results show that the cooling and warming anomalies were caused primarily by wind-driven changes in surface evaporative cooling, mixed layer depth, and upper-ocean vertical velocity. Anomalies in surface solar radiation acted to damp the wind-driven SST anomalies in the latitude bands of the ITCZ (3°-8°N). Basin-scale analyses also suggest a strong connection between the observed SST anomalies and the Atlantic Meridional Mode, a well-known pattern of SST and surface wind anomalies spanning the tropical Atlantic.

  10. [Sciatica due to unusual causes: Tarlov cysts and nerve roots anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, M; Korbaa, W; Zrour, S; Bejia, I; Touzi, M; Bergaoui, N

    2009-03-01

    Tarlov cysts and nerve roots anomalies usually involve lumbosacral roots and are often asymptomatic. MRI has enabled recognition of many conditions that used to be missed by CT or myelography investigations performed for back and leg pain. However, even without additional compressive impingement (disc hernia, spondylolisthesis or lumbar canal stenosis) these anomalies can be responsible for sciatica, motor deficit and bladder sphincter dysfunction. Tarlov cysts are perinervous dilatations of the dorsal root ganglion. CT and especially MRI can reveal these cysts and their precise relations with the neighboring structures. Delayed filling of the cysts can be visualized on the myelogram. MRI is more sensitive than CT myelography for a positive diagnosis of nerve root anomalies, a differential diagnosis with disc hernia and classification of these anomalies. Surgical treatment is indicated for symptomatic Tarlov cysts and nerve root anomalies resistant to conservative treatment. Better outcome is observed in patients with an additional compressive impingement component. We report two cases of sciatica: one caused by Tarlov cysts diagnosed by MRI and the other by nerve root anomalies diagnosed by CT myelography. In both cases, conservative treatment was undertaken. The clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects of these disorders are discussed.

  11. Diagnosis of ossicular deformities and inner ear anomalies by high resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, Michio

    1988-04-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to determine the optimum slice thickness and slice gaps that can define the fine contour and continuity of the ossicles and the inner ear. Horizontal tomography was proved to be contributory enough to obtain the whole ossicular chains and the whole labyrinthine capsule. Comparison of 1.5 mm slice thickness / 1.5 mm slice gaps, 1.0 mm slice thickness / 1.0 mm slice gaps and 1.5 mm slice thickness / 1.0 mm slice gaps revealed that the last condition was optimal for demonstrating the ossicular chains, the first for the inner ear. A significant relationship was found between CT findings and surgical findings of ossicular chains in chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma. Radiological classification of the inner ear malformation, which was obtained by this method, were agenesis of the whole labyrinthine capsule, agenesis of the cochlea, slight protrusion of the cochlear growth, poor cochlear turning, agenesis of all the semicircular canals, anterior semicircular canals (s.c.) without posterior and lateral s.c., anterior s.c. without hypoplasia of posterior s.c. and aplasia of lateral s.c., and smallness of the vestibule. (author) 59 refs.

  12. Height anomalies in tappingmode atomic force microscopy in air caused by adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, S.J.T.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Height anomalies in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air are shown to be caused by adhesion. Depending o­n the damping of the oscillation the height of a sticking surface is reduced compared to less sticking surfaces. It is shown that the height artefacts result from a modulation of

  13. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Hair Loss Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems Headaches Hearing Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back ... have ear pain or redness but is having problems hearing?YesNo Back to Questions Step 3 Possible Causes ...

  14. Patterns and causes of longitude-dependent variation in total electron content at the equatorial anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, A. L.; Coster, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Zhang, S.

    2011-12-01

    The terrestrial ionosphere has significant spatial variations in its electron density. One of these is the equatorial anomaly, which is thought to be generated by electromagnetic drift forces which cause electrons to move upward and then descend along field lines to higher latitudes. Given this mechanism, we test the conjecture that longitudinal variations in the equatorial magnetic field have a direct effect on the anomaly's magnitude and location. To assess the magnitude and location of the anomaly, we use total electron content (TEC) measurements from the world wide GPS geodetic receiver network, which observes differential delays between dual-frequency coherent transmissions. The global nature of the GPS measurement network allows spatial and temporal TEC distributions to be monitored. In general, the impact of local variations in the geomagnetic field on TEC is poorly understood globally. We analyze equatorial TEC data across recent years of geomagnetically quiet observations to determine any linear correlations with the magnetic field intensity. Our results suggest that magnetic field intensity is not a dominant influence on longitudinal TEC variation along the anomaly. We then compare our results with independent lines of evidence in search of an explanation to account for the observed longitudinal variation.

  15. Intracerebellar hemorrhage caused by developmental venous anomaly, from diagnosis to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Thomas; Villard, Jimmy; Oumarou, Gaston; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Pollo, Claudio; Uské, Antoine

    2013-12-01

    Developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign and asymptomatic cerebrovascular malformation, and only isolated cases of symptomatic DVAs are described in the literature. Even more rarely will these symptoms come from an intraparenchymal hemorrhage caused by the DVA. We present two symptomatic DVAs by intracerebellar hemorrhage. The diagnostic steps regarding the pathophysiology of DVA hemorrhage and the treatment options are discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Histopathology of the Human Inner Ear in a Patient With Sensorineural Hearing Loss Caused by a Variant in DFNA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadol, Joseph B; Handzel, Ophir; Amr, Sami

    2015-12-01

    Describe the histopathology of the inner ear in a patient with hearing loss caused by a pathogenic variant of the DFNA5 gene. Variants in DFNA5 have been described as causing an autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. To date, there has been no description of the histopathology of the inner ear in humans with hearing loss because of pathogenic variants in DFNA5. Temporal bone histopathology by light microscopy, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA obtained from blood, and Sanger sequencing of DNA obtained from formalin fixed temporal bone sections. Both the temporal bone donor and her daughter were shown to have the same pathogenic variant in the DFNA5 gene. The principal histopathologic correlates of the hearing loss were loss of the inner and outer hair cells and severe degeneration of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament throughout the cochlea. In addition, there was severe degeneration of spiral ganglion cells, particularly in the basal turn, and degeneration of vestibular neuroepithelium and neurons. The donor had undergone unilateral cochlear implantation during life. Histopathology demonstrated that the cochlear implant was inserted into the scala vestibuli with considerable new bone formation around the track of the implanted electrode. This is the first report of the histopathology of the inner ear in a patient with hearing loss caused by a pathogenic variant in the DFNA5 gene.

  17. Dynamics of inner ear pressure change caused by intracranial pressure manipulation in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, EO; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ

    Previous studies have shown that pressure changes in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment are transmitted to the inner ear. The main route for pressure transfer is the cochlear aqueduct, about which little is known with regard to its dynamic properties. In the present study, sudden intracranial

  18. Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause your child’s eardrum to rupture or pop, leaving a hole in the ear. The initial pop hurts, but actually relieves the pressure and pain. ... turns up the volume of the TV or music, is not responding to softer sounds or is ...

  19. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  20. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to trauma (e.g. car wreck or dog bite) or torn earlobes. Deformity of the ears may cause social anxiety and may make children vulnerable to teasing. Regardless of the origin of the ear deformity, these ear conditions can ...

  1. Variations in North Pacific sea surface temperature caused by Arctic stratospheric ozone anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Jiankai; Tian, Wenshou; Hu, Yongyun; Zhao, Sen; Sun, Cheng; Ding, Ruiqing; Feng, Juan; Yang, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Recently, observations and simulations have shown that Arctic stratospheric ozone (ASO) variations affect the middle–high latitude tropospheric climate in the Northern Hemisphere. In particular, a connection from the ASO to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been reported. However, no detailed study has been made of a key process in the connection, the influence of ASO on the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and its underlying mechanism. Using observations, reanalysis and simulations, it is found that the ASO changes in March have the strongest connection with North Pacific SST variations in April. This implies a leading effect of ASO on North Pacific SST. The stratospheric circulation anomalies caused by March ASO changes can rapidly extend to the lower troposphere in the region 60°–90°N, 180°–120°W. Nevertheless, a theoretical analysis indicates that circulation anomalies from the region 60°–90°N, 180°–120°W in the lower troposphere would take about a month to propagate horizontally to the North Pacific middle latitudes (30°–60°N, 180°–120°W).

  2. Phase-shift anomaly caused by subwavelength-scale metal slit or aperture diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghee; Yi, Minwoo; Park, Sang Eon; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-01-15

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy probes anomalous phase-shift caused by wave diffraction from a subwavelength-scale metal slit or aperture. Carrier frequency phase measurements in the far-field region reveals that nearly 30° phase advance is induced from a subwavelength slit diffraction and that 180° phase-advance from a subwavelength aperture. These results indicate that the conventional 90° phase advance of diffracted waves in the far-field region, known as the Gouy phase shift, is not valid for subwavelength diffraction phenomena. The physical origin of these phase-shift anomalies is attributed to induced electric currents or magnetic dipole radiation, and theoretical analyses based on these factors are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia Caused by a Developmental Venous Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian; Lunsford, L Dade; Monaco Iii, Edward A

    2015-02-18

    Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is mostly caused by vascular compression of the nerve's root entry zone due to an ectatic artery. Rarer causes include compression from tumors, vascular malformations or multiple sclerosis plaques. Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are benign, aberrantly appearing venous structures that drain normal cerebral tissue. DVAs are a rare etiology of TN. The management of TN caused by a DVA is controversial as disruption of the DVA can be catastrophic. Methods: We report a case of a young man with severe medically refractory TN related to a brachium pontis DVA who was successfully treated by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSR) to the trigeminal nerve. Results: Within 2 weeks of GKSR, the patient reported experiencing 60% pain relief; 5 years postoperatively, he remains completely pain free with some mild sensory loss in the V2 and V3 areas. Conclusions: GKSR has an established role in the management of TN. This is the first reported case of using GKSR to treat TN caused by a DVA. In the setting of a DVA, GKSR should be an initial consideration for TN therapy after medical failure because of the high surgical risk related to disrupting the DVA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Ebstein's anomaly may be caused by mutations in the sarcomere protein gene MYH7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, K; Postma, A V; van de Meerakker, J B A; Roos-Hesselink, J W; Helderman-van den Enden, A T J M; Vliegen, H W; Rahman, T; Baars, M J H; Sels, J-W; Bauer, U; Pickardt, T; Sperling, S R; Moorman, A F M; Keavney, B; Goodship, J; Klaassen, S; Mulder, B J M

    2013-03-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation characterised by adherence of the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve to the underlying myocardium. Associated abnormalities of left ventricular morphology and function including left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) have been observed. An association between Ebstein's anomaly with LVNC and mutations in the sarcomeric protein gene MYH7, encoding β-myosin heavy chain, has been shown by recent studies. This might represent a specific subtype of Ebstein's anomaly with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. In this review we discuss the association of MYH7 mutations with Ebstein's anomaly and LVNC and its implications for the clinical care for patients and their family members.

  5. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outer Ear: Catch the Wave The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations The Inner Ear: Nerve Signals Start Here Day or Night, Ears Keep You Upright Three Cheers for the Ears! en español Tus oídos Did you hear something? Maybe the sound you heard was as quiet as your cat licking her paws. Or maybe it was loud, ...

  6. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise

  7. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Cathrine Lindblad

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group

  8. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T.; Kawahira, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Analysis of Causes of Uplift Anomalies in the Čierny Váh Subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednárová, Emília; Grambličková, Danka; Škvarka, Juraj; Majerčák, Vlastimil; Slávik, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    The pumped storage hydropower plant of Čierny Váh was created by means of damming up the valley of the Čierny Váh River. The dam is 18.5 m high above terrain and 375 m long in the dam’s crest. Total capacity of the reservoir is 5.1 million m3. Complicated geological conditions in the subsoil of dam’s body – fractured dolomite with local occurrence of tectonic breccia and clays, with the occurrence of intense disturbances - called for the construction of the grouting curtain in the dam’s subsoil. Its depth is about 20 in the area of the riverine plain, and about 60 m in the areas of abutments. During foregoing operations of the structure, more than 30 years, local anomalies in the uplift development in the right abutment’s subsoil of the lower reservoir dam were recorded. Their abnormally high values on the downstream side of grouting curtain have become the subject of extensive discussion and a stimulus for its remediation. To ensure reliable operation of the hydraulic structure a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the long-term operation of the reservoir on the dam safety was carried out. This included an examination of the causes of anomalous development of uplifts using FEM numerical modelling. The paper presents obtained results from this analysis.

  10. Ebstein's anomaly may be caused by mutations in the sarcomere protein gene MYH7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van Engelen (Klaartje); A.V. Postma (Alex); J.B.A. van de Meerakker (J. B A); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); A.T.J.M. Helderman-van den Enden (Apollonia); H.W. Vliegen (Hubert); T. Rahman (T.); M.J.H. Baars (M. J H); J-W. Sels (Jan-Willem); U.M.M. Bauer (Ulrike); T. Pickardt (T.); S.R. Sperling (S.); A.F.M. Moorman (Antoon); B. Keavney (B.); J. Goodship (J.); S. Klaassen (S.); B.J.M. Mulder (Barbara)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEbstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation characterised by adherence of the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve to the underlying myocardium. Associated abnormalities of left ventricular morphology and function including left ventricular noncompaction

  11. Obstructed labour caused by rare congenital anomaly of foetus: managed by foetal abdominal tapping leading to successful vaginal delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Swaroop; Priya Sharma; Kalpana Kumari; Shikha Seth

    2015-01-01

    Obstructed labour with high maternal morbidity and mortality is still prevalent in the developing world. The common causes of obstructed labour include contracted pelvis, uterine abnormalities, maternal pelvic tumours, foetal malpresentation, and congenital foetal abnormalities like hydrocephalus, polycystic kidneys/hydronephrosis or locked twins. Here we present a case of rare congenital anomaly of foetus, Prune belly syndrome causing obstructed labour in its course and managed by foetal abd...

  12. Mutations causing Greenberg dysplasia but not Pelger anomaly uncouple enzymatic from structural functions of a nuclear membrane protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, P; Fischer, B; Mann, A.; Mansour, S.; Rossier, E; Van der Veen, M.; C. Lang; Baasanjav, S.; Kieslich, M.; Brossuleit, K.; Gravemann, S; Schnipper, N.; Karbasyian, M.; Demuth, I.; Zwerger, M.

    2010-01-01

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is an inner nuclear membrane protein with a structural function interacting with chromatin and lamins, and an enzymatic function as a sterol reductase. Heterozygous LBR mutations cause nuclear hyposegmentation in neutrophils (Pelger anomaly), while homozygous mutations cause prenatal death with skeletal defects and abnormal sterol metabolism (Greenberg dysplasia). It has remained unclear whether the lethality in Greenberg dysplasia is due to cholesterol defects or a...

  13. Epigenetic DNA demethylation causes inner ear stem cell differentiation into hair cell-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza causes genomic demethylation to regulate gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether 5-aza affects gene expression and cell fate determination of stem cells. In this study, 5-aza was applied to mouse utricle sensory epithelia-derived progenitor cells (MUCs to investigate whether 5-aza stimulated MUCs to become sensory hair cells. After treatment, MUCs increased expression of hair cell genes and proteins. The DNA methylation level (indicated by percentage of 5-methylcytosine showed a 28.57% decrease after treatment, which causes significantly repressed DNMT1 protein expression and DNMT activity. Additionally, FM1-43 permeation assays indicated that the permeability of 5-aza-treated MUCs was similar to that of sensory hair cells, which may result from mechanotransduction channels. This study not only demonstrates a possible epigenetic approach to induce tissue specific stem/progenitor cells to become sensory hair cell-like cells, but also provides a cell model to epigenetically modulate stem cell fate determination.

  14. Mutations causing Greenberg dysplasia but not Pelger anomaly uncouple enzymatic from structural functions of a nuclear membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter; Fischer, Björn; Mann, Anuska; Mansour, Sahar; Rossier, Eva; Veen, Markus; Lang, Christine; Baasanjav, Sevjidmaa; Kieslich, Moritz; Brossuleit, Katja; Gravemann, Sophia; Schnipper, Nele; Karbasyian, Mohsen; Demuth, Ilja; Zwerger, Monika; Vaya, Amparo; Utermann, Gerd; Mundlos, Stefan; Stricker, Sigmar; Sperling, Karl; Hoffmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is an inner nuclear membrane protein with a structural function interacting with chromatin and lamins, and an enzymatic function as a sterol reductase. Heterozygous LBR mutations cause nuclear hyposegmentation in neutrophils (Pelger anomaly), while homozygous mutations cause prenatal death with skeletal defects and abnormal sterol metabolism (Greenberg dysplasia). It has remained unclear whether the lethality in Greenberg dysplasia is due to cholesterol defects or altered nuclear morphology.To answer this question we characterized two LBR missense mutations and showed that they cause Greenberg dysplasia. Both mutations affect residues that are evolutionary conserved among sterol reductases. In contrast to wildtype LBR, both mutations failed to rescue C14 sterol reductase deficient yeast, indicating an enzymatic defect. We found no Pelger anomaly in the carrier parent excluding marked effects on nuclear structure. We studied Lbr in mouse embryos and demonstrate expression in skin and the developing skeletal system consistent with sites of histological changes in Greenberg dysplasia. Unexpectedly we found in disease-relevant cell types not only nuclear but also cytoplasmatic LBR localization. The cytoplasmatic LBR staining co-localized with ER-markers and is thus consistent with the sites of endogeneous sterol synthesis. We conclude that LBR missense mutations can abolish sterol reductase activity, causing lethal Greenberg dysplasia but not Pelger anomaly. The findings separate the metabolic from the structural function and indicate that the sterol reductase activity is essential for human intrauterine development.

  15. Does surgery improve live birth rates in patients with recurrent miscarriage caused by uterine anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, M; Lin, B L; Aoki, K; Maruyama, T; Nakatsuka, M; Ozawa, N; Sugi, T; Takeshita, T; Nishida, M

    2015-02-01

    We found that congenital uterine anomalies have a negative impact on reproductive outcome in recurrent-miscarriage couples, being associated with further miscarriage with a normal embryonic karyotype. There has been no study comparing live birth rates between patients with and without surgery. We conducted a prospective study to prove that surgery for a bicornuate or septate uterus might improve the live birth rate. A total of 170 patients with congenital uterine anomalies suffering two or more miscarriages were examined. The live birth rate after ascertainment of anomalies, cumulative live birth rate and infertility rate, were compared between patients with and without surgery. In patients with a septate uterus, the live birth rate (81.3%) at the first pregnancy after ascertainment of anomalies with surgery tended to be higher than that (61.5%) in those without surgery. The infertility rates were similar in both groups, while the cumulative live birth rate (76.1%) tended to be higher than without surgery (60.0%). Surgery showed no benefit in patients with a bicornuate uterus for having a baby, but tended to decrease the preterm birth rate and the low birth weight. The possibility that surgery has benefits for having a baby in patients with a septate uterus suffering recurrent miscarriage could not be excluded.

  16. A case of generalized lymphatic anomaly causing skull-base leakage and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichi; Goji, Aya; Inoue, Miki; Kawahito, Masami; Taki, Masako; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Generalized lymphatic anomaly is a multifocal lymphatic malformation that affects the skin, thoracic viscera, and bones. A 3year-old Japanese boy presented with right facial palsy due to cystic tumors in the ipsilateral petrous bone. Pericardial effusion had been found incidentally and generalized lymphatic anomaly had been diagnosed by pericardial biopsy. Petrous bone tumor had been followed up without surgery. At the age of seven he presented with fever and disturbance of consciousness, and bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was diagnosed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed middle skull-base leakage due to lymphatic malformation. He achieved complete recovery under intensive care with antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. One year later, he presented with multiple cystic formations in bilateral femora. At the 3-year follow-up, the patient was healthy with no recurrence of meningitis and osteolytic lesions in the femora were non-progressive. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful for demonstration of skull-base leakage by generalized lymphatic anomaly. We should consider generalized lymphatic anomaly among the differential diagnoses for skull-base leakage. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vetter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the year 2003 is associated with one of the largest atmospheric CO2 rises on record. In the same year, Europe experienced an anomalously strong flux of CO2 from the land to the atmosphere associated with an exceptionally dry and hot summer in Western and Central Europe. In this study we analyze the magnitude of this carbon flux anomaly and key driving ecosystem processes using simulations of seven terrestrial ecosystem models of different complexity and types (process-oriented and diagnostic. We address the following questions: (1 how large were deviations in the net European carbon flux in 2003 relative to a short-term baseline (1998–2002 and to longer-term variations in annual fluxes (1980 to 2005, (2 which European regions exhibited the largest changes in carbon fluxes during the growing season 2003, and (3 which ecosystem processes controlled the carbon balance anomaly .

    In most models the prominence of 2003 anomaly in carbon fluxes declined with lengthening of the reference period from one year to 16 years. The 2003 anomaly for annual net carbon fluxes ranged between 0.35 and –0.63 Pg C for a reference period of one year and between 0.17 and –0.37 Pg C for a reference period of 16 years for the whole Europe.

    In Western and Central Europe, the anomaly in simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP over the growing season in 2003 was outside the 1σ variance bound of the carbon flux anomalies for 1980–2005 in all models. The estimated anomaly in net carbon flux ranged between –42 and –158 Tg C for Western Europe and between 24 and –129 Tg C for Central Europe depending on the model used. All models responded to a dipole pattern of the climate anomaly in 2003. In Western and Central Europe NEP was reduced due to heat and drought. In contrast, lower than normal temperatures and higher air humidity decreased NEP over Northeastern Europe. While models agree on the sign of changes in

  18. Anomalies of Pulmonary Circulation as a Cause of Hemoptysis: A Series of Unusual Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract, called hemoptysis, is a common clinical condition with many potential etiologies. Massive hemoptysis is life threatening and needs urgent intervention. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is a useful non-invasive imaging modality for the initial assessment of hemoptysis. Using MDCT with multiplanar reformatted images has improved the diagnosis and management of hemoptysis by providing a more precise depiction of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries than conventional computed tomography (CT. In 95% of hemoptysis cases, the systemic arterial system is the origin of bleeding and pulmonary vascular anomalies are a rare cause. Among these, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease are well known entities. However, primary anomalies affecting pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum or diseases secondarily affecting the pulmonary vessels are unusual causes. Here we present three cases where patients had pulmonary vascular anomalies causing hemoptysis. These patients had decreased pulmonary arterial pressures leading to bronchial and systemic arterial hypertrophy and development of bronchopulmonary collaterals. Secondary CT signs in the parenchyma and mediastinum (mosaic attenuation, ground glass haze, subpleural interstitial thickening, and hypertrophied bronchial arteries were similar in all patients. Hence, evaluation of the MDCT images for primary abnormality led to the diagnosis.

  19. Experimental study of the self-potential anomaly caused by coal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Yunxiang; Song, Wujun

    2017-10-01

    Self-potential method has been used to detect coal fires for decades. However, the origin of self-potential anomaly relating to coal fires is still unclear. In this paper, we first analyze three possible sources of self-potential anomaly that relating to coal fires, i.e., the thermoelectric potential, the redox potential and the streaming potential, among which the streaming potential is negligible. Then, an experimental system is designed to research the above-mentioned three possible sources, in which six experiments are conducted finally. The results verify the existence of the thermoelectric potential and the redox potential. The self-potential that measured on the surface increases with the increase of temperature of the heat source, but decreases dramatically with the increase of its buried depth. Furthermore, the redox potential reduces the total self-potential values on the surface.

  20. Pierced Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Should You Fight a Bully? What You Need to Know About ... What's in this article? Getting Your Ears Pierced Metal Matters Taking Care of Your Ears If Your Ears ...

  1. Melanin deposition ruled out as cause of color changes in the red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Gong, Shiping; Yang, Jiangbo; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Wei, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Animal coloration primarily depends on the presence of pigments and the mixing ratio of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The color of red-eared slider's carapace varies with age, from an olive green to a yellow green, and then to a yellow brown in juveniles, generally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this color change is related to the difference in melanin expression. Melanin deposition levels were examined in the carapace, skin, eye and muscle of the three color-types using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of red-eared slider turtle melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes TYR, TYRP1, MITF and SLC24A5 were cloned, sequenced and quantitatively analyzed. Both histological view of melanin deposition and quantitative real-time PCR test of melanin-regulated gene expressions showed that there are significant differences among different tissues of red-eared slider, but no significant difference among different color-types, indicating that melanin deposition is not associated with ontogenetic color change in the carapace of red-eared slider. This study initially explore the melanin deposition and the mRNA expression of melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes in red-eared slider, which serve as a foundation for further insight into the pigmentation patterns and the mechanism of body color change in turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vegetation anomalies caused by antecedent precipitation in most of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulou, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Dorigo, W. A.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Depoorter, M.; Waegeman, W.

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying environmental controls on vegetation is critical to predict the net effect of climate change on global ecosystems and the subsequent feedback on climate. Following a non-linear Granger causality framework based on a random forest predictive model, we exploit the current wealth of multi-decadal satellite data records to uncover the main drivers of monthly vegetation variability at the global scale. Results indicate that water availability is the most dominant factor driving vegetation globally: about 61% of the vegetated surface was primarily water-limited during 1981-2010. This included semiarid climates but also transitional ecoregions. Intra-annually, temperature controls Northern Hemisphere deciduous forests during the growing season, while antecedent precipitation largely dominates vegetation dynamics during the senescence period. The uncovered dependency of global vegetation on water availability is substantially larger than previously reported. This is owed to the ability of the framework to (1) disentangle the co-linearities between radiation/temperature and precipitation, and (2) quantify non-linear impacts of climate on vegetation. Our results reveal a prolonged effect of precipitation anomalies in dry regions: due to the long memory of soil moisture and the cumulative, non-linear, response of vegetation, water-limited regions show sensitivity to the values of precipitation occurring three months earlier. Meanwhile, the impacts of temperature and radiation anomalies are more immediate and dissipate shortly, pointing to a higher resilience of vegetation to these anomalies. Despite being infrequent by definition, hydro-climatic extremes are responsible for up to 10% of the vegetation variability during the 1981-2010 period in certain areas, particularly in water-limited ecosystems. Our approach is a first step towards a quantitative comparison of the resistance and resilience signature of different ecosystems, and can be used to benchmark Earth

  3. Developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with arterial component: a rare cause of intracranial haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Ismail; Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yurt, Alaattin; Ozer, Fisun Demircivi; Acar, Feridun; Dalbasti, Tayfun; Yagci, Baki; Sirikci, Akif; Calli, Cem

    2009-01-01

    To examine the clinical and radiologic findings of patients with developmental venous anomaly (DVA) associated with intracranial haemorrhage but unrelated to cavernoma. Computed tomography (CT) was used to obtain intracranial images from seven patients ranging in age from 6 to 51 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was then performed on six patients, and two patients were further examined via CT angiography. Finally, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed to confirm the initial diagnosis. CT showed intraparenchymal supratentorial haemorrhage in all patients. The combined imaging modalities eventually confirmed a diagnosis of arterialized DVA in four patients and arterialized DVA associated with arteriovenus malformation (AVM) in three. Two patients were managed symptomatically, two underwent radiosurgery, one underwent surgery, one underwent combined embolisation plus radiosurgery and the remaining patient underwent combined embolisation plus surgery. Two patients died, one as a result of re-bleeding, and the other due to radiation necrosis. The mean follow-up period was 33 months (6 months to 6 years) for the remaining five patients with favourable outcome. DVA associated with intraparenchymal haemorrhage, but not related to cavernoma, was confirmed. Though very rare, DVA may present with non-cavernoma-related haemorrhage in the form of arterialized DVA or DVA with AVM.

  4. A syndrome of microcephaly, short stature, polysyndactyly, and dental anomalies caused by a homozygous KATNB1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Gökhan; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bögershausen, Nina; Beleggia, Filippo; Möller-Hartmann, Claudia; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Wollnik, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous acceptor splice-site mutation in intron 6 of the KATNB1 gene in a patient from a consanguineous Turkish family who presented with congenital microcephaly, lissencephaly, short stature, polysyndactyly, and dental abnormalities. cDNA analysis revealed complete loss of the natural acceptor splice-site resulting either in the usage of an alternative, exonic acceptor splice-site inducing a frame-shift and premature protein truncation or, to a minor extent, in complete skipping of exon 7. Both effects most likely lead to complete loss of KATNB1 function. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in KATNB1 have very recently been described as a cause of microcephaly with brain malformations and seizures. We extend the KATNB1 associated phenotype by describing a syndrome characterized by primordial dwarfism, lissencephaly, polysyndactyly, and dental anomalies, which is caused by a homozygous truncating KATNB1 mutation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Airplane Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an imbalance in the air pressure in the middle ear and air pressure in the environment prevents your eardrum (tympanic membrane) from vibrating as ... eustachian tube. One end is connected to the middle ear. The other end has a ... in the environment changes rapidly, and your eustachian tube often doesn' ...

  6. Experimental Investigation of the Root Cause Mechanism and Effectiveness of Mitigating Actions for Axial Offset Anomaly in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said Abdel-Khalik

    2005-07-02

    Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.

  7. Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely A. Quina

    2012-11-01

    Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM, whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ∼410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ∼80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ∼500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear

  8. Cauliflower Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to prevent cauliflower ear. Wearing the right headgear when playing sports — especially contact sports — is a ... any sport where helmets or other forms of headgear are recommended or required (like football, baseball, hockey, ...

  9. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the side, or the child's head may rest against an adult's chest. Older children and adults may sit with the head tilted toward the shoulder opposite the ear being examined. The provider will ...

  10. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  11. Investigation of the causes of the longitudinal variation of the electron density in the Weddell Sea Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. G.; Meier, R. R.; Chen, Shih-Ping; Drob, D. P.; Dandenault, P.

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates and quantifies the causes of the Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA), a region near the tip of South America extending from approximately 30° to 120°W geographic longitude and 50° to 75°S geographic latitude at solar minimum between 2007 and 2010. This region is unusual because the midnight peak electron density exceeds the midday peak electron density in summer. This study is far more quantitative than previous studies because, unlike other models, it assimilates selected data parameters to constrain a physical model in order to investigate other aspects of the data. It is shown that the commonly accepted explanation that the WSA is related to the magnetic field declination and inclination effects on the neutral wind does not explain the longitudinal variation of the electron density. Rather, longitudinal changes in the neutral winds and neutral densities are the most likely explanation for the WSA. These longitudinal wind and density changes are attributed to the varying latitudinal distance from the auroral zone energy input. No contributions from the plasmasphere or other sources are required. Furthermore, it is shown that a widely used empirical thermosphere density model overestimates the longitudinal changes in the WSA region.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThis paper investigates and quantifies the causes of the Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA), a region near the tip of South America extending from approximately 30° to 120°W geographic longitude and 50° to 75°S geographic latitude at solar minimum between 2007 and 2010. This region is unusual because the midnight peak electron density exceeds the midday peak electron density in summer. This study is far more quantitative than previous studies because, unlike other models, it assimilates selected data parameters to constrain a physical model in order to investigate other aspects of the data. It is shown that the commonly accepted explanation that the WSA is related to the

  12. [Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly: unusual cause of piocolpos. Report a case and review of literature ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Contreras, Diana Karen; Juárez-Cruz, Patricio Manuel; Vázquez-Flores, José; Vázquez-Flores, Al David

    2014-10-01

    OHVIRA (Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly) by acronym and abbreviations in English or Herlyn Werner Wunderlich syndrome is a rare congenital malformation caused by an alteration in the Mullerian ducts and Wolffian Ducts. Which is characterized by a triad: uterus didelphys, obstructed and ipsilateral renal agenesis hemivagina still uncertain etiology. Patients are usually asymptomatic until menarche where the most common clinical presentation is pelvic pain, followed by a vaginal or abdominal mass, normal menstrual periods, infertility, and vaginal discharge rarely appears. The case of a female patient of 15 years, nubile with chronic fetid vaginal discharge, initially diagnosed and treated as pelvic inflammatory disease occurs, however because it is an exceptional condition with the background of the patient, by complementary studies were conducted where pelvic ultrasound revealed pyocolpos and absence of left kidney, uterus didelphys, blind hemivagina by other imaging studies, where we could integrate Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. In conclusion, abnormalities in the development of the Miillerian ducts are difficult to diagnose early, so you must have the embryological knowledge, conduct thorough clinical assessment and detailed picture in whom the coridition is suspected to identify malformations coexisting urinary tract and vaginal defects with the importance of preserving reproductive success through appropriate planning of surgical approach, given that the fertility rate in these patients is comparable to the average.

  13. Tinnitus and Other Auditory Problems – Occupational Noise Exposure below Risk Limits May Cause Inner Ear Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: − pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, − transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; − psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, − forward masking, − speech recognition in noise, − tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed

  14. Ebstein anomaly associated with left ventricular noncompaction: an autosomal dominant condition that can be caused by mutations in MYH7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Alexa M C; van Engelen, Klaartje; Postma, Alex V; Baars, Marieke J H; Christiaans, Imke; De Haij, Simone; Klaassen, Sabine; Mulder, Barbara J M; Keavney, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a relatively common genetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by prominent trabeculations with deep intertrabecular recesses in mainly the left ventricle. Although LVNC often occurs in an isolated entity, it may also be present in various types of congenital heart disease (CHD). The most prevalent CHD in LVNC is Ebstein anomaly, which is a rare form of CHD characterized by apical displacement and partial fusion of the septal and posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve with the ventricular septum. Several reports of sporadic as well as familial cases of Ebstein anomaly associated with LVNC have been reported. Recent studies identified mutations in the MYH7 gene, encoding the sarcomeric β-myosin heavy chain protein, in patients harboring this specific phenotype. Here, we will review the association between Ebstein anomaly, LVNC and mutations in MYH7, which seems to represent a subtype of Ebstein anomaly with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable penetrance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  16. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, ... heard a soft sound or a loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is ...

  17. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cochlear Implants Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) Dealing With Earwax Is Earwax Removal Safe? Hearing Evaluation in Children Middle Ear Infections Middle Ear Infections and Ear ...

  18. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing? Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? First Aid: Earaches Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) Preparing Your Child for Surgery Hearing Evaluation in Children Anesthesia Basics ...

  19. Understanding Regional Wind Forcings and Surface Heat Fluxes that cause Sea-Surface Temperature Anomalies during US West Coast Wind Relaxations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, K. R.; Fewings, M. R.; Gotschalk, C.; Washburn, L.

    2016-02-01

    Weakening and reversals of the prevailing summertime upwelling-favorable winds along the western coast of North America cause a poleward flow of warm waters within 20 km of the coast, which impacts larval connectivity. Earlier studies of composite anomalies of 500-hPa height, atmospheric pressure, and wind stress linked wind relaxations in central/S. California to preceding Oregon/N. California relaxations or reversals. The synoptic series of events starts with an eastward-moving 500-hPa trough causing the prevailing winds off Oregon to relax. Next, a northeastern extension of the North Pacific High reintensifies the upwelling-favorable winds. Approximately five days after the Oregon relaxation, the central/S. California wind relaxation occurs as low sea-level pressure anomalies follow the North Pacific High. This atmospheric synoptic pattern leads to the question of how the ocean responds to these forcings beyond 20 km from the coast. Composite microwave satellite data during 44 wind relaxation events in summer 2006-2011 indicate sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies up to 1000 km offshore. The Oregon wind relaxation results in anomalously warm regional SSTs. The North Pacific High stage reintensifies wind stress for 2-3 days, resulting in anomalously cold SSTs. Surprisingly, the cold SST anomaly persists during the central/S. California relaxation. The intensified wind stress during the previous 2-3 days may precondition the surface ocean offshore, preventing a warm SST anomaly during the central/S. California relaxation. To determine the importance of changes in wind-driven vertical mixing vs. changes in surface heat flux in causing the SST anomalies, and whether wind stress-curl-driven upwelling is necessary to explain the observed SST anomalies, we use a 1-D surface layer heat budget and the COARE bulk wind stress and heat flux algorithms together with subsurface temperatures from Argo floats and wind velocities from the QuikSCAT satellite. Understanding

  20. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk [Koryo general Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  1. Pluripotent stem cells are protected from cytomegalovirus infection at multiple points: implications of a new pathogenesis for congenital anomaly caused by cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideya

    2012-09-01

    In humans, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most significant cause of intrauterine infections that cause congenital anomalies. Intrauterine infection with human CMV is thought to be responsible for a variety of abnormalities, including mental retardation, microcephaly, developmental delay, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy, depending on the timing of the fetal infection, the infectious route, and the virulence of the virus. In addition to the adaptive immune system, the embryo has potential resistance to CMV during early embryogenesis. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are more resistant to CMV than most other cell types, although the mechanism responsible for this resistance is not well understood. ES cells allow approximately 20-fold less murine CMV (MCMV) DNA to enter the nucleus than mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and this inhibition occurs in a multistep manner. In situ hybridization showed that ES cell nuclei had significantly less MCMV DNA than MEF nuclei. This finding appears to be supported by the fact that ES cells express less heparan sulfate, β1-integrin, and vimentin and have fewer nuclear pores than differentiated cells such as MEF. This may reduce the ability of MCMV to attach to and enter the cellular membrane, translocate to the nucleus, and cross the nuclear membrane in pluripotent stem cells (ES-induced pluripotent stem cells). This finding may indicate a new pathogenesis for the congenital anomaly caused by CMV. © 2012 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Optical and tomographic imaging of a middle ear malformation in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela; Ketten, Darlene R.

    2005-01-01

    Using a combination of in vivo computerized tomography and histological staining, a middle ear anomaly in two wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) is characterized. In these animals, the tympanic membrane, extrastapes, and pars media (shaft) of the stapes are absent on one side of the head, with the other side exhibiting normal morphology. The pars interna(footplate) of the stapes and the operculum are present in their normal positions at the entrance of the otic capsule on both the affected and unaffected sides. The pattern of deformity suggests a partial failure of development of tympanic pathway tissues, but with a preservation of theopercularis pathway. While a definitive proximate cause of the condition could not be determined, the anomalies show similarities to developmental defects in mammalian middle ear formation. PMID:16158670

  3. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  4. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  5. Potential teratogenicity of methimazole: exposure of zebrafish embryos to methimazole causes similar developmental anomalies to human methimazole embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2013-06-01

    While methimazole (MMI) is widely used in the therapy for hyperthyroidism, several groups have reported that maternal exposure to MMI results in a variety of congenital anomalies, including choanal and esophageal atresia, iridic and retinal coloboma, and delayed neurodevelopment. Thus, adverse effects of maternal exposure to MMI on fetal development have long been suggested; however, direct evidence for the teratogenicity of MMI has not been presented. Therefore, we studied the effects of MMI on early development by using zebrafish as a model organism. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were collected immediately after spawning and grown in egg culture water containing MMI at various concentrations. External observation of the embryos revealed that exposure to high concentrations of MMI resulted in loss of pigmentation, hypoplastic hindbrain, turbid tissue in the forebrain, swelling of the notochord, and curly trunk. Furthermore, these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Precise observation of the serial cross-sections of MMI-exposed embryos elucidated delayed development and hypoplasia of the whole brain and spinal cord, narrowing of the pharynx and esophagus, severe disruption of the retina, and aberrant structure of the notochord. These neuronal, pharyngeal, esophageal, and retinal anomalous morphologies have a direct analogy to the congenital anomalies observed in children exposed to MMI in utero. Here, we show the teratogenic effects of MMI on the development of zebrafish and provide the first experimental evidence for the connection between exposure to MMI and human MMI embryopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  7. Vascular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Jyotsna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of vascular anomalies is an emerging multidisciplinary, super-specialisation field involving several surgical, medical and radiological specialties. Over the years, development in this field has been limited because of complex nomenclature and lack of consensus on the best practice for treatment of some of the more complex vascular anomalies. It was only in 1996 that the International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies defined nomenclature for the anomalies and gave clear guidelines on management, allowing for improved clinical practices. As in all fields of clinical medicine, the correct diagnosis of the vascular anomalies is essential to choose the appropriate treatment. This paper gives clear guidelines for diagnosis, understanding of the anomalies and discusses their management.

  8. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Akarere C. Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the staple food crops grown in India. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is the most important fungal pathogen of maize, associated with diseases such as ear rot and kernel rot. Apart from the disease, it is capable of producing fumonisins, which have...... and the formulations, in comparison with the control, increased plant growth and vigour as measured by seed germination, seedling vigour, plant height, 1000 seed weight and yield. P. fluorescens pure culture used as seed treatment and as spray treatment enhanced the growth parameters and reduced the incidence of F....... verticillioides and the level of fumonisins to a maximum extent compared with the other treatments. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the potential role of P. fluorescens and its formulations in ear rot disease management. The biocontrol potential of this isolate is more suited for fumonisin reduction in maize...

  9. Ebstein anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the complications of the disease. For example, taking antibiotics before dental surgery may help prevent endocarditis. Alternative Names Ebstein's anomaly; Ebstein's malformation; Congenital heart defect - ...

  10. The effect of cannabis on the brain: can it cause brain anomalies that lead to increased risk for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Lynn E

    2008-03-01

    This review explores what is known about the association of cannabis with schizophrenia, its effects on the brain, and whether the brain changes known to be present in schizophrenia could be caused by cannabis and thus lead to a psychosis. The heavy use of cannabis is known to be associated with some adverse consequences, such as the occurrence of acute psychotic episodes and the development of chronic schizophrenia in some people even after its use has terminated. Recent studies have produced controversy about whether cannabis in heavy use can cause irreversible brain damage, particularly to adolescents, and thus whether a chronic psychosis could be a result of brain changes caused by cannabis. From the evidence that exists, it appears that the above view is unlikely and that cannabis may even have benign effects on brain structure, not producing deleterious damage. Its neurochemical interactions with the dopaminergic pathway, however, may, particularly in genetically vulnerable individuals, have adverse consequences.

  11. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scratching their ear canals when they try to clean their ears. This is especially true if they use cotton swabs or dangerously sharp small objects, like hair clips or bobby pins. Sometimes, in a person ...

  12. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  13. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  14. AETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF EAR DISCHARGE: A TWO YEAR RE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Background: The discharging ear is a common presentation in medical practice affecting all age groups but primarily children. This study shows the current aetiological causes of ear discharge and their antibiograms, data which would guide empirical treat- ment of ear infections, and also form ...

  15. A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase commonly used for negative selection in transgenic plants causes growth anomalies by disrupting brassinosteroid signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivasagam Sindhu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases form a large superfamily of enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions. The P450SU1 gene from the soil bacteria Streptomyces griseolus encodes CYP105A1 which acts on various substrates including sulfonylurea herbicides, vitamin D, coumarins, and based on the work presented here, brassinosteroids. P450SU1 is used as a negative-selection marker in plants because CYP105A1 converts the relatively benign sulfonyl urea pro-herbicide R7402 into a highly phytotoxic product. Consistent with its use for negative selection, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated with P450SU1 situated between recognition sequences for FLP recombinase from yeast to select for recombinase-mediated excision. However, unexpected and prominent developmental aberrations resembling those described for mutants defective in brassinosteroid signaling were observed in many of the lines. Results The phenotypes of the most affected lines included severe stunting, leaf curling, darkened leaves characteristic of anthocyanin accumulation, delayed transition to flowering, low pollen and seed yields, and delayed senescence. Phenotype severity correlated with P450SU1 transcript abundance, but not with transcript abundance of other experimental genes, strongly implicating CYP105A1 as responsible for the defects. Germination and seedling growth of transgenic and control lines in the presence and absence of 24-epibrassinolide indicated that CYP105A1 disrupts brassinosteroid signaling, most likely by inactivating brassinosteroids. Conclusions Despite prior use of this gene as a genetic tool, deleterious growth in the absence of R7402 has not been elaborated. We show that this gene can cause aberrant growth by disrupting brassinosteroid signaling and affecting homeostasis.

  16. Damage to the vestibular inner ear causes long-term changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Horii, A; Appleton, I; Darlington, C L; Smith, P F

    2001-01-01

    The vestibular inner ear detects head acceleration and initiates compensatory eye movement and postural reflexes that help keep the visual image of the world stable on the retina, and maintain balance, during unexpected head movement. The most primitive vestibular systems are estimated to have evolved more than 500 million years ago and in mammalian and submammalian species the vestibular reflexes are mediated by basic brainstem pathways (see Wilson and Melvill Jones, 1979 for review). Although the contributions of the vestibular system to higher cognitive function have generally received less attention than its reflexive roles, vestibular sensory information is transmitted to higher centres in the brain and humans with vestibular damage are known to experience debilitating perceptual illusions (see Curthoys and Halmagyi, 1995; Berthoz, 1996 for reviews). Increasing behavioural and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the hippocampus uses information from the vestibular inner ear in order to build up maps of space that can be used in the development of spatial memory during learning tasks (McNaughton et al., 1991; Chapuis et al., 1992; Wiener and Berthoz, 1993; O'Mara et al., 1994; Wiener et al., 1995; Gavrilov et al., 1995; Stackman and Taube, 1996; Vitte et al., 1996; Taube et al., 1996; Save et al., 1998; Peruch et al., 1999; Cuthbert et al., 2000; Russell et al., 2000). However, to date, there has been no indication of the long-term neurochemical effects of the loss of vestibular input on hippocampal function. Since nitric oxide has been implicated in the mechanisms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity associated with the development of short-term memory (e.g. Schuman and Madison, 1991; Schuman et al., 1994; Arancio et al., 1996; Wu et al., 1997; Lu et al., 1999), we examined whether changes occur in the activity and expression of the enzymes responsible for nitric oxide production (nitric oxide synthases) in subregions of the rat hippocampus at different

  17. A 600 kb triplication in the cat eye syndrome critical region causes anorectal, renal and preauricular anomalies in a three-generation family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, Jeroen; van Bever, Yolande; Hulsman, Lorette O M; van Kempen, Chantal A P; Bolman, Galhana M; van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Beverloo, H Berna; van Zutven, Laura J C M

    2012-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is caused by a gain of the proximal part of chromosome 22. Usually, a supernumerary marker chromosome is present, containing two extra copies of the chromosome 22q11.1q11.21 region. More sporadically, the gain is present intrachromosomally. The critical region for CES is currently estimated to be about 2.1 Mb and to contain at least 14 RefSeq genes. Gain of this region may cause ocular coloboma, preauricular, anorectal, urogenital and congenital heart malformations. We describe a family in which a 600 kb intrachromosomal triplication is present in at least three generations. The copy number alteration was detected using MLPA and further characterized with interphase and metaphase FISH and SNP-array. The amplified fragment is located in the distal part of the CES region. The family members show anal atresia and preauricular tags or pits, matching part of the phenotype of this syndrome. This finding suggests that amplification of the genes CECR2, SLC25A18 and ATP6V1E1, mapping within the critical region for CES, may be responsible for anorectal, renal and preauricular anomalies in patients with CES.

  18. Abnormal presentation of Peters' anomaly in a family with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of Peters' anomaly with bilateral crease on ear lobule and hypospadius was reported in a family with microcornea, cataract syndrome. The eyes had all the features of Perters' Anomaly. The combination of these fi ndings has not been reported in literature to our know ledge, making this case a unique one. Keywords: ...

  19. Twenty-one-year-old male with congenital anomalies, obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Townes – Brocks syndrome is an autosomal dominant multiple malformations syndrome comprising of ear anomalies/hearing loss, limb defects, anal, genitourinary, eye, spine anomalies, heart defects and sometimes mental retardation. This report presents the case of a 21-year-old secondary school leaver as a likely case ...

  20. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  1. Mass mortality events of the coral Balanophyllia europaea (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae) in the Mljet National Park (eastern Adriatic Sea) caused by sea temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kružić, P.; Popijač, A.

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent climate-induced mass mortalities of marine animals have been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea over the past 15 years. These mortality outbreaks have been associated with positive thermal anomalies. In this study, we assessed long-term (from 2003 to 2013) responses of the temperate coral Balanophyllia europaea to increasing seawater temperatures in the Mljet National Park in the Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean Sea) and described the relationship between recurrent mortality events and sea temperature regimes in the southern Adriatic Sea. Our results indicate that polyp bleaching and tissue necrosis caused the observed mortality. The first observations of B. europaea mortality within the study area in the Mljet NP were in early September 2003. The Mediterranean area experienced high temperatures and hydrographic stability over a period of several weeks throughout that summer, which resulted in a mass mortality event. In the Mljet National Park, the highest impact of mass mortality started during the exceptionally hot summer of 2012, representing one of the most severe mass mortality events ever observed in the Adriatic Sea. In 2012, sea temperatures at a 5 m depth during the summer period (from June to September) ranged from 24.44 to 30.16 °C in the Mljet NP. The northern sites in the Mljet NP were highly impacted, with up to 80 % of B. europaea specimens affected by necrosis, while the southern sites displayed the highest impact, with 90-100 % of affected individuals. Without any coral adaptation to warming and under the present climate-warming trend, new mass mortality events may occur in the near future, possibly causing a major coral biodiversity crisis in the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  3. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Children in day-care centres are at a higher risk. • Breast-feeding less than 3 months. Other conditions which may mimic acute purulent otitis media should be considered when evaluating a patient with a running ear.These are listed in Table I. To outrun the running ear all these facts should be kept in mind when evaluating ...

  4. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and ... Us Get Involved You are here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the ...

  5. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance ... Committees Contact Us Get Involved You are here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel ...

  6. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    organs including the skull and brain. Metastasis to the temporal bone is extremely rare. 1. An unusual presentation of isolated metastasis with middle ear effusion is reported. Case report. A 45 year old woman presented with a short history of blockage and pain in the right ear. She also complained of a feeling of pulsation in ...

  7. Ear drainage culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lab and placed on a special dish (culture media). The lab team checks the dish every day ... Medical findings based on ear anatomy Ear drainage culture ... PR. The clinician and the microbiology laboratory. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  8. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  9. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  10. A potential portal flow in the inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    . The endolymphatic sac has been implicated as a potential endocrine gland, which venules drain to the VVA. A reversal of the direction of flow in the VVA toward the inner ear could, through vestibular arteriovenous anastomosis, cause portal circulation in the inner ear. STUDY DESIGN: The authors conducted...... the endolymphatic sac may enter a portal circulation in the inner ear, which could cause disturbances in the endolymph homeostasis and potentially symptoms as seen in Meniere disease....

  11. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  12. Mast cells and middle ear effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, L E; Albiin, N; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Widemar, L

    1985-01-01

    The mast cell--an important component of connective tissue--carries in its cytoplasmic granules various biologically active substances, such as heparin, histamine, and a broad spectrum of enzymes. This cell type plays a prominent role in inflammatory and allergic conditions. In the middle ear, the mast cells are mainly localized in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and beneath the tracts of secretory and ciliated cells in the middle ear mucosa. Degranulation of the mast cells by the histamine liberator compound 48/80 causes histamine-rich effusion material to accumulate in the middle ear. Plugging of the eustachian tube and/or tympanic isthmus will bring about a similar accumulation. It would thus seem that mast cells in some way participate in the production of middle ear effusion, probably via their potent mediators.

  13. Better Ear Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Many medical conditions, ... This condition usually results from poor eustachian tube function concurrent with middle ear infection (otitis media), but ...

  14. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness ...

  15. An Analysis of Simulated and Observed Global Mean Near-Surface Air Temperature Anomalies from 1979 to 1999: Trends and Attribution of Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, R. M.; Ko, M. K. W.

    2001-01-01

    The 1979 - 1999 response of the climate system to variations in solar spectral irradiance is estimated by comparing the global averaged surface temperature anomalies simulated by a 2D (two dimensional) energy balance climate model to observed temperature anomalies. We perform a multiple regression of southern oscillation index and the individual model responses to solar irradiance variations, stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol loading, stratospheric ozone trends, and greenhouse gases onto each of five near-surface temperature anomaly data sets. We estimate the observed difference in global mean near surface air temperature attributable to the solar irradiance difference between solar maximum and solar minimum to be between 0.06 and 0.11 K, and that 1.1 - 3.8% of the total variance in monthly mean near-surface air temperature data is attributable to nations in solar spectral irradiance. For the five temperature data sets used in our analysis, the trends in raw monthly mean temperature anomaly data have a large range, spanning a factor of 3 from 0.06 to 0.17 K/decade. However. our analysis suggests that trends in monthly temperature anomalies attributable to the combination of greenhouse gas, stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric sulfate aerosol variations are much more consistent among data sets, ranging from 0.16 to 0.24 K/decade. Our model results suggest that roughly half of the warming from greenhouse gases is cancelled by the cooling from changes in stratospheric ozone. Tropospheric sulfate aerosol loading in the present day atmospheric contributes significantly to the net radiative forcing of the present day climate system. However, because the change in magnitude and latitudinal distribution of tropospheric sulfate aerosol has been small over the past 20 years, the change in the direct radiative forcing attributable to changes in aerosol loading over this time is also small.

  16. The effect of local application of insulin-like growth factor for prevention of inner-ear damage caused by electrode trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, H; Alimoglu, Y; Duzenli, U; Korkmaz, S; Inan, S; Olgun, L

    2017-03-01

    Electrode insertion during cochlear implantation causes cochlear damage and apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor applied locally was investigated in 21 rats. In the sham group, an intracochlear dummy electrode was inserted through the round window. In the control group, after the same insertion procedure, saline-soaked porcine skin gelatine was placed on the round window. In the study group, insulin-like growth factor 1 soaked gelatine was placed on the round window. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were measured and histopathological examination was performed. In the study group, at 2-4 kHz, one rat had deterioration, one showed improvement and the rest had stable thresholds 14 days after intervention. At 6 kHz, four rats showed improvement and the rest remained stable. At 8 kHz, four showed improvement, one had deterioration and two remained stable. In the other groups, hearing loss deteriorated in about half of the rats and remained stable in the rest. The mean post-operative 6 kHz threshold was significantly lower than that immediately after the intervention in the study group, contrary to the other groups. The study group had significantly better mean histopathological grading than the other groups. Local insulin-like growth factor 1 application may protect hearing after cochlear implantation.

  17. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  19. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  20. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  1. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  2. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    Abstract. Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion. Key words: Carcinoma, breast, metastasis, temporal bone, ...

  3. Ear surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/ ...

  4. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Local: reinfection with water in an ear with a perforation or ventilation tube, anatomical abnormalities of the ET. — Systemic: infections (e.g. tuberculosis), immune deficiency, systemic diseases (e.g. leukaemia, AIDS, diabetes, Wegener's granulomatosis, histiocytosis X), anaemia, allergies. Table I. Differential diagnosis of ...

  5. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and ... and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language Información en español Statistics Health Resources Clinical Studies Research Extramural Research ...

  6. Complex postaxial polydactyly types A and B with camptodactyly, hypoplastic third toe, zygodactyly and other digit anomalies caused by a novel GLI3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sara; Yıldız, Esra; Lal, Karmoon; Tolun, Aslıhan; Malik, Sajid

    2017-05-01

    Polydactyly is a phenotypically and genetically highly heterogeneous limb malformation with preaxial and postaxial subtypes and subtypes A and B. Most polydactyly entities are associated with GLI3 mutation. We report on 10 affected individuals from a large Pakistani kindred initially evaluated as a possible new condition. The phenotype is postaxial polydactyly types A and B associated with zygodactyly, postaxial webbing of toes and additional features not previously reported for isolated polydactyly such as camptodactyly, hypoplasia of third toe, and wide space between hallux and second toe. Hypothesizing that the disorder could have resulted from a mutation in a novel gene responsible for polydactyly, we launched a genetic investigation. By linkage mapping and exome sequencing in the most severe case, we identified novel heterozygous frameshift mutation NM_000168.5 (GLI3): c.3635delG (p.(Gly1212Alafs*18)) but did not detect any other possibly deleterious mutation that could explain the unusual features of camptodactyly, hypoplasia of third toe and wide space between first and second toes. Our findings further expand the phenotypic variability of GLI3 polydactyly. We also present a review of GLI3-associated isolated limb anomalies, which indicates that GLI3 mutation leads primarily to two well-established polydactyly types: postaxial types A and B and crossed polydactyly type I. In addition, a variety of other minor digit anomalies generally accompany polydactyly, and there is no straightforward genotype-polydactyly phenotype correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ear replanatation: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Božikov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total ear amputation is a rare accident. The most common causes are traffic accidents (33 %, followed by fights (28 %. In 1980, Pennington et al. reported the first successful microsurgical ear replantation in a 29-year old man.Methods: An English literature review of trauma cases of total ear amputation showed only 13 successful replantations with arterial and venous microanastomoses. We present a case report of successful total ear replantation with arterial and vein microanastomoses in a 17-year old boy.Results: Our ear replantation with both arterial and venous anastomoses performed was successful and we achieved an excellent aesthetic outcome.Conclusion: The reason for such a low number of successful ear replantations is technical challenge due to small vessel diameter, difficult vessel identification, vessel approach and concomitant avulsion injury. The best aesthetic result in ear reconstruction is achieved by microsurgical replantation. The surgical technique depends on the intraoperative findings. Since ear replantation is a very challenging procedure, a microsurgeon needs to discuss with the patient the risk of partial/total necrosis of the replanted ear and the possibilities of other reconstructive options.

  8. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flying. This sometimes uncomfortable sensation is related to pressure changes in the air space behind the eardrum (the middle ear). Normally, the Eustachian tube, a passageway that leads from the middle ear to the back of ... the nose, equalizes the air pressure in the middle ear to the outside air ...

  9. Limb anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurrieri, Fiorella; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt; Sangiorgi, Eugenio

    2002-01-01

    function of these molecules. The latter subject is divided into sections dealing with syndromal and nonsyndromal deficiencies, polydactylies, and brachydactylies. Conditions caused by mutations in homeobox genes and fibroblast growth factors and their receptor genes are listed separately. Since the process...

  10. Preliminary observations on isotretinoin-induced ear malformations and pattern formation of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, E

    1991-01-01

    Retinoic acid is a morphogenic substance capable of inducing a variety of limb malformations, including duplications and reduction-type defects. Whether retinoic acid plays a similar role in controlling pattern formation of other vertebrate structures is unclear. Many fetuses and infants exposed to isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) in utero have a characteristic pattern of anomalies, chiefly involving brain, craniofacial, and thymic morphogenesis. Among the craniofacial anomalies, external ear malformations are common and the specific types of auricular malformations include partial duplications, and tissue reductions and displacements. These similarities to the types of limb malformations that retinoic acid can induce suggest that retinoic acid may play an important role in controlling pattern formation of facial structures.

  11. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  12. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magariños

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  13. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Marta; Pulido, Sara; Aburto, María R; de Iriarte Rodríguez, Rocío; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  14. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Brian C; Damerla, Rama Rao; Vladar, Eszter K; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Wan, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C; Zahid, Maliha; Yagi, Hisato; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L; Suyama, Kaye L; Axelrod, Jeffrey D; Lo, Cecilia W

    2016-02-16

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj) in Prickle1 (Pk1), a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media isolated from children with spontaneous middle-ear drainage over a 12-year period (1999-2010 in a region of northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alonso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5% in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%, the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n=214 Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n=227, 27.8%, 3 (n=92, 11.2% and 19F (n=74, 9%. Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001 to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010. Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326 in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492 in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and

  16. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer’s ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. Aim To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:29207743

  17. Identification of Actinomyces meyeri actinomycosis in middle ear and mastoid by 16S rRNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Risako; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yano, Hisakazu; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Suzaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Hajime; Endo, Shiro; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2013-08-01

    Actinomycosis of the middle ear and mastoid is extremely rare. Here, we report a unique case of actinomycosis of the middle ear and mastoid caused by Actinomyces meyeri diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  18. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.

    2011-04-01

    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  19. The visible ear simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Mads Solvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2009-01-01

    material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume......, 2D, or optional anaglyph stereoscopic 3D was achieved on a standard Core 2 Duo personal computer with a GeForce 8,800 GTX graphics card, and surgical interaction was provided through a relatively inexpensive (approximately $2,500) Phantom Omni haptic 3D pointing device. CONCLUSION: This prototype...

  20. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...... of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...

  1. Fetal Kidney Anomalies: Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Nielsen, Marlene Louise

    with prenatally detected kidney anomalies in order to uncover genetic explanations and assess recurrence risk. Also, we aim to study the relation between genetic findings and post mortem kidney histology. Methods The study comprises fetuses diagnosed prenatally with bilateral kidney anomalies that have undergone...... in the nephronophthisis associated gene, TMEM67 and six fetuses had mutations in kidney developmental genes. For these fetuses kidney histology is presented. Conclusion and Perspectives In eight (14%) fetuses we identified a likely genetic cause of the kidney anomalies. Ten fetuses from eight families, in which...... no mutations were identified, have been selected for exome sequencing in order to uncover novel genes associated to fetal kidney anomalies....

  2. Temporal bone changes in patients with Goldenhar syndrome with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Friese, Natascha; Löwenheim, Hubert; Tropitzsch, Anke; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2014-06-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a developmental disorder presenting with orofacial and vertebral anomalies, which are also accompanied by abnormalities in other organs. We examined temporal bone changes with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities in these patients. A retrospective review of 7 new cases in addition to a previously published series of 14 cases with clinically diagnosed Goldenhar syndrome was carried out to search for inner ear anomalies. In addition, temporal bone imaging studies from the literature were summarized and compared with our results. Departments of Neuroradiology and Otorhinolaryngology at a university hospital. In addition to the previous series of 14 patients, 7 new patients with Goldenhar syndrome were identified. Patients underwent otologic examination, audiometric studies, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporal bone. Temporal bone changes and specifically inner ear malformations. Nineteen of 21 patients showed changes of the external and middle ear correlating with the literature. Seven of 21 patients showed inner ear abnormalities constituting one-third of all patients. These ranged from mild such as vestibular enlargement to severe defects such as cochlear hypoplasia and common cavity. Inner ear abnormalities were present in one-third of patients. Although in some cases, these might not be of clinical significance, some patients show severe defects of the inner ear requiring more complex hearing loss therapy. Therefore, imaging of the temporal bone structures is important in the care of these patients.

  3. Bionic ear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerini, R; Faccioli, N; Barillari, M; De Iorio, M; Carner, M; Colletti, V; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the different imaging features of middle and inner ear implants, brainstem implants and inferior colliculus implants. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) images of 468 patients with congenital or acquired transmissive or neurosensory hearing loss who underwent surgery. The implants examined were: 22 Vibrant Soundbridge implants, 5 at the long limb of the incus and 17 at the round window, 350 cochlear implants, 95 brainstem implants and 1 implant at the inferior colliculus. All patients underwent a postoperative CT scan (single or multislice scanner) and/or a Dentomaxillofacial cone-beam CT scan (CBCT) (axial and multiplanar reconstruction), and/or a plain-film radiography to visualise the correct position of the implant. The CBCT scan depicts Vibrant site of implant better than plain-film radiography, with a lower radiation dose compared to CT. For cochlear implants, a single plain radiograph in the Stenvers projection can directly visualise the electrodes in the cochlea. All patients with brainstem or inferior colliculus implants underwent postoperative CT to exclude complications and the assess correct implantation, but the follow-up of these implants can be performed by plain radiography alone. CT and CBCT scans are reliable and relatively fast methods for precisely determining the location of middle ear implants. CBCT is preferable to CT because of the lower radiation dose administered; a single plain-film radiograph is enough to visualise and follow-up cochlear, brainstem and inferior colliculus implants.

  4. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Taksande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  5. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  6. A 600 kb triplication in the cat eye syndrome critical region causes anorectal, renal and preauricular anomalies in a three-generation family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Knijnenburg (Jeroen); Y. van Bever (Yolande); L.O. Hulsman (Lorette ); C. van Kempen (Chantal); G.M. Bolman (Galhana); R.L.E. van Loon (Rosa Laura); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); L.J.C.M. van Zutven (Laura)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCat eye syndrome (CES) is caused by a gain of the proximal part of chromosome 22. Usually, a supernumerary marker chromosome is present, containing two extra copies of the chromosome 22q11.1q11.21 region. More sporadically, the gain is present intrachromosomally. The critical region for

  7. WFC3 IR subarray anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Certain combinations of WFC3 IR subarray size and sample sequence yield images that show a sharp change in background level that exactly bi-sects each detector amplifier quadrant. The change in level has an amplitude of a few DN per pixel. The cause of this anomaly and its apparent correlation with subarray size and sample sequence is not understood. Given the 4 available subarray sizes and 11 available readout sample sequences, there are a total of 44 possible subarray mode readout combinations. To date, 14 of those combinations have been used on-orbit in either calibration and GO programs. Of those, 3 combinations show the anomaly. This program will obtain IR dark exposures in the remaining 30 readout combinations that have not yet been explored. This will add to our knowledge of which combinations show the anomaly and will therefore help us to understand its origin.

  8. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  9. Intestinal vascular anomalies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, B; Yazbeck, S; Dubois, J; Brochu, P; Garel, L; Ouimet, A

    1997-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in childhood. Confusing nomenclature has made objective comparisons of published cases difficult and has interfered with an established consensus regarding diagnosis and therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this study was to clarify the situation by reviewing the records of all children who had intestinal vascular anomalies who were referred to our institution from 1975 to 1995. Thirteen lesions were identified in nine children (five boys and four girls). The median age at clinical onset was 8 years. Only two patients presented with a complex syndrome (Klippel-Trenaunay, 1; Osler-Rendu-Weber, 1). Diagnosis, location, and extension of these anomalies was only possible by angiography, which indicated that seven patients had isolated venous malformations and two had arteriovenous malformations. Because the lesions did not involve the serosa, intraoperative localization was a major problem. The main findings were a few slightly dilated mesenteric veins. Treatment was conservative in four children and surgical in five. Pathological findings on resected bowel demonstrated dilated and abnormal veins in the mucosa and submucosa. Selective angiography should not be delayed in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding if results of all other investigations are negative. Because these lesions are rarely recognizable on operative inspection, precise preoperative angiographic localization of intestinal vascular anomalies is essential to allow for a safe and limited resection of the involved bowel segment. Based on a better understanding of the natural history of these lesions, a classification of vascular anomalies of intestines in children is proposed.

  10. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    function, the recommended treatment is intravenous ciprofloxacin and ... respiratory tract infection. The infec- tion spreads to the middle ..... structures. The underlying pathophysiology of otitis externa is maceration of the skin of the external ear canal. The hair and lipid content of cerumen renders the ear canal impervious to ...

  11. Ear Reconstruction in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, John

    2015-12-01

    The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. A 556 kb deletion in the downstream region of the PAX6 gene causes familial aniridia and other eye anomalies in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Song, Wulian; Kang, Yang; Yu, Shihui; Yuan, Huiping

    2011-02-10

    The paired box gene 6 (PAX6) on human chromosome 11p13 is an essential transcription factor for eye formation in animals. Mutations in PAX6 can lead to varieties of autosomal-dominant ocular malformations with aniridia as the major clinical signs. Known genetic alterations causing haplo-insufficiency of PAX6 include nonsense mutations, frame-shift mutations, splicing errors, or genomic deletions. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic defects as the underlying cause of familial aniridia in a large Chinese family. All exons of PAX6 in the proband were sequenced by the Sanger sequencing technique. The genome of the proband was evaluated by a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to verify the abnormal aCGH findings in the proband and to test five other family members. There were no detectable pathogenic mutations in the exons of PAX6 in the proband. The aCGH analysis showed two copies of PAX6 but revealed a 566 kb hemizygous deletion of chromosome 11p13, including four annotated genes doublecortin domain containing 1 (DCDC1), DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 24 (DNAJC24), IMP1 inner mitochondrial membrane(IMMP1L), andelongation factor protein 4 (ELP4) downstream of PAX6. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the deletion in the proband and further identified the deletion in a blind fashion in four affected family members but not in the one with a normal phenotype. The 566 kb hemizygous deletion of chromosome 11p13 downstream of PAX6 should be the cause of the familial aniridia in this Chinese family, although two copies of PAX6 are intact. aCGH evaluation should be applied if there is a negative result for the mutation detection of PAX6 in patients with aniridia.

  13. Tectonically Induced Anomalies Without Large Earthquake Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheming; Wang, Guangcai; Liu, Chenglong; Che, Yongtai

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we documented a case involving large-scale macroscopic anomalies in the Xichang area, southwestern Sichuan Province, China, from May to June of 2002, after which no major earthquake occurred. During our field survey in 2002, we found that the timing of the high-frequency occurrence of groundwater anomalies was in good agreement with those of animal anomalies. Spatially, the groundwater and animal anomalies were distributed along the Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone. Furthermore, the groundwater level was elevated in the northwest part of the Zemuhe fault and depressed in the southeast part of the Zemuhe fault zone, with a border somewhere between Puge and Ningnan Counties. Combined with microscopic groundwater, geodetic and seismic activity data, we infer that the anomalies in the Xichang area were the result of increasing tectonic activity in the Sichuan-Yunnan block. In addition, groundwater data may be used as a good indicator of tectonic activity. This case tells us that there is no direct relationship between an earthquake and these anomalies. In most cases, the vast majority of the anomalies, including microscopic and macroscopic anomalies, are caused by tectonic activity. That is, these anomalies could occur under the effects of tectonic activity, but they do not necessarily relate to the occurrence of earthquakes.

  14. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  15. High Intensity Pressure Noise Transmission in Human Ear: A Three Dimensional Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Takumi; Gan, Rong; Leckness, Kegan

    2015-03-01

    High intensity pressure noise generated by explosions and jet engines causes auditory damage and hearing loss of the military service personals, which are the most common disabilities in the veterans. Authors have investigated the high intensity pressure noise transmission from the ear canal to middle ear cavity. A fluid-structure interaction with a viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane (TM) as well as the ossicular chain has been considered in the study. For the high intensity pressure simulation the geometry of the ear was based on a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear reported by Gan et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 2004). The model consists of the ear canal, TM, ossicular chain, and the middle ear cavity. The numerical approach includes two steps: 1) FE based finite-volume method simulation to compute pressure distributions in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity using CFX; and 2) FE modeling of TM and middle ear ossicles in response to high intensity sound using multi-physics analysis in ANSYS. The simulations provide the displacement of the TM/ossicular chain and the pressure fields in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. These results are compared with human temporal bone experimental data obtained in our group. This work was supported by DOD W81XWH-14-1-0228.

  16. Congenital optic nerve anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Begué, N; Saint-Gerons, M

    2016-12-01

    To update the current knowledge about congenital optic disc anomalies. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the major biomedical databases. Patients with these anomalies usually have poor vision in infancy. Refractive errors are common, and serous retinal detachment may develop in some of these anomalies. It is critically important to clinically differentiate between these congenital optic disc anomalies, as central nervous system malformations are common in some, whereas others may be associated with systemic anomalies. Congenital optic disc anomalies are a heterogeneous group of pathologies with characteristic fundus appearance and systemic associations. We should always try to make a correct diagnosis, in order to ask for specific tests, as well as to provide an adequate follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. What Is an Ear Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En ... otoscope, the doctor can see your eardrum , the thin membrane between your outer and middle ear. The ...

  18. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the pressure in the ear. When Else Are Antibiotics Needed? Antibiotics can be the right treatment for ... down with the bottle. Prevent exposure to secondhand smoke, which can increase the number and severity of ...

  19. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  20. Hemifacial microsomia with spinal and rib anomalies: prenatal diagnosis and postmortem confirmation using 3-D computed tomography reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratz, Karina; Vinkler, Chana; Lev, Dorit; Schreiber, Letizia; Malinger, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Hemifacial microsomia (OMIM164210) is a condition featuring unilateral ear anomalies and ocular epibulbar dermoids associated with unilateral underdevelopment of the craniofacial bony structures. Other associated anomalies have also been described, especially spinal malformations, and the term oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia spectrum (OVAS) was suggested to include the three predominant systems involved. Both genetic and environmental causes are implied in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, with a 3% recurrence rate according to reports of both vertical transmission and affected siblings. No specific gene was identified, albeit mutations in chromosome 10 and deficiencies of genes in the endothelin pathway in mice exhibited the same clinical features. We hereby describe the first case of prenatal diagnosis of spinal and rib malformations associated to hemifacial microsomia by means of 2-D and 3-D ultrasound in a 23-week fetus. The sonographic study depicted fetal scoliosis due to the presence of hemivertebrae, Sprengel's deformity of the left shoulder, ribs fusion, asymmetric ears with unilateral microtia, mandible unilateral hypoplasia as well as single umbilical artery and a 'golf ball' sign in the left ventricle of the heart. The diagnosis of OVAS was suggested and the family received proper genetic consultation. After termination of the pregnancy, the syndrome was confirmed by postmortem 3-D computed tomography study. In view of the grim outcome, prenatal death rate and high mortality and morbidity when three or more systems are involved, prenatal diagnosis and appropriate counseling are warranted. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  2. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  3. Pediatric tinnitus: Incidence of imaging anomalies and the impact of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rhorie; Kang, Elise; Hopkins, Brandon; Anne, Samantha

    2017-12-01

    Guidelines exist for evaluation and management of tinnitus in adults; however lack of evidence in children limits applicability of these guidelines to pediatric patients. Objective of this study is to determine the incidence of inner ear anomalies detected on imaging studies within the pediatric population with tinnitus and evaluate if presence of hearing loss increases the rate of detection of anomalies in comparison to normal hearing patients. Retrospective review of all children with diagnosis of tinnitus from 2010 to 2015 ;at a tertiary care academic center. 102 pediatric patients with tinnitus were identified. Overall, 53 patients had imaging studies with 6 abnormal findings (11.3%). 51/102 patients had hearing loss of which 33 had imaging studies demonstrating 6 inner ear anomalies detected. This is an incidence of 18.2% for inner ear anomalies identified in patients with hearing loss (95% confidence interval (CI) of 7.0-35.5%). 4 of these 6 inner ear anomalies detected were vestibular aqueduct abnormalities. The other two anomalies were cochlear hypoplasia and bilateral semicircular canal dysmorphism. 51 patients had no hearing loss and of these patients, 20 had imaging studies with no inner ear abnormalities detected. There was no statistical difference in incidence of abnormal imaging findings in patients with and without hearing loss (Fisher's exact test, p ;= ;0.072.) CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of anomalies detected in imaging studies done in pediatric patients with tinnitus, especially in the presence of hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Splenic Anomalies of Shape, Size, and Location: Pictorial Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalet Elcin Yildiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spleen can have a wide range of anomalies including its shape, location, number, and size. Although most of these anomalies are congenital, there are also acquired types. Congenital anomalies affecting the shape of spleen are lobulations, notches, and clefts; the fusion and location anomalies of spleen are accessory spleen, splenopancreatic fusion, and wandering spleen; polysplenia can be associated with a syndrome. Splenosis and small spleen are acquired anomalies which are caused by trauma and sickle cell disease, respectively. These anomalies can be detected easily by using different imaging modalities including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and also Tc-99m scintigraphy. In this pictorial essay, we review the imaging findings of these anomalies which can cause diagnostic pitfalls and be interpreted as pathologic processes.

  5. Splenic Anomalies of Shape, Size, and Location: Pictorial Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Adalet Elcin; Ariyurek, Macit Orhan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2013-01-01

    Spleen can have a wide range of anomalies including its shape, location, number, and size. Although most of these anomalies are congenital, there are also acquired types. Congenital anomalies affecting the shape of spleen are lobulations, notches, and clefts; the fusion and location anomalies of spleen are accessory spleen, splenopancreatic fusion, and wandering spleen; polysplenia can be associated with a syndrome. Splenosis and small spleen are acquired anomalies which are caused by trauma and sickle cell disease, respectively. These anomalies can be detected easily by using different imaging modalities including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and also Tc-99m scintigraphy. In this pictorial essay, we review the imaging findings of these anomalies which can cause diagnostic pitfalls and be interpreted as pathologic processes. PMID:23710135

  6. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease- A Clinical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirala Khalessi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in medicine have given us a better insight into a group of disorders known as autoimmune diseases. In particular, advances have occurred in our understanding of the Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED. In this article, the authors review the different postulated theories in the pathogenesis of this disease. The clinical presentation, the available para-clinical diagnostic tools, and the important differential diagnoses will be summarized. The management methods, including steroid therapy, immunosuppressive medications, other biological agents and intra-tympanic injections, will be addressed. Cochlear implantation as a final solution to the advanced stages of the disease, causing total deafness, will also be discussed.

  7. "COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borghei S. Abdi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings,complications, and postoperative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average follow-up period was 27 months. Malformations included one incomplete partition, one common cavity, one narrow internal acoustic canal (IAC in a patient with Riley-Day syndrome and 3 cases of large vestibular aqueduct. All received multi-channel implants either Nucleus 22 or Clarion device. Facial nerve was anomalous in 2 cases. CSF gusher occurred in 4 patients, which was controlled with packing the cochleostomy site. In all cases, the full length of electrode array was inserted, except one with Mondini's dysplasia where insertion failed in the first operation and was referred to another center for a successful surgery on the opposite ear. No other surgical complications were encountered. In 4 cases, all the 22 electrodes could be activated. All patients showed improved hearing performance after implantation. Four showed open-set speech recognition. The one with narrow IAC showed improved awareness to environmental sounds. In the other case (common cavity, the perception tests could not be performed because of very young age. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations is a successful way of rehabilitation, although complications should be expected and auditory responses may be highly variable and relatively moderate.

  8. De novo 14q24.2q24.3 microdeletion including IFT43 is associated with intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and myopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, M.F.; Oud, M.M.; Binsbergen, E. van; Slaats, G.G.; Nicolaou, N.; Renkema, K.Y.; Nijman, IJ; Roepman, R.; Giles, R.H.; Arts, H.H.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Haelst, M.M. van

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-year-old girl with mild intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, congenital heart defect, myopia, and facial dysmorphisms including an extra incisor, cup-shaped ears, and a preauricular skin tag. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified a de novo 4.5-Mb

  9. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  10. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been a significant increase in, and concern about antibacterial resistance of the organisms that cause AOM. These factors ... concerns about the rising rate of antibiotic - or antibacterial - use and resistance have emerged. What do th​​e new guidelines ...

  11. Anomalies on orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

    2001-03-16

    We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

  12. Development of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretically Optimal Distributed Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel general framework for distributed anomaly detection with theoretical performance guarantees is proposed. Our algorithmic approach combines existing anomaly...

  14. Attitude Of Self Ear Cleaning In Black Africans: Any Benefit? | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax removal compromises the integrity of the ear's defenses. It is a leading cause of otitis externa, Otomycosis and impaired hearing. Aims of the study are to assess the knowledge and implication of self ear cleaning among black Africans. Material and methods: A prospective study carried out at the Tundun-wada ...

  15. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  16. Scattering anomaly in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveirinha, Mario G

    2016-01-01

    In time-reversal invariant electronic systems the scattering matrix is anti-symmetric. This property enables an effect, designated here as "scattering anomaly", such that the electron transport does not suffer from back reflections, independent of the specific geometry of the propagation path or the presence of time-reversal invariant defects. In contrast, for a generic time-reversal invariant photonic system the scattering matrix is symmetric and there is no similar anomaly. Here, it is theoretically proven that despite these fundamental differences there is a wide class of photonic platforms - in some cases formed only by time-reversal invariant media - in which the scattering anomaly can occur. It is shown that an optical system invariant under the action of the composition of the time-reversal, parity and duality operators is characterized by an anti-symmetric scattering matrix. Specific examples of photonic platforms wherein the scattering anomaly occurs are given, and it is demonstrated with full wave n...

  17. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of infection-causing bacteria than the previous vaccine, the PCV7. If your child already has begun PCV7 vaccination, consult your physician ... infections than children who aren’t vaccinated. The vaccine is strongly ... and can help keep your child from catching a cold or the flu. Avoid ...

  18. Otoacoustic emissions from insect ears: evidence of active hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kössl, Manfred; Möckel, Doreen; Weber, Melanie; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2008-07-01

    Sensitive hearing organs often employ nonlinear mechanical sound processing which generates distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Such emissions are also recordable from tympanal organs of insects. In vertebrates (including humans), otoacoustic emissions are considered by-products of active sound amplification through specialized sensory receptor cells in the inner ear. Force generated by these cells primarily augments the displacement amplitude of the basilar membrane and thus increases auditory sensitivity. As in vertebrates, the emissions from insect ears are based on nonlinear mechanical properties of the sense organ. Apparently, to achieve maximum sensitivity, convergent evolutionary principles have been realized in the micromechanics of these hearing organs-although vertebrates and insects possess quite different types of receptor cells in their ears. Just as in vertebrates, otoacoustic emissions from insects ears are vulnerable and depend on an intact metabolism, but so far in tympanal organs, it is not clear if auditory nonlinearity is achieved by active motility of the sensory neurons or if passive cellular characteristics cause the nonlinear behavior. In the antennal ears of flies and mosquitoes, however, active vibrations of the flagellum have been demonstrated. Our review concentrates on experiments studying the tympanal organs of grasshoppers and moths; we show that their otoacoustic emissions are produced in a frequency-specific way and can be modified by electrical stimulation of the sensory cells. Even the simple ears of notodontid moths produce distinct emissions, although they have just one auditory neuron. At present it is still uncertain, both in vertebrates and in insects, if the nonlinear amplification so essential for sensitive sound processing is primarily due to motility of the somata of specialized sensory cells or to active movement of their (stereo-)cilia. We anticipate that further experiments with the relatively simple ears

  19. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  20. External ear: An analysis of its uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Purkait

    2016-06-01

    Hence, the individuality of every ear has been confirmed which may find use in personal identification studies. The study is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting ear evidence in the Court of Law.

  1. DESING OF CYLINDIRICAL EAR OF POLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar KARAGÖZ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Plough is an agricultural tool which is used for preparing land to male it ready for sowing. The funotion of lough is to break the compact land into small pieces and to allow a suitable condition for living of culture plants. The ear is the most important part of active plough surface. The geometrical form of ear determines the form of active surface together with the front iron tip. Ploughs are divided into two categories which are European and American types. There are important differencies betucen the European and American tyges with respect to ?, ß and ? angles. Gorjatschkin described the ear form of European ploughs under four main groups which are: 1. Cylindirical ear type, 2. Culture-form ear type, 3. Semi-curled ear type, 4. Curled ear type. In this work, the designing of cylindirical ear was studied.

  2. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  3. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Roque; Escada, Pedro

    Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal) language. To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a "third ear", and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Eleven individuals (22 ears) with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70±11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests) adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%). We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (p<0.05), so we rejected the null hypothesis, showing that there was statistically significant difference with speechreading; the same conclusion was obtained by analysis of the confidence intervals. Individuals with presbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear". Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  5. Multimodal recognition based on face and ear using local feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyin; Mu, Zhichun; Chen, Long; Fan, Tingyu

    2017-06-01

    The pose issue which may cause loss of useful information has always been a bottleneck in face and ear recognition. To address this problem, we propose a multimodal recognition approach based on face and ear using local feature, which is robust to large facial pose variations in the unconstrained scene. Deep learning method is used for facial pose estimation, and the method of a well-trained Faster R-CNN is used to detect and segment the region of face and ear. Then we propose a weighted region-based recognition method to deal with the local feature. The proposed method has achieved state-of-the-art recognition performance especially when the images are affected by pose variations and random occlusion in unconstrained scene.

  6. Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

  7. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  8. Parity (and time-reversal) anomaly in a semiconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Tchernyshyov, Oleg

    2000-01-01

    The physics of a parity anomaly, potentially observable in a narrow-gap semiconductor, is revisited. Fradkin, Dagotto, and Boyanovsky have suggested that a Hall current of anomalous parity can be induced by a Peierls distortion on a domain wall. I argue that a perturbation inducing the parity anomaly must break the time reversal symmetry, which rules out the Peierls distortion as a potential cause. I list all possible perturbations that can generate the anomaly.

  9. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  10. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rutter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the main aspects concerning airway management of infants will be analyzed. Conclusions: It is critical for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants.

  11. Question mark ear deformity-revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Qattan, Noha M

    2017-01-01

    We report on two unusual cases of Cosman (question mark) ear; both required modifications of the standard techniques for surgical correction. The first patient presented with a unilateral question mark ear and concurrent ear prominence and bulging of the cartilage of the anti-helix. Simultaneous correction was done using a combination of cartilage suturing/scoring (for the prominence and the cartilage bulge) as well as Al-Qattan's "v-y skin flap-cartilage graft-z-plasty" technique (for the correction of the ear cleft deformity). The second patient had aurico-condylar syndrome with bilateral ear deformity and complete separation of ear lobes from the external ear. Staged transposition followed by Al-Qattan's technique resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Level V, therapeutic study.

  12. Contribution of fetal MRI to the diagnosis of inner ear abnormalities: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilea, Bogdana; Garel, Catherine; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Menez, Francoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Developmental Biology, Paris (France); Vuillard, Edith [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    We report two cases of fetal inner ear abnormalities diagnosed by MRI. Cerebral MRI was performed on two fetuses, at 32 and 30 weeks gestation, following US that demonstrated multiple malformations suggestive of CHARGE syndrome in one fetus and ventriculomegaly and poor visibility of the posterior fossa in the other. MRI revealed vestibular hypoplasia and agenesis of the semicircular canals in one fetus and cystic cochleas, partial vermian agenesis and an occipital meningocele in the second fetus. Both pregnancies were terminated and there was good correlation between fetal MRI, ex utero CT and fetopathological findings. The inner ears should be carefully examined when performing fetal cerebral MRI because abnormalities of the inner ear may be associated with cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  13. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  14. Optical and tomographic imaging of a middle ear malformation in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela; Ketten, Darlene R.

    2005-01-01

    Using a combination of in vivo computerized tomography and histological staining, a middle ear anomaly in two wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) is characterized. In these animals, the tympanic membrane, extrastapes, and pars media (shaft) of the stapes are absent on one side of the head, with the other side exhibiting normal morphology. The pars interna(footplate) of the stapes and the operculum are present in their normal positions at the entrance of the otic capsule on both ...

  15. [Ebstein anomaly and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Carmen Armida Iñigo; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Higareda, Salvador Hernández; Vargas, Juan Rafael Gómez

    2008-08-01

    The Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital malformation of the tricuspid valve and of the right ventricle that usually is associated with interauricular communication, foramen oval, and arrhythmias of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type. To analyze the association between Ebstein's anomaly and pregnancy. A prospective study was made in five pregnant women's with Ebstein's anomaly without surgery. We analyzed the clinical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, x-ray of thorax, Doppler color heart ultrasound, and fetal valoration by means of pelvic ecosonogram and cardiotocographic registry, and routinely prenatal paraclinic tests. We observed severe expansion of the ventricle and 3rd degree index of atrialization in two patients. In two pregnancies there were interatrial communication (patients with cyanosis) and in three was detected severe tricuspid insufficiency. The average of gestacional age was of 36.4 +/- 1.8 weeks. Two of the five pregnancies has preterm birth. Only one childbirth was short weight to gestational age. The rest stayed within percentile 10. There were no obits or neonatal deaths, either congenital abnormality by Doppler heart ultrasound. The pregnancy is well tolerated in patients with Ebstein's anomaly; nevertheless, participation of multidisciplinary team is recommended to establish the treatment.

  16. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  17. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    . Empirically, we find that option-implied ex-ante skewness is strongly related to ex-post residual coskewness and alphas. Beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are largely driven by a single principal component, which is in turn largely explained by skewness. Controlling for skewness renders the alphas...

  18. Biocompatibility of Liposome Nanocarriers in the Rat Inner Ear After Intratympanic Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Feng, Hao; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2017-05-01

    Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The aim of the present study is to document the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear after intratympanic delivery. LPNs with or without gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA) were delivered to the rats through transtympanic injection. The distribution of the Gd-DOTA-containing LPNs in the middle and inner ear was tracked in vivo using MRI. The function of the middle and inner ear barriers was evaluated using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The auditory function was measured using auditory brainstem response (ABR). The potential inflammatory response was investigated by analyzing glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression in the inner ear. The potential apoptosis was analyzed using terminal transferase (TdT) to label the free 3'OH breaks in the DNA strands of apoptotic cells with TMR-dUTP (TUNEL staining). As a result, LPNs entered the inner ear efficiently after transtympanic injection. The transtympanic injection of LPNs with or without Gd-DOTA neither disrupted the function of the middle and inner ear barriers nor caused hearing impairment in rats. The critical inflammatory biological markers in the inner ear, including glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression, were not influenced by the administration of LPNs. There was no significant cell death associated with the administration of LPNs. The transtympanic injection of LPNs is safe for the inner ear, and LPNs may be applied as a drug delivery matrix in the clinical therapy of sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. The use of acetone to dissolve a Styrofoam impaction of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Broner, S

    1994-03-01

    Foreign bodies in the ear occasionally thwart conventional means of removal. Styrofoam can be particularly problematic because it can be compressed and become tightly impacted in an ear canal. Furthermore, Styrofoam is friable and tends to fragment with usual removal methods. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who was referred from another tertiary care hospital after failed efforts to remove a painfully impacted piece of Styrofoam from her left ear canal. Instillation of the organic solvent acetone into the ear canal was well tolerated and caused rapid and near-complete dissolution of the Styrofoam impaction. This is the first reported case of organic solvent dissolution of an otic foreign body. Ototoxic considerations are discussed as is a method for safe acetone instillation that minimizes the amount of acetone introduced into the ear canal.

  20. The aquatic tympanic ear: convergent adaptations for underwater hearing in three tetrapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    pressure, low particle motion medium, and the consequence is that an efficient underwater ear is sensitive to sound pressure. It is often stated that underwater hearing can work efficiently without a middle ear apparatus by bone conduction, since sound is transmitted from water to inner ear tissue...... with little loss. However, the sensitivity of such an ear is limited by the very low particle motion in water. We report on underwater hearing in tetrapods ranging from totally aquatic (the clawed frog Xenopus laevis) and mostly aquatic (the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta) to mostly terrestrial (the......All groups of tetrapods have members that adopt aquatic lifestyles with physiological adaptations also of their auditory system. Auditory sensitivity is affected by the different characteristic impedances in air and water caused by the differences in density and sound speed. Water is a high...

  1. Drug safety in pregnancy - monitoring congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, Margery; De Jong-Van Den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Jordan, Sue

    Aim This paper outlines research into the causes of congenital anomalies, and introduces a pan-European study. The potential roles of nurses and midwives in this area are illustrated by a case report. Background Since the thalidomide disaster, use of drugs in pregnancy has been carefully monitored

  2. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  3. Vascular anomalies in pediatric patients: updated classification, imaging, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Ramya; Odhav, Ashika; Rentas, Kenny E; Rivard, Douglas C; Lowe, Lisa H; Dinneen, Laura

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in knowledge regarding histopathology, cause, and treatment of pediatric vascular anomalies have led to substantial changes in classification and terminology. Over the past two decades, various subspecialists have adopted a new classification system proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies divides vascular anomalies into two categories: vascular neoplasms and malformations. It has been widely adopted by various pediatric subspecialists, because it reliably correlates patient presentation and disease progression, with more accurate histology, diagnosis, imaging, and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor T. Toth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

  5. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  6. Congenital pouch colon: Increasing association with low anorectal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of type IV congenital pouch colon associated with low anorectal anomaly are reported here. Pouch colon may be a cause of intractable constipation in children operated for low anorectal anomaly. Excellent results can be obtained by exicision of the pouch. The radiological and pathological features of this condition are discussed.

  7. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna-Godavari Basin, eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In both cases, the magnetic anomalies were caused dominantly by the magnetization contrast between the volcanic material and the surrounding oceanic crust, whereas the low gravity anomalies are by the flexures of the order of ... Department of Geo-informatics, Adikavi Nannaya University, Rajahmundry 533 105, India.

  8. Impact of socio-economic status on ear health and behaviour in children: A cross-sectional study in the capital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Gulati, Achal; Gupta, Umang

    2015-11-01

    Socio-economic differences in the society have been a major cause for the discrepancy in disease and behavioural patterns in society. With 360 million people (32 million children) in the world suffering from disabling hearing losses, it is imperative to gain an insight into the impact of differences in socio-economic strata on children's ear health issues, their knowledge of ear ailments and attitude towards ear health so as to suggest policies addressing ear health issues. The study was carried out in two different school types namely government schools and private schools which represent wide difference in the socio-economic status of the students studying there. A questionnaire was administered to students aged 10 to 13 years to assess the current ear care practices, knowledge regarding ear ailments, attitude towards hearing and their adaptability to reform. The children belonging to higher socio-economic status were found to have lesser incidence of ear diseases and ear abuse, more referrals for ear ailments, lesser indulgence in risky ear health behaviours, better knowledge pool, positive attitude towards ear health and hearing and were more adaptable to change for better hearing. Structures of social disparity are essential determinants of ear health acting both independently and through their influence on behavioural determinants of health. Increasing awareness of ear health issues at the school level itself should be one of the goals of health care providers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Developmental morphology of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, K; Anniko, M

    1997-01-01

    The development of the murine middle ear was monitored both qualitatively and morphometrically by scanning electron microscopy from the 19th gestational day to the adult stage. At birth, the middle ear was less well developed than the inner ear. The tympanic membrane (TM) was obscured by occlusion of the external auditory canal. Ciliated cells and secretory granules were present in the middle ear epithelium already 5 days after birth (DAB). Keratin debris was discerned on the external layer of the TM 9 DAB. By 12 DAB, mesenchymal tissue had resorbed from the middle ear cavity, except around the upper part of the ossicles. The middle ear was immature at birth but developed rapidly until 12 DAB. When compared with the avian middle ear the mouse middle ear was basically similar to that of humans, although in the human the stapedial artery is vestigial whereas in the mouse it persists as an important vessel. In man, there is no orbicular apophysis and no gonial of the malleus. The hypotympanum of the human middle ear is less developed than that of the murine middle ear. The mouse external auditory canal matures postnatally until 12 DAB, while in humans its development is complete at birth.

  10. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  11. Middle ear packing materials: comparison between absorbable hemostatic gelatine sponge and sugarcane biopolymer sponge in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Lopes Bunzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several biomaterials can be used in ear surgery to pack the middle ear or support the graft. The absorbable gelatin sponge is the most widely used, but it may produce fibrosis and impair ventilation of the middle ear. OBJECTIVE: This experimental study aimed to investigate the inflammatory effects of the sugarcane biopolymer sponge (BP in the rat middle ear compared with absorbable gelatin sponge (AGS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective experimental study design. Thirty adult female Wistar rats were allocated to receive the BP sponge into the right ear and AGS into the left ear. Animals were randomly killed at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. Qualitative histological assessments were performed to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the tympanic bullae. RESULTS: The BP sponge caused inflammation more intense and persistent than AGS. The BP was not absorbed during the experiment. Fibrosis was observed only in the ears with AGS. There were thickening of the mucosa and neoangiogenesis in the group of AGS. CONCLUSION: Despite inflammation, the BP sponge produced less fibrosis and neoangiogenesis compared to AGS. The sponge BP appeared to be a non-absorbable biomaterial in the middle ear.

  12. Poland-Moebius syndrome: a case with oral anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, A C; Lopes, S L C P; Almeida, S M; Boscolo, F N; Whaites, E J

    2004-11-01

    The combination of Moebius and Poland anomalies is rarely described in the literature. While some authors believe this association is an independent syndrome, others think that Poland, Moebius and Poland-Moebius syndromes are variations of the same condition. We report a case of Poland-Moebius syndrome in a 6-year-old girl who presented with bilateral convergent strabismus, the inability to abduct her eyes beyond the midline and brachydactyly of her right hand. Oral manifestations included incompetent lips and an abnormal tongue. Other facial features included hypoplasia of her mandible and her left ear at a slightly lower level than her right ear. Panoramic and lateral skull radiographs confirmed the absence of certain teeth and the hypoplastic mandible. The diagnosis of Poland-Moebius syndrome was made on the basis of cranial nerve involvement and oro-facial manifestations.

  13. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and dental anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Fuerte-Flores, Bertha Irene; Ricardez-Marcial, Edgar F; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the SOX2 gene and clinically characterized by severe eye malformations (anophthalmia/microphthalmia) and extraocular anomalies mainly involving brain, esophagus, and genitalia. In this work, a patient with the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and exhibiting a novel dental anomaly is described. SOX2 genotyping in this patient revealed an apparently de novo c.70del20 deletion, a commonly reported SOX2 mutation. A review of the phenotypic variation observed in patients carrying the recurrent SOX2 c.70del20 mutation is presented. Although dental anomalies are uncommonly reported in the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, we suggest that a dental examination should be performed in patients with SOX2 mutations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anomaly-safe discrete groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Chun Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.

  15. The surgical challenge of carotid artery and Fallopian canal dehiscence in chronic ear disease: a pitfall for endoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauna, H F; Monsanto, R C; Schachern, P A; Costa, S S; Kwon, G; Paparella, M M; Cureoglu, S

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic procedures are becoming common in middle ear surgery. Inflammation due to chronic ear disease can cause bony erosion of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals, making them more vulnerable during surgery. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not chronic ear disease increases dehiscence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals. Comparative human temporal bone study. Otopathology laboratory. We selected 78 temporal bones from 55 deceased donors with chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma and then compared those two groups with a control group of 27 temporal bones from 19 deceased donors with no middle ear disease. We analysed the middle ear, carotid artery canal and Fallopian canal, looking for signs of dehiscence of its bony coverage, using light microscopy. We found an increased incidence in dehiscence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals in temporal bones with chronic middle ear disease. The size of the carotid artery canal dehiscence was larger in the middle ear-diseased groups, and its bony coverage, when present, was also thinner compared to the control group. Dehiscence of the carotid artery canal was more frequently located closer to the promontory. The incidence of Fallopian canal dehiscence was significantly higher in temporal bones from donors older than 18 years with chronic middle ear disease. The increased incidence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canal dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic middle ear disease elevates the risk of adverse events during middle ear surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Automatic sleep monitoring using ear-EEG

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of sleep patterns without patient’s inconvenience or involvement of a medical specialist is a clinical question of significant importance. To this end, we propose an automatic sleep stage monitoring system based on an affordable, unobtrusive, discreet, and long-term wearable in-ear sensor for recording the electroencephalogram (ear-EEG). The selected features for sleep pattern classification from a single ear-EEG channel include the spectral edge frequency and multi-scale fuzzy...

  17. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, i...

  18. Rehabilitation with ear prosthesis linked to osseointegrated implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo C; dos Santos, Daniela M; Haddad, Marcela F; Moreno, Amália

    2012-06-01

    The absence of an ear, which can be the result of a congenital malformation, surgical tumour resection or traumatic injury, is a significant aesthetic problem. Attachment of ear prostheses with adhesives can cause local irritation for the wearer and affect the colour of the prostheses. Use of implants in craniofacial reconstruction can improve the retention and stability of prostheses giving to patient greater comfort and security relative to adhesive attachment. The aim of this report was to present a clinical case of a mutilated patient who was rehabilitated by means of installing an ear prosthesis fixed through osseointegrated implants. The patient had two implants installed in the mastoid region that were linked by a bar, and a clip-type system was used. The ear prosthesis was constructed from medical-use silicone, pigmented to match the patient's skin colour and linked to the retention system. The patient's rehabilitation was satisfactory from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view, making it possible for the patient to return to a normal social life and regain lost self-esteem. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  20. Effects of NSAIDs on the Inner Ear: Possible Involvement in Cochlear Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, two important enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, are major targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Recent investigations suggest that arachidonic cascades and their metabolites may be involved in maintaining inner ear functions. The excessive use of aspirin may cause tinnitus in humans and impairment of the outer hair cell functions in experimental animals. On the other hand, NSAIDs reportedly exhibit protective effects against various kinds of inner ear disorder. The present review summarizes the effects of NSAIDs on cochlear pathophysiology. NSAIDs are a useful ameliorative adjunct in the management of inner ear disorders.

  1. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roque Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal language. Objectives: To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a “third ear”, and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Methods: Eleven individuals (22 ears with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70 ± 11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%. Results: We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (p < 0.05, so we rejected the null hypothesis, showing that there was statistically significant difference with speechreading; the same conclusion was obtained by analysis of the confidence intervals. Conclusions: Individuals with presbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear".

  2. A case of aniridia with unilateral Peters anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Mayu; Sato, Miho; Hikoya, Akiko; Wang, Chunxia; Minoshima, Shinsei; Azuma, Noriyuki; Hotta, Yoshihiro

    2011-02-01

    Aniridia is an autosomal-dominant, panocular, congenital anomaly transmitted with high penetrance and largely caused by mutations in the PAX6 gene. Although Peters anomaly may also be caused by mutations in PAX6, there has not to our knowledge been a report of aniridia associated with lens displacement into the anterior chamber and lenticular-corneal attachment. We report a child with aniridia and Peters anomaly associated with a PAX6 gene mutation. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EEG recorded from the ear: Characterizing the ear-EEG method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Bjarke Mikkelsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigour, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references.The paradigms probed of auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady state response and alpha power attenuation.By comparing event related potential (ERP waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings, but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency-domain analyses.

  4. Three-dimensional CT of the ossicles of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Yamashita, Koichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of the ossicular chain in the middle ear by high speed helical CT. One dissected human temporal bone, five normal ears, and twelve diseased ears (trauma, ossicular anomaly, cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media) were scanned in 1.0 mm slices and reconstructed at a thickness of 0.2-0.5 mm. All 3-D CT specimens can be observed in any plane and from any direction. Ossicular 3-D CT temporal bone images were reconstructed as if the malleus, incus and stapes were being observed under a microscope. No defect in the ossicles or their joints was seen in the images. The entire structure of the stapes could not be represented by conventional two-dimensional CT, but the 3-D CT in our study showed the head, crus and foot plate of the stapes in detail. Ossicular 3-D CT images of normal ears yielded the same findings as those recorded in the temporal bone. Preoperative diagnostic findings of ossicles in diseased ears were very useful. 3-D CT was diagnostic and its accuracy was confirmed by surgical observations, especially in ossicular anomalies. 3-D CT was also an important method of postoperative evaluation of ossicular reconstruction, i.e. TORP and PORP. It could represent the anatomical relation between prosthesis and the oval window. Postoperative hearing improvement can be compared with 3-D CT findings. High-speed helical CT can scan an object more quickly and clearly than conventional CT, and its biological damage in humans is less than that of other methods. 3-D CT allows obviously clearer reconstruction by helical CT than the other methods. (author).

  5. Increased prevalence of major congenital anomalies in births with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Outi; Metsäranta, Marjo; Ritvanen, Annukka; Gissler, Mika; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavonen, Jorma; Nuutila, Mika; Andersson, Sture; Tikkanen, Minna

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between major congenital anomalies and placental abruption. A register-based retrospective case-control study was carried out from 1987 to 2005. Data on baseline characteristics and birth outcomes were collected from three Finnish national health registers: the Medical Birth Register, National Hospital Discharge Register, and Register of Congenital Malformations. The study population consisted of 4,190 women with singleton birth and placental abruption. Three control women without placental abruption were selected for each case, matched by maternal age, parity, year of birth, and hospital district. The main outcome measure of the study was a major congenital anomaly associated with placental abruption. In total, 261 (prevalence 623/10,000) births with placental abruption and 415 (prevalence 330/10,000) control births had major congenital anomalies (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.52). The association was strongest among births with growth restriction and prematurity. Adjusted analysis revealed a significant association with central nervous system anomalies (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.29-4.23), anomalies of the eyes and ears (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.08-3.09), cardiovascular anomalies (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.34-2.37), respiratory anomalies (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.56-7.90), gastrointestinal anomalies (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.27-6.41), genitourinary anomalies (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.73- 3.74), musculoskeletal anomalies (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.24-2.24), and anomalies of integument (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.20-8.98) in births complicated by placental abruption. Major congenital anomalies are twice as common among neonates born from pregnancies complicated by placental abruption compared with control pregnancies without abruption. This observation applies to several organ systems. II.

  6. A novel splice site mutation of myosin VI in mice leads to stereociliary fusion caused by disruption of actin networks in the apical region of inner ear hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Seki

    Full Text Available An unconventional myosin encoded by the myosin VI gene (MYO6 contributes to hearing loss in humans. Homozygous mutations of MYO6 result in nonsyndromic profound congenital hearing loss, DFNB37. Kumamoto shaker/waltzer (ksv mice harbor spontaneous mutations, and homozygous mutants exhibit congenital defects in balance and hearing caused by fusion of the stereocilia. We identified a Myo6c.1381G>A mutation that was found to be a p.E461K mutation leading to alternative splicing errors in Myo6 mRNA in ksv mutants. An analysis of the mRNA and protein expression in animals harboring this mutation suggested that most of the abnormal alternatively spliced isoforms of MYO6 are degraded in ksv mice. In the hair cells of ksv/ksv homozygotes, the MYO6 protein levels were significantly decreased in the cytoplasm, including in the cuticular plates. MYO6 and stereociliary taper-specific proteins were mislocalized along the entire length of the stereocilia of ksv/ksv mice, thus suggesting that MYO6 attached to taper-specific proteins at the stereociliary base. Histological analysis of the cochlear hair cells showed that the stereociliary fusion in the ksv/ksv mutants, developed through fusion between stereociliary bundles, raised cuticular plate membranes in the cochlear hair cells and resulted in incorporation of the bundles into the sheaths of the cuticular plates. Interestingly, the expression of the stereociliary rootlet-specific TRIO and F-actin binding protein (TRIOBP was altered in ksv/ksv mice. The abnormal expression of TRIOBP suggested that the rootlets in the hair cells of ksv/ksv mice had excessive growth. Hence, these data indicated that decreased MYO6 levels in ksv/ksv mutants disrupt actin networks in the apical region of hair cells, thereby maintaining the normal structure of the cuticular plates and rootlets, and additionally provided a cellular basis for stereociliary fusion in Myo6 mutants.

  7. Middle ear structure in relation to function : the rat in middle ear research

    OpenAIRE

    Albiin, Nils

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the rat as a model for middle ear re­search. The rat was chosen primarily because the gross structure of its middle ear shows several similarities to that of man. It was considered of great importance to make a thorough structural study of the rat middle ear and to compare the results with those reported for the human middle ear. The thesis therefore includes indepen­dent studies on various aspects of rat middle ear structure and function as well a...

  8. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    life. Ear-EEG may therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. In this study we investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  9. Bridging phenomenon - Simplifying complex ear reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Lapid, Oren; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extirpation of noninvasive skin tumors of the anterior ear may create large defects. Various flaps, described to cover these defects, demand special knowledge without which a loss of the fine detail of the ear may result. Healthy, exposed cartilage is deliberately excised leaving a basic framework

  10. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  11. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  12. Why do elephants flap their ears?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimations. Reasons are advanced for believing that ear blood flow is controlled in the interests of thermoregulation. Behavioural fanning activity and the large ear surface area and surface to volume ratio suggest that this organ is of major. importance in thermoregulation under warm environmental conditions. s. Afr. J. Zool.

  13. Cilia distribution and polarity in the epithelial lining of the mouse middle ear cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Wenwei Luo; Hong Yi; Jeannette Taylor; Jian-dong Li; Fanglu Chi; N. Wendell Todd; Xi Lin; Dongdong Ren; Ping Chen

    2017-01-01

    The middle ear conducts sound to the cochlea for hearing. Otitis media (OM) is the most common illness in childhood. Moreover, chronic OM with effusion (COME) is the leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Clinically, COME is highly associated with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, implicating significant contributions of cilia dysfunction to COME. The understanding of middle ear cilia properties that are critical to OM susceptibility, however, is limited. Here, we confirmed the presence of a cil...

  14. Detecting Biosphere anomalies hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche-Garcia, Yanira; Mahecha, Miguel; Flach, Milan; Denzler, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The current amount of satellite remote sensing measurements available allow for applying data-driven methods to investigate environmental processes. The detection of anomalies or abnormal events is crucial to monitor the Earth system and to analyze their impacts on ecosystems and society. By means of a combination of statistical methods, this study proposes an intuitive and efficient methodology to detect those areas that present hotspots of anomalies, i.e. higher levels of abnormal or extreme events or more severe phases during our historical records. Biosphere variables from a preliminary version of the Earth System Data Cube developed within the CAB-LAB project (http://earthsystemdatacube.net/) have been used in this study. This database comprises several atmosphere and biosphere variables expanding 11 years (2001-2011) with 8-day of temporal resolution and 0.25° of global spatial resolution. In this study, we have used 10 variables that measure the biosphere. The methodology applied to detect abnormal events follows the intuitive idea that anomalies are assumed to be time steps that are not well represented by a previously estimated statistical model [1].We combine the use of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models with a distance metric like Mahalanobis distance to detect abnormal events in multiple biosphere variables. In a first step we pre-treat the variables by removing the seasonality and normalizing them locally (μ=0,σ=1). Additionally we have regionalized the area of study into subregions of similar climate conditions, by using the Köppen climate classification. For each climate region and variable we have selected the best ARMA parameters by means of a Bayesian Criteria. Then we have obtained the residuals by comparing the fitted models with the original data. To detect the extreme residuals from the 10 variables, we have computed the Mahalanobis distance to the data's mean (Hotelling's T^2), which considers the covariance matrix of the joint

  15. [The infections of the ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Catherine; Tanaka, Lei; Bobin, Serge; Nevoux, Jérôme

    2017-11-01

    In front of external otitis in spite of a well-conducted treatment, especially in immunodeficient patient, it is always necessary to look for an osteomyelitis of the skull base that requires an urgent parenteral antibiotic treatment of several weeks. Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial infection of the child. In children under 2 years with purulent AOM, antibiotic therapy with amoxicilline is systematic for a period of 8-10 days. After 2 years of age and with mild symptoms of AOM, symptomatic treatment may be justified as first-line treatment. Chronic otitis media is frequent after an episode of AOM and becomes chronic only after 3 months of evolution. Grommets reduce the frequency of AOM episodes. All AOM complicated with meningitis requires monitoring by audiogram and MRI of the ear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Pica and the elephant's ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailidou, Helen; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Paspalaki, Penelope; Borgia, Pelagia; Mantzouranis, Evangelia

    2002-11-01

    This is a case report of an otherwise healthy 2-year-old boy with a history of pica, associated with iron deficiency anemia. This boy was referred to our department for a neurologic evaluation because of an acute episode of sialorrhea, difficulty in speaking, dysphagia, and repeated swallowing movements. An uncertain episode of a brief-duration still gaze was also reported. In addition, the history revealed that the child had earlier ingested a leaf from a poisonous houseplant called Colocasia esculenta, also known as "elephant's ear." The habit of pica subsided after treatment with iron supplements. A 9-month follow-up period was uneventful. Neurologic manifestations can accompany accidental intoxications of some non-nutrient substances. Thus, pica must be suspected in children with acute behavior alterations.

  17. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. More about discrete gauge anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1993-01-01

    I discuss and extend several results concerning the cancellation of discrete gauge anomalies. I show how heavy fermions do not decouple in the presence of discrete gauge anomalies. As a consequence, in general, cancellation of discrete gauge anomalies cannot be described merely in terms of low energy operators involving only the light fermions. I also discuss cancellation of discrete gauge anomalies through a discrete version of the Green-Schwarz (GS) mechanism as well as the possibility of discrete gauge R-symmetries and their anomalies. Finally, some phenomenological applications are discussed. This includes symmetries guaranteeing absence of FCNC in two-Higgs models and generalized matter parities stabilizing the proton in the supersymmetric standard model. In the presence of a discrete GS mechanism or/and gauge R-symmetries, new possibilities for anomaly free such symmetries are found.

  19. Anomaly detection: eye movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W; Fodor, J D; Crain, S; Shankweiler, D

    1998-09-01

    The symptom of a garden path in sentence processing is an important anomaly in the input string. This anomaly signals to the parser that an error has occurred, and provides cues for how to repair it. Anomaly detection is thus an important aspect of sentence processing. In the present study, we investigated how the parser responds to unambiguous sentences that contain syntactic anomalies and pragmatic anomalies, examining records of eye movement during reading. While sensitivity to the two kinds of anomaly was very rapid and essentially simultaneous, qualitative differences existed in the patterns of first-pass reading times and eye regressions. The results are compatible with the proposal that syntactic information and pragmatic information are used differently in garden-path recovery.

  20. Congenital anomalies: 15 years of experience in a level III hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Félix

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies (CAs are a leading cause of fetal and infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. They may be identified prenatally, at the moment of birth or later in life.Purpose: To describe the cases of CAs registered over the last 15 years at a level III hospital, comparing individuals who were detected through prenatal (preN diagnosis with those detected through postnatal (postN diagnosis.Methods: All records were collected from the Registo Nacional de Anomalias Congénitas (RENAC online platform between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014, in a level III hospital, where cases of CAs were notified voluntarily (n = 1,222. We tested differences for selected variables between the years in study. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential factors associated to preN diagnosis.Results: We observed a total of 1,510 anomalies, being 493 (40.3% circulatory, 252 (20.6% chromosomal, 187 (15.3% musculoskeletal, 138 (11.3% digestive, 133 (10.9% urinary, 117 (9.6% nervous, 37 (3.0% respiratory, 35 (2.9% genital, 25 (2% anomalies of the eye, ear, face and neck, 20 (1.6% cleft lip/cleft palate and 73 (6.0% others. Time of diagnosis was known for all subjects: 770 (63.0% were diagnosed prenatally and 452 (37.0% were diagnosed at birth or during the first month of life. We found statistically significant differences between groups for several variables. Assisted reproduction techniques (p = 0.023, maternal medications during the first trimester of pregnancy (p = 0.004 and the number of anomalies per individual (p ≤ 0.001 had a statistically significant impact on receiving preN diagnosis.Conclusion: Our data confirm the importance of both RENAC national database and preN diagnosis in improving perinatal healthcare. However, in order to determine the national prevalence of CAs and understand any involved factors, it is desirable to enhance the notification in the whole country, facilitating the adjustment of national

  1. What is a Timing Anomaly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Olesen, Mads Chr.

    2012-01-01

    Timing anomalies make worst-case execution time analysis much harder, because the analysis will have to consider all local choices. It has been widely recognised that certain hardware features are timing anomalous, while others are not. However, defining formally what a timing anomaly is, has been...... difficult. We examine previous definitions of timing anomalies, and identify examples where they do not align with common observations. We then provide a definition for consistently slower hardware traces that can be used to define timing anomalies and aligns with common observations....

  2. Latitudinal extent of the equatorial anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobuchar, J.A.; Anderson, D.N.; Doherty, P.H.

    1990-05-03

    The latitudinal extent of the equatorial anomaly has been studied using a theoretical model of the ionosphere which incorporates measured values of vertical E x B drift at the earth's magnetic equator. Realistic values of neutral winds are also included. The equatorial anomaly region, typically between plus and minus 20 degrees magnetic latitude, is that part of the world where the highest values of electron density and Total Electron Content, (TEC), normally occur, and hence is very important to high frequency propagation and to trans-ionospheric propagation effects. During the daytime, upward E x B drift at the magnetic equator drives the ionization across field lines to higher latitudes, causing crests in ionization to occur at approximately plus and minus 15 deg dip latitude. The latitude range over which the anomaly makes a significant difference in values of foF2 and TEC is calculated as a percent departure from the case with no equatorial electric field. Results from the model studies with different values of realistic electric fields show that the effects of the anomaly can be highly variable and widespread in latitude and local time.

  3. Turtle carapace anomalies: the roles of genetic diversity and environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Velo-Antón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations.

  4. Localization of antileukoprotease in middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, B; Ohlsson, K

    1983-01-01

    The localization of antileukoprotease was studied immunohistologically in normal middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at autopsy and in chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at middle ear surgery for chronic otitis media. In the sections of normal as well as in the sections of chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa, antileukoprotease localization was confined to PAS-positive goblet cells of surface epithelium and to PAS-positive goblet-like cells of submucosal glands and crypts, whereas ciliated mucosal cells and stratified squamous epithelial cells were devoid of anti-leukoprotease. In comparison with normal middle ear mucosa, an increased number of goblet cells--and thus an increased number of cells containing antileukoprotease--was present in the chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa. Since antileukoprotease is a potent inhibitor of granulocyte elastase and Cathepsin G, it was concluded that this proliferation of the respiratory epithelium during inflammatory processes in the middle ear indicates an increased activity of the biologic defence system against the action of granulocyte proteases.

  5. The Ear-Brain Connection: Older Ears and Older Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent research from our laboratory on the topic of aging, and the ear-brain system, as it relates to hearing aid use and auditory rehabilitation. The material described here was presented as part of the forum on the brain and hearing aids, at the 2014 HEaling Across the Lifespan (HEAL) conference. The method involves a narrative review of previously reported electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from our laboratory as they relate to the (a) neural detection of amplified sound and (b) ability to learn new sound contrasts. Results from our studies add to the mounting evidence that there are central effects of biological aging as well as peripheral pathology that affect a person's neural detection and use of sound. What is more, these biological effects can be seen as early as middle age. The accruing evidence has implications for hearing aid use because effective communication relies not only on sufficient detection of sound but also on the individual's ability to learn to make use of these sounds in ever-changing listening environments.

  6. [Developmental venous anomaly (DVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Hagen, T; Ahlhelm, F; Viera, J; Reith, W; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G

    2007-10-01

    As congenital anatomic variants of venous drainage, developmental venous anomalies (DVA) represent up to 60% of all cerebral vascular malformations. The prior term "venous angioma" is a misnomer implicating an abnormal vascular structure with an increased bleeding risk. They are often found incidentally and are hardly ever symptomatic. Their morphologic characteristics are dilated vessels in the white matter, which converge on a greater collector vein, forming the typical caput medusae. They drain into the superficial or deep venous system. The frequent association with other, potentially bleeding-prone vascular malformations is clinically relevant, in particular cavernous angioma, which might require therapeutic action. Therefore, coincident vascular lesions need to be actively sought by appropriate additional imaging techniques.

  7. Anomalies and entanglement renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Jacob C.; Williamson, Dominic J.

    2017-09-01

    We study 't Hooft anomalies of discrete groups in the framework of (1+1)-dimensional multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz states on the lattice. Using matrix product operators, general topological restrictions on conformal data are derived. An ansatz class allowing for optimization of MERA with an anomalous symmetry is introduced. We utilize this class to numerically study a family of Hamiltonians with a symmetric critical line. Conformal data is obtained for all irreducible projective representations of each anomalous symmetry twist, corresponding to definite topological sectors. It is numerically demonstrated that this line is a protected gapless phase. Finally, we implement a duality transformation between a pair of critical lines using our subclass of MERA.

  8. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    This paper shows theoretically and empirically that beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are driven by return skewness. The empirical patterns concisely match the predictions of our model that endogenizes the role of skewness for stock returns through default risk. With increasing downside...... risk, the standard capital asset pricing model (CAPM) increasingly overestimates expected equity returns relative to firms' true (skew-adjusted) market risk. Empirically, the profitability of betting against beta/volatility increases with firms' downside risk, and the risk-adjusted return differential...... of betting against beta/volatility among low skew firms compared to high skew firms is economically large. Our results suggest that the returns to betting against beta or volatility do not necessarily pose asset pricing puzzles but rather that such strategies collect premia that compensate for skew risk...

  9. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  10. [Müllerian anomalies. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrashtehfar, Cyrus Dean Mario; Piña-García, Adrián; Afrashtehfar, Kelvin Ian

    2014-01-01

    Müllerian duct anomalies are a group of uncommon and underdiagnosed entities, which cause specific symptoms in adolescent females and may be associated with infertility as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes. These malformations occur as a result of an arrest or abnormal development of the Müllerian ducts in different stages of the female reproductive tract during gestation. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA), formerly known as the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, is a rare entity characterized by the presence of a uterus didelphys with an obstructed hemivagina cause by a vaginal septum and the association of a renal anomaly (most commonly renal agenesis) ipsilateral to the obstruction. This syndrome may remain undiagnosed during childhood and usually becomes symptomatic after menarche, causing obstructive symptoms. Occasionally it may be identified after the evaluation of a patient with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. The clinical diagnosis is very challenging and requires imaging studies in which ultrasound and MRI play an essential role in the diagnosis, classification and treatment plan. Opportune diagnosis and treatment achieve complete improvement of symptoms, adequate reproductive prognosis and avoid major complications such as endometriosis, pelvic adhesions and infertility. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of the obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome.

  11. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kamide

    2012-01-01

    tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

  12. Anomaly detection in clinical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengxing; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2012-01-01

    Meaningful anomalies in clinical processes may be related to caring performance or even the patient survival. It is imperative that the anomalies be timely detected such that useful and actionable knowledge of interest could be extracted to clinicians. Many previous approaches assume prior knowledge about the structure of clinical processes, using which anomalies are detected in a supervised manner. For a majority of clinical settings, however, clinical processes are complex, ad hoc, and even unknown a prior. In this paper, we investigate how to facilitate detection of anomalies in an unsupervised manner. An anomaly detection model is presented by applying a density-based clustering method on patient careflow logs. Using the learned model, it is possible to detect whether a particular patient careflow trace is anomalous with respect to normal traces in the logs. The approach has been validated over real data sets collected from a Chinese hospital.

  13. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  14. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth; Stolcke, Andreas; Peskin, Barbara; Ang, Jeremy; Hillard, Dustin; Ostendorf, Mari; Tomalin, Marcus; Woodland, Phil; Harper, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Both human and automatic processing of speech require recognition of more than just words. In this paper we provide a brief overview of research on structural metadata extraction in the DARPA EARS rich transcription program...

  15. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  16. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  17. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  18. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... A middle ear mold is made of materials such as polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene, silicone... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

  19. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-08-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. Other animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author).

  20. Analysis of the effect of lying on the ear on body temperature measurement using a tympanic thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gulsah Gurol; Eser, Ismet; Khorshid, Leyla

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of lying on the ear on the measurement of body temperature by a tympanic thermometer. Participants in the study were healthy young people of the Nursing Department of the College of Health, Izmir, Turkey. Sixty-eight participants who agreed to participate, and who had no discharge or infection of the ear and no upper respiratory tract infection, were included in the study. Immediately after the first temperature reading, measurement had been performed five times. Non-probability sampling method was used and the study was conducted in January 2007. Tympanic thermometer body temperature results were significantly higher (p measurements were taken following lying on the ear compared to those when the subject did not lie on the ear prior to temperature measurement. There are significant differences in tympanic temperature caused by the subject lying on his or her ear. This is important to keep in mind during health workers' assessments.

  1. Compensating for Deviant Middle Ear Pressure in Otoacoustic Emission Measurements, Data, and Comparison to a Middle Ear Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Janny R.; de Kleine, Emile; Avan, Paul; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Koopmans, Peter J.; van Dijk, Pim

    Objective: Deviant middle ear pressure has a negative effect on the forward and backward transmission of stimulus and emissions through the middle ear. Resolving this deviant middle ear pressure is expected to lead to better middle ear transmission and, as a result of this, stronger otoacoustic

  2. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  3. The candidate splicing factor Sfswap regulates growth and patterning of inner ear sensory organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Moayedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is thought to regulate multiple stages of inner ear development. Mutations in the Notch signaling pathway cause disruptions in the number and arrangement of hair cells and supporting cells in sensory regions of the ear. In this study we identify an insertional mutation in the mouse Sfswap gene, a putative splicing factor, that results in mice with vestibular and cochlear defects that are consistent with disrupted Notch signaling. Homozygous Sfswap mutants display hyperactivity and circling behavior consistent with vestibular defects, and significantly impaired hearing. The cochlea of newborn Sfswap mutant mice shows a significant reduction in outer hair cells and supporting cells and ectopic inner hair cells. This phenotype most closely resembles that seen in hypomorphic alleles of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1. We show that Jag1; Sfswap compound mutants have inner ear defects that are more severe than expected from simple additive effects of the single mutants, indicating a genetic interaction between Sfswap and Jag1. In addition, expression of genes involved in Notch signaling in the inner ear are reduced in Sfswap mutants. There is increased interest in how splicing affects inner ear development and function. Our work is one of the first studies to suggest that a putative splicing factor has specific effects on Notch signaling pathway members and inner ear development.

  4. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  5. Cilia distribution and polarity in the epithelial lining of the mouse middle ear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenwei; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette; Li, Jian-Dong; Chi, Fanglu; Todd, N Wendell; Lin, Xi; Ren, Dongdong; Chen, Ping

    2017-03-30

    The middle ear conducts sound to the cochlea for hearing. Otitis media (OM) is the most common illness in childhood. Moreover, chronic OM with effusion (COME) is the leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Clinically, COME is highly associated with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, implicating significant contributions of cilia dysfunction to COME. The understanding of middle ear cilia properties that are critical to OM susceptibility, however, is limited. Here, we confirmed the presence of a ciliated region near the Eustachian tube orifice at the ventral region of the middle ear cavity, consisting mostly of a lumen layer of multi-ciliated and a layer of Keratin-5-positive basal cells. We also found that the motile cilia are polarized coordinately and display a planar cell polarity. Surprisingly, we also found a region of multi-ciliated cells that line the posterior dorsal pole of the middle ear cavity which was previously thought to contain only non-ciliated cells. Our study provided a more complete understanding of cilia distribution and revealed for the first time coordinated polarity of cilia in the epithelium of the mammalian middle ear, thus illustrating novel structural features that are likely critical for middle ear functions and related to OM susceptibility.

  6. Middle ear and hearing disorders of schoolchildren aged 7-10 years in South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamah, G; Mabrouk, A; Ghorab, E; Ahmady, M; Abdulsalam, H

    2012-03-01

    Hearing loss among schoolchildren in developing countries is reported to be a significant health problem. Data on child hearing loss in South Sinai, a remote governorate of Egypt, are lacking. Middle ear diseases and hearing impairment were assessed among 453 primary-school children aged 7-10 years in South Sinai (906 ears). Otoscopic examination, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA) were done. Ear disease was found in 27.5% of the ears examined. The commonest cause was secretory otitis media (10.8%), followed by occluded earwax (9.5%). Mild and moderate hearing loss affected 8.5% of the sample, while sensorineural hearing loss affected 2.4%; only 0.4% had moderate and severe hearing loss. Hearing impairment affects 19.3% of this age group in South Sinai. None of the children with hearing impairment had been previously diagnosed or was receiving treatment and support. Hearing and middle ear screening at schools is recommended for early detection and management of middle ear and hearing problems.

  7. Dyshormonogenetic goiter and associated non-thyroidal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid J Farooqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyshormonogenetic goiter (DG refers to familial goitres owing to an inherited defect in the metabolism of thyroid hormones and accounts for 10-15% of all cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Aim and Objective: To identify dysmorphic features, cardiac and urogenital anomalies in patients with DG following in the pediatric endocrinology clinic. Materials and Methods: Eight adolescents following the pediatric endocrinology clinic for hypothyroidism and associated stigmata were identified with dyshormonogenesis using 99mTc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy and confirmation by the Perchlorate discharge test during a 6-month period from January to July 2012. Screening for associated malformations was done using clinical examination, echocardiography and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results: The eight patients (two boys and six girls had a mean age of 9.87 years. The mean duration of goitre was 36.12 months. Two patients had mental retardation and delayed developmental milestones one of whom had ectopic left kidney on renal scintigraphy. Mitral regurgitation was seen in one patient whereas renal anomalies in the form of ectopic kidney and small/contracted kidney with grade III hydronephrosis was seen in two patients. Penoscrotal hypospadias was identified in one of the patients who also had small/contracted kidney with grade III hydronephrosis and underwent pyeloplasty for the same. Dysmorphic features in the form of high arched palate, depressed nasal bridge and low set ears was seen in one patient. Conclusion: DG is associated with other extra-thyroidal congenital anomaly, some of which may need to be treated.

  8. Conditional anomaly detection methods for patient-management alert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Michal; Cooper, Gregory; Seybert, Amy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Saul, Melissa; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2008-07-01

    Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of remaining attributes. The work presented in this paper focuses on instance-based methods for detecting conditional anomalies. The methods rely on the distance metric to identify examples in the dataset that are most critical for detecting the anomaly. We investigate various metrics and metric learning methods to optimize the performance of the instance-based anomaly detection methods. We show the benefits of the instance-based methods on two real-world detection problems: detection of unusual admission decisions for patients with the community-acquired pneumonia and detection of unusual orders of an HPF4 test that is used to confirm Heparin induced thrombocytopenia - a life-threatening condition caused by the Heparin therapy.

  9. Conditional anomaly detection methods for patient–management alert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Michal; Cooper, Gregory; Seybert, Amy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Saul, Melissa; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2010-01-01

    Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of remaining attributes. The work presented in this paper focuses on instance–based methods for detecting conditional anomalies. The methods rely on the distance metric to identify examples in the dataset that are most critical for detecting the anomaly. We investigate various metrics and metric learning methods to optimize the performance of the instance–based anomaly detection methods. We show the benefits of the instance–based methods on two real–world detection problems: detection of unusual admission decisions for patients with the community–acquired pneumonia and detection of unusual orders of an HPF4 test that is used to confirm Heparin induced thrombocytopenia — a life–threatening condition caused by the Heparin therapy. PMID:25392850

  10. Quantum topology and global anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Baadhio, R A

    1996-01-01

    Anomalies are ubiquitous features in quantum field theories. They can ruin the consistency of such theories and put significant restrictions on their viability, especially in dimensions higher than four. Global gauge and gravitational anomalies are to date, one of the scant powerful and probing tools available to physicists in the pursuit of uniqueness.This monograph is one of the very few that specializes in the study of global anomalies in quantum field theories. A discussion of various issues associated to three dimensional physics - the Chern-Simons-Witten theories - widen the scope of thi

  11. Air-leak effects on ear-canal acoustic absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groon, Katherine A; Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Kopun, Judy G; Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1-0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables exhibited consistent dependence on

  12. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  13. The Effects of Silicone and Acrylic Ear Mold Materials on Outer Ear Canal Resonance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnıaçık Erdoğan, Asuman; Arslan, Şeyda Nur

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of earmolds made of silicone and acrylic on outer ear canal resonance characteristics in terms of resonance frequency and amplitude measured in a hearing aid fitting. Outer ear canal resonance frequencies and amplitudes in open ears and those measured with silicone and acrylic ear molds were obtained from 30 participants between the ages of 20 and 25 years (average age, 22.0 years; 18 females and 12 males) with a real ear gain measurement. To observe the changes depending on probe tube placement, test-retest variation was investigated in 10 participants before the study. There was no statistically significant difference between open ear canal resonance frequencies and those measured with silicone and acrylic earmolds (p>0.05). the silicone earmold resonance amplitude values were statistically significantly lower than the open ear canal resonance amplitudes when compared to those of the acrylic earmolds (p<0.05). Depending on the changes occurring in outer ear resonance features as a result of earmold materials used in hearing aid fittings, the application of earmolds should be done by experienced specialists.

  14. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  15. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  16. Thermodynamic mechanism of density anomaly of liquid water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eYasutomi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although density anomaly of liquid water has long been studied by many different authors up to now, it is not still cleared what thermodynamic mechanism induces the anomaly. The thermodynamic properties of substances are determined by interparticle interactions. We analyze what characteristics of pair potential cause the density anomaly on the basis of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics using a thermodynamically self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA. We consider a fluid of spherical particles with a pair potential given by a hard-core repulsion plus a soft-repulsion and an attraction. We show that the density anomaly occurs when the value of the soft-repulsive potential at hard-core contact is in some proper range, and the range depends on the attraction. Further, we show that the behavior of the excess internal energy plays an essential role in the density anomaly and the behavior is mainly determined by the values of the soft-repulsive potential, especially near the hard core contact. Our results show that most of ideas put forward up to now are not the direct causes of the density anomaly of liquid water.

  17. Middle ear cholesteatoma: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C G; Meyerhoff, W L; Burns, D K

    1985-01-01

    Topical otic preparations now in clinical use contain a variety of antibiotics and solvents that may produce severe inflammation if they reach the middle ear cavity. This report describes the response of the chinchilla middle ear to direct application of one such preparation that appears to act as a nonspecific irritant. Cortisporin otic suspension (containing neomycin, polymyxin B, hydrocortisone, and propylene glycol) was introduced into the bullae of 32 chinchillas that were kept alive for four days to five months before histologic examination of their temporal bones. All the experimental animals had tissue damage and inflammation within the middle ear. The changes observed included proliferation of ciliated and secretory columnar cells, formation of granulation tissue, bone erosion, and osteoneogenesis. Some areas of the mucosa underwent metaplasia to stratified squamous epithelium; this metaplastic epithelium, however, did not produce keratin. In the majority of animals kept for two months or more, cholesteatoma was identified in the middle ear. The cholesteatomas appeared to develop as a result of penetration of external canal epidermis through intact tympanic membranes or as the result of migration of epidermis through perforations. The experimental cholesteatomas behaved like those seen clinically in humans, with extensive erosion of bony structures within the middle ear.

  18. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Panconi, M.; Bartolozzi, C. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine; Berettini, S.; Sellari Franceschini, S.; Forli, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Neuroscience

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. (orig.)

  19. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  20. [Cutaneous vascular anomalies in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, L; Kacenelenbogen, N

    2015-09-01

    Vascular anomalies, which are erroneously categorized under the term angiomas, are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions that are poorly understood and affect a mean of 5 to 10 % of children. The fortuitous discovery of propranolol's efficacy in one of these entities has made them a topical issue. The paper's main objective is to inform family doctors of the various types of vascular anomalies, clarify their classification, and provide a common terminology. Its secondary objective is to provide a decision tree that enables primary care doctors to avoid diagnostic pitfalls, successfully detect cases, and optimize management. Systematic review. According to a recent study, 71,3 % of publications use the term hemangioma erroneously, regardless of the authors' field. The key for family doctors is to use one international classification only, that of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), in order to facilitate management and comprehension between the different healthcare levels. The diagnosis of vascular anomalies is clinical in 90 % of cases, so all family doctors can, whilst using a decision tree, diagnose a vascular anomaly and refer only those that are complex for specialist care. The most common vascular anomaly is infantile hemangioma in infants, which spontaneously regresses around the age of 5-7 years in 90 % of cases. Watchful waiting and regular follow-up suffice, therefore, in such settings.

  1. Histamine Applied Topically to the Nasal Mucosa Increases the Transmucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miriam S; Alper, Cuneyt M; Martin, Brian S; Cetin, Selma; El-Wagaa, Jenna A; Doyle, William J

    2017-04-01

    Determine if the middle ear transmucosal nitrous oxide (N2O) exchange rate is affected by nasal inflammation caused by topical application of histamine. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 20 adults were challenged intranasally with histamine (5 mg) and placebo on separate occasions. At each session, the subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes, 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes, and 100% O2 for 10 minutes. Throughout, heart rate, blood pressure, and blood O2 saturation were monitored, and bilateral middle ear pressure was recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome measure was the slope of the middle ear pressure-time function for the 50% N2O:50% O2 breathing period, which is a measure of the transmucosal N2O exchange-constant. The effects of challenge substance, session, and period on the measured vital signs and of treatment, session, ear disease history, and test ear on the pressure-time slopes were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVAs. The post-challenge total symptom score and the slope of the middle ear pressure-time function were greater after histamine when compared to placebo challenge. Of the signs, only heart rate was affected, responding to challenge substance and study period. The transmucosal N2O exchange rate for the middle ear is increased during inflammation caused by nasal histamine exposure.

  2. Life-threatening unilateral hearing impairments. Review of the literature on the association between inner ear malformations and meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzi, E; Battelino, S; Gregori, M; Pellegrin, A; Orzan, E

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life threatening disease that can be triggered by a CSF leak through an inner ear malformation. Early identification of the specific type of cochleovestibular dysplasia and the associated risk of meningitis is of vital importance. The objective of this review is to collect and discuss available data on the association between inner ear malformations and meningitis in children. Electronic databases were crosschecked for obtaining relevant papers published in the last 20 years, and further cases were identified by hand searching through the references. Demographic data were extracted from full texts, together with information on the severity of hearing impairment, the type of inner ear anomaly, the site of cerebrospinal fluid leak, the number of recurrent meningitis episodes. Sixty-seven cases of meningitis related to inner ear malformation have been identified among 45 papers. Mean age at presentation is 3.60±3.00 (range 0.1-14) years. Average diagnostic delay from the first episode of meningitis is 3.44±3.41 (range 0.00-10.00) years. The number of meningitis episodes that occurred before the correct diagnosis and definitive surgical treatment is 3.27±1.81 (range 1.00-10.00). Unilateral hearing impairment affects 70% of patients. Six patients had normal hearing at presentation. Two children are dead from inner-ear-malformation-related meningitis among reviewed reports. A high number of paediatric patients carrying inner ear malformations, especially when associated with unilateral hearing impairment, could be at risk to develop recurrent bacterial meningitis. Universal newborn hearing screening programs should prompt a diagnostic work-up even in the case of unilateral hearing impairment, in order to prevent inner ear malformation-related meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome: Multidetector computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Yong Seok; Jung, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Polysplenia syndrome is a rare situs ambiguous anomaly associated with multiple spleens and anomalies of abdominal organs. Because most of the minor anomalies do not cause clinical symptoms, polysplenia syndrome is detected incidentally in the adults. Anomalies of abdominal organs may include multiple spleens of variable size or right-sided spleen, large midline or left-sided liver, midline gallbladder, biliary tract anomalies, short pancreas, right-sided stomach, intestinal malrotation, inferior vena cava interruption with azygos or hemiazygos continuation, and a preduodenal portal vein. As the multidetector computed tomography is increasingly used, situs anomalies will likely to be found with greater frequency in the adults. Therefore, radiologists should become familiar with these rare and peculiar anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome.

  4. Hyperplasia of the mandibular body: An anomaly in a developmental anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Vaiyapuri Ravi; Saravanan Srinivasan; Mathew Jacob; Priya Kesavan; Rajathi Palani; Sekar Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Hyperplasias of the mandible are usually seen in relation to the condyle or affecting one half of the mandible, such cases being described as hemimandibular hyperplasia or elongation. This article presents a rare case of hyperplasia of the right body of the mandible. The case being unique in that although being present from childhood did not cause any functional disturbances or any occlusal disharmony characteristically seen in such developmental anomalies. Here, we describe the clinical, rad...

  5. Lymphatic drainage of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; le Roux, Cara Michelle; Levy, Sidney M; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy reveals inconsistencies in our knowledge of the lymphatic anatomy of the external ear. Fifteen external ears from 9 unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Six percent hydrogen peroxide was used to find the lymphatic vessels using a surgical microscope. They were injected with a radio-opaque mixture, dissected, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate lymphatic vessels in the tissue. Final results were transferred to the computer for analysis. Four groups of lymph collecting vessels were found. The anterior branch, in all specimens, drained directly or indirectly (having merged with a vessel descending from the scalp) into the preauricular lymph nodes. The superior, middle, and inferior (lobule) branches drained to their multiple first tier lymph nodes. An accurate lymphatic map of the external ear is described to upgrade our anatomic knowledge. It will be of benefit for the clinical management of malignancies in this region. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  6. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  7. Epidemiological Features of Congenital Anomalies in Tabriz District, a Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karamooz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Congenital anomalies are responsible for a remarkable proportion of mortalities and morbidities of the newborn population. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological features of birth defects in rural areas of Tabriz, northwest of Iran. Material and Methods : The study population comprised live births under 8 years old in Tabriz district. All health records of the children under 8 years old were evaluated. Results : Out of 22500 live births, we documented 254 cases with congenital anomalies. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 113 per 10000 births (95% CI: 99 to 126. Anomalies of the nervous system were the most common defects, accounting for 24% of birth defects. It was followed by the heart diseases anomalies and the eye/ear anomalies. The highest prevalence rate for birth defects was observed in the north-eastern region with 386 per 10000 live births (95% CI: 215 to 556 and the lowest prevalence rate was observed in the north-western region with 15 per 10000 live births     (95% CI: -14 to 45. Conclusion : The remarkable geographic disparities in the prevalence of birth defects in the region may indicate for a new investigation for the etiology of congenital anomalies.

  8. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  9. Genome-wide association study of resistance to ear rot by Fusarium verticillioides in a tropical field maize and popcorn core collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium ear rot (caused by Fusarium verticillioides) is one of the most prevalent diseases of maize worldwide, and has one of the greatest negative economic impacts on this cereal crop globally. Fusarium ear rot is a highly complex trait, under polygenic control with minor effects per gene and low ...

  10. Intestinal rupture in a Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in association with ingestion of a diazinon-impregnated cattle ear tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A free-ranging Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) suffered intestinal rupture following ingestion of an insecticidal cattle ear tag. Subsequent organophosphate toxicosis as a cause of the rupture was speculated. Insecticidal ear tags could represent a poisoning risk in canids and other wildlife scavengers.

  11. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  12. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  13. Ultrastructure of the middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentzer, E

    1984-01-01

    Light- and electron microscopic studies of recent years have definitely concluded that the epithelium of the middle ear is a modified respiratory epithelium with ciliated and secretory cells including goblet cells. Goblet cells are secretory cells completely filled with secretory granules. Secretory cells and ciliated cells are both derived from the basal cell. The subepithelial layer which consists of loose connective tissue is a structure of just as great importance as the epithelial layer. It is still not clear whether the dark granulated cell is the site of production of the serous middle ear effusion or whether it merely represents an immature stage of the mucigen-producing cell.

  14. SLC26A4 genotype, but not cochlear radiologic structure, is correlated with hearing loss in ears with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kelly A; Choi, Byung Yoon; Zalewski, Christopher; Madeo, Anne C; Manichaikul, Ani; Pryor, Shannon P; Ferruggiaro, Anne; Eisenman, David; Kim, H Jeffrey; Niparko, John; Thomsen, James; Butman, John A; Griffith, Andrew J; Brewer, Carmen C

    2010-02-01

    Identify correlations among SLC26A4 genotype, cochlear structural anomalies, and hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA). Prospective cohort survey, National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, a federal biomedical research facility. Eighty-three individuals, 11 months to 59 years of age, with EVA in at least one ear were studied. Correlations among pure-tone hearing thresholds, number of mutant SLC26A4 alleles, and the presence of cochlear anomalies detected by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging were examined. Linear mixed-effects model indicated significantly poorer hearing in ears with EVA in individuals with two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 than in those with EVA and a single mutant allele (P = .012) or no mutant alleles (P = .007) in this gene. There was no detectable relationship between degree of hearing loss and the presence of structural cochlear anomalies. The number of mutant alleles of SLC26A4, but not the presence of cochlear anomalies, has a significant association with severity of hearing loss in ears with EVA. This information will be useful for prognostic counseling of patients and families with EVA.

  15. Coronary Artery Anomalies: Diagnosis and Classification based on Cardiac CT and MRI (CMR) - from ALCAPA to Anomalies of Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermann, Philipp; Heindel, Walter; Schülke, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Background Coronary artery anomalies encompass a clinically and anatomically variable spectrum including physiological variants and pathophysiologically relevant anomalies. The majority of the variants has no hemodynamic relevance and is often detected accidentally. The recognition of the rare and relevant anomalies that cause either relevant shunt volumes leading to myocardial ischemia or ventricular tachyarrhythmias with the risk of sudden cardiac death is of major importance. Methods This review is based on a literature search in PubMed conducted using the key words "coronary artery" and/or "anomaly" and/or "anomalous origin" and/or "myocardial bridging" and/or "coronary artery fistula" and/or "Bland-White-Garland" and/or "ALCAPA". Results and Conclusion Coronary artery anomalies can be anatomically subdivided into anomalies of origin, course and termination. The method of choice for anatomical imaging is ECG-triggered or gated multislice CT (MSCT) that provides high spatial resolution and the capability of multiplanar reconstructions. It facilitates the delineation of the precise course of all three coronary arteries and thus allows for correct classification in the anatomical classification system of coronary artery anomalies. The strengths of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are the evaluation of cardiac morphology, myocardial tissue properties and myocardial function. Basic methods are the analysis of myocardial contraction and perfusion with and without pharmacologic stress. Furthermore, potential shunt volumes could be quantified by phase contrast imaging or volumetry. Key points · Coronary artery anomalies are subdivided into anomalies of origin, course and termination.. · The main imaging task is the differentiation of hemodynamically relevant anomalies from anatomic variants.. · The method of choice for anatomical imaging is MSCT, whereas structural and functional information is obtained by CMR. Citation Format · Heermann P, Heindel W

  16. Exposure to air pollution and noise from road traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Garne, Ester; Hansen-Nord, Nete

    2017-01-01

    did not suggest increased risks. A 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure during first trimester was associated with an adjusted ORs of 1.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.52) for ear, face and neck anomalies; 1.14 0.98-1.33) for urinary anomalies. A 10-dB increase in road traffic noise was also...... road traffic exposure to noise or air pollution during pregnancy did not seem to pose a risk for development of congenital anomalies.......BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with certain congenital anomalies, but few studies rely on assessment of fine-scale variation in air quality and associations with noise from road traffic are unexplored. METHODS: Among 84,218 liveborn singletons (1997-2002) from the Danish...

  17. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P.; Buntin, G. David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D.; Lee, R. Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E.; Scully, Brian T.; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields usin...

  18. The association of severe encephalopathy and question mark ear is highly suggestive of loss of MEF2C function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C T; Tessier, A; Demir, Z; Goldenberg, A; Oufadem, M; Voisin, N; Pingault, V; Bienvenu, T; Lyonnet, S; de Pontual, L; Amiel, J

    2017-04-29

    Auriculocondylar syndrome and isolated question mark ear result from dysregulation of the endothelin 1-endothelin receptor type A signaling pathway. Animal models have highlighted the role of the transcription factor MEF2C as an effector of this pathway. We report heterozygous MEF2C loss-of-function as a possible cause of question mark ear associated with intellectual deficiency. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arav, Igal [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,55 Haim Levanon street, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Chapman, Shira [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Oz, Yaron [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,55 Haim Levanon street, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2016-06-27

    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z=2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1+1 and 2+1 spacetime dimensions. In 1+1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2+1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  20. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear. PMID:22953110

  1. Histopathologic changes of the ear in canine models of mucopolysaccharidosis types I and VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordeaux, J; Deniaud, J; Bemelmans, I; Bertrand, L; Moreau, S; Amiaud, J; Wyers, M; Cherel, Y; Colle, M-A

    2011-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and VII are inborn errors of metabolism caused by mutation of enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, which leads to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. In children, severe forms of MPS I and VII are characterized by somatic and neurologic manifestations, including a poorly understood hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to describe the age-related histopathologic changes of the ear in spontaneous canine models of MPS I and VII. Pathologic changes in the ear were assessed in MPS I and VII dogs ranging from 1.6 to 9.3 months of age. Paraffin-embedded sections of the whole ear and Epon-embedded semithin sections of the cochlea were examined. The following lesions were blindly scored in the middle and inner ear: inflammation, cells vacuolization, thickening of osseous and membranous structures, perivascular vacuolated macrophages infiltration, and bone resorption. All dogs had lysosomal storage within cells of tympanic membrane, ossicles, tympanic bone and mucosa, cochlear bone, spiral ligament, limbus, and stria vascularis. The MPS I dogs mainly had progressive cochlear lesions. The MPS VII dogs had severe and early middle ear lesions, including chronic otitis media and bone resorption. The MPS I dog only partially recapitulates the pathology seen in humans; specifically, the dog model lacks inflammatory middle ear disease. In contrast, the MPS VII dog has severe inflammatory middle ear disease similar to that reported in the human. In conclusion, the canine MPS VII model appears to be a good model to study MPS VII-related deafness.

  2. Frequency of Developmental Dental Anomalies in the Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Kruthika S; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Bhargava, Puneet; Bathi, Renuka J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population. Methods: This prospective study was conducted over a period of 1 year and comprised both clinical and radiographic examinations in oral medicine and radiology outpatient department. Adult patients were screened for the presence of dental anomalies with appropriate radiographs. A comprehensive clinical examination was performed to detect hyperdontia, talon cusp, fused teeth, gemination, concrescence, hypodontia, dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, macro- and microdontia and taurodontism. Patients with syndromes were not included in the study. Results: Of the 20,182 patients screened, 350 had dental anomalies. Of these, 57.43% of anomalies occurred in male patients and 42.57% occurred in females. Hyperdontia, root dilaceration, peg-shaped laterals (microdontia), and hypodontia were more frequent compared to other dental anomalies of size and shape. Conclusions: Dental anomalies are clinically evident abnormalities. They may be the cause of various dental problems. Careful observation and appropriate investigations are required to diagnose the condition and institute treatment. PMID:20613914

  3. Interdisciplinary Management of Head and Neck Vascular Anomalies: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Findings and Minimalinvasive Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Sadick, Maliha; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Huelse, Roland; Lange, Bettina; Henzler, Thomas; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Sadick, Haneen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Vascular anomalies are included in the 30 000 rare diseases worldwide affecting less than 5/10 000 people. Depending on their morphology and biological properties, they can cause varied disorders with organ involvement. Almost 60% of vascular anomalies have a predilection for the head and neck region in children. Clinical and scientific effort to establish interdisciplinary management concepts for vascular anomalies is increasing worldwide. Methods Especially in the head and neck r...

  4. Mutations in the sarcomere gene MYH7 in Ebstein anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Alex V; van Engelen, Klaartje; van de Meerakker, Judith; Rahman, Thahira; Probst, Susanne; Baars, Marieke J H; Bauer, Ulrike; Pickardt, Thomas; Sperling, Silke R; Berger, Felix; Moorman, Antoon F M; Mulder, Barbara J M; Thierfelder, Ludwig; Keavney, Bernard; Goodship, Judith; Klaassen, Sabine

    2011-02-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation characterized by adherence of the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve to the underlying myocardium. An association between Ebstein anomaly with left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and mutations in MYH7 encoding β-myosin heavy chain has been shown; in this report, we have screened for MYH7 mutations in a cohort of probands with Ebstein anomaly in a large population-based study. Mutational analysis in a cohort of 141 unrelated probands with Ebstein anomaly was performed by next-generation sequencing and direct DNA sequencing of MYH7. Heterozygous mutations were identified in 8 of 141 samples (6%). Seven distinct mutations were found; 5 were novel and 2 were known to cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. All mutations except for 1 3-bp deletion were missense mutations; 1 was a de novo change. Mutation-positive probands and family members showed various congenital heart malformations as well as LVNC. Among 8 mutation-positive probands, 6 had LVNC, whereas among 133 mutation-negative probands, none had LVNC. The frequency of MYH7 mutations was significantly different between probands with and without LVNC accompanying Ebstein anomaly (PMYH7 mutation in the pedigrees of 3 of the probands, 1 of which also included another individual with Ebstein anomaly. Ebstein anomaly is a congenital heart malformation that is associated with mutations in MYH7. MYH7 mutations are predominantly found in Ebstein anomaly associated with LVNC and may warrant genetic testing and family evaluation in this subset of patients.

  5. The Effect of Cd4 Count Level on the Middle Ear Dynamics of Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV infection, a multi systemic disease has been identified as one of the causes of hearing loss in man. Objectives: To compare the effect of HIV infection on the middle ear dynamics of HIV infected and non-HIV infected individuals using tympanometry. Design: A prospective cross sectional study Setting: HIV ...

  6. Zona pellucida domain-containing protein β-tectorin is crucial for zebrafish proper inner ear development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsiang Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zona pellucida (ZP domain is part of many extracellular proteins with diverse functions from structural components to receptors. The mammalian β-tectorin is a protein of 336 amino acid residues containing a single ZP domain and a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus of the protein. It is 1 component of a gel-like structure called the tectorial membrane which is involved in transforming sound waves into neuronal signals and is important for normal auditory function. β-Tectorin is specifically expressed in the mammalian and avian inner ear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified and cloned the gene encoding zebrafish β-tectorin. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that β-tectorin messenger RNA was expressed in the otic placode and specialized sensory patch of the inner ear during zebrafish embryonic stages. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish β-tectorin affected the position and number of otoliths in the ears of morphants. Finally, swimming behaviors of β-tectorin morphants were abnormal since the development of the inner ear was compromised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal that zebrafish β-tectorin is specifically expressed in the zebrafish inner ear, and is important for regulating the development of the zebrafish inner ear. Lack of zebrafish β-tectorin caused severe defects in inner ear formation of otoliths and function.

  7. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  8. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  9. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared (Plecotus auritus) and one small-eared (Glossophaga soricina), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  11. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  12. Infrared typmanic tempature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the

  13. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  14. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    the processing of low-frequency directional signals, while higher frequency signals appear to be progressively uncoupled. In both lizards and crocodilians, the increased directionality of the coupled ears leads to an effectively larger head and larger physiological range of ITDs. This increased physiological...... range is reviewed in the light of current theories of sound localization....

  15. BK Channels in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyott, S. J.; Duncan, R. K.; Contet, C

    2016-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic stimuli begins with the deconstruction of sound into its frequency components. This spectral processing occurs first and foremost in the inner ear. In vertebrates, two very different strategies of frequency analysis have evolved. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the

  16. How internally coupled ears generate temporal and amplitude cues for sound localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedurmudi, A P; Goulet, J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2016-01-01

    In internally coupled ears, displacement of one eardrum creates pressure waves that propagate through air-filled passages in the skull and cause displacement of the opposing eardrum, and conversely. By modeling the membrane, passages, and propagating pressure waves, we show that internally coupled...... ears generate unique amplitude and temporal cues for sound localization. The magnitudes of both these cues are directionally dependent. The tympanic fundamental frequency segregates a low-frequency regime with constant time-difference magnification from a high-frequency domain with considerable...

  17. Evaluation of the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear operations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Naeimi; Kiarash Ghazvini K; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri MT; Merangiz Kaboli; Mahmood Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Bacteremia following middle ear surgeries occurs in a significant number of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients who where candidates for middle ear operation were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained from each patient immediately before and after operation for bacteriologic analysis. Demographic and middle ear disease characteristics were also record...

  18. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  19. Middle Ear Barotrauma in Student Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Heob; Cho, Kyoung Rai

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports the clinical features of middle ear barotrauma in student pilots in the Republic of Korea Air Force. The authors reviewed medical records of student pilots with barotrauma. The grade of barotrauma was assigned using Teed's classification. This study included nasal symptoms, endoscopic findings of the nasal cavity, and clinical course (duration, recurrence). The relationship between middle ear barotrauma and the nasal airway was also evaluated. There were 57 cases in 51 pilots included. There were 49 cases (86.0%) that showed unilateral disease and 4 subjects experienced relapse. Two subjects (3.9%) had chronic rhinosinusitis and four subjects (7.8%) had allergic rhinitis. Ear fullness was reported in all cases, while hearing loss and persistent ear pain were reported in 3 cases (5.3%) and 19 cases (33.3%), respectively. Stuffy nose (26 cases, 45.6%) and rhinorrhea (24 cases, 42.1%) were relatively common. Most cases were Grade 0 (23 cases, 40.3%) or Grade III (27 cases, 47.4%) according to Teed's classification. Septal deviation was observed in 12 cases (21.0%), while turbinate hypertrophy was seen in 53 cases (93.0%) and increased nasal discharge in 33 cases (57.9%). The grade of barotrauma varied significantly according to the severity of turbinate hypertrophy and nasal discharge. The mean duration of disease was 6.8 d. Nasal symptoms and endoscopic findings showed some association with the grade and duration of barotrauma. Most cases resolved within a week; however, barotrauma showed persistence or relapse in some cases.Sohn JH, Cho KR. Middle ear barotrauma in student pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):406-412.

  20. Ear Mite Infestation in Four Imported Dogs from Thailand; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nOtodectes cynotis, ear mite or ear canker mite, is the most common cause of otitis externa in cats (approximately 50% and to a lesser extent in dogs, foxes and ferrets. The mite is living on the epidermal surface of auditory canal without burrowing into the tissue and feeding on tissue fluids and debris. In most of the cases they induce hypersensitiv­ity reactions in the host. Four puppies; Siberian husky, Cocker spaniel, Terrier and mixed Pekignese with different genders and ages were referred to the small animal hospital, Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran for routine clinical examination just after they were imported from Thailand in a timeframe between June to August 2008. "nClinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination. The specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Ami­traz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders. "n  "nKeywords: Ear mite, Otodectes cynotis, otitis externa, dogs, Iran 

  1. Measurement of middle ear pressure changes during balloon eustachian tuboplasty: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Ingo; Abdel-Aziz, Tarek; Mittmann, Philipp; Lehmann, Martin; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sudhoff, Holger

    2017-05-01

    The middle ear pressure changes detected during BET can be directly attributed to the balloon inflation and may represent a second, immediate, mechanism of action of BET. BET seems to be safe with respect to the risk of a barotrauma. Further human studies are now necessary to confirm the results and gain more insight into the mechanism of action of BET. Since the introduction of Balloon Eustachian Tuboplasty (BET) as a treatment of chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, the precise mechanism of action is unknown. Long-term effects of BET may be related to observed microfractures of the Eustachian tube cartilage. However, clinical observations indicate a second, immediate mode of action. Therefore, this study investigated and characterized middle ear pressure changes occurring directly during BET procedure. Using a micro-optical pressure sensor, pressure changes during BET were monitored transtympanically in a cadaveric animal study using heathland sheep. Middle ear pressure amplitudes during BET are dependent on the speed of balloon inflation as well as the maximum inflation pressure. A 10-bar inflation pressure yielded a mean middle ear pressure of 5.34 mmHg (71.0 daPA). Negative pressure amplitudes occurring on withdrawal of the balloon catheter are influenced by the speed of withdrawal. No pressure amplitudes capable of causing barotrauma to membranous ear structures could be detected.

  2. Incidence of Congenital Spinal Abnormalities Among Pediatric Patients and Their Association With Scoliosis and Systemic Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Poorman, Gregory W; Jalai, Cyrus M; Diebo, Bassel G; Vira, Shaleen; Horn, Samantha R; Baker, Joseph F; Shenoy, Kartik; Hasan, Saqib; Buza, John; Bronson, Wesley; Paul, Justin C; Kaye, Ian; Foster, Norah A; Cassilly, Ryan T; Oren, Jonathan H; Moskovich, Ronald; Line, Breton; Oh, Cheongeun; Bess, Shay; LaFage, Virginie; Errico, Thomas J

    2017-10-09

    Congenital abnormalities when present, according to VACTERL theory, occur nonrandomly with other congenital anomalies. This study estimates the prevalence of congenital spinal anomalies, and their concurrence with other systemic anomalies. A retrospective cohort analysis on Health care Cost and Utilization Project's Kids Inpatient Database (KID), years 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 was performed. ICD-9 coding identified congenital anomalies of the spine and other body systems. Overall incidence of congenital spinal abnormalities in pediatric patients, and the concurrence of spinal anomaly diagnoses with other organ system anomalies. Frequencies of congenital spine anomalies were estimated using KID hospital-and-year-adjusted weights. Poisson distribution in contingency tables tabulated concurrence of other congenital anomalies, grouped by body system. Of 12,039,432 patients, rates per 100,000 cases were: 9.1 hemivertebra, 4.3 Klippel-Fiel, 56.3 Chiari malformation, 52.6 tethered cord, 83.4 spina bifida, 1.2 absence of vertebra, and 6.2 diastematomyelia. Diastematomyelia had the highest concurrence of other anomalies: 70.1% of diastematomyelia patients had at least one other congenital anomaly. Next, 63.2% of hemivertebra, and 35.2% of Klippel-Fiel patients had concurrent anomalies. Of the other systems deformities cooccuring, cardiac system had the highest concurrent incidence (6.5% overall). In light of VACTERL's definition of a patient being diagnosed with at least 3 VACTERL anomalies, hemivertebra patients had the highest cooccurrence of ≥3 anomalies (31.3%). With detailed analysis of hemivertebra patients, secundum ASD (14.49%), atresia of large intestine (10.2%), renal agenesis (7.43%) frequently cooccured. Congenital abnormalities of the spine are associated with serious systemic anomalies that may have delayed presentations. These patients continue to be at a very high, and maybe higher than previously thought, risk for comorbidities that can cause devastating

  3. Dental anomalies in Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Didelphidae from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental anomalies were classified in three categories: supernumerary or missing teeth, morphological anomalies in size and shape, and teeth in unusual positions. We found 32 individuals of D. albiventris with anomalies out of 393 analyzed specimens (8.14%, some specimens with more than one anomaly. A similar proportion of specimens from Argentina and Uruguay presented anomalies, while in specimens from Brazil anomalies were less common. Anomalies were more commonly found in the upper toothrow and in molars, being supernumerary teeth and molars with unusual crown-shape the most common ones. The percentage of specimens with anomalies found for D. albiventris is higher than previously reported for the species, and other Didelphimorphia. Inbreeding and limited gene flow do not appear as possible explanations for the elevated percentage of anomalies, especially due to the ecological characteristics of Didelphis albiventris. Developmental instability and fluctuating asymmetry could be some of the causes for the anomalies found in this species, mostly since the habitat used by D. albiventris tends to be unstable and disturbed. Dental anomalies were mostly found in areas of the toothrow where occlusion is relaxed or does not prevent teeth from interlocking during mastication, and consequently have no functional value.

  4. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  5. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...

  6. The Design and Evaluation of an Artificial Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wideband artificial ear for the calibration of supraaural audiometric earphones was designed and constructed. The device consisted of three...acoustic impedance measuring device was developed to aid in the evaluation of this artificial ear. Plots of experimentally determined acoustic impedance...of this and other artificial ears are presented and discussed. Comparison of the experimentally determined acoustic impedance of the subject

  7. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... terna(10.1%), hearing impairment (7.3%) and foreign body in the ear (5.7%) were the most commonly diagnosed ear-related problems. Conclusion: Ear-related problems among children presenting at the UNTH Enugu were not uncommon. However, otitis me- dia was the most commonly diagnosed ailment ...

  8. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ear swabs of discharging ears aseptically collected from 102 patients of various age groups attending Ear, Nose, and Throat out-patient clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were cultured for bacterial agents using blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Culture plates were incubated ...

  9. Observation of Dog-Ear Regression by Anatomical Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Thomas A; Keane, James C; Varma, Rajat; Walsh, Stephanie B; Huang, Conway C

    2017-11-01

    When an excision is performed by a method other than elliptical excision, direct primary wound closure can result in standing cones or "dog-ears." In 2008, Lee and colleagues noted that dog-ears of <8 mm in height have a statistically greater tendency to resolve without further surgical correction than larger dog-ears. To stratify dog-ears by anatomic location and inform on the need for correction at the time of surgery. After tumor extirpation, patients were counseled that primary closure of the surgical wound would result in dog-ears at the wound apices. Dog-ears were left uncorrected in participating patients. At 6 months, patients were assessed for resolution of the dog-ears and asked to rate the appearance of the scar. A total of 140 dog-ears were observed in the study period. Anatomical locations included the hand/foot, trunk, limb, and head/neck. Among these dog-ears, 114/140 (81%) showed complete resolution. Patient satisfaction with the scar appearance correlated well with the dog-ear resolution, with most patients rating the appearance of the scar as good to excellent. This study suggests that dog-ears on the hand and dog-ears ≤4 mm on the trunk may be observed without any final cosmetic penalty.

  10. Optimal Electromechanical Reshaping of the Auricular Ear and Long-term Outcomes in an In Vivo Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Cyrus T; Tjoa, Tjoson; Nguyen, Tony; Su, Erica; Wong, Brian J F

    2016-07-01

    The prominent ear is a common external ear anomaly that is usually corrected through surgery. Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) may provide the means to reshape cartilage through the use of direct current (in milliamperes) applied percutaneously with needle electrodes and thus to reduce reliance on open surgery. To determine the long-term outcomes (shape change, cell viability, and histology) of a more refined EMR voltage and time settings for reshaping rabbit auricle. The intact ears of 14 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 received 4 V for 5 minutes (5 ears), 5 V for 4 minutes (5 ears), or no voltage for 5 minutes (control; 4 ears). Group 2 received an adjusted treatment of 4 V for 4 minutes (7 ears) or 5 V for 3 minutes (7 ears). A custom mold with platinum electrodes was used to bend the pinna and to perform EMR. Pinnae were splinted for 6 months along the region of the bend. Rabbits were killed humanely and the ears were harvested the day after splint removal. Data were collected from March 14, 2013, to July 8, 2014, and analyzed from August 29, 2013, to March 1, 2015. Bend angle and mechanical behavior via palpation were recorded through photography and videography. Tissue was sectioned for histologic examination and confocal microscopy to assess changes to microscopic structure and cell viability. Rabbits ranged in age from 6 to 8 months and weighed 3.8 to 4.0 g. The mean (SD) bend angles were 81° (45°) for the controls and, in the 5 EMR groups, 72° (29°) for 4 V for 4 minutes, 101° (19°) for 4 V for 5 minutes, 78° (18°) for 5 V for 3 minutes, and 126° (21°) for 5 V for 4 minutes. At 5 V, an increase in application time from 3 to 4 minutes provided significant shape change (78° [18°] and 126° [21°], respectively; P = .003). Pinnae stained with hematoxylin-eosin displayed localized areas of cell injury and fibrosis in and around electrode insertion sites. This circumferential zone of injury (range, 1.3-2.1 mm

  11. Global gravitational anomalies and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta; David, Justin R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The η-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the T transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In d = 6 we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the η-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the `replacement rule'. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in d = 6 to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaumé and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained using matching of global anomalies.

  12. Anomaly detection in diurnal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata, F.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present methodological advances in anomaly detection tailored to discover abnormal traffic patterns under the presence of seasonal trends in data. In our setup we impose specific assumptions on the traffic type and nature; our study features VoIP call counts, for which several

  13. Extension of magnetic anomaly rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. A.

    1982-12-01

    The Moskowitz-Lombardi rule which has established a relationship for magnetic hyperfine-structure anomalies for ten mercury, Z = 80, isotopes and isomers is extended, in the light of new experimental work, to iridium, gold, and thallium, Z = 77, 79, and 81 respectively

  14. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2017-10-20

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Congenital anomalies in black South African liveborn neonates at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As infectious diseases and malnutrition are brought under control in Third-World countries, congenital malformations will assume a greater relative importance as a cause of mortality and morbidity among infants and children, as has been the case in the. First World! The incidence of congenital anomalies varies among.

  16. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Carlos A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  17. Unusual Case of an Arterial Thoracic Outlet Syndrome due to Srb Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustum, Saad; Rodt, Thomas; Teebken, Omke; Schrimpf, Claudia; Aper, Thomas; Wilhelmi, Mathias

    2013-12-01

    A thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is caused by arterial or nervous obstruction because of skeletal or muscular anomalies and hypertrophies. Congenital rib anomalies occur with low incidences (0.15-0.31%), predominantly affect the right side and are normally diagnosed at a young age or remain asymptomatic throughout life. Here, we report on the unusual case of a 71-year-old female patient with subacute ischemia of the left arm due to a TOS resulting from Srb anomaly, a very rare congenital rib anomaly.

  18. An Unusual Occurrence of Multiple Dental Anomalies in a Single Nonsyndromic Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Nagaveni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are the formative defects caused by genetic disturbances or environmental factors during tooth morphogenesis. Simultaneous occurrence of various multiple anomalies has been reported previously, particularly in cases of chromosomal abnormalities that often manifest with multisystem involvement. Very few cases of multiple anomalies have been documented in patients with no known generalized abnormalities. The present paper shows an unusual occurrence of a combination of dental anomalies like mandibular canine transmigration, taurodontism in permanent mandibular molars, congenital agenesis of 14 numbers of permanent teeth excluding third molars, canine impaction, primary molars with pyramidal roots, midline diastema and generalized microdontia in an apparently normal 13-year-old Indian girl.

  19. An Unusual Occurrence of Multiple Dental Anomalies in a Single Nonsyndromic Patient: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental anomalies are the formative defects caused by genetic disturbances or environmental factors during tooth morphogenesis. Simultaneous occurrence of various multiple anomalies has been reported previously, particularly in cases of chromosomal abnormalities that often manifest with multisystem involvement. Very few cases of multiple anomalies have been documented in patients with no known generalized abnormalities. The present paper shows an unusual occurrence of a combination of dental anomalies like mandibular canine transmigration, taurodontism in permanent mandibular molars, congenital agenesis of 14 numbers of permanent teeth excluding third molars, canine impaction, primary molars with pyramidal roots, midline diastema and generalized microdontia in an apparently normal 13-year-old Indian girl. PMID:22792499

  20. Investigations of a large scale eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off at the Salton Sea, California in 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Audet, D.J.; Rocke, T.E.; Radke, W.; Creekmore, L.H.; Duncan, R.

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 150,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) died at the Salton Sea between 16 December 1991 and 21 April 1992. This represented the largest documented mortality event of Eared Grebes at the time and approximately 6% of the North American population. During the die-off, grebes exhibited several uncharacteristic behaviors, such as congregating at freshwater tributaries, repeatedly gulping freshwater, preening excessively, moving onto land, and allowing close approach and/or capture. Avian cholera was diagnosed in Eared Grebes collected along the north and west shoreline of the Sea late in the die-off but not from the majority of the Eared Grebes dying along the south shore. Gross and histological examinations and diagnostic testing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites did not identify the cause of mortality in the majority of Eared Grebes examined from the south shore of the Sea. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, DDE, mercury, selenium, and zinc were elevated in some Eared Grebes, but none of those contaminants exceeded known thresholds for independent lethality. Poisoning by heavy metals, organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides, avian botulism, and salt were ruled out as the cause of mortality. Hypotheses for the die-off are interactive effects of contaminants, immunosuppression, a yet unidentified biotoxin or pathogen present in the Salton Sea, impairment of feather waterproofing leading to hypothermia, or a unique manifestation of avian cholera that evades laboratory detection.

  1. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, I J

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.

  2. Ethno-Veterinary Drug Therapy for Ear Mange in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D.Hagawane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep from two flocks showed scab lesions around nostrils, eyes and on the face with facial alopecia and thickening of the skin. The case was confirmed as ear mite (Psorcopt ovis by microscopic examination of skin scrapings. Percent incidence in flock I and Flock II recorded was 12.5, 11.4 respectively. Affected sheep were divided into two groups each containing nine animals. Group I was treated with preparation containing 50ml Azadirachta indica oil, 50ml Pogamia pinnata oil, 25gm Camphor, 50gm Sulphur powder and 500ml coconut oil applied on an affected skin twice a day for 15 days and Group II treated with preparation having 50gm of Curcuma longa rhizome and 25gm of Azadirachta indica oil applied once a day for 15 days. The first preparation was found highly effective against ear mange in sheep. It was found to be very convenient for use in field conditions, did not cause any adverse reaction locally as well as systemically. [Vet. World 2010; 3(6.000: 295-296

  3. Use of 3-um laser radiation in middle ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratisto, Hans S.; Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Altermatt, Hans J.; Weber, Heinz P.

    1995-01-01

    An inner ear model was used to demonstrate thermal and mechanical effects occurring during Erbium laser stapedotomy. Results of inverse schlieren optical flash photography and time resolved pressure amplitude measurements indicate the existence of safe laser parameters for stapes foot plate perforation. Due to the high absorption of 3 micrometers radiation in water, efficient bone ablation and precise fenestration with small thermally damaged zones is achieved. Pressure transients caused by the explosive ablation process correlate with the spiking of the laser intensity. The energy of a laser pulse, directly applied into the perilymph through an already existing perforation, creates a vapor channel which afterwards collapses, sending out a strong pressure transient. The maximal amplitude of this pressure transient depends on the geometry and dynamics of the vapor channel and is several times stronger than the pressure amplitudes generated by the bone ablation process. This study shows that no permanent hearing loss or damage of inner ear structures is expected using an Erbium laser fluence of 10 J/cm2.

  4. SOX2 is required for inner ear neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevens, Aleta R; Sookiasian, Danielle L; Glatzer, Jenna C; Kiernan, Amy E

    2017-06-22

    Neurons of the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG) transmit hearing and balance information to the brain. During development, a select population of early otic progenitors express NEUROG1, delaminate from the otocyst, and coalesce to form the neurons that innervate all inner ear sensory regions. At present, the selection process that determines which otic progenitors activate NEUROG1 and adopt a neuroblast fate is incompletely understood. The transcription factor SOX2 has been implicated in otic neurogenesis, but its requirement in the specification of the CVG neurons has not been established. Here we tested SOX2's requirement during inner ear neuronal specification using a conditional deletion paradigm in the mouse. SOX2 deficiency at otocyst stages caused a near-absence of NEUROG1-expressing neuroblasts, increased cell death in the neurosensory epithelium, and significantly reduced the CVG volume. Interestingly, a milder decrease in neurogenesis was observed in heterozygotes, indicating SOX2 levels are important. Moreover, fate-mapping experiments revealed that the timing of SOX2 expression did not parallel the established vestibular-then-auditory sequence. These results demonstrate that SOX2 is required for the initial events in otic neuronal specification including expression of NEUROG1, although fate-mapping results suggest SOX2 may be required as a competence factor rather than a direct initiator of the neural fate.

  5. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, K.V.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Krishna, K.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    cases, the magnetic anomalies were caused dominantly by the magnetization contrast between the volcanic material and the surrounding oceanic crust, whereas the low gravity anomalies are by the flexures of the order of 3-4 km at Moho boundary beneath them...

  6. Characterization of the n_TOF EAR-2 neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Le Naour, C.; Durán, I.; Casarejos, E.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, J. I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The experimental area 2 (EAR-2) at CERNs neutron time-of-flight facility (n_TOF), which is operational since 2014, is designed and built as a short-distance complement to the experimental area 1 (EAR-1). The Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) monitor experiment was performed to characterize the beam pro↓le and the shape of the neutron 'ux at EAR-2. The prompt γ-flash which is used for calibrating the time-of-flight at EAR-1 is not seen by PPAC at EAR-2, shedding light on the physical origin of this γ-flash.

  7. Characterization of the n_TOF EAR-2 neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y.H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental area 2 (EAR-2 at CERNs neutron time-of-flight facility (n_TOF, which is operational since 2014, is designed and built as a short-distance complement to the experimental area 1 (EAR-1. The Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC monitor experiment was performed to characterize the beam pro↓le and the shape of the neutron 'ux at EAR-2. The prompt γ-flash which is used for calibrating the time-of-flight at EAR-1 is not seen by PPAC at EAR-2, shedding light on the physical origin of this γ-flash.

  8. Complex mullerian duct anomaly in a young female with primary amenorrhoea, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mullerian duct anomalies, though rare, can be a treatable cause of pelvic pain and infertility. Various complex Mullerian duct anomalies may exist with combination of features of more than one class. Since there are no precise clinical or imaging criteria to enable specific categorisation, there is ambiguous classification of these anomalies by various radiologists and clinicians. A young female presented with complaints of chronic pelvic pain, primary amenorrhoea and infertility. The patient was evaluated by sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging and diagnosed as case of complex mullerian duct anomaly, a unicornuate uterus with cervical dysgenesis and cavitated, noncommunicating, rudimentary right horn. The findings were confirmed on laprohysteroscopy and the patient underwent hystertectomy. There should be an integrated clinico-radiological classification scheme and familiarity with rare and complex anomalies for appropriate diagnosis and management of complex Mullerian duct anomalies.

  9. Stillbirth and congenital anomalies in migrants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Gundlund, Anna; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted

    2016-01-01

    The risk of giving birth to a stillborn child or a child with severe congenital anomaly is higher for women who have immigrated to Europe as compared to the majority population in the receiving country. The literature, however, reveals great differences between migrant groups, even within migrants...... disparity is a result of the socioeconomic disadvantage most migrants face. Consanguinity has been considered as another cause for the increased stillbirth risk and the high risk of congenital anomaly observed in many migrant groups. Utilization and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth...

  10. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Handest, Peter; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    Symptoms (BSABS). Anomalies of experience were condensed into rational scales with good internal consistencies. RESULTS: Diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with elevated scores on the scales measuring perplexity (loss of immediate meaning), disorders of perception, disorders of self...... differential diagnosis and therefore potentially useful in the preonset detection of the schizophrenia spectrum illness.......OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions...

  11. Deep learning on temporal-spectral data for anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, King; Leung, Henry; Jalilian, Ehsan; Huang, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Detecting anomalies is important for continuous monitoring of sensor systems. One significant challenge is to use sensor data and autonomously detect changes that cause different conditions to occur. Using deep learning methods, we are able to monitor and detect changes as a result of some disturbance in the system. We utilize deep neural networks for sequence analysis of time series. We use a multi-step method for anomaly detection. We train the network to learn spectral and temporal features from the acoustic time series. We test our method using fiber-optic acoustic data from a pipeline.

  12. Multimodality imaging of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia and limb anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ramesh S; Parisi, Marguerite T

    2012-08-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare disorder featuring unilateral anterior thoracic and upper extremity anomalies. These include hypoplasia of the pectoralis major costosternal head, absent pectoralis minor, breast hypoplasia, and absent upper rib cartilage. Pulmonary hypoplasia may occur secondarily. The postulated etiology is underdevelopment of the subclavian artery. Less than 50 cases of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia have been reported. Rib anomalies cause rightward cardiac displacement in fetal life. This case of left-sided Poland syndrome in a young girl is unique not only because of dextrocardia, but also because the condition preferentially afflicts the right side and males.

  13. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  14. Ultrastructural morphology of a middle ear ceruminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Peter; Handisurya, Alessandra; Steurer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of a ceruminous gland adenoma in the middle ear was examined electron microscopically. The epithelial tumor cells displayed apocrine caps, microvilli, cell junctions, secretory granules, vacuoles, lipid droplets and siderosomes, which are the characteristic ultrastructural features of apocrine glands. Concentric membranous bodies of the endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic activity of the tumor cells, intracytoplasmic lumina, ciliated cells and also spiny collagen in the tumor stroma could be seen. The myoepithelial cells are an important tumor marker in the differential diagnosis between ceruminomas and adenomas of the middle ear. The ectopic origin in the modified apocrine ceruminous glands, the specific localization, the clinical features and the extremely rare occurrence of the ceruminoma makes this tumor a unique neoplastic entity. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D'Cruz, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D.V.C.

    The analysis of 8200 line km of total magnetic intensity data in the Bay of Bengal, northeastern Indian Ocean, revealed the presence of approximately N30~'E-trending seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. These anomalies resemble the Mesozoic...

  16. Suspectable Risk Factors of Congenital Anomaly in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradistya Syifa Yudiasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomaly is a disease of structural or functional alteration since birth. The cause of congenital anomaly is genetic, environtment, and unknown. The cause of congenital anomaly is unknown, made congenital anomaly is difficult to detect. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the suspectable risk factors of congenital anomaly. Methods: This was a descriptive study. About 78 samples were taken by purposive sampling from medical records of patients with congenital anomaly in pediatric surgery ambulatory unit at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital (RSHS, Bandung from September to November 2014. From the selected medical records, an interview was carried out to the parents’ patient to identify some suspectable risk factors. The collected data were analyzed and presented in tables. Results: From 78 medical records,  hirschprung disease was the highest among all type of congenital anomaly (29%. The characteristic of congenital anomaly was mothers in the age of 20–35 years (65%, fathers’ age was  more than 20 years old, family history of congenital anomaly was 1%, there was no history of previous congenital anomaly in previous pregnancy, infection history was 3%, history of medication was 11.5%, mother’s BMI was in normal term (18.5─24.9 as much as 65%, no history of radiation, there was no history of chronic alcohol. History of smoking/passive smoking was high (65%. Conclusions: Hirschprung disease is the highest rate disease in congenital anomaly and smoking is a highest suspectable risk factor contribute to congenital anomaly.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1095

  17. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from...... mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared (Plecotus auritus) and one small-eared (Glossophaga soricina), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher...

  18. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  19. Mouse middle ear ion homeostasis channels and intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Morris

    Full Text Available The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation.The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear.Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation.The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na(+,K(+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium.The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

  20. The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, David

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large.

  1. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  2. Middle ear mucosa in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiin, N; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E; Cerne, A

    1986-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to review thoroughly the literature and summarize it in a standardized fashion; to study the mucosa, including the distribution of mast cells, in all parts of the middle ear cavity in rats; and to compare the experimental findings with those known in humans. Adult, healthy rats were studied by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The ciliated and secretory cells of the rat tympanic cavity are confined to two tracts, one anterior and one inferoposterior to the promontory. The tracts connect the epitympanum with the eustachian tube. The pars flaccida exhibits the highest density of mast cells, but mast cells are also distributed in the subepithelial layer of the tracts and in the floor of the tympanic bulla. The structure of the rat mucosa shows striking similarities to that of humans. Thus, from a morphological point of view, the rat seems to be a suitable model for middle ear studies. However, to be able to compare results obtained in different species and/or different laboratories, the areas of the middle ear from which the specimens have been taken must be carefully defined and presented in a standardized manner.

  3. Origin of conductivity anomalies in the asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T.; Zhang, B.

    2013-12-01

    conductivity of peridotite with trace amount of volatile phases was measured in single crystal olivine capsule to protect escape of water from the sample at 3 GPa. The conductivity values were significantly higher than those of dry peridotite, suggesting that the observed conductivity anomalies at the asthenosphere are caused by a presence of trace amount of volatile component in fluid or melt. On the other hand, conductivity of partial molten peridotite measured under shear showed that the conductivity parallel to the shear direction becomes one order of magnitude higher than that normal direction. These observations suggest that partial melting can explain softening and the observed geophysical anomalies of asthenosphere.

  4. [Management of vascular anomalies in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elajmi, A; Clapuyt, P; Hammer, F; Bataille, A-C; Lengele, B; Boon, L M

    2016-10-01

    Vascular anomalies, which are broadly identified as "angiomas", are rare entities and often unknown by the medical sphere. They are divided in two different categories which carry different prognosis and management: "vascular tumors" and "vascular malformations". Their precise identification is crucial and involves a good knowledge of the biological classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki and that has recently been updated by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). Vascular tumors are benign, common, inborn or not and most of the time disappear with growth. Vascular malformations are always congenital and growth with the child. They can involve type of vessels solely or combined with others. A rheologic differentiation between slow and fast flow malformations is essential in order to characterize the seriousness of the lesion. Frequently, their diagnosis is clinically established and the anamnesis is conducted to answer three questions that are the time of revelation of the lesion ("When?"), its aspect ("What?") and its evolution ("How?"). Further investigations are usually not required but a non-invasive imaging technique such as Doppler ultrasound could be useful if a doubt exists. Surgery is not mandatory and must always be well thought because its consequences might be disastrous. It must be left to cosmetic sequelae of these lesions or to lesions that are totally resectable without causing any unacceptable deformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... Symptoms (BSABS). Anomalies of experience were condensed into rational scales with good internal consistencies. RESULTS: Diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with elevated scores on the scales measuring perplexity (loss of immediate meaning), disorders of perception, disorders of self...

  6. Transcaval ureter: a rare embryological anomaly causing obstructive uropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddy, Stephanie; Thangasamy, Isaac; Vega Vega, Antonio

    2015-02-18

    A 21-year-old woman presented with a longstanding history of episodic right flank pain related to fluid consumption and recurrent urinary tract infections. On examination, there was right costovertebral angle tenderness. Renal tract ultrasound demonstrated hydronephrosis and CT urography confirmed transcaval ureter. The patient's clinical presentation was likely due to obstruction associated with the right ureter passing through the opening created by the duplicated segment of the inferior vena cava. While asymptomatic transcaval ureter can be managed conservatively, severe symptoms or complications of ureteric obstruction may require surgical treatment. In this case, treatment comprised a laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy with an end-to-end anastomosis between the proximal and distal sections of the right ureter. The patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful and she reported resolution of the flank pain during the one year of follow-up. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Fetal renal anomalies : diagnosis, management, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-Elias, Henrica Antonia Maria

    2004-01-01

    In two to three percent of fetuses structural anomalies can be found with prenatal ultrasound investigation. Anomalies of the urinary tract account for 15 to 20% of these anomalies with a detection rate of approximately of 90%. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4 we present reference curves for size and growth

  8. The assessment and management of inner ear barotrauma in divers and recommendations for returning to diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Smart, David R

    2014-12-01

    Inner ear barotrauma (IEBt) constitutes a spectrum of pressure-related pathology in the inner ear, with antecedent middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) common. IEBt includes perilymph fistula, intralabyrinthine membrane tear, inner ear haemorrhage and other rarer pathologies. Following a literature search, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of IEBt in divers and best-practice recommendations for returning to diving were reviewed. Sixty-nine papers/texts were identified and 54 accessed. Twenty-five case series (majority surgical) provided guidance on diagnostic pathways; nine solely reported divers. IEBt in divers may be difficult to distinguish from inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS), and requires dive-risk stratification and careful interrogation regarding diving-related ear events, clinical assessment, pure tone audiometry, a fistula test and electronystagmography (ENG). Once diagnosed, conservative management is the recommended first line therapy for IEBt. Recompression does not appear to cause harm if the diagnosis (IEBt vs IEDCS) is doubtful (limited case data). Exploratory surgery is indicated for severe or persisting vestibular symptoms or hearing loss, deterioration of symptoms, or lack of improvement over 10 days indicating significant pathology. Steroids are used, but without high-level evidence. It may be possible for divers to return to subaquatic activity after stakeholder risk acceptance and informed consent, provided: (1) sensorineural hearing loss is stable and not severe; (2) there is no vestibular involvement (via ENG); (3) high-resolution computed tomography has excluded anatomical predilection to IEBt and (4) education on equalising techniques is provided. There is a need for a prospective data registry and controlled trials to better evaluate diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  9. Paclitaxel reduces formation of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang LP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Li-ping Huang,1* Guo-qi Wang,2* Zi-shan Jia,1 Jing-wen Chen,1 Gang Wang,1 Xing-lin Wang1   1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: The onset and progression of pathological scarring involves multiple cytokines and complex mechanisms. However, hyperplasia of fibroblasts and neovascularization plays important roles, which can be inhibited by paclitaxel. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of paclitaxel in the treatment of hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears. Methods: Rabbit ear models of hypertrophic scars were established to observe the therapeutic effects of paclitaxel at different concentrations (12 mg/L, 24 mg/L, 48 mg/L, 96 mg/L, 18 mg/L, 54 mg/L, 162 mg/L, 486 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 3,750 mg/L. The outcome measures included hypertrophic index (HI, density of fibroblasts, density of collagenous fibers, and microvessel density. Results: In comparison with the control group, the concentrations of 96 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 162 mg/L significantly reduce the formation of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear models. However, local necrosis was found in the rabbit ear models treated with paclitaxel solution >400 mg/L. Conclusion: Paclitaxel has strong inhibitory effects on the hyperplasia of fibroblasts, deposition of collagen, and microangiogenesis in hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears within the concentration range from 48 mg/L to 162 mg/L, without causing local necrosis. Keywords: hypertrophic scar, paclitaxel, rabbit ear model

  10. Network traffic anomaly prediction using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptaningtyas, Hening Titi; Fatichah, Chastine; Sabila, Altea

    2017-03-01

    As the excessive increase of internet usage, the malicious software (malware) has also increase significantly. Malware is software developed by hacker for illegal purpose(s), such as stealing data and identity, causing computer damage, or denying service to other user[1]. Malware which attack computer or server often triggers network traffic anomaly phenomena. Based on Sophos's report[2], Indonesia is the riskiest country of malware attack and it also has high network traffic anomaly. This research uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict network traffic anomaly based on malware attack in Indonesia which is recorded by Id-SIRTII/CC (Indonesia Security Incident Response Team on Internet Infrastructure/Coordination Center). The case study is the highest malware attack (SQL injection) which has happened in three consecutive years: 2012, 2013, and 2014[4]. The data series is preprocessed first, then the network traffic anomaly is predicted using Artificial Neural Network and using two weight update algorithms: Gradient Descent and Momentum. Error of prediction is calculated using Mean Squared Error (MSE) [7]. The experimental result shows that MSE for SQL Injection is 0.03856. So, this approach can be used to predict network traffic anomaly.

  11. Detection of data taking anomalies for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Castro Vargas Fernandes, Julio; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The physics signals produced by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN are acquired and selected by a distributed Trigger and Data AcQuistition (TDAQ) system, comprising a large number of hardware devices and software components. In this work, we focus on the problem of online detection of anomalies along the data taking period. Anomalies, in this context, are defined as an unexpected behaviour of the TDAQ system that result in a loss of data taking efficiency: the causes for those anomalies may come from the TDAQ itself or from external sources. While the TDAQ system operates, it publishes several useful information (trigger rates, dead times, memory usage…). Such information over time creates a set of time series that can be monitored in order to detect (and react to) problems (or anomalies). Here, we approach TDAQ operation monitoring through a data quality perspective, i.e, an anomaly is seen as a loss of quality (an outlier) and it is reported: this information can be used to rea...

  12. Knowledge and care seeking practices for ear infections among parents of under five children in Kigali, Rwanda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitesi Batamuliza Mukara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections affecting the middle ear are a common childhood occurrence. Some cases may present with ear discharge through a tympanic membrane perforation which may heal spontaneously. However, up to 5% or more cases of those affected have persistent ear discharge. A number of barriers contribute towards delayed presentation at health facilities for treatment of ear infections. We conducted a study to evaluate parents’ and caregivers’ knowledge and care seeking practices for ear infections in children under five in Gasabo district in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods Parents/guardians (n = 810 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to elicit their knowledge of ear infections in children under five and their attitude to seeking care for their children. Results The mean age of the respondents was 31.27 years (SD = 7.88, range 17–83. Considering an average of knowledge parameters which included causes, symptoms, prevention, treatment and consequences of ear infections, we found that 76.6% (622 of respondents were knowledgeable about ear infections. We defined a positive practice as seeking medical treatment (community health workers or health facility and this was found in 89.1% (722 respondents. Correlating knowledge with choice of seeking treatment, respondents were 33% less likely to practice medical pluralism (OR = 0.33, CI 0.11–0.97, P = 0.043 if they were familiar with infections. Moreover, urban dweller were 1.7 times more likely to know ear infections compared to rural dwellers (OR = 1.70, CI 1.22–2.38, P = 0.002. Conclusion The majority of respondents had good knowledge and positive attitudes and practices about ear infection. However, medical pluralism was common. There is need to improve the community’s awareness and access to primary health care facilities for the care of ear infections especially in rural areas of Rwanda.

  13. Holomorphic anomaly and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Mariño, Marcos

    2018-02-01

    We show that the all-orders WKB periods of one-dimensional quantum mechanical oscillators are governed by the refined holomorphic anomaly equations of topological string theory. We analyze in detail the double-well potential and the cubic and quartic oscillators, and we calculate the WKB expansion of their quantum free energies by using the direct integration of the anomaly equations. We reproduce in this way all known results about the quantum periods of these models, which we express in terms of modular forms on the WKB curve. As an application of our results, we study the large order behavior of the WKB expansion in the case of the double well, which displays the double factorial growth typical of string theory.

  14. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  15. Parity anomaly in four dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, M.; Vassilevich, D.

    2017-07-01

    In an analogy to the odd-dimensional case we define the parity anomaly as the part of the one-loop effective action for fermions associated with spectral asymmetry of the Dirac operator. This quantity is computed directly on four-dimensional manifolds with a boundary and related to the Chern-Simons current on the boundary. Despite a quite unusual Chern-Simons level obtained, the action is gauge invariant and passes all consistency checks.

  16. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  17. Bifid rib: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Krishnan Rathinasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the bifid rib was found during routine bone study. The distal part of the osseous rib bifurcated into two divisions with an angle of 60°. Both divisions had their own costal cartilage. Bifid rib is a congenital abnormality of the rib cage and usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.

  18. Hyperplasia of the mandibular body: An anomaly in a developmental anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vaiyapuri; Srinivasan, Saravanan; Jacob, Mathew; Kesavan, Priya; Palani, Rajathi; Balakrishnan, Sekar

    2013-07-01

    Hyperplasias of the mandible are usually seen in relation to the condyle or affecting one half of the mandible, such cases being described as hemimandibular hyperplasia or elongation. This article presents a rare case of hyperplasia of the right body of the mandible. The case being unique in that although being present from childhood did not cause any functional disturbances or any occlusal disharmony characteristically seen in such developmental anomalies. Here, we describe the clinical, radiographic and histopathologic findings that led to the diagnosis hyperplasia of the mandibular body and the treatment rendered to provide the esthetic correction.

  19. Hyperplasia of the mandibular body: An anomaly in a developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiyapuri Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplasias of the mandible are usually seen in relation to the condyle or affecting one half of the mandible, such cases being described as hemimandibular hyperplasia or elongation. This article presents a rare case of hyperplasia of the right body of the mandible. The case being unique in that although being present from childhood did not cause any functional disturbances or any occlusal disharmony characteristically seen in such developmental anomalies. Here, we describe the clinical, radiographic and histopathologic findings that led to the diagnosis hyperplasia of the mandibular body and the treatment rendered to provide the esthetic correction.

  20. Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-03-01

    We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.

  1. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theoretique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2010-08-15

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (orig.)

  2. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  3. Analysis of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies that occurred before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010 are investigated using the total electron content (TEC from the global ionosphere map (GIM. We analyze the possible causes of the ionospheric anomalies based on the space environment and magnetic field status. Results show that some anomalies are related to the earthquakes. By analyzing the time of occurrence, duration, and spatial distribution of these ionospheric anomalies, a number of new conclusions are drawn, as follows: earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies are not bound to appear; both positive and negative anomalies are likely to occur; and the earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies discussed in the current study occurred 0–2 days before the associated earthquakes and in the afternoon to sunset (i.e. between 12:00 and 20:00 local time. Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies occur mainly in areas near the epicenter. However, the maximum affected area in the ionosphere does not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter of the subsequent earthquake. The directions deviating from the epicenters do not follow a fixed rule. The corresponding ionospheric effects can also be observed in the magnetically conjugated region. However, the probability of the anomalies appearance and extent of the anomalies in the magnetically conjugated region are smaller than the anomalies near the epicenter. Deep-focus earthquakes may also exhibit very significant pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies.

  4. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically; the entire width of the array (70 km freshened between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. The OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01, despite the inevitable limitations of a z-coordinate model in representing the mixing processes at and downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase in southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated strengthening of the East Greenland Current.

  5. Endoscopic Ear Surgery: Critical Review of Anatomy and Physiology of Normal and Reconstructive Middle Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagatti, Vithal D; Dinesh Kumar, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Middle ear anatomy is complex hence it is difficult to study the microscopic vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles. The basic research has been done in few centres. Our experience is based on clinical data. The lack of quantitative understanding of structural and functional relationship in the mechanical response of the normal and reconstructed middle ear is major factor in poor hearing results after surgery (Merchant et al. in J Laryngol Otol 112:715-731, 1998). The vibration pattern of tympanic membrane changes with different frequencies. It depends upon shape, position and tension of tympanic membrane. Sometimes reconstructed tympanic membrane loses its shape and tension and thus its vibratory response (Pusalkar and Steinbach in Transplants and implants in otology II, 1992). Then what should be the shape, position, tension of the tympanic membrane and the ossicles. In order to have a serviceable hearing, dry and safe ear, there is a necessity of answering all these queries by us.

  6. Floating-Harbor syndrome associated with middle ear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Desprechins, Brigitte; Casselman, Jan; Gordts, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology, which was first described in 1973. A triad of main features characterizes Floating-Harbor syndrome: short stature, characteristic face, and an expressive speech delay. We present a patient in whom the hearing thresholds improved insufficiently after placement of grommets. High-resolution CT scan of the temporal bone showed a prominent soft-tissue thickening suspected of causing fixation of the malleus, and fusion of the malleus head with the body of the incus. To our knowledge this is the first reported abnormal middle ear anatomy in a patient with Floating-Harbor syndrome. A conservative treatment with hearing aids was preferred as an initial treatment in favor of a surgical exploration.

  7. Host to a Stranger: Arabidopsis and Fusarium Ear Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Helen C; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2015-10-01

    Fusarium ear blight (FEB) is a devastating fungal disease of cereal crops. Outbreaks are sporadic and current control strategies are severely limited. This review highlights the use of Arabidopsis to study plant-FEB interactions. Use of this pathosystem has identified natural variation in Fusarium susceptibility in Arabidopsis, and native plant genes and signalling processes modulating the interaction. Recent breakthroughs include the identification of plant- and insect-derived small molecules which increase disease resistance, and the use of a host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) construct to silence an important Fusarium gene to prevent infection. Arabidopsis has also been used to study other fungi that cause cereal diseases. These findings offer the potential for translational research in cereals which could yield much-needed novel control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TOTAL EAR RECONSTRUCTION WITH MONOBLOCK CARTILAGE AND TEMPOROPARIETAL FASCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Microtia is a congenital ear deformity with incidence of 1:6000. Anotia can be of traumatic origin also. It is one of the greatest challenges to the plastic surgeon to the reconstruct the ear from autologus material . Various developments have occurred in the ear reconstruction from the era of Tanzer. It can be done in a single stage or multiple stages. Single stage ear reconstruction require technical precision, avoids multiple admission of the patient. MATERIAL AND M ETHOD : Between 2007 to 2013 six cases of total ear reconstruction was done in two stage method using autologus coastal cartilage in the department of M.K.C.G medical college by a single surgeon. In the first stage lobule rotation, fabrication of the cartil aginous framework and its implantation were performed. In the second stage elevation of the auricle and formation of tragus was done. All of them underwent stage 1 procedure among them 2 had not turned up for staged 2 procedure. RESULT S: 4 were females and 2 were male. 4 had congenital microtia and two were traumatic amputation of the ear. All had unilateral microtia. The follow up was done for up to 1 year. CONCLUSION: One patient had lost follow up.5 patient had unacceptable ear. Though it is impossible t o reconstruct ear that appear exactly the same as opposite ear , the new ears which were made of correct size and in normal position

  9. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  10. Secretory otitis. Histopathology and goblet-cell density in the Eustachian tube and middle ear in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tos, M; Bak-Pedersen, K

    1976-05-01

    The histological changes in the middle ear of four children with incipient or mild chronic secretory otitis are described. They consist in vascular dilatation and proliferation, round-cell infiltration, epithelial metaplasia into pseudostratified, columnar, ciliated epithelium posteriorly in the middle ear, formation of abnormal mucous tubular glands, and an increase in goblet-cell density in the osseous tube and middle ear. The causes of these changes were presumably long-lasting tubal occlusion due to a permanent nasogastric tube and protracted catarrhal diseases. The density of goblet cells was determined in various parts of the Eustachian tube and middle ear. The findings were analysed statistically and compared with the density in prematures and newborns, normal children, and normal adults. In the tympanic orifice and in the osseous Eustachian tube the goblet-cell density was greatly increased, whereas the increase in the middle ear varied individually, but was in conformity with the other findings. These cases illustrate that the histopathological changes in the middle-ear mucosa in secretory otitis must be regarded not only from a qualitative, but certainly also from a quantitative point of view.

  11. Phase anomalies in Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Assafrao, Alberto da Costa; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Pereira, Silvania F; Urbach, H Paul; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2012-12-17

    Bessel-Gauss beams are known as non-diffracting beams. They can be obtained by focusing an annularly shaped collimated laser beam. Here, we report for the first time on the direct measurement of the phase evolution of such beams by relying on longitudinal-differential interferometry. We found that the characteristics of Bessel-Gauss beams cause a continuously increasing phase anomaly in the spatial domain where such beams do not diverge, i.e. there is a larger phase advance of the beam when compared to a referential plane wave. Simulations are in excellent agreement with measurements. We also provide an analytical treatment of the problem that matches both experimental and numerical results and provides an intuitive explanation.

  12. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  13. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  14. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant use in first trimester pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemakor, A.; Casson, K.; Garne, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective / Background The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed in pregnancy, but there is evidence that they may cause congenital anomalies, particularly congenital heart defects (CHD). Objective: To determine the specificity of association between ...

  15. Ciliary activity of the middle ear lining in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Y; Nakai, Y; Kihara, S

    1985-01-01

    Since the middle ear lining is an extension and a modification of the respiratory epithelium, it is conceivable that it has a mucociliary system and plays an important role in clearing the middle ear cavity. It has already been noted in morphological investigations that the middle ear mucosa has ciliated cells. To our knowledge, however, ciliary activity has never been observed directly. In our research, we used the photoelectric method to study ciliary activity of the middle ear mucosa directly and quantitatively. We made special reference to the frequency of ciliary beating at various sites within the middle ear cavity. Ciliary activity was found to exist in the eustachian tube and the middle ear, the same as in other respiratory organs, and this activity was stronger in cells distal to the eustachian tube.

  16. [Diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Ding, Yuanping; Zhang, Jianji; Chen, Ying; Xu, Anting; Dou, Fenfen; Zhang, Zihe

    2007-02-01

    To observe the inner ear structure with volume rendering (VR) reconstruction and to evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. HRCT scanning was performed in 10 patients (20 ears) without ear disease (control group) and 7 patients (11 ears) with inner ear malformations (IEM group) and the original data was processed with VR reconstruction. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure in the images generated by these techniques was observed respectively in the normal ears and malformation ears. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure and the relationship was displayed clearly in VR imaging in the control group,meanwhile, characters and degree of malformed structure were also displayed clearly in the IEA group. Of seven patients (11 ears) with congenital inner ear malformations, the axial, MPR and VR images can display the site and degree in 9 ears. VR images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 2 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations included Mondini deformity (7 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (3 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate (7 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations) , the internal auditory canal malformation (2 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). HRCT can display the normal structure of bone inner ear through high quality VR reconstructions. VR images can also display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitively. HRCT is valuable in diagnosing the inner ear malformation.

  17. An abbreviated history of the ear: from Renaissance to present.

    OpenAIRE

    Hachmeister, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss important discoveries in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the ear from Renaissance to present. Before the Renaissance, there was a paucity of knowledge of the anatomy of the ear, because of the relative inaccessibility of the temporal bone and the general perception that human dissections should not be conducted. It was not until the sixteenth century that the middle ear was described with detail. Further progress would be made between the sixteenth and eig...

  18. Karyotype-specific ear and hearing problems in young adults with Turner syndrome and the effect of oxandrolone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Eva J J; Freriks, Kim; Sas, Theo C J; Huygen, Patrick L M; Pennings, Ronald J E; Smeets, Dominique F C M; Hermus, Ad R M M; Menke, Leonie A; Wit, Jan M; Otten, Barto J; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janiëlle A E M; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F; Topsakal, Vedat; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Timmers, Henri J L M; Kunst, Henricus P M

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate karyotype-specific ear and hearing problems in young-adult patients with Turner syndrome (TS) and assess the effects of previous treatment with oxandrolone (Ox). Double-blind follow-up study. University hospital. Sixty-five TS patients (mean age, 24.3 yr) previously treated with growth hormone combined with placebo, Ox 0.03 mg/kg per day, or Ox 0.06 mg/kg per day from the age of 8 years and estrogen from the age of 12 years. Ear examination was performed according to standard clinical practice. Air- and bone conduction thresholds were measured in decibel hearing level. We compared patients with total monosomy of the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp), monosomy 45,X and isochromosome 46,X,i(Xq), with patients with a partial monosomy Xp, mosaicism or other structural X chromosomal anomalies. We assessed the effect of previous Ox treatment. Sixty-six percent of the patients had a history of recurrent otitis media. We found hearing loss in 66% of the ears, including pure sensorineural hearing loss in 32%. Hearing thresholds in patients with a complete monosomy Xp were about 10 dB worse compared with those in patients with a partial monosomy Xp. Air- and bone conduction thresholds were not different between the placebo and Ox treatment groups. Young-adult TS individuals frequently have structural ear pathology, and many suffer from hearing loss. This indicates that careful follow-up to detect ear and hearing problems is necessary, especially for those with a monosomy 45,X or isochromosome 46,X,i(Xq). Ox does not seem to have an effect on hearing.

  19. Penetration of ceftibuten into middle ear fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, C; Kumari, P; Perrotta, R J; Reidenberg, B E

    1996-01-01

    The penetration of ceftibuten, an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin, into middle ear fluid (MEF) was evaluated in pediatric patients during a course of daily oral doses of 9 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days. Plasma and MEF collected at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h after at least 3 days of dosing were analyzed for ceftibuten by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, and the data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma and MEF had almost identical maximum concentrations (Cmax) o...

  20. Developmental venous anomaly (DVA); Developmental Venous Anomaly (DVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, A.; Ahlhelm, F.; Viera, J.; Reith, W.; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Hagen, T. [Radiologische Praxis, Augsburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    As congenital anatomic variants of venous drainage, developmental venous anomalies (DVA) represent up to 60% of all cerebral vascular malformations. The prior term ''venous angioma'' is a misnomer implicating an abnormal vascular structure with an increased bleeding risk. They are often found incidentally and are hardly ever symptomatic. Their morphologic characteristics are dilated vessels in the white matter, which converge on a greater collector vein, forming the typical caput medusae. They drain into the superficial or deep venous system. The frequent association with other, potentially bleeding-prone vascular malformations is clinically relevant, in particular cavernous angioma, which might require therapeutic action. Therefore, coincident vascular lesions need to be actively sought by appropriate additional imaging techniques. (orig.) [German] Als eine embryologische Variante der venoesen Drainage macht die so genannte ''developmental venous anomaly'' (DVA) etwa 60% aller zerebralen vaskulaeren Malformationen aus. Der vormalige Terminus ''venoeses Angiom'' sollte nicht mehr benutzt werden, da er abnormale Gefaessstrukturen mit einem erhoehten Blutungsrisiko impliziert. Die DVA werden oft inzidentell entdeckt und sind nur selten symptomatisch. Das typische Erscheinungsbild ist durch dilatierte, medusenhauptartig angeordnete venoese Marklagergefaesse gekennzeichnet, die in eine groessere Sammelvene drainieren. Der Abfluss erfolgt ueber das oberflaechliche oder tiefe Venensystem. Klinisch wichtig ist die haeufige Assoziation mit anderen zerebralen Gefaessmalformationen, insbesondere kavernoesen Angiomen, nach denen im Rahmen der Diagnostik explizit gesucht werden muss, da diese eine potenzielle Blutungsquelle darstellen und ein therapeutisches Vorgehen erfordern koennen. (orig.)

  1. Extending TOPS: Ontology-driven Anomaly Detection and Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Michaelis, A.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include a capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. We can query the knowledge base and answer questions about dataset compatibilities, similarities and dependencies so that we can, for example, automatically analyze similar datasets in order to verify a given anomaly occurrence in multiple data sources. We are further extending the system to go beyond anomaly detection towards reasoning about possible causes of anomalies that are also encoded in the knowledge base as either learned or implied knowledge. This enables us to scale up the analysis by eliminating a large number of anomalies early on during the processing by either failure to verify them from other sources, or matching them directly with other observable events without having to perform an extensive and time-consuming exploration and analysis. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. The information is stored using Sesame server and is accessible through both Java API and web services using SeRQL and SPARQL query languages. Inference is provided using OWLIM component integrated with Sesame.

  2. Histologic analysis of the effects of three different support materials within rat middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Salim; Haholu, Abdulah; Gungor, Atila; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Cincik, Hakan; Ozdemir, Taner; Sen, Huseyin

    2009-02-01

    To investigate histologic changes in the mucosa of rat middle ear after implantation of three different support materials. A prospective, controlled animal study. Three types of absorbable materials were implanted into the middle ear cavity of rats: (1) Gelfoam (purified gelatin) (Pharmacia & Upjohn Company, New York, NY), (2) Sepragel (viscoelastic gel composed of cross-linked polymers of hyaluronan) (GENZYME Corp, Ridgefield, NJ), and (3) Nasopore (a biodegradable/fragmentable, synthetic polyurethane foam) (Polyganics, Groningen, The Netherlands). Rats were sacrificed after 3 and 20 days to ascertain early and late histologic changes. The bulla of each rat was excised and prepared for microscopic examination. The histologic changes were evaluated by observation of the middle ear cavity and mucosa in terms of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL), macrophages, giant cells, fibroblasts and other cells, fibrosis, and remnant materials. The histologic appearance of gelfoam-treated middle ears was characterized by more severe acute inflammation in the short-term and prominent fibrosis in the long-term in comparison with sepragel- and nasopore-treated groups. Nasopore appeared to be prone to remnant formation and reorganization by means of fibroblastic activity. Compared with gelfoam, both sepragel and nasopore caused less histologic alterations.

  3. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise .2. Temperature dependence of inner ear function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a

  4. New probe microphone for investigating the acoustics of the ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Ole; Günthersen, Carsten

    1981-01-01

    A new probe microphone employing a soft tube and a compensation network for the tube response is described. Because of the soft tube, this microphone is especially suited for investigating the acoustics of the outer ear and the ear canal, and some such measurements are given.......A new probe microphone employing a soft tube and a compensation network for the tube response is described. Because of the soft tube, this microphone is especially suited for investigating the acoustics of the outer ear and the ear canal, and some such measurements are given....

  5. Concha headphones and their coupling to the ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Lola Justine Kydia Olivia; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to obtain a better understanding of concha headphone. Concha headphones are the small types of earpiece that are placed in the concha. They are not sealed to the ear and therefore, there is a leak between the earpiece and the ear. This leak is the reason why there is a...... there is a significant lack of bass when using such headphones. This paper investigates the coupling between the headphone and the ear, by means of measurement in artificial ears and models. The influence of the back volume is taken into account....

  6. Towards making HCS ear detection robust against rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pflug, Anika; Back, Philip Michael; Busch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    pattern recognition techniques have been applied to ear images but similarly to face recognition, rotation and pose still pose problems to ear recognition systems. One solution for this is 3D ear imaging. the segmentation of the ear, prior to the actual feature extraction step, however, remains...... to rotation by using a rotation symmetric, circular detection window. Shape index histograms are extracted at different radii in order to get overlapping subsets within the circle. The detection performance of the modified HCS detector is evaluated on two different datasets, one of them containing images n...

  7. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Congenital anomalies in Primorsky region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, P; Voronin, S; Golokhvast, K

    2015-01-01

    According to WHO hereditary diseases and congenital malformations contribute significantly to the health of population. Thus, the problems of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of congenital abnormalities are of interest for many researchers [2]. In addition, the dynamic accounting for the incidence of congenital malformations and hereditary diseases allows the researchers to assess the ecological situation in the region [1]. The occurrence of congenital anomalies in the world varies; it depends heavily on how carefully the data is collected [4]. Multifactorial or polygenic diseases develop under the influence of environmental factors in the presence of defective genes. They can constitute up to 90% of all chronic pathology [2-5]. To determine the incidence of congenital anomalies under the influence of environmental factors. The study used the methodology of system evaluation of congenital anomalies incidence in Primorsky region, depending on bio-climatic and environmental conditions. The authors used health statistics for the period from 2000 to 2014, F.12 class for congenital abnormalities in adolescents and children that were compared in geographical and temporal aspects with environmental factors of 33 settlements in Primorsky region. The environment is represented by nature and climate (6 factor modules) and sanitation (7 factor modules) blocks of factors. When formalizing the information database of the environment a specially developed 10-point assessment scale was used. Statistical processing of the information was carried out using Pearson's chi-squared test and multiple regression method from SSPS application program package. The study found that over the 15-year period the level of congenital abnormalities in children increased by 27.5% and in adolescents - by 35.1%, and in 2014 it amounted to 1687.6 and 839.3 per 100 000 people, respectively. The predictive model shows a steady further growth of this pathology. The incidence

  9. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  10. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  11. Diagnosis of ossicular chain in the middle ear by high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Takeo (Hanamaki-Kosei Hospital, Iwate (Japan)); Aoyagi, Masaru; Koike, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio

    1992-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the usefulness and limitation of high-resolution CT for evaluating the condition of ossicular chain in the middle ear. Preoperative CT findings of the ossicular chain were compared with the operative findings of ossicles in 26 patients with chronic otitis media or congenital ossicular anomaly who underwent tympanoplasty. Total defect of head of the malleus, body of the incus and long process of the incus were completely detected by high-resolution CT. But the reliability in detecting the defect of handle of the malleus and superstructure of the stapes were 33.3% and 60%, respectively. Defect of the I-S joint (1 case) and partial defect of stapes crus (2 cases) could not be diagnosed correctly in the preoperative estimation. Although these findings demonstrate the limitations of high-resolution CT in the diagnosis of ossicular chain, it will be diminished by the advanced space resolution of CT in the future. (author).

  12. The Prevalence of minor congenital anomalies and normal variations in neonates in Bushehr Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pouladfar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital malformations are a major reason for medical interventions, long-term illness and death. Minor congenital anomaly is not important in appearance and surgical views, and its prevalence in general population is less than 4%, however a normal variation has a prevalence of more than 4% in general population. Methods: In a prospective study from Aug 2002 to Mar 2003, seven hundreds and fifteen (45.45% male and 59.54% female consecutive newborns in random days were examined for the presence of minor congenital malformations in a university hospital. Results: The overall incidence of minor malformations was 5.03% (55.55% male and 44.46% female p>0.05. 0.28% of neonates had two minor anomalies. The musculoskeletal system (2.25% was the most common involved system followed by genitourinary system (1.39%, skin (0.99%, ear (0.42% and nose (0.14%. Mongolian spot (6.01% and hydrocele (7.69% were detected as normal variations. The positional clubfoot (1.82% was the most common minor congenital anomaly followed by undescended tests (1.85% in males and granular hypospadias (0.92% in males and sacral dimpling (0.56%. Conclusion: The minor anomalies are detecting in a significant number of neonates in Bushehr Port. Mongolian spot and hydrocele are two normal variations among neonates in Bushehr port.

  13. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  14. Congenital varitans and anomalies of the pancreas and pancreatic duct: Imaging by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography and multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Yener, Ouzlem [Dept. of Radiology, Tuerkiye Yueksek Ihtisas Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Erden, Aysel [Dept. of Radiology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Antalya (Turkmenistan); Tuerkoglu, Mehmet Akif [Dept. of General Surgery, Antalya University School of Medicine, Antalya (Turkmenistan)

    2013-12-15

    Though congenital anomalies of the pancreas and pancreatic duct are relatively uncommon and they are often discovered as an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients, some of these anomalies may lead to various clinical symptoms such as recurrent abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Recognition of these anomalies is important because these anomalies may be a surgically correctable cause of recurrent pancreatitis or the cause of gastric outlet obstruction. An awareness of these anomalies may help in surgical planning and prevent inadvertent ductal injury. The purpose of this article is to review normal pancreatic embryology, the appearance of ductal anatomic variants and developmental anomalies of the pancreas, with emphasis on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography and multidetector computed tomography.

  15. A study of dental anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sook; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of dental anomalies in 600 normal persons (male:363, female:237) at age 14 to 39 years, through history taking, oral examination, and radiographic observations of subjects. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence of individual dental anomalies were as follows; Congenitally missing teeth 7%; supernumerary teeth 1.33%; ectopic eruption 8.50%; transposition 0.33%; rotation 23.67%; microdontia 11.16% (peg lateral is 5.33%; third molar 5.83%); prolonged retention of deciduous teeth 1.33%; crowding 49.83%; and spacing 15.17%. 2. Alterations in numbers of teeth : The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular lateral incisors, followed by mandibular second premolars and maxillary second premolars. In numbers of congenitally missing teeth per person, 52.38% had one missing tooth and 30.95% had two missing teeth. In supernumerary teeth, there was higher rate in male than in female. Most supernumerary teeth were mesiodens of median area in maxilla and the eruption pattern of that teeth generally was unerupted state. 3. In transposition, exchange of position of teeth involved the canine and first premolar. 4. Congenital missing rate of permanent successors in prolonged retention of deciduous teeth was 69.23%. 5. Crowding and spacing had respectively higher rate in mandible and in maxilla.

  16. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  17. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade dura...... duration (AFD), and level crossing rate (LCR) for each of the six persons. Seven probability distributions, including Rician and Nakagamim were fitted by the use of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The distributions are ranked by their goodness-of-fit to the empirical CDFs....

  18. Improvement of the ear-to-ear path gain at 2.45 GHz using parasitic antenna element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Ôzden, Sinasi; Thaysen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Two antenna configurations are considered for ear-to-ear on-body communications at 2.45 GHz. Both consist of monopole antennas operated on small ground planes that are placed next to the human head. Their performances are compared in terms of maximum path gain (|S21|) and obtainable bandwidth...... of the antenna structures. It is found that the bandwidth, as well as the ear-to-ear path gain can be improved by the addition of a parasitic monopole antenna element. The parasitic antenna element affects the electric current distribution on the ground plane, which has a favorable impact on the on-body antenna...

  19. Toxic inner ear lesion following otitis media with effusion: a comparative CT-study regarding the morphology of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Stelzer, Tim; Wiegand, Susanne; Güldner, Christian; Teymoortash, Afshin; Günzel, Thomas; Hagen, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory airways can lead to a delayed viral otitis media (VOM) caused by a diffusion of viruses/virus particles through the round window membrane and resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. The treatment of choice is immediate paracentesis, evacuation of all fluids from the middle ear cavity, and haemorrheological infusions. However, in some cases, persistent symptoms may be an indication for a surgical approach using mastoidectomy. In high-resolution computed tomography, an extended small-sized pneumatisation of the mastoid cells with complete shading was found in these non-responsive cases. Therefore, a direct means of inner ear affliction through weak parts of the labyrinthine bone may be hypothesised. Patients suffering from a toxic inner ear lesion (TIEL) following a common cold, treated over a 10-year period in a Tertiary Care Centre (N = 52, 57 ears), were identified and the morphological characteristics of the temporal bones of affected patients were examined by means of high-resolution computed tomography (hrCT). The findings were compared with a matched control group of 64 normal ears (CONT). Measurements included the grade of pneumatisation, distances within the temporal bones and Hounsfield units (HU) at defined anatomical structures. In the TIEL group, we found a small-sized pneumatisation in 79.4 % and a medium-sized pneumatisation in 10.9 %, thus differing from the CONT group and the literature data. Thickness of the bone wall of the lateral semicircular canal (LSC) and distances within the aditus ad antrum were significantly reduced in the TIEL group. HU's were markedly lower in the TIEL group at the precochlea, the LSC, and dorsolateral to the promentia of the LSC. There was a correlation between the HU's at the prominentia of the LSC and the hearing loss (p = 0.002). Persisting interosseous globuli, as described in 1897 by Paul Manasse, form an osseochondral network within the otic capsule and may be responsible

  20. Cochlear Implantation in Inner Ear Malformations: Systematic Review of Speech Perception Outcomes and Intraoperative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Zachary; Nguyen, Shaun A; Miller, Stephen C; Holcomb, Meredith A; Meyer, Ted A; Rizk, Habib G

    2017-05-01

    Objective (1) To analyze reported speech perception outcomes in patients with inner ear malformations who undergo cochlear implantation, (2) to review the surgical complications and findings, and (3) to compare the 2 classification systems of Jackler and Sennaroglu. Data Sources PubMed, Scopus (including Embase), Medline, and CINAHL Plus. Review Methods Fifty-nine articles were included that contained speech perception and/or intraoperative data. Cases were differentiated depending on whether the Jackler or Sennaroglu malformation classification was used. A meta-analysis of proportions examined incidences of complete insertion, gusher, and facial nerve aberrancy. For speech perception data, weighted means and standard deviations were calculated for all malformations for short-, medium-, and long-term follow-up. Speech tests were grouped into 3 categories-closed-set words, open-set words, and open-set sentences-and then compared through a comparison-of-means t test. Results Complete insertion was seen in 81.8% of all inner ear malformations (95% CI: 72.6-89.5); gusher was reported in 39.1% of cases (95% CI: 30.3-48.2); and facial nerve anomalies were encountered in 34.4% (95% CI: 20.1-50.3). Significant improvements in average performance were seen for closed- and open-set tests across all malformation types at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions Cochlear implantation outcomes are favorable for those with inner ear malformations from a surgical and speech outcome standpoint. Accurate classification of anatomic malformations, as well as standardization of postimplantation speech outcomes, is necessary to improve understanding of the impact of implantation in this difficult patient population.

  1. Ear and hearing problems in relation to karyotype in children with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, E J J; Freriks, K; Thomeer, H G X M; Huygen, P L M; Pennings, R J E; Alfen-van der Velden, A A E M; Timmers, H J; Otten, B J; Cremers, C W R J; Kunst, H P M

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study was to report otologic and audiologic characteristics in a group of children with Turner syndrome (TS) and correlate these findings to karyotype. Additionally, we give recommendations for the otologic care of these children. Sixty children (age 1.7-21.2 years) were included in this retrospective study. Medical history and karyotypes were recorded and otologic and audiologic evaluation was performed. A history of recurrent otitis media was reported in 41/60 (68%) children and 3/60 (5%) had suffered from cholesteatoma. Audiometric data in 56 children revealed that normal hearing was only present in 33/112 (29%) ears. All other ears 79/112 (71%) were classified in five different audiometric categories for hearing loss. Hearing thresholds in general appeared to be about 10-11 dB worse in children with a monosomy 45,X or isochromosome (both have a total deletion of the short (p) arm of the X-chromosome) compared to those having a mosaicism or structural anomaly (partial deletion, or total deletion in only a few cells). Our findings support the hypothesis that hearing can be affected by loss of the p-arm of the X-chromosome. It is for the first time that a relation between hearing problems and karyotype is statistically confirmed in a large group of children with TS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gülşen, İsmail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  3. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury.

  4. Detecting Distributed Network Traffic Anomaly with Network-Wide Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonglin, Li; Guangmin, Hu; Xingmiao, Yao; Dan, Yang

    2008-12-01

    Distributed network traffic anomaly refers to a traffic abnormal behavior involving many links of a network and caused by the same source (e.g., DDoS attack, worm propagation). The anomaly transiting in a single link might be unnoticeable and hard to detect, while the anomalous aggregation from many links can be prevailing, and does more harm to the networks. Aiming at the similar features of distributed traffic anomaly on many links, this paper proposes a network-wide detection method by performing anomalous correlation analysis of traffic signals' instantaneous parameters. In our method, traffic signals' instantaneous parameters are firstly computed, and their network-wide anomalous space is then extracted via traffic prediction. Finally, an anomaly is detected by a global correlation coefficient of anomalous space. Our evaluation using Abilene traffic traces demonstrates the excellent performance of this approach for distributed traffic anomaly detection.

  5. Detecting Distributed Network Traffic Anomaly with Network-Wide Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed network traffic anomaly refers to a traffic abnormal behavior involving many links of a network and caused by the same source (e.g., DDoS attack, worm propagation. The anomaly transiting in a single link might be unnoticeable and hard to detect, while the anomalous aggregation from many links can be prevailing, and does more harm to the networks. Aiming at the similar features of distributed traffic anomaly on many links, this paper proposes a network-wide detection method by performing anomalous correlation analysis of traffic signals' instantaneous parameters. In our method, traffic signals' instantaneous parameters are firstly computed, and their network-wide anomalous space is then extracted via traffic prediction. Finally, an anomaly is detected by a global correlation coefficient of anomalous space. Our evaluation using Abilene traffic traces demonstrates the excellent performance of this approach for distributed traffic anomaly detection.

  6. Body stalk anomaly: antenatal sonographic diagnosis of this rare entity with review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasmeet; Gupta, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Body stalk anomaly is a rare and severe malformation syndrome in which the exact pathophysiology and trigger factors are still unknown. Possible causes of body stalk anomaly include early amnion rupture with direct mechanical pressure and amniotic bands, vascular disruption of the early embryo, or an abnormality in the germinal disk. We present a case of body stalk anomaly diagnosed during antenatal sonographic evaluation at the first visit with the review of literature regarding this phenomenon. Sonographic features of the fetus included a severe midline defect of the fetal abdominal wall with a large extra-abdominal mass containing bowel and liver inside. Body stalk anomaly is accepted as a fatal anomaly, so it is important to differentiate it from other anterior wall defects for evaluating the management options. PMID:28856023

  7. Body stalk anomaly: antenatal sonographic diagnosis of this rare entity with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Body stalk anomaly is a rare and severe malformation syndrome in which the exact pathophysiology and trigger factors are still unknown. Possible causes of body stalk anomaly include early amnion rupture with direct mechanical pressure and amniotic bands, vascular disruption of the early embryo, or an abnormality in the germinal disk. We present a case of body stalk anomaly diagnosed during antenatal sonographic evaluation at the first visit with the review of literature regarding this phenomenon. Sonographic features of the fetus included a severe midline defect of the fetal abdominal wall with a large extra-abdominal mass containing bowel and liver inside. Body stalk anomaly is accepted as a fatal anomaly, so it is important to differentiate it from other anterior wall defects for evaluating the management options.

  8. Evaluation of fungal flora in normal and diseased canine ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn J; Coyner, Kimberly S; Rankin, Shelley C; Lewis, Thomas P; Schick, Anthea E; Shumaker, Amy K

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize otic fungal flora encountered in normal dogs, atopic dogs with no clinical or cytological evidence of otitis and dogs with otitis externa. Forty-two normal dogs, 23 atopic dogs and 32 dogs with otitis were included in the study. Samples for otic fungal culture and cytology were obtained from all animals, for a total of 194 ears. Sixty-seven ear samples (34%) were culture positive for saprophytic fungal organisms, as follows: 43 (64%) Penicillium species, 13 (19%) Aspergillus species and the remaining 17% comprised of various other saprophytic fungal organisms. Cytological evidence of saprophytic fungal colonization or infection was not found in any animal. There was no relationship between positive saprophytic fungal culture and any study group. Thirty-three ear samples (17%) were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis. Cytological findings of Malassezia were significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia (P = 0.006 left ear; P = 0.019 right ear). Furthermore, increased numbers of Malassezia led to a higher chance of positive culture (P = 0.003 left ear; P = 0.008 right ear; McNemar's test). Malassezia pachydermatis was more likely to be cultured from ears with increased cerumen. Ear type (erect or pendulous) was not significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia or saprophytic fungal organisms. There was no relationship between positive Malassezia culture and any study group; however, Malassezia was more likely to be cultured from individual dogs in the atopic or otitis groups that also had other dermatological signs consistent with allergic dermatitis and/or pyoderma (P = 0.031 left ear; P = 0.005 right ear). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powers TuShun R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome

  10. Developmental anomaly of ossification type patella partita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Bipartite patella has been recognized as an incidental radiographic finding. However, symptomatic bipartite patella is occasionally diagnosed in adolescents and young athletes. The incidence of bipartite patella has been reported at 0.2-1.7, and 1-2 % of these cases are symptomatic. The purpose of this review article was to discuss current concepts relevant to developmental anomaly of ossification type patella partita. A PubMed database search using the key words "bipartite patella" was performed. Clinical papers reporting the bipartite patella were included. Four German-language studies were also included, three for incidence of bipartite patella and one for classification. A new classification of developmental anomaly of ossification type patella partita based on location and number of fragment was recently proposed. It is simple and useful and applicable to all types of bipartite or tripartite patella. Several imaging studies have reportedly been used to evaluate symptomatic bipartite patella. MRI is currently the most appropriate method used to assess patients with bipartite patella. Although surgical procedures have been developed that reduce excessive traction force by the vastus lateralis muscle on the bipartite fragment, there is not sufficient evidence to support their use for routine treatment of painful bipartite patella. In most symptomatic cases, movement at the interface between the bipartite fragment and the body of the patella presumably causes the pain. Therefore, the existence of apparent motion at the interface should be confirmed by specific imaging studies before surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging findings may provide such evidence by demonstrating a fluid bright signal across the segmentation, typical of pseudoarthrosis. V.

  11. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2 + 1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z = 2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3 + 1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  12. Magnetic Anomaly Detection by Remote Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From- To) 21-09-2016 Final 1/1/2013- 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Magnetic Anomaly Detection ...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Research on the possibility of detecting magnetic anomalies remotely using laser excitation of a...A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Magnetic Anomaly Detection by Remote Means Richard B. Miles and Arthur Dogariu

  13. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  14. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia,Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baiguera, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento,38123 Povo (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  15. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection).

  16. Anomaly Detection from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiandong Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery contains much more information in the spectral domain than does multispectral imagery. The consecutive and abundant spectral signals provide a great potential for classification and anomaly detection. In this study, two real hyperspectral data sets were used for anomaly detection. One data set was an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS data covering the post-attack World Trade Center (WTC and anomalies are fire spots. The other data set called SpecTIR contained fabric panels as anomalies compared to their background. Existing anomaly detection algorithms including the Reed–Xiaoli detector (RXD, the blocked adaptive computation efficient outlier nominator (BACON, the random selection based anomaly detector (RSAD, the weighted-RXD (W-RXD, and the probabilistic anomaly detector (PAD are reviewed here. The RXD generally sets strict assumptions to the background, which cannot be met in many scenarios, while BACON, RSAD, and W-RXD employ strategies to optimize the estimation of background information. The PAD firstly estimates both background information and anomaly information and then uses the information to conduct anomaly detection. Here, the BACON, RSAD, W-RXD, and PAD outperformed the RXD in terms of detection accuracy, and W-RXD and PAD required less time than BACON and RSAD.

  17. Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid gland anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Tuncay, Kenan Selçuk; Zaim, Murat; Acar, Baran; Karaşen, Rıza Murat

    2010-11-01

    There are several thyroid gland developmental anomalies such as presence of a pyramidal lobe, absence of the lateral lobes, absence of the isthmus or incomplete isthmus, and significantly asymmetric lateral lobes. The absence or agenesis of the isthmus is a rare condition (1%). In this report, we present a case with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid gland anomalies that consist of thyroglossal duct remnant and absence of the isthmus. Furthermore, an anomaly in the parathyroid gland location and morphologic anomaly as a cystic parathyroid gland were seen in our case.

  18. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  19. Endoscopic middle ear exploration in pediatric patients with conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John M; Hoff, Stephen R

    2017-05-01

    To describe our indications, findings, and outcomes for transcanal endoscopic middle ear exploration in pediatric patients with conductive hearing loss of unknown etiology, without effusions. Prospective case series for all pediatric patients undergoing totally endoscopic transcanal middle ear exploration between April 2012 and October 2015 at a pediatric tertiary care referral hospital. Demographic data, operative findings, and hearing results were reviewed. 21 cases were performed in 20 ears (1 revision). Average age at surgery was 7.98 years and average follow up was 2.1 years. Middle ear pathology identified on CT imaging was confirmed in 55% of cases while identified in 45% of cases where pre-operative imaging was non-diagnostic. 6/20 patients (30%) had an ossicular deformity. 8/20(40%) had bony ossicular fixation. 5/20(25%) had ossicular discontinuity. 2/20(10%) had facial nerve dehiscence impinging on the stapes. 15% had adhesive myringosclerosis or severe granulation causing hearing loss. Prosthetic ossiculoplasty was done in 7/21 (33.3%) of the cases, with 1 TORP, 3 PORPs, and 3 IS joint replacements. Imaging was predictive of intra-operative findings in 13/20 cases (55%). Trainees assisted in 16/21(76%) of cases. The average improvement of PTA was 11.65 dB (range -10 to 36.25), and the average ABG improved 10.19 (range -11.25 to 28.75). There were no perioperative complications or adverse events. The endoscopic transcanal approach for middle ear exploration offers excellent visualization and is one of the best applications for the endoscopes in pediatric otology cases. This is particularly helpful for "unexplained" conductive hearing loss where ossicular deformity/fixation/discontinuity is suspected. The etiology of the conductive hearing loss was definitively found in 100% of cases, and can be repaired in the same sitting when applicable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Active middle ear implant application in case of stapes fixation: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devèze, Arnaud; Koka, Kanthaiah; Tringali, Stéphane; Jenkins, Herman A; Tollin, Daniel J

    2010-09-01

    Driving the oval window directly with an active middle ear implant (AMEI) can produce high levels of input to the inner ear. Treatment of otosclerosis bypasses the stapes with a piston that penetrates the vestibule. Although this treats the conductive component of hearing loss, it does not treat the sensorineural part, which can be improved using an additional conventional hearing aid. Active middle ear implants have been proposed to be an alternative in treating otosclerosis in cases of mixed hearing losses. Seven temporal bones were prepared to expose the stapes and round window (RW). Stapes and RW velocities were measured while driving with an AMEI the stapes head with a bell-shaped tip. The stapes footplate was then fixed with acrylic cement; fixation was confirmed through attenuated RW velocities. A cylinder tip (0.5 mm) was then used to drive the inner ear through a stapedotomy with and without interposition of fascia. Driving the stapes with an AMEI produced mean maximum equivalent ear canal sound pressure levels (SPL) of 138 dB (0.25-8 kHz at 1 V [RMS]). Stapes fixation caused a approximately 25-dB attenuation. Driving with a cylinder tip through the stapedotomy produced 114 dB SPL (24 dB less than normal) and 110 dB SPL (28 dB less than normal) performance with and without fascia, respectively. Performance with fascia was greater than without. Driving the oval window with an AMEI in a scenario of stapes fixation was demonstrated to be feasible, with performance comparable to traditional AMEI coupling to the incus or stapes. These possibilities offer new perspectives to treat mixed hearing loss in case of fixed footplate.

  1. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n = 86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  2. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Johnson

    Full Text Available Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE, shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6 torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, and 83% (n=86 of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  3. Selection of maize inbred lines and gene expression for resistance to ear rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G S; Pinho, R G V; Pinho, E V R V; Pires, L P M; Bernardo Junior, L A Y; Pereira, J L A; Melo, M P

    2017-07-06

    In recent years, there has been a large incidence of fungi causing "ear rot" in maize in Brazil, the main fungus being Fusarium verticillioides. The most efficient and competitive alternative for control of this disease consists of using maize hybrids resistant to this pathogen. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyze the genetic variability of maize inbred lines in regard to resistance to ear rot to observe if there is a maternal effect to resistance to ear rot, to study genetic control of the traits evaluated in hybrids originating from inbred lines of the maize breeding program at the Agriculture Department of Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brazil), and characterize the gene expression pattern related to the plant defense mechanism against F. verticillioides. High genetic availability was observed for resistance to this disease among the inbred lines evaluated. Considering combined diallel analysis, it was observed that the mean square of general combining ability (GCA) was not significant for the characteristic under study. However, specific combining ability (SCA) was significant, which indicates the predominance of non-additive effects involved in control of the characteristic for the population evaluated. A maternal effect was not observed for the characteristic of ear rot resistance in this study. Inbred lines 22, 58, and 91 showed potential for use in breeding programs aiming at resistance to F. verticillioides. Only two genes, LOX8 and Hsp82, had a satisfactory result that was able to be related to a plant defense mechanism when there is ear rot infection, though expression of these genes was observed in only one susceptible genotype. Thus, the genes LOX8 and Hsp82 are potential molecular markers for selection of maize inbred lines resistant to F. verticillioides.

  4. Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder and the neurodevelopmental continuum of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabaliev, Valentin Hristov; Sivkov, Stefan Todorov; Mantarkov, Mladen Yordanov

    2014-09-01

    Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) have been investigated by numerous studies in patients with schizophrenia in support of the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of the disorder, but have rarely been examined in patients with bipolar disorder or in direct comparisons between the two conditions. The main objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence of MPAs in psychiatrically healthy controls, patients with bipolar I disorder, and patients with schizophrenia. A slightly modified version of the Waldrop Physical Anomaly Scale was used to assess MPAs in psychiatrically healthy controls (n = 103), patients with bipolar I disorder (n = 61), and patients with schizophrenia (n = 128). In five out of six topographic regions (mouth, feet, head, eyes, and ears) there was a pattern of lowest regional MPA scores in controls, intermediate in bipolar I disorder, and highest in schizophrenia. The cephalofacial composite score and the total MPA score showed the same pattern, with all between-group differences being statistically significant. Seven individual MPAs in the discriminant analysis model contributed independently to the prediction of the triple-dependent status of 'psychiatrically healthy control, bipolar I disorder patient, schizophrenia patient': high/arched palate, fine electric hair, large gap between first and second toes, third toe ≥ second toe, epicanthus, malformed ears, and furrowed tongue. Our findings support the existence of a continuum of neurodevelopmental adversity within the clinical spectrum of psychosis, with bipolar I disorder occupying an intermediate position between psychiatric health and schizophrenia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Drug safety in pregnancy--monitoring congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Margery; De Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Jordan, Sue

    2011-04-01

    This paper outlines research into the causes of congenital anomalies, and introduces a pan-European study. The potential roles of nurses and midwives in this area are illustrated by a case report. Since the thalidomide disaster, use of drugs in pregnancy has been carefully monitored to prevent anything similar happening again. However, monitoring is incomplete and questions remain unanswered. Many medicines are essential for the health of pregnant women. However, drug use in pregnancy requires surveillance. Methods include spontaneous reporting of adverse events, cohort studies and case control studies. It is hoped that a Europe-wide study, combining data from several congenital anomaly registers, will provide a sufficiently large population to assess the impact of selected drugs on congenital anomalies. However, this work depends on the consistency of reporting by nurses and midwives. Drug safety in pregnancy remains undetermined. Collaboration across Europe has the potential to provide a framework for safety evaluation. Prescribers should consider the possibility of pregnancy in women of child-bearing age. Careful review of maternal drug use in early pregnancy is essential. Midwives and nurses should be aware of adverse event drug reporting systems, including congenital anomaly registers. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. SUBARACHNOID BLOCK IN A PATIENT WITH EBSTEIN’S ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Devi; Vasantha Kumar; Vasundhara; Aditi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ebstein’s anomaly is one of the rare congenital heart conditions that occur due an abnormal development of the tricuspid valve with “atrialization” of the right ventricle, leading to a small effective distal portion causing poor ventricular function. It may be associated with other cardiac malformations, rhythm disturbances or even a failing heart. When these patients report for surgery, the anaesthetic considerations are serious and reports about ...

  7. Peters anomaly in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, William C; Cordovez, Jose A; Capasso, Jenina E; Hammersmith, Kristin M; Eagle, Ralph C; Lall-Trail, Joel; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. It presents with a distinctive catlike high-pitched cry, psychomotor delays, microcephaly, craniofacial abnormalities, and, in many cases, ocular findings. We report the first child with cri-du-chat and the findings of unilateral corneal staphyloma due to Peters anomaly and retinal dysplasia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CAULIFLOWER EAR AND SKIN INFECTIONS AMONG WRESTLERS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Kordi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44% had "cauliflower ears". Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in "cauliflower ears". The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2 was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5 (p < 0.05. More than half of the participants (52% had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran

  9. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... Abstract. Background: Ear related diseases are commonly seen in clinics worldwide especially among children. They are associated with significant morbidity and frequent hospital visits. Limited data exists regarding the burden of ear disease among Nigerian children. Objective: To determine the ...

  10. Coupling of earphones to human ear and to coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershoi, Dorte

    2004-05-01

    The use of a standardized acoustical coupler should enable a calibration of audiometric earphones which ensures that the thresholds determined in the audiometry will be independent of the earphone type. This requires that the coupler approximates the average human ear closely. Nevertheless, the differences among earphones as well as between human ears and the coupler affect the results of audiometric measurements inducing uncertainty. The influence of these differences is examined by investigating the coupling of different earphones to human ears and to the standardized coupler. This is done by measurement of the transfer functions from input voltage of the earphone terminals to the entrance of the ear canal in two situations: (1) open, and (2) blocked. Similar measurements were carried out with the coupler, but since the ``ear-canal entrance'' is not well-defined for the coupler, the mentioned measurements were done at different depths in the coupler. The earphone's coupling to (i) human ears and to (ii) the coupler, described in terms of the pressure division at the entrance of the ear canal, were compared. The results indicate that the coupling to the human ear and the coupling to the standardized coupler differ.

  11. Clinical evidence in the management of swimmer's ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be used, which are normally freshly prepared by a pharmacist. These formulations include 1% acetic acid in distilled water, 1%. “Swimmer's ear” or acute otitis externa is a common condition involving the exterior part of the ear, including the ear canal and the pinna. Inflammation and pain are the main features, with bacterial ...

  12. Ad Hoc Constitution of Topical Antibiotics Solution for Ear Dressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/ Purpose: In the management of chronic suppurative otitis media and otitis externa there are few cases where although an organism is cultured and isolated from the ear, there are either no antibiotic sensitive to the microbiological flora or the sensitive antibiotic is not available in the form of an ear drop, limiting ...

  13. In-the-Ear Spiral Monopole Antenna for Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A novel in-the-ear (ITE) antenna solution for hearing instruments that operates at 2.45 GHz is presented. The antenna consists of a quarter wave monopole and a ground plane that are placed in the ear. The simulated path gain | S 21 |is − 86 dB and the measured path gain is − 80 dB. Simulations...

  14. EAR motif-mediated transcriptional repression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagale, Sateesh

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-mediated transcriptional repression is emerging as one of the principal mechanisms of plant gene regulation. The EAR motif, defined by the consensus sequence patterns of either LxLxL or DLN xxP, is the most predominant form of transcriptional repression motif so far identified in plants. Additionally, this active repression motif is highly conserved in transcriptional regulators known to function as negative regulators in a broad range of developmental and physiological processes across evolutionarily diverse plant species. Recent discoveries of co-repressors interacting with EAR motifs, such as TO PLESS (TPL) and AtSA P18, have begun to unravel the mechanisms of EAR motif-mediated repression. The demonstration of genetic interaction between mutants of TPL and AtHDA 19, co-complex formation between TPL-related 1 (TPR1) and AtHDA 19, as well as direct physical interaction between AtSA P18 and AtHDA 19 support a model where EAR repressors, via recruitment of chromatin remodeling factors, facilitate epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here, we discuss the biological significance of EAR -mediated gene regulation in the broader context of plant biology and present literature evidence in support of a model for EAR motif-mediated repression via the recruitment and action of chromatin modifiers. Additionally, we discuss the possible influences of phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the function and turnover of EAR repressors. PMID:20935498

  15. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    , corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  16. Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of screening for hearing impairment in the elderly patients was also stressed. KEYWORDS: Cerumen, Ear disease, Elderly, Otitis, Presbycusis. Erratum Note: Olusola AS on the article “Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South-Western Nigeria” on Page Nig. J. Med 2013. 143-147.

  17. Pattern of ear diseases among older people | Afolabi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest ear disease was impacted cerumen with bilateral less than unilateral hearing loss (Presbycusis) in 93 (18.2%) of the patients. Among cases with infective ear diseases, chronic suppurative otitis media was diagnozed in 33 (6.5%) of which 26 (78.8%) were unilateral and 7 (21.2%) were bilateral.

  18. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  19. Behmel syndrome with bilateral posterior ear lobule creases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2013-09-08

    Sep 8, 2013 ... accessory nipples, hepatomegaly, and congenital heart. The patients have bilateral anterior helical ear pits, and characteristic posterior ear lobule creases. The older one has severe mental retardation and died at the age of 13 months with bronchopneumonia, and the younger one is 7 months old.

  20. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  1. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  2. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  3. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  4. Asymptomatic urinary anomalies, hematuria and proteinuria, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velciov, Silvia; Gluhovschi, Gh; Sporea, I; Trandafirescu, Virginia; Petrica, Ligia; Bozdog, Gh; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Bob, F; Gădălean, Florica; Buzaş, Roxana; Bobu, Maria; Voicu, L

    2011-01-01

    The study assesses the presence of asymptomatic urinary anomalies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Asymptomatic urinary anomalies are mainly due to glomerular nephritis, they being one of the forms of its manifestation, together with chronic nephrotic and nephritic syndromes. We identified urinary anomalies in 18 patients (20%) with bowel inflammatory disease that consisted of haematuria in 8 (9%) patients, isolated proteinuria in 5 (6%) patients and haematuria associated with proteinuria in 5 (6%) patients. Asymptomatic urinary anomalies were more frequent in patients with the Crohn disease than in those with ulcerative colitis. We identified RFG under 60ml/min in 4 patients with asymptomatic urinary anomalies. It is very easy to evaluate asymptomatic urinary anomalies with dipstick. This method is also required in current practice for patients with urinary anomalies for identifying the glomerular disease that might have caused them. One must take into consideration differential diagnosis with other diseases that can manifest themselves with proteinuria or isolated proteinuria. One must also take into account the fact that urinary anomalies may also be related to administration of 5-aminosalicylates.

  5. A study of middle ear reconstruction, the degree of functional restoration and causes of graft failure following chronic ear disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Prasad

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Patients with normal Eustachian tube function, large and medium size mastoids, small and medium size perforations of the tympanic membrane would have a good rate of graft uptake with tympano-ossiculoplasties thereby returning to normal hearing postoperatively.

  6. Effects of Carriers, Emulsifiers, and Biopesticides for Direct Silk Treatments on Caterpillar Feeding Damage and Ear Development in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, P J; Schultz, B B; Hazzard, R V

    2017-04-01

    In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards. Carriers, which are liquids used to dissolve the biopesticide and deliver it into the tip of the ear, may have phytotoxic or insecticidal properties. Experiments conducted from 2001 to 2005 evaluated caterpillar damage and ear development effects from carriers (vegetable and paraffinic oils and carrageenan), biopesticides (Bt, spinsosad, and neem), and three emulsifiers in various combinations when applied directly to the tips of the ears 5-7 d after silk initiation. There were no effects of emulsifiers on ear quality, except for slight reduction in caterpillar damage in one of the two years. There were no differences among corn, soy, canola, and safflower oils in corn earworm control or tip development. The carrageenan carrier had the least effect upon ear development as measured by the length of nonpollinated kernels at the tip, compared to corn oil or paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil), which caused the greatest tip damage as well as an oily discoloration. The carrier-pesticide combinations with the best ear quality overall were spinosad in carrageenan or corn oil, and Bt in carrageenan. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Do orally administered antibiotics reach concentrations in the middle ear sufficient to eradicate planktonic and biofilm bacteria? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Katherine; Bayston, Roger; Birchall, J P; Daniel, Matija

    2015-03-01

    Infectious conditions of the middle ear are a common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Systemic antibiotics are frequently used, but their effectiveness will depend on whether an adequate antibiotic concentration is achieved in the middle ear; this is especially important in biofilm infections such as otitis media with effusion (OME), where high antibiotic concentrations are typically required for effective treatment. This review examines what antibiotic levels can be reached in the middle ear with oral administration, as a means of guiding rational antibiotic choice in the clinic and future research, and to determine whether levels high enough for biofilm eradication are reached. A literature search of studies measuring levels of antibiotics in the plasma and in the middle ear after oral administration was conducted. These levels were compared to the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) provided by the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) to determine if antibiotic doses were reaching sufficient levels to inhibit planktonic bacteria. The middle ear concentrations were then calculated as a multiple of the MIC to determine if the concentrations were reaching biofilm eradication concentrations (typically up to 1000×MIC). The highest antibiotic levels against Staphylococcus aureus reach 8.3×MIC, against Moraxella catarrhalis 33.2×MIC, against Haemophilus influenzae 31.2×MIC, and against Streptococcus pneumoniae 46.2×MIC. The macrolide antibiotics reach higher levels in the middle ear than in plasma. Orally administered antibiotics reach levels above the MIC in the middle ear. However, they do not reach levels that would be likely to eradicate biofilms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Garne, Ester; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-08-14

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and predefined subgroups of congenital anomalies, using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). During 2001 and 2003, a total of 20,103 pregnant women, enrolled in the DNBC, were interviewed in the 30th week of gestation about the use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. By the end of first trimester, information about smoking habits, alcohol consumption and occupation were collected. Information on congenital anomalies was obtained from national registers. Associations were examined by estimating odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression. In total 1404 women (7%) had been exposed to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and 1086 children were diagnosed with congenital anomalies; 73 children with congenital anomalies had been exposed to paint fumes in utero. Exposure to paint fumes seemed positively associated with congenital anomalies of the nervous system (OR 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 6.32), ear, face and neck (OR 2.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 5.55) and the renal system (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.58) after adjustment for maternal age, smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational solvent exposure. Congenital anomalies in the remaining subgroups were not associated with the exposure. Our results suggest that in the general population, exposure to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of some types of congenital anomalies, but the findings need to be confirmed.

  9. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjortebjerg Dorrit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. Methods We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and predefined subgroups of congenital anomalies, using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. During 2001 and 2003, a total of 20 103 pregnant women, enrolled in the DNBC, were interviewed in the 30th week of gestation about the use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. By the end of first trimester, information about smoking habits, alcohol consumption and occupation were collected. Information on congenital anomalies was obtained from national registers. Associations were examined by estimating odds ratios (OR using logistic regression. Results In total 1404 women (7% had been exposed to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and 1086 children were diagnosed with congenital anomalies; 73 children with congenital anomalies had been exposed to paint fumes in utero. Exposure to paint fumes seemed positively associated with congenital anomalies of the nervous system (OR 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.76 to 6.32, ear, face and neck (OR 2.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 5.55 and the renal system (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.58 after adjustment for maternal age, smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational solvent exposure. Congenital anomalies in the remaining subgroups were not associated with the exposure. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the general population, exposure to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of some types of congenital anomalies, but the findings need to be confirmed.

  10. Exposure to air pollution and noise from road traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Garne, Ester; Hansen-Nord, Nete; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with certain congenital anomalies, but few studies rely on assessment of fine-scale variation in air quality and associations with noise from road traffic are unexplored. Among 84,218 liveborn singletons (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until birth, we identified major congenital anomalies in 4018 children. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and noise from road traffic (L den ) burden during fetal life was modeled. Outcome and covariate data were derived from registries, hospital records and questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) for eleven major anomaly groups associated with road traffic pollution during first trimester were estimated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. Most of the associations tested did not suggest increased risks. A 10-µg/m 3 increase in NO 2 exposure during first trimester was associated with an adjusted ORs of 1.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.52) for ear, face and neck anomalies; 1.14 0.98-1.33) for urinary anomalies. A 10-dB increase in road traffic noise was also associated with these subgroups of anomalies as well as with an increased OR for orofacial cleft anomalies (1.17, 0.94-1.47). Inverse associations for several both air pollution and noise were observed for atrial septal defects (0.85, 0.68-1.04 and 0.81, 0.65-0.99, respectively). Residential road traffic exposure to noise or air pollution during pregnancy did not seem to pose a risk for development of congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE MOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pugacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of gravity anomalies of the Moon are large mascons with a high mass concentration at a depth of volcanic plains and lunar Maria. New data on the gravitational field of the Moon were obtained from two Grail spacecrafts. The article presents the data of physical and mechanical properties of the surface soil layer of the lunar Maria and gives an assessment of the chemical composition of the soil. There have been calculated heterogeneity parameters of the surface macro-relief of the lunar Maria: albedo, soil density, average grain diameter of the particles forming the surface layer and the volume fraction occupied by particles. It can be assumed that mascons include rich KREEP rocks with a high content of thorium and iron oxide. Formation of mascons is connected with intensive development of basaltic volcanism on the Moon in the early periods of its existence.

  12. Segmentation algorithms for ear image data towards biomechanical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana; Gentil, Fernanda; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the segmentation, i.e. the identification, of ear structures in video-otoscopy, computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) image data, has gained significant importance in the medical imaging area, particularly those in CT and MR imaging. Segmentation is the fundamental step of any automated technique for supporting the medical diagnosis and, in particular, in biomechanics studies, for building realistic geometric models of ear structures. In this paper, a review of the algorithms used in ear segmentation is presented. The review includes an introduction to the usually biomechanical modelling approaches and also to the common imaging modalities. Afterwards, several segmentation algorithms for ear image data are described, and their specificities and difficulties as well as their advantages and disadvantages are identified and analysed using experimental examples. Finally, the conclusions are presented as well as a discussion about possible trends for future research concerning the ear segmentation.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory lesions of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tono, Tetsuya; Saku, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yukiko.

    1988-05-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and postoperative inflammatory diseases of the middle ear underwent high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical exploration of the middle ear. Results showed that CT provides higher detail resolution in middle ear structures, but provides limited density resolution in displaying inflammatory soft tissue lesions. By contrast, MRI differentiates among soft tissue lesions such as fluid-filled spaces, granulation tissues, and cholesteatomatous debris. Cholesterin granulomas show a particularly characteristic signal pattern with a very high intensity area in both T1 and T2 weighted images. It is concluded that MRI is useful in differentiating soft tissue density masses when used in conjunction with CT in middle ear inflammatory diseases.

  14. Pinna fillet flap after advanced external ear tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Esposito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction after excision of infiltrating basal cell carcinomas (BCCs of the upper pole of the ear can be achieved with different techniques. The concept of spare-part surgery, which allows the surgeon to perform primary reconstruction of a defect without harvesting tissue from the adjacent areas, has been applied to the ear anatomy. We describe our experience with the use of a fillet flap from the residual external ear in two patients out of a series of six, undergoing reconstruction of ear defects after infiltrating BCC resection between January 2011 and December 2014. Reconstruction with the fillet of pinna flap was proven to be an easy surgical technique with good functional and cosmetic outcomes. Our technique, not previously reported, enhances the versatility of ear reconstruction.

  15. Hearables: Multimodal physiological in-ear sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Goverdovsky, Valentin; Nakamura, Takashi; Looney, David; Sharp, David J; Papavassiliou, Christos; Morrell, Mary J; Mandic, Danilo P

    2016-01-01

    Future health systems require the means to assess and track the neural and physiological function of a user over long periods of time and in the community. Human body responses are manifested through multiple modalities, such as the mechanical, electrical and chemical; yet current physiological monitors (actigraphy, heart rate) largely lack in both the desired cross-modal and non-stigmatizing aspects. We address these challenges through an inconspicuous and comfortable earpiece, equipped with miniature multimodal sensors, which benefits from the relatively stable position of the ear canal with respect to vital organs to robustly measure the brain, cardiac and respiratory functions. Comprehensive experiments validate each modality within the proposed earpiece, while its potential in health monitoring is illustrated through case studies. We further demonstrate how combining data from multiple sensors within such an integrated wearable device improves both the accuracy of measurements and the ability to deal wit...

  16. Ear reconstruction with porous polyethylene implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, Alexander; Stelter, Klaus; Naumann, Andreas; Hempel, John Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using porous polyethylene as the framework material for ear reconstruction. In comparison to the use of rib cartilage, porous polyethylene - first described by Berghaus in 1982 - provides better definition and projection as well as congruency with the opposite side. Hospitalization time is significantly shorter. There are less surgical interventions than with traditional microtia operations that use rib cartilage, and the patient is spared the additional procedure needed to remove the rib cartilage, with all the associated complications as well as the resulting thorax scar. Also, reconstruction can take place at an earlier age, which is advantageous for those concerned. Using porous polyethylene as the frame material, a temporoparietal flap and full-thickness skin cover, we have been able to achieve very convincing results over recent years. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf

    2010-06-01

    The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function `Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

  18. Dynamics of inner ear pressure release, measured with a double-barreled micropipette in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Thalen, EO; Albers, FWJ

    The inner ear, fluid pressure was measured in scala media of the guinea pig through one barrel of a double-barreled micropipette after a sudden volume increase or decrease, caused by injection or withdrawal of artificial endolymph through the other barrel. During injection or withdrawal, the inner

  19. Histopathologic Changes of the Inner ear in Rhesus Monkeys After Intratympanic Gentamicin Injection and Vestibular Prosthesis Electrode Array Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Q; Lehar, Mohamed; Dai, Chenkai; Swarthout, Lani; Lauer, Amanda M; Carey, John P; Mitchell, Diana E; Cullen, Kathleen E; Della Santina, Charles C

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral vestibular deficiency (BVD) due to gentamicin ototoxicity can significantly impact quality of life and result in large socioeconomic burdens. Restoring sensation of head rotation using an implantable multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) is a promising treatment approach that has been tested in animals and humans. However, uncertainty remains regarding the histopathologic effects of gentamicin ototoxicity alone or in combination with electrode implantation. Understanding these histological changes is important because selective MVP-driven stimulation of semicircular canals (SCCs) depends on persistence of primary afferent innervation in each SCC crista despite both the primary cause of BVD (e.g., ototoxic injury) and surgical trauma associated with MVP implantation. Retraction of primary afferents out of the cristae and back toward Scarpa's ganglion would render spatially selective stimulation difficult to achieve and could limit utility of an MVP that relies on electrodes implanted in the lumen of each ampulla. We investigated histopathologic changes of the inner ear associated with intratympanic gentamicin (ITG) injection and/or MVP electrode array implantation in 11 temporal bones from six rhesus macaque monkeys. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained 10-μm temporal bone sections were examined under light microscopy for four treatment groups: normal (three ears), ITG-only (two ears), MVP-only (two ears), and ITG + MVP (four ears). We estimated vestibular hair cell (HC) surface densities for each sensory neuroepithelium and compared findings across end organs and treatment groups. In ITG-only, MVP-only, and ITG + MVP ears, we observed decreased but persistent ampullary nerve fibers of SCC cristae despite ITG treatment and/or MVP electrode implantation. ITG-only and ITG + MVP ears exhibited neuroepithelial thinning and loss of type I HCs in the cristae but little effect on the maculae. MVP-only and ITG + MVP ears exhibited no signs of trauma to the cochlea or

  20. Mozart Ear Deformity: a Rare Diagnosis in the Ear Reconstruction Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Victor-Baldin, Andre; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Mozart ear is a rare auricular deformity; clinically the auricle is characterized by the bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle due to fusion of the crura of the antihelix, an inversion in the normal form of the cavum conchae resulting in its convexity and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus.A retrospective review of clinical and photographic records of patients attended at the ear reconstruction clinic of our hospital between June of 2010 and May 2016 was performed; out of 576 consecutive patients only 3 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a prevalence of 0.5%. The authors present these patients.Surgical interventions mainly focus on the correction of the convex concha; however, the procedure should be tailored to the severity of the deformity and the wishes of the patient.

  1. Relationship between monthly temperature anomalies and drought frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, E.; Naumann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological droughts are extreme climate events characterized by a period, of months or years, with below-normal precipitation. The economical and ecological impacts of such events can be catastrophic, having profound effects for agricultural production, water resources, biodiversity, tourism and many other aspects. It is recognized that the cause of meteorological droughts are largely associated with fluctuations on sea surface temperature and atmospheric dynamic processes. Nevertheless, the influence of surface air temperature on the frequency of meteorological droughts is still unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between temperature anomalies and drought frequency. Records from 50 stations from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) were analyzed at monthly time scale. The criterion used to select the stations was solely the length of the time series recorded in the stations. Namely, only stations with more than 100 years records, for both precipitation and temperature, were used in this study. In general, the selected stations were distributed along Australia, European countries, Unites States and Canada. Standardized temperature anomalies were calculated taking as baseline the entire dataset recorded at the station. The precipitation anomalies for each month were assessed through the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) according to the empirical cumulative distribution at each location. Therefore, both temperature anomalies and precipitation deficits were normalized, allowing a direct comparison of the entire dataset in each station, independent of the season of the year. Next, the monthly SPI were associated with the respective monthly temperatures anomalies. The SPI values were binned based on the temperature anomaly values. The used bin width was 0.5 degC. Finally, for each temperature anomaly bin, the average SPI and the frequency of months with SPI lower than -1 (moderated drought) were calculated. In order

  2. "Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

  3. The residual frictional thermal anomaly measurement in WFSD-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Peng, H.; Ma, X.; Jiang, J.

    2012-12-01

    The earthquakes research shows the frictional heat generated during earthquake faulting is thought to be the largest part of the total seismic energy budget, and most of the frictional resistance is dissipated as heat. So temperature anomaly measurement is the most direct way to quantify co-seismic friction. Therefore, temperature measurement was taken in the borehole WFSD-1 rapidly following the WenChuan earthquake. To obtain the slight temperature anomaly of 10-2, the resolution of the thermometer should be better than 0.003°C if the temperature change within 0.1m could be distinguished with the mean temperature gradient 0.02 ~ 0.03°C/m. Finally, we developed a high precision temperature measuring probe, BBT-01 with resolution of 0.001°C. Gathered with the probe lifting control system, data acquisition module, power supply and communication module, the temperature measuring system BBT-01 is composed. In order to understand the lifting speed influence on the measured temperature, we had temperature probe heat balance test at 970m in WFSD-1. It shows the thermal equilibrium time should be at least 1500 s and the BBT-01 temperature thermometer resolution are better than the 0.001°C/m. We found three temperature anomalies in 400-500m, 580-610m and 620-750m in the borehole WFSD-1, respectively. Comparing the temperature anomaly curve with the layered structure profile. we found that the temperature anomaly of 390-550m, 620-750m should be caused by formation changes.Using the Byerlees law for computation, the depth in the fault plane should be below 1000m to produce a temperature anomaly of 0.2°C. In addition, the frictional heat temperature anomaly measured in many Continental Scientific Drilling Projects are in 10-2 magnitude, and anomalies width are tens of meters. It also can be verified that the 390-550m and 620-750m anomaly are not caused by friction. It can be seen in figure4 that the average geothermal gradient in 80-590m is 19.77°C/km, and 21.31°C/km in

  4. Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Ear Canal with Application to In-the-Ear Hearing Aid Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is about the statistical shape analysis of the human ear canal with application to the mechanical design of in-the-ear hearing aids. Initially, it is described how a statistical shape model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser-scanned ear impressions. A thin...... plate spline based approach creates a dense correspondence between the shapes in training set. In addition, a new flexible, non-rigid registration framework is proposed and used to optimise the correspondence ¯eld. The framework is based on Markov Random Field regularisation and is motivated by prior...... work on image restoration. It is shown how the method significantly improves the shape model. In the second part of the thesis, the shape model is used in software tools that mimic the skills of the expert hearing aid makers. The first result is that it is possible to learn an algorithm to cut an ear...

  5. Remarks on global anomalies in RCFT orientifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain) and IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: t58@nikhef.nl

    2006-01-26

    We check the list of supersymmetric standard model orientifold spectra of Dijkstra, Huiszoon and Schellekens for the presence of global anomalies, using probe branes. Absence of global anomalies is found to impose strong constraints, but in nearly all cases they are automatically satisfied by the solutions to the tadpole cancellation conditions.

  6. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  7. Dental anomalies in patients with down syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mari Eli Leonelli de Moraes; Luiz Cesar de Moraes; Gustavo Nogara Dotto; Patrícia Pasquali Dotto; Luis Roque de Araújo dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    ...%), suspected anodontia (10.7%), conic teeth (8.3%) and impacted teeth (5.9%). In conclusion, patients with Down syndrome presented a high incidence of dental anomalies and, in most cases, the same individual presented more than one dental anomaly...

  8. Kesan Anomali Bermusim Terhadap Bursa Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfadhlina Binti Abdul Halim; How Teng Ying; Wan Muhamad Amir Bin Wan Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Kajian ini mengkaji sama ada Bursa Malaysia adalah efisien dalam bentuk lemah. Penemuan kewujudan anomali bermusim iaitu kesan Januari atau bulanan dan kesan harian akan menolak hipotesis pasaran efisien bentuk lemah. Analisis regresi siri masa digunakan untuk menentukan kewujudan anomali bermusim dalam Indeks Komposit Bursa Malaysia dari tahun 1999 sehingga tahun 2006.

  9. Socio-occupational status and congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, María M Morales-Suárez; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Llopis-González, Agustin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between socio-occupational status and the frequency of major congenital anomalies in offspring.......The aim of this study is to investigate the association between socio-occupational status and the frequency of major congenital anomalies in offspring....

  10. A Probability Model for Belady's Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel E.; Anderson, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In demand paging virtual memory systems, the page fault rate of a process varies with the number of memory frames allocated to the process. When an increase in the number of allocated frames leads to an increase in the number of page faults, Belady's anomaly is said to occur. In this paper, we present a probability model for Belady's anomaly. We…

  11. Early Airway Intervention for Craniofacial Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Lauren A; Sidman, James D; Roby, Brianne

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews the presentation of children with craniofacial anomalies by the most common sites of airway obstruction. Major craniofacial anomalies may be categorized into those with midface hypoplasia, mandible hypoplasia, combined midface and mandible hypoplasia, and midline deformities. Algorithms of airway interventions are provided to guide the initial management of these complex patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Praenatalt diagnosticeret hydronefrose og andre urologiske anomalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Jørgensen, Troels Munch; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    By renal ultrasound examination, urological anomalies may be demonstrated in 1-2% of fetuses and in about 0.5% of newborns. Boys have about twice the frequency of girls. Surgical treatment is indicated in about one fourth of these urological anomalies. If all pregnant women in Denmark were to hav...

  13. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  14. Distance Metric Learning for Conditional Anomaly Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Michal; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2008-01-01

    Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of remaining attributes. The work presented in this paper focuses on instance-based methods for detecting conditional anomalies. The methods depend heavily on the distance metric that lets us identify examples in the dataset that are most critical for detecting the anomaly. To optimize the performance of the anomaly detection methods we explore and study metric learning methods. We evaluate the quality of our methods on the Pneumonia PORT dataset by detecting unusual admission decisions for patients with the community-acquired pneumonia. The results of our metric learning methods show an improved detection performance over standard distance metrics, which is very promising for building automated anomaly detection systems for variety of intelligent monitoring applications.

  15. Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

  16. Praenatalt diagnosticeret hydronefrose og andre urologiske anomalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Jørgensen, Troels Munch; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    By renal ultrasound examination, urological anomalies may be demonstrated in 1-2% of fetuses and in about 0.5% of newborns. Boys have about twice the frequency of girls. Surgical treatment is indicated in about one fourth of these urological anomalies. If all pregnant women in Denmark were to have...

  17. A critical period of ear development controlled by distinct populations of ciliated cells in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, B B; Zhu, C; Janetopoulos, C; Aufderheide, K J

    1997-11-15

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a useful model system for analyzing development of the inner ear. A number of mutations affecting the inner ear have been identified. Here we investigate the initial stages of otolith morphogenesis in wild-type embryos as well as in monolith (mnl) mutant embryos, which fail to form anterior otoliths but otherwise appear normal. Otolith growth is initiated at 18-18.5 h by localized accretion of free-moving precursor particles. This process, referred to as otolith seeding, is regulated by two classes of cilia: First, kinocilia of precociously forming hair cells (tether cells) bind seeding particles, thereby localizing otolith formation. Tether cells usually occur in pairs at the anterior and posterior ends of the ear. Despite the presence of functional kinocilia, tether cells initially appear immature and do not acquire the characteristics of mature hair cells until approximately 21.5 h. Second, beating cilia distributed throughout the ear agitate seeding particles, thereby inhibiting premature agglutination. Constraining particles with laser tweezers caused them to fuse into large untethered masses. Bringing such masses into contact with tethered otoliths caused them to fuse, greatly enhancing otolith growth. Selectively enhancing one otolith greatly inhibited growth of the second, creating an imbalance that persisted for many days. Seeding particles and beating cilia disappear soon after 24 h, and the rate of otolith growth decreases by nearly 90%. In mnl mutant embryos, tethers and beating cilia are distributed normally, but anterior otoliths fail to form in 80-85% of mutant ears. The binding properties of seeding particles appear normal, as shown by their ability to fuse when entrapped by laser tweezers and their binding to posterior tethers. We infer that anterior tethers have a weakened ability to bind seeding particles in mnl embryos. Immobilizing mnl embryos with the anterior end of the ear oriented downward effectively

  18. Experimental Investigation into the Radar Anomalies on the Surface of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, E.; Gavin, P.; Chevrier, V.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    Radar mapping of thc surface of Venus shows areas of high reflectivity (low emissivity) in the Venusian highlands at altitudes between 2.5-4.75 kilometers. The origin of the radar anomalies found in the Venusian highlands remains unclear. Most explanations of the potential causes for these radar anomalies come from theoretical work. Previous studies suggest increased surface roughness or materials with higher dielectric constants as well as surface atmospheric interactions. Several possible candidates of high-dielectric materials are tellurium) ferroelectric materials, and lead or bismuth sulfides. While previous studies have been influential in determining possible sources for the Venus anomalies, only a very few hypotheses have been verified via experimentation. This work intends to experimentally constrain the source of the radar anomalies on Venus. This study proposes to investigate four possible materials that could potentially cause the high reflectivities on the surface of Venus and tests their behavior under simulated Venusian conditions.

  19. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  20. MODEL-BASED VALIDATION AND VERIFICATION OF ANOMALIES IN LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An anomaly in legislation is absence of completeness, consistency and other desirable properties, caused by different semantic, syntactic or pragmatic reasons. In general, the detection of anomalies in legislation comprises validation and verification. The basic idea of research, as presented in this paper, is modelling legislation by capturing domain knowledge of legislation and specifying it in a generic way by using commonly agreed and understandable modelling concepts of the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Models of legislation enable to understand the system better, support the detection of anomalies and help to improve the quality of legislation by validation and verification. By implementing model-based approach, the object of validation and verification moves from legislation to its model. The business domain of legislation has two distinct aspects: a structural or static aspect (functionality, business data etc., and a behavioural or dynamic part (states, transitions, activities, sequences etc.. Because anomalism can occur on two different levels, on the level of a model, or on the level of legislation itself, a framework for validation and verification of legal regulation and its model is discussed. The presented framework includes some significant types of semantic and syntactic anomalies. Some ideas for assessment of pragmatic anomalies of models were found in the field of software quality metrics. Thus pragmatic features and attributes can be determined that could be relevant for evaluation purposes of models. Based on analogue standards for the evaluation of software, a qualitative and quantitative scale can be applied to determine the value of some feature for a specific model.