WorldWideScience

Sample records for e3 transition strength

  1. Lunar soil strength estimation based on Chang'E-3 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Spiteri, Conrad; Li, Chun-Lai; Zheng, Yong-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Chang'E-3 (CE-3) was the third mission by China to explore the Moon which had landed two spacecraft, the CE-3 lander and Yutu rover on the lunar surface in late 2013. The paper presents analytical results of high-resolution terrain data taken by CE-3's onboard cameras. The image data processing aims to extract sinkage profiles of the wheel tracks during the rover traverse. Further analysis leads to derivation or estimation of lunar soil physical properties (in terms of strength and stiffness) based on the wheel sinkage, despite the fact Yutu does not possess in situ soil measurement instruments. Our findings indicate that the lunar soil at the CE-3 landing site has similar stiffness to what is measured at the Luna 17 landing site but has much less strength compared to the Apollo 15 landing site.

  2. Variation with mass of $\\boldmath{B(E3; 0_1^+ \\to 3_1^-)}$ transition rates in $A=124-134$ even-mass xenon nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, W F; Church, J A; Dinca, D C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Henderson, D T; Hu, Z; Janssens, R V F; Lisetskiy, A F; Lister, C J; Moore, E F; Pennington, T O; Perry, B C; Wiedenhöver, I; Yurkewicz, K L; Zelevinsky, V G; Zwahlen, H

    2006-01-01

    $B(E3; 0_1^+ \\to 3_1^-)$ transition matrix elements have been measured for even-mass $^{124-134}$Xe nuclei using sub-barrier Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics. The trends in energy $E(3^-)$ and $B(E3; 0_1^+ \\to 3_1^-)$ excitation strengths are well reproduced using phenomenological models based on a strong coupling picture with a soft quadrupole mode and an increasing occupation of the intruder $h_{11/2}$ orbital.

  3. Odd tensor E3 transitions and the generalized seniority in Sn-isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika

    2016-01-01

    In our recent paper [Phys. Lett. B 753, (2016) 122], we have shown that both the odd and even tensor electric transition probabilities exhibit similar behavior within the generalized seniority scheme in a multi-j environment. This microscopic approach was used to show for the first time the occurrence of seniority isomers in the $ {13}^-$ isomers of Sn-isotopes, which decay by odd tensor $E1$ transition to the same seniority ($\\Delta v = 0$) state. In this letter, we extend our studies to odd tensor $E3$ transitions connecting different seniority states ($\\Delta v = 2$), and show for the first time that the generalized seniority scheme explains reasonably well the systematics of the $B(E3)$ values for the $(0^+ \\rightarrow 3_1^-)$ transitions in the Sn-isotopes. Additionally, we support these results by seniority guided Large Scale Shell Model (LSSM) calculations. The generalized seniority results are able to single out the most crucial valence space required in the LSSM calculations.

  4. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Moukaddam, M.; Alshahrani, B.; Eriksen, T. K.; Holt, J. D.; Hota, S. S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Palalani, N.; Reed, M. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p') reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0), were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77-34+23 × 10-3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0) value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0) values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0) value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  5. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitts L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p’ reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0, were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77−34+23 × 10−3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0 value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0 values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0 value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  6. {ital E}3 transition probabilities in the platinum, mercury, and lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egido, J.L.; Martin, V.; Robledo, L.M.; Sun, Y. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]|[Analisis Numerico, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28660 Madrid (Spain)]|[Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)]|[Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Spectroscopical properties of the platinum, mercury, and lead isotopes are studied within the Hartree-Fock plus BCS framework with the finite range density-dependent Gogny force. These properties are also studied beyond mean-field theory by combining the use of generator-coordinate-method-like wave functions with the angular momentum projection technique as to generate many-body correlated wave functions that are at the same time eigenstates of the angular momentum operator. We apply this formalism to the calculation of reduced transition probabilities {ital B}({ital E}3) from the lowest-lying octupole collective state to the ground state of several isotopes of the platinum, mercury, and lead nuclei whose experimental {ital B}({ital E}3) values present a peculiar behavior. The projected calculations show a large improvement over the unprojected ones when compared with the experimental data. The unprojected calculations are unable to predict any structure in the {ital B}({ital E}3). {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Transitional $\\gamma$ strength in Cd isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, A C; Bürger, A; Goriely, S; Guttormsen, M; Görgen, A; Hagen, T W; Harissopulos, S; Nyhus, H T; Renstrøm, T; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Tveten, G M; Voinov, A V; Wiedeking, M

    2013-01-01

    The level densities and $\\gamma$-ray strength functions of $^{105,106,111,112}$Cd have been extracted from particle-$\\gamma$ coincidence data using the Oslo method. The level densities are in very good agreement with known levels at low excitation energy. The $\\gamma$-ray strength functions display no strong enhancement for low $\\gamma$ energies. However, more low-energy strength is apparent for $^{105,106}$Cd than for $^{111,112}$Cd. For $\\gamma$ energies above $\\approx$ 4 MeV, there is evidence for some extra strength, similar to what has been previously observed for the Sn isotopes. The origin of this extra strength is unclear; it might be due to $E1$ and $M1$ transitions originating from neutron skin oscillations or the spin-flip resonance, respectively.

  8. Disorder-driven topological phase transition in B i2S e3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Salehi, Maryam; Moon, Jisoo; Zhang, Wenhan; Li, Haoxiang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Han, Myung-Geun; Wu, Liang; Emge, Thomas; Lee, Hang-Dong; Xu, Can; Rhee, Seuk Joo; Gustafsson, Torgny; Armitage, N. Peter; Zhu, Yimei; Dessau, Daniel S.; Wu, Weida; Oh, Seongshik

    2016-10-01

    Topological insulators (TI) are a phase of matter that host unusual metallic surface states. Unlike the states that exist on the surface of conventional materials, these so-called topological surfaces states (TSS) are protected against disorder-related localization effects by time reversal symmetry through strong spin-orbit coupling. By combining transport measurements, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that there exists a critical level of disorder beyond which the TI B i2S e3 loses its ability to protect the metallic TSS and transitions to a fully insulating state. The absence of the metallic surface channels dictates that there is a change in the material's topological character, implying that disorder can lead to a topological phase transition even without breaking the time reversal symmetry. This observation challenges the conventional notion of topologically protected surface states and should prompt new studies as to the fundamental nature of topological phase of matter in the presence of disorder.

  9. Collision strengths for transitions in Ni XIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K M Aggarwal; F P Keenan

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we present calculations of electron impact excitation collision strengths for transitions among the 89 fine-structure levels of the 2s22p6, 2s22p53 ℓ, 2s2p63 ℓ, 2s22p54 ℓ, and 2s2p64 ℓ configurations of Ni XIX, for which flexible atomic code (FAC) has been adopted. Comparisons are made with the earlier available results in the literature, and the anomalies observed have been discussed.

  10. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in Stable Nickel Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, Lee; Garnsworthy, Adam; Kibedi, Tibor; Super-e Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Electric monopole (E 0) transition strengths are a sensitive probe for investigating nuclear structure and shape coexistence. There is a need for E 0 transition strengths in closed shell nuclei in order to develop our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the generation of electric monopole strength. Simultaneous detections of γ rays and internal conversion electrons must be measured in order to determine an E 0 transition strength. A series of measurements in the stable nickel isotopes were performed at the Australian National University. Excited states in 58 , 60 , 62Ni were populated via inelastic proton scattering. The CAESAR array of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used to measure the (E 2 / M 1) mixing ratio of transitions from angular distributions of γ rays. The Super-e spectrometer was used to measure electron-gamma branching ratios in order to extract E 0 transition strengths for a number of Jπ ->Jπ transitions. An overview of the experiments will be presented, along with preliminary results for E 0 transition strengths between Jπ ≠ 0 states in the semi-magic nuclei, 58 , 60 , 62Ni. A comparison with the matrix elements obtained from a new microscopic model for E 0 transitions will be made. This work was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

  11. Transition Strength Sums and Quantum Chaos in Shell Model States

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B; Kar, K; Gómez, J M G; Retamosa, J

    2000-01-01

    For the embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (EGOE) of random matrices, the strength sums generated by a transition operator acting on an eigenstate vary with the excitation energy as the ratio of two Gaussians. This general result is compared to exact shell model calculations, with realistic interactions, of spherical orbit occupancies and Gamow-Teller strength sums in some $(ds)$ and $(fp)$ shell examples. In order to confirm that EGOE operates in the chaotic domain of the shell model spectrum, calculations are carried out using two different interpolating hamiltonians generating order-chaos transitions. Good agreement is obtained in the chaotic domain of the spectrum, and strong deviations are observed as nuclear motion approaches a regular regime (transition strength sums appear to follow the Dyson's $\\Delta_3$ statistic). More importantly, they shed new light on the newly emerging understanding that in the chaotic domain of isolated finite interacting many particle systems smoothed densities (they inclu...

  12. Collision strengths and transition probabilities for Co III forbidden lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, P. J.; Sochi, Taha

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we compute the collision strengths and their thermally averaged Maxwellian values for electron transitions between the 15 lowest levels of doubly ionized cobalt, Co2+, which give rise to forbidden emission lines in the visible and infrared region of spectrum. The calculations also include transition probabilities and predicted relative line emissivities. The data are particularly useful for analysing the thermodynamic conditions of supernova ejecta.

  13. Collision strengths and transition probabilities for Co III forbidden lines

    CERN Document Server

    Storey, P J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compute the collision strengths and their thermally-averaged Maxwellian values for electron transitions between the fifteen lowest levels of doubly-ionised cobalt, Co^{2+}, which give rise to forbidden emission lines in the visible and infrared region of spectrum. The calculations also include transition probabilities and predicted relative line emissivities. The data are particularly useful for analysing the thermodynamic conditions of supernova ejecta.

  14. Resonance transition energies and oscillator strengths in lutetium and lawrencium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Fischer, C Froese

    2002-05-06

    The transition energies and oscillator strengths for nd (2)D(3/2)-(n+1)p (2)P(o)(1/2,3/2) transitions in Lu ( n = 5, Z = 71) and Lr ( n = 6, Z = 103) were calculated with the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The present study confirmed that the ground state of atomic Lr is [Rn]5f(14)7s(2)7p (2)P(o)(1/2). The calculation for Lr required wave function expansions of more than 330 000 configuration states. In Lu, the transition energies, with Breit and QED corrections included, agree with experiment to within 126 cm(-1). In lighter elements, core correlation is usually neglected but was found to be of extreme importance for these heavy elements, affecting the oscillator strengths by a factor of 3 and 2 in Lu and Lr, respectively.

  15. Transition energy and oscillator strength of Sc18+ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Wen; Yang Di; Hu Mu-Hong; Han Qiu-Ju; Li Jin-Ying

    2005-01-01

    The transition energies and the dipole oscillator strengths for the 1s22s-1s2np (2 ≤ n ≤ 9) and 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n ≤ 9) of lithium-like Sc18+ ion are calculated by using the full core plus correlation method. The fine structure splittings of 1s2np and 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states are determined from the expectation values of spin-orbit and spin-otherorbit interaction operators. The quantum defects of these series, as function of principal quantum number n, are obtained. The agreement between the f-values obtained from three alternative formulae is excellent. Comparisons of our results with experimental data available in the literature are carried out. Combining the single-channel quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths obtained in this work, this paper obtains the behaviour of discrete oscillator strengths and oscillator strength densities corresponding to the bound-free transitions adjacent to ionization threshold.

  16. Strength distribution of γ-transitions deexciting superdeformed rotational bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Martens, A. P.; Døssing, T.; Khoo, T. L.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Calderin, I. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fischer, S. M.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Nisius, D.; Reiter, P.; Amro, H.; Moore, E. F.

    1999-03-01

    The strength distribution of the γ rays in the decay-out from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method, with special emphasis on the influence of the lower threshold given by experimental conditions. Clear graphical solutions are found, and a careful estimation of the dispersion in the values of the number of degrees of freedom and of the average strength of the most likely χ2 distribution is carried out. For the 194Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions from the decay-out of SD states are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong direct one-step transitions as previously observed in 194Hg has a very small probability of the order of 10 -4. This may indicate special selection rules governing the decay. However, based on the absence of strong primary transitions from SD states in adjacent nuclei, the situation in 194Hg is viewed as a very lucky incidence.

  17. Strength distribution of {gamma}-transitions deexciting superdeformed rotational bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Martens, A.P.; Doesing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Calderin, I.J.; Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fischer, S.M.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Nisius, D.; Reiter, P.; Amro, H.; Moore, E.F

    1999-03-08

    The strength distribution of the {gamma} rays in the decay-out from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method, with special emphasis on the influence of the lower threshold given by experimental conditions. Clear graphical solutions are found, and a careful estimation of the dispersion in the values of the number of degrees of freedom and of the average strength of the most likely {chi}{sup 2} distribution is carried out. For the {sup 194}Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions from the decay-out of SD states are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong direct one-step transitions as previously observed in {sup 194}Hg has a very small probability of the order of 10{sup -4}. This may indicate special selection rules governing the decay. However, based on the absence of strong primary transitions from SD states in adjacent nuclei, the situation in {sup 194}Hg is viewed as a very lucky incidence.

  18. Strength distribution of gamma-transitions deexciting superdeformed rotational bands

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Martens, A P; Khoo, T L; Korichi, A; Hannachi, F; Calderin, I J; Lauritsen, T; Ahmad, I; Carpenter, M P; Fischer, S M; Hackman, G; Janssens, R V F; Nisius, D; Reiter, P; Amro, H; Moore, E F

    1999-01-01

    The strength distribution of the gamma rays in the decay-out from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method, with special emphasis on the influence of the lower threshold given by experimental conditions. Clear graphical solutions are found, and a careful estimation of the dispersion in the values of the number of degrees of freedom and of the average strength of the most likely chi sup 2 distribution is carried out. For the sup 1 sup 9 sup 4 Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions from the decay-out of SD states are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong direct one-step transitions as previously observed in sup 1 sup 9 sup 4 Hg has a very small probability of the order of 10 sup - sup 4...

  19. Transition strengths in 86Nb and 86Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, R. A.; Adams, J. B.; Hale, A.; Smith, C.; Solomon, G. Z.; Tabor, S. L.; García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Filevich, A.; Szybisz, L.

    1998-05-01

    Mean lifetimes of states in 86Nb and 86Zr produced by the 58Ni(32S,3pn)86Nb and 58Ni(32S,4p)86Zr reactions at 130 MeV have been measured using the recoil-distance method. The B(E2) strength of 11(2) W.u. for the 8+-->6+ transition in 86Nb implies weak collectivity at low excitation energies for the π=+yrast band. The weak dipole transition strength of the 8+-->7 decay suggests that the configuration for the 7ħ state is different from that of the other yrast states. In general, the B(E2) rates obtained for transitions in 86Zr agree with those previously published, thus supporting the suggestion of a weakly collective structure based on shell-model excitations at low energies. Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov cranking calculations indicate a spherical shape for low-spin vacuum configuration states in 86Zr.

  20. Oscillator strengths for IR rovibrational transitions of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J.M.; Roueff, E. (DAEC and URA, Meudon (France))

    1993-08-01

    The authors have solved the nuclear Schroedinger radial equation to derive wavefunctions and rovibrational energy levels of the carbon monoxide molecule [sup 12]C[sup 16]O in its ground electronic state X[sup 1][Sigma][sup +] at a spectroscopic accuracy. They then calculated the dipole matrix elements for transitions involving vibrational quantum numbers up to [upsilon] = 15 and rotational quantum numbers up to J = 200. Calculations were carried out for the fundamental ([Delta][upsilon] = 1) and the three first overtone ([Delta][upsilon] = 2, 3, 4) bands. For the transition matrix elements there is typically a 10% difference from previous results due to recent values of the dipole moment function. This gives a significant 20% difference for the absorption oscillator strengths which are computed for this set of 21,600 lines.

  1. Realization of stable ferromagnetic order in a topological insulator: Codoping-enhanced magnetism in 4 f transition metal doped B i2S e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bei; Zhang, Yiou; Zhang, S. B.; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Zhu, Junyi

    2016-08-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) originates from a combination of the spin-orbital coupling and the breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to intrinsic ferromagnetic ordering and was recently observed in Cr and V doped magnetic topological insulators (TIs). However, it was only observed at extremely low temperatures due to the low ferromagnetic Curie temperature and the tiny magnetically induced gap. To fully understand the mechanism of the ferromagnetic ordering, thereby improving the ferromagnetism, we investigated 4 f transition metal doped B i2S e3 , using density functional theory approaches. We predict that Eu and Sm can introduce stable long-range ferromagnetic states in B i2S e3 , with large magnetic moments and low impurity disorders. Additionally, codoping is proposed to tune the Fermi level into the gap, which simultaneously improves the magnetic moment and the incorporation of magnetic ions. Our findings, thus, offer a step in facilitating the realization of QAHE in TI systems.

  2. Strengths of gamma-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei (III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The present tables list the strengths (in Weisskopf units) of over 2400 γ-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei, classified according to character (electric or magnetic, multipolarity, isospin forbiddenness). Selected transitions from unbound states are included. The strengths for isovector E1 and M1 t

  3. Spectroscopy of f -f transitions, crystal-field calculations, and magnetic and quadrupole helix chirality in DyF e3(BO3) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, M. N.; Chukalina, E. P.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Gudim, I. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of temperature- and polarization-dependent high-resolution optical spectroscopy studies of DyF e3(BO3) 4 performed in spectral ranges 40 -300 c m-1 and 3000 -23 000 c m-1 . The crystal-field (CF) parameters for the D y3 + ions in the P 3121 (P 3221 ) phase of DyF e3(BO3) 4 are obtained from calculations based on the analysis of the measured f-f transitions. Recently, quadrupole helix chirality and its domain structure was observed in resonant x-ray diffraction experiments on DyF e3(BO3) 4 using circularly polarized x rays [T. Usui, Y. Tanaka, H. Nakajima, M. Taguchi, A. Chainani, M. Oura, S. Shin, N. Katayama, H. Sawa, Y. Wakabayashi, and T. Kimura, Nat. Mater. 13, 611 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3942]. Using the obtained set of the CF parameters, we calculate temperature dependencies of the electronic quadrupole moments of the D y3 + ions induced by the low-symmetry (C2) CF component and show that the quadrupole helix chirality can be explained quantitatively. We also consider the temperature dependencies of the bulk magnetic dc-susceptibility and the helix chirality of the single-site magnetic susceptibility tensors of the D y3 + ions in the paramagnetic P 3121 (P 3221 ) phase and suggest the neutron and resonant x-ray diffraction experiments in a magnetic field to reveal the helix chirality of field-induced magnetic moments.

  4. Can the oscillator strength of the quantum dot bandgap transition exceed unity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Z.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss the apparent contradiction between the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule for oscillator strengths and recent experimental data on the oscillator strength of the band gap transition of quantum dots. Starting from two simple single electron model systems, we show that the sum rule does not limit this oscillator strength to values below unity, or below the number of electrons in the highest occupied single electron state. The only upper limit the sum rule imposes on the oscillator strength of the quantum dot band gap transition is the total number of electrons in the quantum dot.

  5. COLLISION STRENGTHS AND EFFECTIVE COLLISION STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS WITHIN THE GROUND-STATE CONFIGURATION OF S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C. E.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P., E-mail: c.hudson@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: p.scott@qub.ac.uk [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    We have carried out a 29-state R-matrix calculation in order to calculate collision strengths and effective collision strengths for the electron impact excitation of S III. The recently developed parallel RMATRX II suite of codes have been used, which perform the calculation in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths have been generated over an electron energy range of 0-12 Ryd, and effective collision strength data have been calculated from these at electron temperatures in the range 1000-100,000 K. Results are here presented for the fine-structure transitions between the ground-state configurations of 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 23} P{sub 0,1,2}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}, and {sup 1} S{sub 0}, and the values given resolve a discrepancy between two previous R-matrix calculations.

  6. CDK1-dependent inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4CDT2 ensures robust transition from S Phase to Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardi, Lindsay F; Coleman, Kate E; Varma, Dileep; Matson, Jacob P; Oh, Seeun; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2015-01-02

    Replication-coupled destruction of a cohort of cell cycle proteins ensures efficient and precise genome duplication. Three proteins destroyed during replication via the CRL4(CDT2) ubiquitin E3 ligase, CDT1, p21, and SET8 (PR-SET7), are also essential or important during mitosis, making their reaccumulation after S phase a critical cell cycle event. During early and mid-S phase and during DNA repair, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) loading onto DNA (PCNA(DNA)) triggers the interaction between CRL4(CDT2) and its substrates, resulting in their degradation. We have discovered that, beginning in late S phase, PCNA(DNA) is no longer sufficient to trigger CRL4(CDT2)-mediated degradation. A CDK1-dependent mechanism that blocks CRL4(CDT2) activity by interfering with CDT2 recruitment to chromatin actively protects CRL4(CDT2) substrates. We postulate that deliberate override of replication-coupled destruction allows anticipatory accumulation in late S phase. We further show that (as for CDT1) de novo SET8 reaccumulation is important for normal mitotic progression. In this manner, CDK1-dependent CRL4(CDT2) inactivation contributes to efficient transition from S phase to mitosis.

  7. E3 Staff Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E3 Staff database is maintained by E3 PDMS (Professional Development & Management Services) office. The database is Mysql. It is manually updated by E3 staff as...

  8. Magic-Wavelengths Measurements of 40Ca+ Clock-Transition for Determining Oscillator Strength Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Peiliang; Bian, Wu; Shao, Hu; Guan, Hua; Tang, Yongbo; Li, Chengbin; Mitroy, J; Gao, Kelin

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of the oscillator strengths for the 40Ca+ resonance transition was determined by measuring the magic wavelengths for the 4s1/2 - 3d5/2 clock transition. Tuning a perturbing laser to a wavelength intermediate between those of the 4s1/2 - 4p1/2 and 4s1/2 - 4p3/2 transitions, the sensitivity of the clock transition Stark shift to the oscillator strengths for the resonance transition is greatly enhanced. Two magic wavelengths were measured with high precision, giving {\\lambda}|mj|=1/2 = 395.7992(7) nm and {\\lambda}|mj|=3/2 = 395.7990(7) nm respectively. The ratio of the 4s1/2 - 4p1/2 to the 4s1/2 - 4p3/2 line strengths is found to 2.011(6).

  9. Determination of the B(E3,0$^{+}$ $\\rightarrow$ 3$^{-}$) strength in the octupole correlated nuclei $^{142,144}$Ba using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{142}$Ba and $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the HIE-ISOLDE facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^-$ state in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^-$ state using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The results will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei.

  10. Transition energy and dipole oscillator strength of 1s23d- 1s2nf transitions for Sc18+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-wen; ZHANG Nan; HU Mu-hong

    2006-01-01

    The transition energies of the 1s23d-1s2nf (4≤n ≤9) transitions and fine structure splittings of 1sZnf (n≤9)states for Sc18+ ion are calculated with the full-core plus correlation method.The quantum defect of ls2nf series is determined by the single-channel quantum defect theory.The energies of any highly excited states with n≥ 10 for this series can be reliably predicted using the quantum defect as function of energy.Three alternative forms of the dipole oscillator strengths for the 1s23d-1s2nf (n≤9) transitions of SC18+ ion are calculated with the transition energies and wave functions obtained above.Combining the quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths,the discrete oscillator strengths for 1s23d-1sEnf (n > 9) transitionsand the oscillator strengths densities corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained.

  11. Determination of the B(E3;0$^+\\!\\rightarrow$ 3$^{-}$) strength in the octupole correlated nucleus $^{144}$Ba using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ state in this nucleus. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decay connecting the 3$^{-}$ and 2$^{+}$ states using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The result will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in this nucleus. We require 27 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.

  12. Towards a critical transition theory under different temporal scales and noise strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jifan; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Luonan

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of critical phenomena or critical transitions has been recently studied from various aspects, in particular considering slow parameter change and small noise. In this article, we systematically classify critical transitions into three types based on temporal scales and noise strengths of dynamical systems. Specifically, the classification is made by comparing three important time scales τ(λ), τ(tran), and τ(ergo), where τ(λ) is the time scale of parameter change (e.g., the change of environment), τ(tran) is the time scale when a particle or state transits from a metastable state into another, and τ(ergo) is the time scale when the system becomes ergodic. According to the time scales, we classify the critical transition behaviors as three types, i.e., state transition, basin transition, and distribution transition. Moreover, for each type of transition, there are two cases, i.e., single-trajectory transition and multitrajectory ensemble transition, which correspond to the transition of individual behavior and population behavior, respectively. We also define the critical point for each type of critical transition, derive several properties, and further propose the indicators for predicting critical transitions with numerical simulations. In addition, we show that the noise-to-signal ratio is effective to make the classification of critical transitions for real systems.

  13. Random Matrix Theory for Transition Strength Densities in Finite Quantum Systems: Results from Embedded Unitary Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2015-01-01

    Embedded random matrix ensembles are generic models for describing statistical properties of finite isolated interacting quantum many-particle systems. For the simplest spinless systems, with say $m$ particles in $N$ single particle states and interacting via $k$-body interactions, we have EGUE($k$) and the embedding algebra is $U(N)$. A finite quantum system, induced by a transition operator, makes transitions from its states to the states of the same system or to those of another system. Examples are electromagnetic transitions (same initial and final systems), nuclear beta and double beta decay (different initial and final systems), particle addition to/removal from a given system and so on. Towards developing a complete statistical theory for transition strength densities, we have derived formulas for lower order bivariate moments of the strength densities generated by a variety of transition operators. For a spinless fermion system, using EGUE($k$) representation for Hamiltonian and an independent EGUE($...

  14. Random Matrix Theory with U(N) Racah Algebra for Transition Strengths

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2015-01-01

    For finite quantum many-particle systems, a given system, induced by a transition operator, makes transitions from its states to the states of the same system or to those of another system. Examples are electromagnetic transitions (then the initial and final systems are same), nuclear beta and double beta decay (then the initial and final systems are different), particle addition to or removal from a given system and so on. Working towards developing a complete statistical theory for transition strength densities (transition strengths multiplied by the density of states at the initial and final energies), we have started a program to derive formulas for the lower order bivariate moments of the strength densities generated by a variety of transition operators. In this paper results are presented for a transition operator that removes $k_0$ number of particle by considering $m$ spinless fermions in $N$ single particle states. The Hamiltonian that is $k$-body is represented by EGUE($k$) [embedded Gaussian unitar...

  15. Transition strengths and signature inversion in odd-odd 74Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Filevich, A.; Ribas, R. V.; Somacal, H.; Szybisz, L.

    1999-04-01

    Lifetimes of states in 74Br produced by the 60Ni(16O,np) reaction at 50 MeV have been measured by using the recoil-distance method. From these experiments several reduced transition strengths for the low energy states have also been determined. The results show that the alternating pattern in the B(M1) strengths of the yrast positive parity band is preserved across the signature inversion region.

  16. Collision strengths and transition probabilities for Co II infrared forbidden lines

    CERN Document Server

    Storey, P J; Sochi, Taha

    2016-01-01

    We calculate collision strengths and their thermally-averaged Maxwellian values for electron excitation and de-excitation between the fifteen lowest levels of singly-ionised cobalt, Co+, which give rise to emission lines in the near- and mid-infrared. Transition probabilities are also calculated and relative line intensities predicted for conditions typical of supernova ejecta. The diagnostic potential of the 10.52, 15.46 and 14.74 micro-metre transition lines is briefly discussed.

  17. Wave-vector-dependent electron-phonon coupling and the charge-density-wave transition in TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschek, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Heid, R.; Said, A. H.; Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Fisher, I. R.; Weber, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering investigation of the soft phonon mode in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system TbT e3 . We analyze our data based on lattice dynamical calculations using density-functional-perturbation theory and find clear evidence that strongly momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling defines the periodicity of the CDW superstructure: Our experiment reveals strong phonon softening and increased phonon linewidths over a large part in reciprocal space adjacent to the CDW ordering vector qCDW=(0 ,0 ,0.3 ) . Further, qCDW is clearly offset from the wave vector of (weak) Fermi surface nesting qFS=(0 ,0 ,0.25 ) , and our detailed analysis indicates that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for this shift. Hence, we can add TbT e3 , which was previously considered as a canonical CDW compound following the Peierls scenario, to the list of distinct charge-density-wave materials characterized by momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling.

  18. Absolute E3 and M2 transition probabilities for the electromagnetic decay of the ensuremath I^{π=K^{π}=8-} isomeric state in 132Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Srebrny, J.; Bruce, A. M.; Droste, Ch.; Grodner, E.; Kisieliński, M.; Korman, A.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kownacki, J.; Król, A.; Marganiec, J.; Mierzejewski, J.; Morek, T.; Sobczak, K.; Trzaska, W. H.; Zielińska, M.

    2009-12-01

    The decay of the ensuremath I^{π}=K^{π}=8- isomeric state at 2340keV in 132Ce has been investigated in the 120Sn(16O, 4n)132Ce reaction. The measurements were carried out in e - γ and γ - γ coincidence modes using an electron spectrometer coupled to the OSIRIS II gamma-ray array at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw. Experimentally obtained internal conversion coefficients for the ensuremath 8- rightarrow 6+ and ensuremath 8- rightarrow 5+ transitions allowed the multipolarities, mixing ratios, reduced transition probabilities and hindrance factors to be determined.

  19. Effect of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a confined HP lattice protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanasiri, Busara [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Li, Ying Wai [ORNL; Wuest, Thomas [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined in a slit formed by two parallel, attractive walls. We apply Wang-Landau sampling together with efficient Monte Carlo updates to estimate the density of states of the system. The conformational transitions, namely, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified by analyzing the specific heat together with several structural observables, such as the numbers of surface contacts, the number of hydrophobic pairs, and radii of gyration in different directions. As temperature decreases, we find that the occurrence of the debridging process is conditional depending on the surface attractive strength. This, in turn, affects the nature of the hydrophobic core formation that takes place at a lower temperature. We illustrate these observations with the aid of a HP protein chain with 48 monomers.

  20. Absolute Generalized Oscillator Strength Profiles of Rydberg Transitions in C2F6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-Wei(樊晓伟); LU Shan(卢杉); ZHANG Xian-Zhou(张现周); K.T.Leung

    2004-01-01

    Absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for the two Rydberg excitations at 12.1 e V and 13.5 e V in C2 F6have been determined as functions of energy loss and momentum transfer (K) at impact energy of 2.5 keV. The GOS profiles for these two Rydberg transitions to 3 p Rydberg orbital have the characteristic dipole-dominated shapes with a strong maximum at K = 0.

  1. Lifetimes and Oscillator Strengths for Ultraviolet Transitions in Singly-Ionized Tin

    CERN Document Server

    Heidarian, N; Federman, S R; Ellis, D G; Cheng, S; Curtis, L J

    2016-01-01

    Lifetime measurements using beam foil techniques for the $5s5p^{2}$ $^{2}D_{3/2,5/2}$ levels in Sn II are presented. The resulting oscillator strengths for transitions at 1699.4, 1831.8 and 1811.2 \\AA{} are reported. We also studied these levels with multi-configuration Dirac Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations using a development version of the GRASP2K package. Our experimental and theoretical results are compared with other available studies.

  2. Determination of the Oscillator Strengths for the Third and Fourth Vibrational Overtone Transitions in Simple Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, Jens; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2017-06-01

    Absolute measurements of the weak transitions require sensitive spectroscopic techniques. With our recently constructed pulsed cavity ring down (CRD) spectrometer, we have recorded the third and fourth vibrational overtone of the OH stretching vibration in a series of simple alcohols: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), 1-propanol (1-PrOH), 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and tert-butanol (tBuOH). The CRD setup (in a flow cell configuration) is combined with a conventional FTIR spectrometer to determine the partial pressure of the alcohols from the fundamental transitions of the OH-stretching vibration. The oscillator strengths of the overtone transitions are determined from the integrated absorbances of the overtone spectra and the partial pressures. Furthermore, the oscillator strengths were calculated using vibrational local mode theory with energies and dipole moments calculated at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. We find a good agreement between the observed and calculated oscillator strengths across the series of alcohols.

  3. Examining "success" in post-hip fracture care transitions: a strengths-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Byrne, Kerry; Hicks, Elisabeth; Khan, Karim; Stolee, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Transitions between health care settings are a high-risk period for care quality and patient safety (Coleman, 2003; Picker Institute, 1999), particularly for older patients - such as those with hip fracture - who have complex needs and may undergo multiple care transitions. We sought to understand the key elements of "success" in care transition. Using a strengths-based perspective (Rapp, 1998; Saleebey, 2006), we focused on interprofessional health care providers' perspectives of what constitutes a "good" care transition for elderly hip fracture patients. As part of a larger ethnographic field study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 health providers across a number of disciplines employed across the continuum of post-hip fracture management in British Columbia, Canada. We found two hallmarks of "success" in care transitions: a focus on process - information gathering and communication, and a focus on outcomes - autonomy and care pathways. Strategies for promoting and improving success, such as using practitioner-driven ground-up solutions to address challenges in care transitions, are highlighted.

  4. Relativistic many-body calculations of lifetimes, rates, and line strengths of multipole transitions between 3l-1 4l' states in Ni-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, U I; Safronova, A S; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-10-08

    Transition rates and line strengths are calculated for electric-multipole (E2 and E3) and magnetic-multipole (M1, M2, and M3) transitions between 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4l, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4l, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4l states (with 4l = 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f) in Ni-like ions with the nuclear charges ranging from Z = 34 to 100. Relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate retarded multipole matrix elements. Transition energies used in the calculation of line strengths and transition rates are from second-order RMBPT. Lifetimes of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4s levels are given for Z = 34-100. Taking into account that calculations were performed in a very broad range of Z, most of the data are presented in graphs as Z-dependencies. The full set of data is given only for Ni-like W ion. In addition, we also give complete results for the 3d4s{sup 3}D{sub 2}-3d4s {sup 3}D{sub 1} magnetic-dipole transition, as the transition may be observed in future experiments, which measure both transition energies and radiative rates. These atomic data are important in the modeling of radiation spectra from Ni-like multiply-charged ions generated in electron beam ion trap experiments as well as for laboratory plasma diagnostics including fusion research.

  5. RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRENGTH EXPERIMENTS OF THE PRESSURE-INDUCED alpha->epsilon->alpha' PHASE TRANSITION IN IRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belof, J L; Cavallo, R M; Olson, R T; King, R S; Gray, G T; Holtkamp, D B; Chen, S R; Rudd, R E; Barton, N R; Arsenlis, A; Remington, B A; Park, H; Prisbrey, S T; Vitello, P A; Bazan, G; Mikaelian, K O; Comley, A J; Maddox, B R; May, M J

    2011-08-10

    We present here the first dynamic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) strength measurement of a material undergoing solid-solid phase transition. Iron is quasi-isentropically driven across the pressure-induced bcc ({alpha}-Fe) {yields} hcp ({var_epsilon}-Fe) phase transition and the dynamic strength of the {alpha}, {var_epsilon} and reverted {alpha}{prime} phases have been determined via proton radiography of the resulting Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the iron target and high-explosive products. Simultaneous velocimetry measurements of the iron free surface yield the phase transition dynamics and, in conjunction with detailed hydrodynamic simulations, allow for determination of the strength of the distinct phases of iron. Forward analysis of the experiment via hydrodynamic simulations reveals significant strength enhancement of the dynamically-generated {var_epsilon}-Fe and reverted {alpha}{prime}-Fe, comparable in magnitude to the strength of austenitic stainless steels.

  6. Effect of transition metal impurities on the strength of grain boundaries in vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xuebang; Kong, Xiang-Shan; You, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-09-07

    Effects of 3d (Ti-Ni), 4d (Zr-Pd), and 5d (Hf-Pt) transition metal impurities on strength of two representative vanadium grain boundaries (GBs), symmetric Σ3(111) and asymmetric Σ5(210), were studied by first-principles calculations within the framework of the Rice-Wang thermodynamic model and within the computational tensile test. The desirable elements to increase the GB cohesion were predicted based on their segregation and strengthening behaviors across the different GB sites. It reveals that the elements Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta are good choices for the GB cohesion enhancers. In addition, the GB strengthening by solutes is sensitive to the GB structures. The elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni decrease the GB strength of the Σ3(111) GB but they can increase the cohesion of the Σ5(210) GB. Furthermore, the origin of Ti-induced change of the GB strength was uncovered by analyzing the atomic bonds and electronic structures as well as the tensile strength. This work provides a theoretical guidance to screen promising alloying elements in V-based materials with improved resistance to GB decohesion and also helps us to understand the formation mechanism of Ti-rich precipitates in the V-Cr-Ti alloys under neutron or ion irradiation environments.

  7. Energy Levels and Oscillator Strengths for Allowed Transitions in S III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    We have calculated energy levels and oscillator strengths for dipole-allowed transitions between the terms belonging to the 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 2), 3s3p(sup 3), 3S(sup 2)3p3d, 3S(sup 2)3p4s, 3S(sup 2)3p4p and 3s(sup 2)3p4d configurations of S iii in the LS-coupling scheme. We used flexible radial functions and included a large number of configurations in the configuration-interaction expansions to ensure convergence. The calculated energy levels are in close agreement with the recent laboratory measurement. The present oscillator strengths are compared with other calculations and experiments and most of the existing discrepancies between the available calculations are resolved.

  8. Oscillator strengths and branching fractions of 4d75p-4d75s Rh II transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2017-01-01

    This work reports semi-empirical determination of oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and branching fractions for Rh II 4d75p-4d75s transitions in a wide wavelength range. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix, beforehand obtained in pure SL coupling with help of Racah algebra are transformed into intermediate coupling using eigenvector amplitudes of these two configuration levels determined for this purpose; The transition integral was treated as free parameter in the least squares fit to experimental oscillator strength (gf) values found in literature. The extracted value: 5s|r1|4d75p> =2.7426 ± 0.0007 is slightly smaller than that computed by means of ab-initio method. Subsequently to oscillator strength evaluations, transition probabilities and branching fractions were deduced and compared to those obtained experimentally or through another approach like pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock model including core-polarization effects.

  9. RING E3 ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Seok Keun; Ryu, Moon Young; Kim, Jong Hum

    2017-01-01

    response pathways of plants through various molecular and genetic studies. In particular, it was recently discovered that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), a regulatory mechanism for protein turn over, is greatly involved in the stress responsive pathways. In the UPS, many E3 ligases play key roles...... in recognizing and tethering poly-ubiquitins on target proteins for subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss the roles of RING ligases that have been defined in related to abiotic stress responses in plants....

  10. A direct microscopic approach to transition strengths in pre-equilibrium reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Guimaraes, F B

    2011-01-01

    We present a microscopic formalism that extends the traditional formulation of Williams, Ericson and Bloch and permits to obtain the transition strengths (TS) of pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions directly from their quantum microscopic description. We calculate the TS without resorting to the Laplace transform approach and the use of the saddle point approximation. We also analyze some problems that may appear in connection with these mathematical tools and the Darwin-Fowler approach in this case. We show that, analogously to the nuclear densities, the strengths for transitions that change the exciton number by two or leave it unchanged can be estimated microscopically as convolutions of the functions of simpler states. When using the HO basis for the Model Space we obtained important departure from the results of the exciton model (EXM), which can partially invalidate our previous analysis on the attainment of equilibrium during the PE stage. On the other hand, by using constant grid of energies for the sp-b...

  11. Transition energy and dipole oscillator strength for 1s22p-1s2nd of Cr21+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Wen; Liu Ying; Hu Mu-Hong; Li Xin-Ru; Wang Ya-Nan

    2008-01-01

    The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3 ≤ n ≤ 9) for Cr21+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states for this ion are also calculated. In calculating energy, we have estimated the higher-order relativistic contribution under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experimental data available in the literature. Combining the quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths, the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from initial state 1s22p to highly excited 1s2nd states (n ≥ 10) and the oscillator strength density corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained.

  12. Electromagnetic Transition Strengths Studied with Doppler-Shift Techniques Across the Contours of the Valley Of Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loelius, Charles Robert

    The electromagnetic transition strengths between bound states in nuclei provide insight into nuclear structure. On one hand, from a single particle perspective the electromagnetic excitation and de-excitation of nuclei quantify the overlaps of nuclear wavefunctions, probing the internal configuration. On the other hand, in a collective model, the shape and dynamics of the nucleus are reflected in the electromagnetic transition strengths. For example, electric quadrupole transitions are sensitive to the deformation of a nucleus and distinguish between various pictures of collectivity, such as rotors and vibrators. In this work, electromagnetic transition strengths are studied through lifetime and Coulomb-excitation measurements. Nuclei across the contours of the valley of stability are studied to investigate features of nuclear structure and how they change near and far from stability. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Oscillator strength of symmetry-forbidden d-d absorption of octahedral transition metal complex: theoretical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ken; Eishiro, Yoshinori; Nakao, Yoshihide; Sato, Hirofumi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-03-01

    The theoretical evaluation of the oscillator strength of a symmetry-forbidden d-d transition is not easy even nowadays. A new approximate method is proposed here and applied to octahedral complexes [Co(NH(3))(6)](3+) and [Rh(NH(3))(6)](3+) as an example. Our method incorporates the effects of geometry distortion induced by molecular vibration and the thermal distribution of such distorted geometries but does not need the Herzberg-Teller approximation. The calculated oscillator strengths of [Co(NH(3))(6)](3+) agree well with the experimental values in both (1)A(1g) → (1)T(1g) and (1)A(1g) → (1)T(2g) transitions. In the Rh analogue, though the calculated oscillator strengths are somewhat smaller than the experimental values, computational results reproduce well the experimental trends that the oscillator strengths of [Rh(NH(3))(6)](3+) are much larger than those of the Co analogue and the oscillator strength of the (1)A(1g) → (1)T(1g) transition is larger than that of the (1)A(1g) → (1)T(2g) transition. It is clearly shown that the oscillator strength is not negligibly small even at 0 K because the distorted geometry (or the uncertainty in geometry) by zero-point vibration contributes to the oscillator strength at 0 K. These results are discussed in terms of frequency of molecular vibration, extent of distortion induced by molecular vibration, and charge-transfer character involved in the d-d transition. The computational results clearly show that our method is useful in evaluating and discussing the oscillator strength of symmetry-forbidden d-d absorption of transition metal complex.

  14. Octupole Contributions to the Generalized Oscillator Strengths of Discrete Dipole Transitions in Noble Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, M Ya; Felfli, Z; Msezane, A Z

    2007-01-01

    The generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) of discrete excitations np-nd, both dipole (L=1) and octupole (L=3) are studied, the latter for the first time. We demonstrate that although the relevant transitions in the same atom are closely located in energy, the dependence of their GOS on the momentum transfer q squared, is remarkably different, so that the GOS corresponding to L=3 have at least one extra maximum as a function of q squared and dominate over those of the L=1, starting from about q=1.25$ atomic unit (a.u.). The calculations were performed in the one particle Hartree-Fock approximation and with account of many-electron correlations via the Random Phase Approximation with Exchange. The GOS are studied for values of q squared up to 30 a.u.

  15. Antimagnetic rotation and sudden change of electric quadrupole transition strength in 143Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajbanshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lifetimes of the states in the quadrupole structure in 143Eu have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method and the parity of the states in the sequence has been firmly identified from polarization measurements using the Indian National Gamma Array. The decreasing trends of the deduced quadrupole transition strength B(E2 with spin, along with increasing J(2/B(E2 values before the band crossing, conclusively establish the origin of these states as arising from antimagnetic rotation. The abrupt increase in the B(E2 values after the band crossing in the quadrupole band, a novel feature observed in the present experiment, may possibly indicate the crossing of different shears configurations resulting in the re-opening of a shears structure. The results are reproduced well by numerical calculations within the framework of a semi-classical geometric model.

  16. Antimagnetic rotation and sudden change of electric quadrupole transition strength in 143Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Rajbanshi, S; Nag, Somnath; Bisoi, Abhijit; Saha, S; Sethi, J; Trivedi, T; Bhattacharjee, T; Bhattacharyya, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Gangopadhyay, G; Mukherjee, G; Palit, R; Raut, R; Sarkar, M Saha; Singh, A K; Goswami, A

    2015-01-01

    Lifetimes of the states in the quadrupole structure in 143Eu have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method as well as parity of the states in the sequence has been firmly identified from polarization measurement using the Indian National Gamma Array. The decreasing trends of the deduced quadrupole transition strength B(E2) with spin, along with increasing J (2) /B(E2) values before band crossing, conclusively establish the origin of these states as arising out of antimagnetic rotation. The abrupt increase in the B(E2) values after the band crossing in the quadrupole band, a novel feature observed in the present experiment, may indicates the crossing of different shears configurations resulting in re-opening of shears structure. The results are well reproduced by numerical calculation within the framework of semi-classical geometric model.

  17. Theoretical Calculations of Transition Probabilities and Oscillator Strengths for Sc(Ⅲ) and Y(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-yi Zhang; Neng-wu Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Weakest Bound Electron Potential Model theory is used to calculate transition probability-values and oscillator strength-values for individual lines of Sc(Ⅲ) and Y(Ⅲ). In this method, by solving the SchrSdinger equation of the weakest bound electron, the expressions of energy eigenvalue and the radial function can be obtained. And a coupled equation is used to determine the parameters which are needed in the calculations. The ob-tained results of Sc(Ⅲ) from this work agree very well with the accepted values taken from the National Institute of Standards and Technoligy (NIST) data base, most deviations are within the accepted level. For Y(Ⅲ) there are no accepted values reported by the NIST data base. So we compared our results of Y(Ⅲ) with other theoretical results, good agreement is also obtained.

  18. Line Strengths of Rovibrational and Rotational Transitions in the X$^2\\Pi$ Ground State of OH

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, James S A; Western, Colin M; Sneden, Christopher; Afşar, Melike; Li, Gang; Gordon, Iouli E

    2015-01-01

    A new line list including positions and absolute intensities (in the form of Einstein $A$ values and oscillator strengths) has been produced for the OH ground X\\DP\\ state rovibrational (Meinel system) and pure rotational transitions. All possible transitions are included with v$\\primed$ and v$\\Dprimed$ up to 13, and $J$ up to between 9.5 and 59.5, depending on the band. An updated fit to determine molecular constants has been performed, which includes some new rotational data and a simultaneous fitting of all molecular constants. The absolute line intensities are based on a new dipole moment function, which is a combination of two high level ab initio calculations. The calculations show good agreement with an experimental v=1 lifetime, experimental $\\mu_\\mathrm{v}$ values, and $\\Delta$v=2 line intensity ratios from an observed spectrum. To achieve this good agreement, an alteration in the method of converting matrix elements from Hund's case (b) to (a) was made. Partitions sums have been calculated using the ...

  19. On the extraction of weak transition strengths via the (3He,t) reaction at 420 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Zegers, R G T; Akimune, H; Austin, Sam M; Berg, A M van den; Brown, B A; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Galès, S; Guess, C J; Harakeh, M N; Hashimoto, H; Hatanaka, K; Hayami, R; Hitt, G W; Howard, M E; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Kawase, K; Kinoshita, M; Matsubara, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, S; Okumura, S; Ohta, T; Sakemi, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Scholl, C; Simenel, C; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, T; Yosoi, M

    2007-01-01

    Differential cross sections for transitions of known weak strength were measured with the (3He,t) reaction at 420 MeV on targets of 12C, 13C, 18O, 26Mg, 58Ni, 60Ni, 90Zr, 118Sn, 120Sn and 208Pb. Using this data, it is shown the proportionalities between strengths and cross sections for this probe follow simple trends as a function of mass number. These trends can be used to confidently determine Gamow-Teller strength distributions in nuclei for which the proportionality cannot be calibrated via beta-decay strengths. Although theoretical calculations in distorted-wave Born approximation overestimate the data, they allow one to understand the main experimental features and to predict deviations from the simple trends observed in some of the transitions.

  20. Partial radiative strength functions for dipole transitions in the sup 4 sup 9 sup , sup 5 sup 1 V nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorets, I D

    2002-01-01

    Radiative strength functions for dipole transitions from the compound-nuclei states to excited states of the sup 4 sup 9 V and sup 5 sup 1 V nuclei are determined from the resonance-averaged intensities of primary gamma-rays in the (p, gamma) reaction measured in the proton energy range of 1.5-3.5 MeV. The data so obtained are compared with predictions of various models. The best description for E1 transitions is achieved on the base of the model accounting for the dependence of the strength function on the gamma-ray energy, temperature, and nuclear shell structure

  1. Transition energies and oscillator strength calculated for d-s symmetry-forbidden electronic transition for Cu{sup +} impurities in sodium fluoride host lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, Elmar [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CT Bloco A. Rio de Janeiro, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leitao, Alexandre A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitario, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Rocha, Alexandre B., E-mail: rocha@iq.ufrj.br [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CT Bloco A. Rio de Janeiro, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-11-07

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of oscillator strengths calculated through vibronic coupling for electronic transitions of Cu{sup +} impurity in NaF host, described by embedded cluster model. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Embedded cluster model for impurity levels in the NaF:Cu{sup +} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oscillator strengths (OSs) calculated by direct vibronic coupling method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dependence of the OS on temperature is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OS and transition energies calculated at CASSCF and CASSCF/SOCI level. - Abstract: An embedded cluster model is used to describe electronic structure of Cu{sup +} ion in NaF host. Transition energies and oscillator strengths are calculated for the 3d{sup 10} {yields} 3d{sup 9}4s{sup 1} Cu{sup +} ligand field transitions. These are forbidden by dipole selection rules, which can, though, be broken by vibronic coupling. The basic model consists of a [CuF{sub 6}]{sup 5-} cluster surrounded by total ion potentials representing second, third and fourth neighbors to the central Cu{sup +}. The resulting structure is placed inside a cube of point charges to take long distance Coulomb interactions into account. Variations of this basic model needed especially to the calculation of transition energy. The oscillator strengths are calculated by the direct vibronic coupling method we have previously proposed. The effect of temperature on the value of the oscillator strength is calculated for the first time as well as their absolute value. Results are in good agreement with available experiment.

  2. Strength and structural phase transitions of gadolinium at high pressure from radial X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Lun, E-mail: xionglun@ihep.ac.cn; Liu, Jing; Bai, Ligang; Li, Xiaodong; Lin, Chuanlong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-12-28

    Lattice strength and structural phase transitions of gadolinium (Gd) were determined under nonhydrostatic compression up to 55 GPa using an angle-dispersive radial x-ray diffraction technique in a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. Three new phases of fcc structure, dfcc structure, and new monoclinic structure were observed at 25 GPa, 34 GPa, and 53 GPa, respectively. The radial x-ray diffraction data yield a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 36(1) GPa with its pressure derivate K{sub 0}′ = 3.8(1) at the azimuthal angle between the diamond cell loading axis and the diffraction plane normal and diffraction plane ψ = 54.7°. With K{sub 0}′ fixed at 4, the derived K{sub 0} is 34(1) GPa. In addition, analysis of diffraction data with lattice strain theory indicates that the ratio of differential stress to shear modulus (t/G) ranges from 0.011 to 0.014 at pressures of 12–55 GPa. Together with estimated high-pressure shear moduli, our results show that Gd can support a maximum differential stress of 0.41 GPa, while it starts to yield to plastic deformation at 16 GPa under uniaxial compression. The yield strength of Gd remains approximately a constant with increasing pressure, and reaches 0.46 GPa at 55 GPa.

  3. Structure of the transition zone and its influence on the strength of copper-tantalum joint (Explosion welding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Antonova, O. V.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Salishchev, G. A.; Kozhevnikov, V. E.

    2012-10-01

    The joint of copper and tantalum, metals without mutual solubility, formed by explosion welding is studied. The mechanism of the influence of mutual solubility on the structure of the transition zone is established. It is demonstrated that the interface contains heterogeneities, and their role in the strength of the materials joint is revealed. A microheterogeneous structure of the joint zones is detected.

  4. Oscillator Strengths for B-X, C-X, and E-X Transitions in Carbon Monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Federman, S R; Cheng, S; Menningen, K M; Knauth, D C; Fulk, K; Knauth, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Band oscillator strengths for electronic transitions in CO were obtained at the Synchrotron Radiation Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Our focus was on transitions that are observed in interstellar spectra with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer; these transitions are also important in studies of selective isotope photodissociation where fractionation among isotopomers can occur. Absorption from the ground state (X ^1Sigma^+ v'' = 0) to A ^1Pi (v'= 5), B ^1Sigma^+ (v' = 0, 1), C ^1Sigma^+ (v' = 0, 1), and E ^1Pi (v' = 0) was measured. Fits to the A - X (5, 0) band, whose oscillator strength is well known, yielded the necessary column density and excitation temperature. These parameters were used in a least-squares fit of the observed profiles for the transitions of interest to extract their band oscillator strengths. Our oscillator strengths are in excellent agreement with results from recent experiments using a variety of techniques. This agreement provides the basis for a self-consiste...

  5. Wavelengths, oscillator strengths and radiative transition rates for K{alpha} lines in titanium x-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Feng; Wang Chuangke; Zhao Xuefeng [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yang Jiamin; Jiang Gang, E-mail: yjm70018@my-public.sc.cninfo.net [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-06-15

    The oscillator strengths, line strengths and wavelengths are presented for all 1s-2p transitions in titanium ions. X-ray emission from titanium is extensively used, for example for diagnosis, in fusion experiments. The K{alpha} 1s-2p transitions are limited to transitions from helium-like to fluorine-like ion as the 2p subshell is filled beyond fluorine. While there are two 1s-2p transitions (1s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 1s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2p{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) for hydrogen-like titanium, Ti{sup 20+}, the number varies depending on the number of electrons in the 2p subshell before and after the transition. For example, there are 35 1s-2p transitions giving the same number of K{alpha} lines for carbon-like titanium, Ti{sup 16+}. The present results are obtained from configuration interaction atomic structure calculations using the code GRASPVU, which includes relativistic effects in the Dirac-Fock approximation. The results have been benchmarked for a few ionic states. A comparison of our results with the very few transitions in the literature as well as those from other codes shows reasonable accuracy of the present results.

  6. FULLY RELATIVISTIC CALCULATIONS OF THE ENERGIES,OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS AND EINSTEIN COEFFICENTS OFTHE FORBIDDEN TRANSITIONS FOR Ne-LIKE SEQUENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIANG-DONG; TAN MING-LIANG; YI YOU-GEN; ZHANG ZHI-HONG; ZHU ZHENG-HE; ZHANG ZHI-HONG

    2000-01-01

    We provide systematic calculations about the energy levels, Einstein coefficients and oscillator strengths for electricquadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions between n=3 and n=2 of Ne-like systems by using the fullyrelativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method. The oscillator strengths of the E2 transitions under Coulomb andBabshkin gauges are compared with each other and show the differences from 1.2 to 12 percent. We also found that theM2 line (0.37429 nm) with the biggest oscillator strengths in Ne-like Ag37+ mixes with the line (2p5 3/23s1/23d5/2)3/2 →gs(0.37427 nm) emitted by the Na-like Ag36+.

  7. Constraining turbulence mixing strength in transitional discs with planets using SPHERE and ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ovelar, M de Juan; Min, M; Dominik, C; Birnstiel, T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect that the turbulent mixing strength parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ plays on near-infrared polarimetric and sub-millimetre interferometric imaging observations of transitional discs (TDs) with a gap carved by a planet. We generate synthetic observations of these objects with ALMA and VLT/SPHERE-ZIMPOL by combining hydrodynamical, dust evolution, radiative transfer and instrument models for values of $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}=[10^{-4}, 10^{-3}, 10^{-2}]$. We find that, through a combination of effects on the viscosity of the gas, the turbulent mixing and dust evolution processes, $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ strongly affects the morphology of the dust distribution that can be traced with these observations. We constrain the value of $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ to be within an order of magnitude of $10^{-3}$ in TD sources that show cavities in sub-mm continuum images while featuring continuous distribution of dust or smaller cavities in NIR-polarimetric images.

  8. Transition Energy and Oscillator Strength of 1s22p——1s2nd for Fe23+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Wen; LI Xin-Ru; HU Mu-Hong; LIU Ying; WANG Ya-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p - 1s2nd (3 ≤ n ≤ 9) for Fe23+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states for this ion are also evaluated. The higher-order relativistic contribution to the energy is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The energies of any highly excited states with (n ≥ 10) for this series can be reliably predicted using these quantum defects as input. The results in this paper excellently agree with the experimental data available in the literature. Combining the quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths, the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from same given initial state 1s22p to highly excited 1s2nd states (n ≥ 10) and the oscillator strength density corresponding to the bound-free transitions is obtained.

  9. E3 Portfolio Review Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The E3 Portfolio Review Database houses operational and performance data for all activities that the Bureau funds and/or manages. Activity-level data is collected by...

  10. E3 Sustainable Manufacturing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short E3 course containing three modules on Environmental Sustainability; Lean Manufacturing and Pollution Prevention; and Energy and Carbon. Each module includes slides, a facilitator's guide with handouts, activities, quizzes, and facilitator's notes.

  11. Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Transitions in the Trivalent Lanthanide Series: Calculated Emission Rates and Oscillator Strengths

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Given growing interest in optical-frequency magnetic dipole transitions, we use intermediate coupling calculations to identify strong magnetic dipole emission lines that are well suited for experimental study. The energy levels for all trivalent lanthanide ions in the 4fn configuration are calculated using a detailed free ion Hamiltonian, including electrostatic and spin-orbit terms as well as two-body, three-body, spin-spin, spin-other-orbit, and electrostatically correlated spin-orbit interactions. These free ion energy levels and eigenstates are then used to calculate the oscillator strengths for all ground-state magnetic dipole absorption lines and the spontaneous emission rates for all magnetic dipole emission lines including transitions between excited states. A large number of strong magnetic dipole transitions are predicted throughout the visible and near-infrared spectrum, including many at longer wavelengths that would be ideal for experimental investigation of magnetic light-matter interactions wit...

  12. Effect of the Entrained Air Void on Strength and Interfacial Transition Zone of Air-Entrained Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; ZHANG Xiong; ZHANG Yongjuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate the development and application of air entraining agents (AEA) in the high performance concrete, entrained air void structure parameters (air void size range from 10 to 1 600 μm) of 28 d sifted mortar were measured by image analysis method. The relationship between the air void size distribution and strength of mortar was studied by methods of grey connection analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The multiple linear regression equation was established with a correlation coefifcient of 0.966. The weight of the affection of hierarchical porosity on the compressive strength ratio was also obtained. In addition, the effect of air voids on the paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone (ITZ) was analyzed by microhardness. The results show that the correlation between different pore size range and the compressive strength is negative. The effect of air void size distribution on 28 days compressive strength is different: under the condition of similar total porosity, with the increase of the porosity of the air void size, ranging from 10 to 200 μm, and the decrease of the porosity, ranging from 200 to 1 600 μm, the average air void diameter and mean free spacing are decreased; as well as the width of ITZ. On the contrary, the microhardness of the ITZ is increased while the compressive strength loss is decreased.

  13. Wavelength and oscillator strength of dipole transition 1s22p-1s2nd for Mn22+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiWen; WANG YaNan; HU MuHong; LI XinRu; LIU Ying

    2008-01-01

    The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n≤9) for Mn22+. ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤9) states for this ion are also evaluated. In calculating energy, the higher-order relativistic contribution is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experi-mental data available in literatures.

  14. Wavelength and oscillator strength of dipole transition 1s22p—1s2nd for Mn22+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n≤9) for Mn22+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n≤9) states for this ion are also evaluated. In calculating energy, the higher-order relativistic contribution is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experi-mental data available in literatures.

  15. Strength, ductility, and ductile-brittle transition temperature for MFR (magnetic fusion reactor) candidate vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Lee, R.H.; Smith, D.L.; Peterson, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    The dependence of the yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction in area on temperature for the V-15Ti-7.5Cr, V-20Ti, V-15Cr-5Ti, V-12Cr-5Ti, V-10Cr-5Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys was determined from tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 25 to 700/sup 0/C. The strength of the alloys increased with an increase of the combined Cr and Ti concentration. The total elongation for the alloys ranged between 20% and 38%. The reduction in area ranged from 30% to 90%. The DBTT, which was determined from the temperature dependence of the reduction in area, was less than 25/sup 0/C for the V-15Ti-7.5Cr, V-20Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys. The DBTT for the V-10Cr-5Ti, V-12Cr-5Ti, and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys was also less than 25/sup 0/C if these alloys were annealed to reduce the hydrogen concentration prior to the tensile test. If these latter alloys were not annealed prior to the tensile test, the DBTT ranged from 40/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C and the DBTT increased with an increase of the Cr concentration. A Cr/Ti concentration ratio of 0 to 0.5 in these alloys was found to cause the alloys to be less susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Oscillator strengths for 2 2p-n 2D transitions of lithium-like systems with Z=11 to 20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Mu-Hong; Wang Zhi-Wen

    2004-01-01

    The dipole-length, velocity and acceleration absorption oscillator strengths for the 1s22p-1s2nd (3 ≤ n ≤9) transitions of the lithium-like systems with Z=1 1 to 20 are calculated using the energies and the multiconfiguration interaction wavefunctions obtained from a full core plus correlation method. The agreement between the f-values calculated from the length, velocity and acceleration formulae is excellent. Our results agree closely with the experimental data avail able in the literature. Combining these discrete oscillator strengths with the single-channel quantum defect theory,the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from 1s22p state to highly excited states (n ≥10) and the oscillator strength densities corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained.

  17. Improvements and Testing Practical Expressions for Photon Strength Functions of E1 Gamma-Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Plujko, Vladimir; Kadenko, Igor; Solodovnyk, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expression for the E1 photon strength functions (PSF) is modified to account for the low-energy enhancement due to nuclear structure effects (presence of low-energy state (LES)). A closed-form expression of the E1 PSF function includes response of two nuclear states: LES and giant diplole resonance (GDR). Expression for the nuclear response function on electromagnetic field is based on a model of excitation of two coupled damped states. These approach is tested for different data sets for spherical nuclei. Impact on PSF shape of coupling between LES and GDR excitations is considered.

  18. Significance of M2 and E3 transitions for $4p^54d^{N+1}$ and $4p^64d^{N-1}4f$ configuration metastable level lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Karpuškienė, R; Kisielius, R

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic quadrupole and electric octupole transitions from the configurations $4p^54d^{N+1}$ and $4p^64d^{N-1}4f$ were calculated along with magnetic dipole, electric dipole and electric quadrupole radiative transitions in quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. Their significance in determining the metastable level radiative lifetimes was investigated along several isoelectronic sequences for the ions from $Z=50$ to $Z=92$. Strontium-like ions, zirconium-like ions, molybdenum-like ions and rhodium-like ions were studied comprehensively. Remaining isoelectronic sequences with the ground configuration $4d^{N}$ ($N=1,3,5,7,8,10$) were also reviewed albeit in less detail. A systematic trends of determined total radiative lifetimes were studied. The importance of magnetic quadrupole and electric octupole transitions from metastable levels of ions from these isoelectronic sequences was investigated and discussed. Inclusion of such transitions of higher multipole order can change theoretical radiative lifetim...

  19. Fe I OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS FROM HIGH-LYING EVEN-PARITY LEVELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Lind, K., E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to ±5% accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm{sup –1} to 56842 cm{sup –1}. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of (log[ε(Fe)]) = 7.45 ± 0.06.

  20. Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Özcoban, Hüseyin; Lilleodden, Erica T; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Swain, Michael V; Schneider, Gerold A

    2012-06-07

    Hard, biological materials are generally hierarchically structured from the nano- to the macro-scale in a somewhat self-similar manner consisting of mineral units surrounded by a soft protein shell. Considerable efforts are underway to mimic such materials because of their structurally optimized mechanical functionality of being hard and stiff as well as damage-tolerant. However, it is unclear how different hierarchical levels interact to achieve this performance. In this study, we consider dental enamel as a representative, biological hierarchical structure and determine its flexural strength and elastic modulus at three levels of hierarchy using focused ion beam (FIB) prepared cantilevers of micrometre size. The results are compared and analysed using a theoretical model proposed by Jäger and Fratzl and developed by Gao and co-workers. Both properties decrease with increasing hierarchical dimension along with a switch in mechanical behaviour from linear-elastic to elastic-inelastic. We found Gao's model matched the results very well.

  1. Fe I Oscillator Strengths for Transitions from High-lying Even-Parity Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, E A Den; Lawler, J E; Pickering, J C; Lind, K; Brewer, N R

    2014-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to $\\pm$ 5 % accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm$^{-1}$ to 56842 cm$^{-1}$. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. (2014). The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of = 7.45 $\\pm$ 0.06.

  2. Tables of Relative Strengths of Spectral Lines with Mixed Vector Couplings: Dipole Transitions Between LS and Other Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, T. A.; Escalante, V.

    1991-04-01

    RESUMEN Se presentan tablas de intensidades de oscilador de dipolares del tipo (2SP+1)Lp ni - (2SP+l)Lp ml' para 0 esquema de acoplamiento LS y el otro se describe en el esquema de acoplamiento LK, jK 6 jj. Nuestros resultados son utiles en Ia interpretaci6n e identificaci6n de lfneas espectrales entre estados con ntimeros cuanticos similares. ABSTRACT Tables are presented for the relative strength of dipole transitions of the type (2SP+l)Lp ni - (2SP+l)Lp ml' for 0 < Sp < 2, 0 < Lp < 2, 1 < 1 <4, and for any n and m, in which one of the states is described with the Ls coupling scheme, and the other is described with the LK, jK, or jj coupling scheme. Our results are useful in the interpretation and identification of spectral lines between states with similar quantum numbers. K words: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR DATA - PROBABILITES

  3. Oscillator strengths for 2 2S-n2P transitions of the lithium isoelectronic sequence from Z = 11 to 20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Mu-Hong; Wang Zhi-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The dipole-length, dipole-velocity and dipole-acceleration absorption oscillator strengths for the 1s22s-1s2np (3 ≤ n ≤ 9) transitions of lithium-like systems from Z = 11 to 20 are calculated by using the energies and the multiconfiguration interaction wave functions obtained from a full core plus correlation method, in which relativistic and mass-polarization effects on the energy, as the first-order perturbation corrections, are included. The results of three forms are in good agreement with each other, and closely agree with the experimental data available in the literature.Based on the quantum defects obtained with quantum defect theory (QDT), the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from the ground state to highly excited states 1s2np (n ≥ 10) and oscillator strength densities corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained for these ions.

  4. Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the 45 DELTA n=0 transitions with n=2 in the 79 O-like ions with 14<=Z<=92

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Hong Lin

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths have been calculated for the 45 DELTA n=0 transitions with n=2 in the 79 O-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 14<=Z<=92. The calculations were made for the six final, or scattered, electron energies E'=0.03, 0.08, 0.20, 0.42, 0.80, and 1.40, where E' is in units of Z sup 2 sub e sub f sub f Ry with Z sub e sub f sub f =Z-5.83. In addition, the transition energies and electric dipole oscillator strengths are given. To our knowledge the present work is the first comprehensive publication of the results of fully relativistic calculations of the collision strengths for excitation of highly charged O-like ions.

  5. The Oscillator Strength of the Quantum Transitions in Multi-Resonant-Tunneling Structures Tours as Basic Elements of Quantum Cascade Lasers and Detectors in a Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Boyko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the model of a closed resonant tunneling structure developed the theory of the electron energy spectrum and oscillator strengths of the quantum electronic transitions between energy levels of this nanostructure. It is shown that by changing the intensity of the magnetic field can be in a wide range of electromagnetic waves to adjust the operating frequency of the radiation of a quantum cascade laser or detector, working on quantum transitions between the first and the third energy electronic states.

  6. ScienceToGo.org: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Communicating Climate Change through Mass Transit Advertising Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Wilson, R.; Rabkin, D.; Thompson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Engaging urban populations with climate change science is a difficult challenge since cities can seem so removed from the `natural environment.' However, mass transit provides an inherent means of communicating environmental messages with a cross section of the urban population. The Out of Home Media (OHM) spaces found on platforms and inside train cars provide a potentially effective means of bringing informal science learning opportunities directly to an underserved STEM audience. Our team felt that any messaging curriculum for a coastal urban subway system must complement the scary reality of the impacts of a changing climate (i.e. rising sea levels) with current examples of how the city is preparing for a more sustainable future. Urban areas such as Boston must develop adaptation and mitigation strategies that will help them not only survive, but thrive in a changing environment. In 2013-14, ScienceToGo.org ran a series of 12 engaging posters and placards staring `Ozzie the Ostrich' on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority's Red and Orange subway lines targeting an audience of more than 400,000 riders per day. The 12 month curriculum was divided into three phases: reality, relevance, and hope. During the presentation, we will present the results of our quasi-experimental research which identifies, quantifies, and explains the observed impacts of the campaign on adult riders. The strengths and weaknesses of the communication strategy will be discussed. Finally, we will conclude with some recommendations for how this work could improve and inform other urban informal science learning initiatives.

  7. Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Strengths: Promoting Productive Contexts for Students At-Risk for EBD during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan; Murray, Robert A.; Meece, Judith L.; Brooks, Debbie Sprott

    2010-01-01

    This study involved a pilot examination of the impact of the Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Strengths (SEALS) model on the 6th grade academic and social context following the transition to middle school. Two middle schools from a high poverty Appalachian school district were randomly assigned to the intervention and control…

  8. Study of the strength distribution of primary gamma-transitions in the decay from superdeformed states in sup 1 sup 9 sup 4 Hg

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Martens, A P; Khoo, T L; Korichi, A; Hannachi, F; Calderin, I J; Lauritsen, T; Ahmad, I; Carpenter, M P; Fischer, S M; Hackman, G; Janssens, R V F; Nisius, D; Reiter, P; Amro, H; Moore, E F

    1999-01-01

    The strength distribution of the primary gamma rays in the decay from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method. For the sup 1 sup 9 sup 4 Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong 'one-step linking' transitions is found to have a very small probability. Based on the absence of strong primary transitions from SD states in adjacent nuclei, the situation in sup 1 sup 9 sup 4 Hg is viewed as a very lucky incidence.

  9. A selective colorimetric Hg2+ probe featuring a styryl dithiaazacrown containing platinum (II) terpyridine complex through modulation of the relative strength of ICT and MLCT transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung-Kuang; Tseng, Yong-Ren; Chen, Chan-Yu; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2011-04-04

    A series of platinum(II) terpyridine complexes featuring an aminostilbene donor-acceptor framework was synthesized. The complex with a dithiaazacrown moiety exhibits a highly sensitive and selective colorimetric response to a Hg(2+) cation through modulation of the relative strength of ICT and MLCT transitions. The results from (1)H NMR titration suggest the existence of a weak Pt(II)···Hg(II) metallophilic interaction at low Hg(2+) concentration.

  10. Charge-changing transitions and capture strengths of pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = -2$ at proton drip-line

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Muneeb-Ur

    2016-01-01

    Charge-changing transitions, commonly referred to as Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions, and electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay strengths for pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = - 2$ at proton drip-line have been calculated using the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) model. The total GT$_{+}$ strength values and electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay rates are needed for the study of the late stages of the stellar evolution. The pn-QRPA theory is used for a microscopic calculation of GT strength distribution functions and associated stellar electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay rates of proton-rich pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = - 2$ in the mass range 46 $\\leq$ A $\\leq$ 56 at proton drip-line. Standard quenching factor of 0.74, usually implemented in the shell model calculation, has been incorporated for the comparison with experimental data (wherever available). The calculated GT strength of the two proton-rich nuclei, $^{52}$Ni and $^{56}$Zn are compared with experimental data of corresponding...

  11. Excitation strengths and transition radii differences of one-phonon quadrupole excitations from electron scattering on {sup 92,94}Zr and {sup 94}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh Obeid, Abdulrahman

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of this thesis electron scattering experiments on low-energy excitations of {sup 92}Zr and {sup 94}Zr were performed at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q=0.3-0.6 fm{sup -1}. The nature of one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states of {sup 92}Zr was investigated by comparison with predictions of the quasi-particle phonon model (QPM). Theoretical (e,e') cross sections have been calculated within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to account for Coulomb distortion effects. The reduced strengths of the one-quadrupole phonon states and the one-octupole phonon state have been extracted. The similarity of the momentum-transfer dependence of the form factors between the 2{sup +} states supports the one-phonon nature of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state of {sup 92}Zr. A new method based on the Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) for a model-independent determination of the ratio of the E2 transition strengths of fully symmetric (FSS) and mixed-symmetry (MSS) one-phonon excitations of heavy vibrational nuclei is introduced. Due to the sensitivity of electron scattering to charge distributions, the charge transition-radii difference can be determined. The basic assumptions (independence from the ratio of Coulomb corrections and from absolute values of transition radii) are tested within the Tassie model, which makes no specific assumptions about the structure of the states other than collectivity. It is shown that a PWBA analysis of the form factors, which usually fails for heavy nuclei, can nevertheless be applied in a relative analysis. This is a new promising approach to determine the ground state transition strength of the 2{sup +} MSS of vibrational nuclei with a precision limited only by the experimental information about the B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1}→0{sup +}{sub 1}) strength. The PWBA approach furthermore provides information about differences of the proton transition radii of the respective states

  12. On Generalized Euler Spirals in E^3

    OpenAIRE

    Saracoglu, Semra

    2012-01-01

    The Cornu spirals on plane are the curves whose curvatures are linear. Generalized planar cornu spirals and Euler spirals in E^3, the curves whose curvatures are linear are defined in [1,5]. In this study, these curves are presented as the ratio of two rational linear functions. Also here, generalized Euler spirals in E^3 has been defined and given their some various characterizations. The approach I used in this paper is useful in understanding the role of Euler spirals in E^3 in differentia...

  13. E3: Extreme Energy Event monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    World peace through CERN technology: Use of explosives especially in urban areas is the defining phenomenon of the last and current century. E3 aims to reduce such excesses of violence by collecting scientific hard evidence.

  14. Freezing E3-brane instantons with fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M.; Martucci, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Collinucci, A. [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Physique Theorique et Mathematique Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2012-07-15

    E3-instantons that generate non-perturbative superpotentials in IIB N = 1 compactifications have a much more frequent occurrence than currently believed. Worldvolume fluxes will typically lift the E3-brane geometric moduli and their fermionic superpartners, leaving only the two required universal fermionic zero-modes. We consistently incorporate SL(2,Z) monodromies and world-volume fluxes in the effective theory of the E3-brane fermions and study the resulting zero modes spectrum, highlighting the relation between F-theory and perturbative IIB results. This leads us to a IIB derivation of the index for generation of superpotential terms, which reproduces and generalizes available results. Furthermore, we show how E3 worldvolume fluxes can be explicitly constructed in a one-modulus compactification, such that the instanton has exactly two fermonic zero-modes. This construction is readily applicable to numerous scenarios. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. E3 Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ETRAMS is a travel data collection system developed by the CKM team in E3 that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination,...

  16. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  17. HECT E3s and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staub Olivier

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a simplified view, members of the HECT E3 family have a modular structure consisting of the C-terminal HECT domain, which is catalytically involved in the attachment of ubiquitin to substrate proteins, and N-terminal extensions of variable length and sequence that mediate the substrate specificity of the respective HECT E3. Although the physiologically relevant substrates of most HECT E3s have remained elusive, it is becoming increasingly clear that HECT E3s play an important role in sporadic and hereditary human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular (Liddle's syndrome and neurological (Angelman syndrome disorders, and/or in disease-relevant processes including bone homeostasis, immune response and retroviral budding. Thus, molecular approaches to target the activity of distinct HECT E3s, regulators thereof, and/or of HECT E3 substrates could prove valuable in the treatment of the respective diseases. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  18. Synchronization transitions induced by the fluctuation of adaptive coupling strength in delayed Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Gong, Yubing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-11-01

    Introducing adaptive coupling in delayed neuronal networks and regulating the dissipative parameter (DP) of adaptive coupling by noise, we study the effect of fluctuations of the changing rate of adaptive coupling on the synchronization of the neuronal networks. It is found that time delay can induce synchronization transitions for intermediate DP values, and the synchronization transitions become strongest when DP is optimal. As the intensity of DP noise is varied, the neurons can also exhibit synchronization transitions, and the phenomenon is delay-dependent and is enhanced for certain time delays. Moreover, the synchronization transitions change with the change of DP and become strongest when DP is optimal. These results show that randomly changing adaptive coupling can considerably change the synchronization of the neuronal networks, and hence could play a crucial role in the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  19. Quantifying the binding strength of salicylaldoxime-uranyl complexes relative to competing salicylaldoxime-transition metal ion complexes in aqueous solution: a combined experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehio, Nada; Ivanov, Alexander S; Williams, Neil J; Mayes, Richard T; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Hancock, Robert D; Dai, Sheng

    2016-05-31

    The design of new ligands and investigation of UO2(2+) complexations are an essential aspect of reducing the cost of extracting uranium from seawater, improving the sorption efficiency for uranium and the selectivity for uranium over competing ions (such as the transition metal cations). The binding strengths of salicylaldoxime-UO2(2+) complexes were quantified for the first time and compared with the binding strengths of salicylic acid-UO2(2+) and representative amidoxime-UO2(2+) complexes. We found that the binding strengths of salicylaldoxime-UO2(2+) complexes are ∼2-4 log β2 units greater in magnitude than their corresponding salicylic acid-UO2(2+) and representative amidoxime-UO2(2+) complexes; moreover, the selectivity of salicylaldoxime towards the UO2(2+) cation over competing Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) cations is far greater than those reported for salicylic acid and glutarimidedioxime in the literature. The higher UO2(2+) selectivity can likely be attributed to the different coordination modes observed for salicylaldoxime-UO2(2+) and salicylaldoxime-transition metal complexes. Density functional theory calculations indicate that salicylaldoxime can coordinate with UO2(2+) as a dianion species formed by η(2) coordination of the aldoximate and monodentate binding of the phenolate group. In contrast, salicylaldoxime coordinates with transition metal cations as a monoanion species via a chelate formed between phenolate and the oxime N; the complexes are stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions between the oxime OH group and phenolate. By coupling the experimentally determined thermodynamic constants and the results of theoretical computations, we are able to derive a number of ligand design principles to further improve the UO2(2+) cation affinity, and thus further increase the selectivity of salicylaldoxime derivatives.

  20. Evolution of E2 transition strength in deformed hafnium isotopes from new measurements on $^{172}$Hf, $^{174}$Hf, and $^{176}$Hf

    CERN Document Server

    Rudigier, M; Dannhoff, M; Gerst, R-B; Jolie, J; Saed-Samii, N; Stegemann, S; Régis, J-M; Robledo, L M; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R; Blazhev, A; Fransen, Ch; Warr, N; Zell, K O

    2015-01-01

    The available data for E2 transition strengths in the region between neutron-deficient Hf and Pt isotopes are far from complete. More and precise data are needed to enhance the picture of structure evolution in this region and to test state-of-the-art nuclear models. In a simple model, the maximum collectivity is expected at the middle of the major shell. However, for actual nuclei, this picture may no longer be the case, and one should use a more realistic nuclear-structure model. We address this point by studying the spectroscopy of Hf. We remeasure the 2^+_1 half-lives of 172,174,176Hf, for which there is some disagreement in the literature. The main goal is to measure, for the first time, the half-lives of higher-lying states of the rotational band. The new results are compared to a theoretical calculation for absolute transition strengths. The half-lives were measured using \\gamma-\\gamma and conversion-electron-\\gamma delayed coincidences with the fast timing method. For the determination of half-lives i...

  1. Benchmarking transition energies and emission strengths for X-ray astrophysics with measurements at the Livermore EBITs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Natalie [Friedrich Alexander Univ., Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    K-shell transitions in astrophysically abundant metals and L-shell transitions in Fe group elements show characteristic signatures in the soft X-ray spectrum in the energy range 0.1–10 keV. These signatures have great diagnostic value for plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, and can thus help understand the physics controlling the energetic processes in astrophysical sources. This diagnostic power increases with advances in spectral resolution and effective area of the employed X-ray observatories. However, to make optimal use of the diagnostic potential – whether through global spectral modeling or through diagnostics from local modeling of individual lines – the underlying atomic physics has to be complete and well known. With the next generation of soft X-ray observatories featuring micro-calorimeters such as the SXS on Astro- H/Hitomi and the X-IFU on Athena, broadband high-resolution spectroscopy with large effective area will become more commonly available in the next decade. With these spectrometers, the accuracy of the plasma parameters derived from spectral modeling will be limited by the uncertainty of the reference atomic data rather than by instrumental factors, as is sometimes already the case for the high-resolution grating observations with Chandra-HETG and XMM-Newton-RGS. To take full advantage of the measured spectra, assessment of the accuracy of and improvements to the available atomic reference data are therefore important. Dedicated measurements in the laboratory are essential to benchmark the theoretical calculations providing the bulk of the reference data used in astrophysics. Experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion traps (EBIT-I and SuperEBIT) have a long history of providing this service. In this work, I present new measurements of transition energies and absolute electron impact excitation cross sections geared towards currently open atomic physics data needs.

  2. Enhanced $0_{g.s.}^+ \\to 2_1^+$ E2 Transition Strength in $^{112,114}$Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, R; Jhingan, A; Muralithar, S; Mukherjee, S; Reiter, P; Gorska, M; Bhowmik, R K; Cederkall, J; Siwal, D; Doornenbal, P; Garg, R; Appannababu, S; Kojouharov, I; Grawe, H; Singh, P P; Mandal, S; Sharma, A; Schaffner, H; Ekstrom, A; Caceres, L; Prokopowicz, W; Kaur, J; Gerl, J; Singh, R P; Bednarczyk, P

    2011-01-01

    The poorly known B(E2; 0(+) -> 2(+)) values of (112)Sn and (114)Sn have been measured to high precision. Two Coulomb excitation experiments were performed to determine the reduced transition probabilities relative to (116)Sn in order to minimize the systematic errors. The obtained B(E2 up arrow) values of 0.242(8) e(2)b(2) for (112)Sn and 0.232(8) e(2)b(2) for (114)Sn confirm the tendency of large B(E2 up arrow) values for the lighter tin isotopes below the midshell (116)Sn that has been observed recently in various radioactive ion beam experiments.

  3. Q2 Dependence of quadrupole strength in the gamma*p --> Delta(+)(1232) --> p pi(0) transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, K; Smith, L C; Burkert, V D; Minehart, R; Aznauryan, I G; Elouadrhiri, L; Stepanyan, S; Adams, G S; Amaryan, M J; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Armstrong, D S; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Barrow, S; Bagdasaryan, H; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bertozzi, W; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Brooks, W K; Calarco, J R; Capitani, G P; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Demirchyan, R A; Denizli, H; Dennis, L C; Deppman, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Eckhause, M; Efremenko, Y V; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Farhi, L; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Fissum, K; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gai, M; Gavrilov, V B; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Gyurjyan, V; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heisenberg, J; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Laget, J M; Lawrence, D; Longhi, A; Loukachine, K; Lucas, M; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; Matthews, S K; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Niculescu, G; Niczyporuk, B; Niyazov, R A; Ohandjanyan, M S; Opper, A; Patois, Y; Peterson, G A; Philips, S; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Reolon, A R; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Salgado, C W; Sanzone, M; Sapunenko, V; Sargsyan, M; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Shuvalov, S M; Skabelin, A; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stoler, P; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tung, T Y; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A; Weller, H; Weinstein, L B; Welsh, R; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, S; Witkowski, M; Wolin, E; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhou, Z; Zhao, J

    2002-03-25

    Models of baryon structure predict a small quadrupole deformation of the nucleon due to residual tensor forces between quarks or distortions from the pion cloud. Sensitivity to quark versus pion degrees of freedom occurs through the Q2 dependence of the magnetic (M1+), electric (E1+), and scalar (S1+) multipoles in the gamma*p-->Delta(+)-->p pi(0) transition. We report new experimental values for the ratios E(1+)/M(1+) and S(1+)/M(1+) over the range Q2 = 0.4-1.8 GeV2, extracted from precision p(e,e(')p)pi(0) data using a truncated multipole expansion. Results are best described by recent unitary models in which the pion cloud plays a dominant role.

  4. Microplasma mode transition and corresponding propagation characteristics controlled by manipulating electric field strength in a microchannel-cavity hybrid structure device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Ni, J. H.; Zhong, S.; Zhang, X.; Liang, Z.; Liu, C.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2016-10-01

    Plasma redistribution in a symmetric microchannel-cavity hybrid structure device has been investigated by modulating the applied electric field strength. The device array has been operated in 200 Torr of argon, driven by a 20 kHz bipolar waveform. With the existence of the intervening microchannel between microcavities, several stable modes of operation of the microplasma have been observed, including cavity mode, hybrid mode and channel mode. Transition between the modes occurs with modulation of the applied voltage from 800 to 1100 V. The characteristics of microplasma propagation in different modes are investigated and the propagation speed along diagonal direction of the device in cavity mode, hybrid and channel mode are calculated to be ~48, ~29 and ~32 km s-1, respectively. Nonhomogeneous electric field strength distribution and plasma interaction have been discussed to explain these experimental results. Emission intensity and propagation speed differences in the cavity mode between the polarities of the applied voltage are interpreted through spatially resolved measurements of the emission profile in a partial channel-cavity array.

  5. Scaling laws in (e,3e) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasaneo, G; Rodriguez, K V [Departamento de Fisica - Universidad Nacional del Sur and CONICET, 8000 BahIa Blanca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ancarani, L U; Cappello, C Dal [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 57078 Metz (France); Charpentier, I [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 7554, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France)

    2009-11-01

    We study the double ionization of helium-like ions by impact of electrons with high incident energy. Within the isoelectronic sequence, an approximate scaling law for (e,3e) differential cross sections is proposed and confirmed by calculations. The latter are performed using 14-parameters Hylleraas-like wave functions to represent the bound electrons in the initial channel, plane waves for the fast incoming and scattered electrons, and a continuum distorted wave approach for the two ejected electrons in the final channel.

  6. Electronic bonding analyses and mechanical strengths of incompressible tetragonal transition metal dinitrides TMN2 (TM = Ti, Zr, and Hf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiguang; Cheng, Ke; Yan, Haiyan; Wei, Qun; Zheng, Baobing

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by recent successful synthesis of transition metal dinitride TiN2, the electronic structure and mechanical properties of the discovered TiN2 and other two family members (ZrN2 and HfN2) have been thus fully investigated by using first-principles calculations to explore the possibilities and provide guidance for future experimental efforts. The incompressible nature of these tetragonal TMN2 (TM = Ti, Zr, and Hf) compounds has been demonstrated by the calculated elastic moduli, originating from the strong N-N covalent bonds that connect the TMN8 units. However, as compared with traditional fcc transition metal mononitride (TMN), the TMN2 possess a larger elastic anisotropy may impose certain limitations on possible applications. Further mechanical strength calculations show that tetragonal TMN2 exhibits a strong resistance against (100)[010] shear deformation prevents the indenter from making a deep imprint, whereas the peak stress values (below 12 GPa) of TMN2 along shear directions are much lower than those of TMN, showing their lower shear resistances than these known hard wear-resistant materials. The shear deformation of TMN2 at the atomic level during shear deformation can be attributed to the collapse of TMN8 units with breaking of TM-N bonds through the bonding evolution and electronic localization analyses.

  7. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock energy levels, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, hyperfine constants and Landé g-factor of intermediate Rydberg series in neutral argon atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Wa'el; Hassouneh, Ola

    2017-04-01

    We computed the energy levels, oscillator strengths f_{ij}, the radiative transition rates A_{ij}, the Landé g -factor, the magnetic dipole moment and the electric quadrupole hyperfine constants of the intermediate Rydberg series ns [k]J ( 4 ≤ n ≤ 6), nd [k]J (3 ≤ n ≤ 4), np [k]J (4 ≤ n ≤ 5) relative to the ground state 3p6 1S0 for neutral argon atom spectra. The values are obtained in the framework of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) approach. In this approach, Breit interaction, leading quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects and self-energy correction are taken into account. Moreover, these spectroscopic parameters have been calculated for many levels belonging to the configuration 3p54s, 3p55s, 3p56s, 3p53d, 3p54d, 3p54p, 3p55p as well as for transitions between levels 3p54s-3p54p, 3p54p-3p53d, 3p54p-3p55s, 3p55s-3p55p and 3p55p-3p56s. The large majority of the lines from the 4p-5s and 4p-3d, 5s-5p and 5p-6s transition arrays have been observed and the calculations are consistent with the J -file-sum rule. The obtained theoretical values are compared with previous experimental and theoretical data available in the literature. An overall satisfactory agreement is noticed allowing assessing the reliability of our data.

  8. Cognitive mechanisms for transitive inference performance in rhesus monkeys: measuring the influence of associative strength and inferred order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Chee, Nicholas W; Hampton, Robert R

    2012-10-01

    If Ben is taller than Emily and Emily is taller than Dina, one can infer that Ben is taller than Dina. This process of inferring relations between stimuli based on shared relations with other stimuli is called transitive inference (TI). Many species solve TI tasks in which they learn pairs of overlapping stimulus discriminations (A+B-, B+C-, etc.) and are tested with non-adjacent novel test pairings (BD). When relations between stimuli are determined by reinforcement (A is reinforced when paired with B, B when paired with C), performance can be controlled by the associative values of individual stimuli or by logical inference. In Experiment 1 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) chose the higher ranked item on non-adjacent test trials after training on a 7-image TI task. In Experiment 2 we measured the associative values of 7 TI images and found that these values did not correlate with choice in TI tests. In Experiment 3 large experimental manipulations of the associative value of images did influence performance in some TI test pairings, but performance on other pairs was consistent with the implied order. In Experiment 4 monkeys linked two previously learned 7-item lists into one 14-item list after training with a single linking pair. Linking cannot be explained by associative values. Associative value can control choice in TI tests in at least some extreme circumstances. Implied order better explains most TI choices in monkeys, and is a more viable mechanism for TI of social dominance, which has been observed in birds and fish.

  9. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  10. Enhancement of octupole strength in near spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, L.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dep. Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    The validity of the rotational formula used to compute E1 and E3 transition strengths in even-even nuclei is analyzed within the Generator Coordinate Method framework based on mean field wave functions. It turns out that those nuclei with spherical or near spherical shapes the E1 and E3 strengths computed with this formula are strongly underestimated and a sound evaluation of them requires angular-momentum projected wave functions. Results for several isotopic chains with proton number equal to or near magic numbers are analyzed and compared with experimental data. The use of angular-momentum projected wave functions greatly improves the agreement with the scarce experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Experimental studies of the oscillator strengths of the 6s6p {sup 1,3}P{sub 1} {yields} 6snd {sup 1,3}D{sub 2} Rydberg transitions in barium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyar, M A; Rafiq, M; Baig, M A [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2007-11-28

    We report new measurements for the oscillator strengths of the 6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1} {yields} 6snd {sup 1}D{sub 2} and 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 1} {yields} 6snd {sup 3}D{sub 2} Rydberg transitions of barium using a thermionic diode ion detector in conjunction with a Nd:YAG pumped dye laser system. The f-values have been calibrated with the absolute photoionization cross-section measured at the first ionization threshold from the 6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1} and 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 1} excited states employing the saturation technique. An excellent agreement is found for the 6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1} {yields} 6snd {sup 1}D{sub 2} Rydberg transitions with the earlier reported work. The data on the oscillator strength of the 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 1} {yields} 6snd {sup 3}D{sub 2} Rydberg transitions are reported for the first time. The oscillator strength densities in the continuum corresponding to the 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 1} excited state have also been determined and a smooth merging of the discrete f-values into the oscillator strength densities is observed across the ionization threshold.

  12. Semiphenomenological approximation of the sums of experimental radiative strength functions for dipole gamma transitions of energy E γ below the neutron binding energy B n for mass numbers in the range 40 ≤ A ≤ 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhovoj, A. M.; Furman, W. I.; Khitrov, V. A.

    2008-06-01

    The sums of radiative strength functions for primary dipole gamma transitions, k( E1) + k( M1), are approximated to a high precision by a superposition of two functional dependences in the energy range 0.5 125Te, 128I, 137,138,139Ba, 140La, 150Sm, 156,158Gd, 160Tb, 163,164,165Dy, 166Ho, 168Er, 170Tm, 174Yb, 176,177Lu, 181Hf, 182Ta, 183,184,185,187W, 188,190,191,193Os, 192Ir, 196Pt, 198Au, and 200Hg nuclei. It is shown that, in any nuclei, radiative strength functions are a dynamical quantity and that the values of k( E1) + k( M1) for specific energies of gamma transitions and specific nuclei are determined by the structure of decaying and excited levels, at least up to the neutron binding energy B n .

  13. Measurement of the Radiative $K_{e3}$ Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Bevan, A; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Hay, B; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Barr, G; Bocquet,; Ceccucci, A; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Mikulec, I; Lacourt, A; Norton, A; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Taureg, H; Velasco, M; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, Vladimir D; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Knowles, I; Martin, V; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Veltri, M; Becker, H G; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Fox, H; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Marouelli, P; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Renk, B; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, L; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Bertanza, L; Carosi, R; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Neuhofer, G; Pernicka, M; Taurok, A; Widhalm, L

    2005-01-01

    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the decay {K}^0 -> pi+-e-+ nu gamma ({K}_e3 gamma) with respect to {K}^0 -> pi+- e-+ nu (gamma) ({k}_e3 + k}_e3 gamma) decay. The result is based on observation of 19 000 {K}_e3 gamma and 5.6 . {10}^6 {K}_e3 decays. The value of branching ratio is Br({K}^0 _e3 gamma{E}^*_gamma > 30 MeV, {theta}^*_e gamma > 20 deg) / Br({K}^0_e3 = (0.964 +- {0.008}^+0.011_0.009)%. This result agrees with the theoretical predictions but is at variance with a recently published result.

  14. Spectra and oscillator strengths of 3p63d9-3p53d10 and 3p63d9-3p63d84p transitions for cobalt-like Sn23+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ming-Lun; Yu Xiao-Guang

    2009-01-01

    This paper calculates the spectra and oscillator strengths for highly ionized cobalt-like Sn23+ ions 3p63d9-3p53d10,3p63d9 - 3p63d84p transitions by using a multi-configuration self-consistent field method program together with the proposed fitting formula. The calculations have a good agreement with observations.

  15. Gamow-Teller strength for the analog transitions to the first T=1/2,J(pi)=3/2(-) states in (13)C and (13)N and the implications for type Ia supernovae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, R. G. T.; Brown, E. F.; Akimune, H.; Austin, Sam M.; Van den Berg, A. M.; Brown, B. A.; Chamulak, D. A.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Gales, S.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hashimoto, H.; Hayami, R.; Hitt, G. W.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Kawase, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Nakanishi, K.; Nakayama, S.; Okumura, S.; Shimbara, Y.; Uchida, M.; Ueno, H.; Yamagata, T.; Yosoi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Gamow-Teller strength for the transition from the ground state of (13)C to the T=1/2,J(pi)=3/2(-) excited state at 3.51 MeV in (13)N is extracted via the (13)C((3)He,t) reaction at 420 MeV. In contrast to results from earlier (p,n) studies on (13)C, a good agreement with shell-model calculations

  16. E3: Economy - Energy - Environment; Supporting Manufacturing Leadership through Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The E3 initiative is designed to help you thrive in a new business era focused on sustainability and, working together, to promote sustainable manufacturing and economic growth throughout the United States. Within the E3 framework, we can: - Drive Innovation - Increase Manufacturing Productivity - Boost Local Economies - Reduce Environmental Impacts - Foster Development - Conserve Energy and Resources This website provides information and tools for E3, including fact sheets, contacts, and calculators.

  17. Ethnic variability in bone geometry as assessed by hip structure analysis: Findings from the Hip Strength Across the Menopausal Transition study

    OpenAIRE

    Danielson, Michelle E.; Beck, Thomas J.; Lian, YinJuan; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Greendale, Gail A; Ruppert, Kristine; Lo, Joan; Greenspan, Susan; Vuga, Marike; Cauley, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic origin plays an important role in fracture risk. Racial/ethnic differences in fracture rates cannot be fully explained by bone mineral density (BMD). Studies examining the influence of bone geometry and strength on fracture risk have focused primarily on older adults and have not included people from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore racial/ethnic differences in hip geometry and strength in a large sample of midlife women. We performed Hip Structure Anal...

  18. Molecular insights into RBR E3 ligase ubiquitin transfer mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Katja K; Stieglitz, Benjamin; Duncan, Emily D; Rittinger, Katrin; Klevit, Rachel E

    2016-08-01

    RING-in-between-RING (RBR) ubiquitin (Ub) ligases are a distinct class of E3s, defined by a RING1 domain that binds E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme and a RING2 domain that contains an active site cysteine similar to HECT-type E3s. Proposed to function as RING/HECT hybrids, details regarding the Ub transfer mechanism used by RBRs have yet to be defined. When paired with RING-type E3s, E2s perform the final step of Ub ligation to a substrate. In contrast, when paired with RBR E3s, E2s must transfer Ub onto the E3 to generate a E3~Ub intermediate. We show that RBRs utilize two strategies to ensure transfer of Ub from the E2 onto the E3 active site. First, RING1 domains of HHARI and RNF144 promote open E2~Ubs. Second, we identify a Ub-binding site on HHARI RING2 important for its recruitment to RING1-bound E2~Ub. Mutations that ablate Ub binding to HHARI RING2 also decrease RBR ligase activity, consistent with RING2 recruitment being a critical step for the RBR Ub transfer mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanism defined here is utilized by a variety of RBRs.

  19. "The Military Taught Me How to Study, How to Work Hard": Helping Student-Veterans Transition by Building on Their Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw-Hara, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges are experiencing growing numbers of student veterans. Unfortunately, much training for faculty and staff tends to stem from a deficit mindset: the focus is on remediating what student veterans lack rather than building on their unique strengths. Training programs, courses, and college interventions that acknowledge and build on…

  20. "The Military Taught Me How to Study, How to Work Hard": Helping Student-Veterans Transition by Building on Their Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw-Hara, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges are experiencing growing numbers of student veterans. Unfortunately, much training for faculty and staff tends to stem from a deficit mindset: the focus is on remediating what student veterans lack rather than building on their unique strengths. Training programs, courses, and college interventions that acknowledge and build on…

  1. On the strength of the $U_A(1)$ anomaly at the chiral phase transition in $N_f=2$ QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B; Meyer, Harvey B; Philipsen, Owe; Robaina, Daniel; Wittig, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermal transition of QCD with two degenerate light flavours by lattice simulations using $O(a)$-improved Wilson quarks. Temperature scans are performed at a fixed value of $N_t = (aT)^{-1}=16$, where $a$ is the lattice spacing and $T$ the temperature, at three fixed zero-temperature pion masses between 200 MeV and 540 MeV. In this range we find that the transition is consistent with a broad crossover. As a probe of the restoration of chiral symmetry, we study the static screening spectrum. We observe a degeneracy between the transverse isovector vector and axial-vector channels starting from the transition temperature. Particularly striking is the strong reduction of the splitting between isovector scalar and pseudoscalar screening masses around the chiral phase transition by at least a factor of three compared to its value at zero temperature. In fact, the splitting is consistent with zero within our uncertainties. This disfavours a chiral phase transition in the $O(4)$ universality class.

  2. E3: Economy - Energy - Environment; Supporting Manufacturing Leadership through Sustainability

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The E3 initiative is designed to help you thrive in a new business era focused on sustainability and, working together, to promote sustainable manufacturing and...

  3. About E3: Economy – Energy – Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page explains EPA's E3 – Economy, Energy, and Environment – program, a federal and local technical assistance initiative, helping manufacturers adapt and thrive with a focus on sustainability.

  4. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Neurobiological Mechanisms: Development to Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Upadhyay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells regularly synthesize new proteins to replace old or damaged proteins. Deposition of various aberrant proteins in specific brain regions leads to neurodegeneration and aging. The cellular protein quality control system develop various defense mechanisms against the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins. The mechanisms underlying the selective recognition of specific crucial protein or misfolded proteins are majorly governed by quality control E3 ubiquitin ligases mediated through ubiquitin-proteasome system. Few known E3 ubiquitin ligases have shown prominent neurodevelopmental functions, but their interactions with different developmental proteins play critical roles in neurodevelopmental disorders. Several questions are yet to be understood properly. How E3 ubiquitin ligases determine the specificity and regulate degradation of a particular substrate involved in neuronal proliferation and differentiation is certainly the one, which needs detailed investigations. Another important question is how neurodevelopmental E3 ubiquitin ligases specifically differentiate between their versatile range of substrates and timing of their functional modulations during different phases of development. The premise of this article is to understand how few E3 ubiquitin ligases sense major molecular events, which are crucial for human brain development from its early embryonic stages to throughout adolescence period. A better understanding of these few E3 ubiquitin ligases and their interactions with other potential proteins will provide invaluable insight into disease mechanisms to approach toward therapeutic interventions.

  5. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A

    2013-06-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13% to 20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately one third to one seventh following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection for reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection for survival-related traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. A Quantitative Study of Head Start Children's Strengths, Families' Perspectives, and Teachers' Ratings in the Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Chanele D.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between preschool children's social-interpersonal skills and their transition to school in the beginning months of kindergarten. One hundred and thirty-three preschool children participated in this study. During the spring of the pre-kindergarten year, children's social-interpersonal skills were…

  7. Gamow-Teller strengths of the inverse beta transition Yb-176 -> Lu-176 for spectroscopy of proton-proton and other sub-MeV solar neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujiwara, M; Akimune, H; van den Berg, AM; Cribier, M; Daito, [No Value; Ejiri, H; Fujimura, H; Fujita, Y; Goodman, CD; Hara, K; Harakeh, MN; Ihara, E; Ishikawa, T; Janecke, J; Kawabata, T; Raghavan, RS; Schwarz, K; Tanaka, M; Yamanaka, T; Yosoi, M; Zegers, RGT

    2000-01-01

    Discrete Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions Yb-176 --> Lu-176 at low excitation energies have been measured via the (He-3, t) reaction at 450 MeV and at 0 degrees. For Yb-176, two low-lying states are observed, setting low thresholds Q(nu) = 301 and 445 keV for neutrino (nu) capture. Capture rates estima

  8. Structure of a RING E3 ligase and ubiquitin-loaded E2 primed for catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis; Tatham, Michael H.; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ubiquitin modification is mediated by a large family of specificity determining ubiquitin E3 ligases. To facilitate ubiquitin transfer, RING E3 ligases bind both substrate and a ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme linked to ubiquitin via a thioester bond, but the mechanism of transfer has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the dimeric RING of RNF4 in complex with E2 (UbcH5a) linked by an isopeptide bond to ubiquitin. While the E2 contacts a single protomer of the RING, ubiquitin is folded back onto the E2 by contacts from both RING protomers. The C-terminal tail of ubiquitin is locked into an active site groove on the E2 by an intricate network of interactions, resulting in changes at the E2 active site. This arrangement is primed for catalysis as it can deprotonate the incoming substrate lysine residue and stabilise the consequent tetrahedral transition state intermediate. PMID:22842904

  9. Interrelation between the isoscalar octupole phonon and the proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole phonon in near-spherical nuclei 21.10.Re; 21.60.Ev; 21.60.Fw; Quadrupole-octupole multiphonon excitations; Negative-parity states; Mixed-symmetry states; Interacting boson model sdf-IBM-2; Transition strength

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, N A; Mizusaki, T; Van Isacker, P

    2000-01-01

    The interrelation between the octupole phonon and the low-lying proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole phonon in near-spherical nuclei is investigated. The one-phonon states decay by collective E3 and E2 transitions to the ground state and by relatively strong E1 and M1 transitions to the isoscalar 2 sup + sub 1 state. We apply the proton-neutron version of the interacting boson model including quadrupole and octupole bosons ( sdf -IBM-2). Two F -spin symmetric dynamical symmetry limits of the model, namely the vibrational and the gamma -unstable ones, are considered. We derive analytical formulae for excitation energies as well as B(E1) , B(M1) , B(E2) and B(E3) values for a number of transitions between low-lying states.

  10. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Becker, J; Belgya, T; Bernstein, L; Chankova, R; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Nelson, R O; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Sunde, A C

    2005-09-29

    We present data on the soft (E{sub {gamma}} < 3-4 MeV) radiative strength function (RSF) for electromagnetic transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) from two different types of experiments. The Oslo method provides data on the total level density and the sum (over all multipolarities) of all RSFs by sequential extraction from primary-{gamma} spectra. Measurements of two-step-decay spectra following neutron capture yields two-step-cascade (TSC) intensities which are roughly proportional to the product of two RSFs. Investigations on {sup 172}Yb and {sup 57}Fe have produced unexpected results. In the first case, a strong (B(M1 {up_arrow}) = 6.5 {mu}{sub N}{sup 2}) resonance at E = 3.3 MeV was identified. In the second case, a large (more than a factor of 10) enhancement compared to theoretical estimates of the very soft (E{sub {gamma}} {le} 3 MeV), summed RSF for transitions between warm states was observed. A somewhat weaker (factor {approx} 3) enhancement of the RSF in Mo isotopes observed within the Oslo method still awaits confirmation from TSC experiments.

  11. Radiative origin of solar scale and $U_{e3}$

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S

    2002-01-01

    We make a general study of possibility of generating the solar scale $\\Delta_{\\odot}$ and the CHOOZ angle $U_{e3}$ radiatively by assuming that they are zero at some high scale. The most general neutrino mass matrix leading to this result is determined in a CP conserving theory. This matrix contains four independent parameters which can be fixed in terms of physical observables. The standard weak radiative corrections then lead to non-zero $\\Delta_{\\odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ without drastically altering the other tree level results. As a consequence, both $\\Delta_{\\odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ are predicted in terms of other physically observable parameters. These predictions are insensitive to specific form of the neutrino mass matrix. The solar scale and $U_{e3}$ are strongly correlated with the effective neutrino mass $m_{ee}$ probed in neutrinoless double beta decay. In particular, the LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem arise for $m_{ee}$ close to the present experimental limit. An example of specific texture is...

  12. Summary of Model Predictions for $U_{e3}$

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S

    2004-01-01

    We present a short discussion on the expected magnitude of $|U_{e3}|$ in the context of various scenarios proposed to describe neutrino masses and mixing. Generic expectation is relatively large ($>0.05$) values for $\\ue3$ which occur in many well-motivated theoretical scenarios and models.

  13. Analysis of thermo-mechanical pipe-strength for the LHC helium relief system and corresponding helium flows following a resistive transition of the magnets.

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Riddone, G

    2005-01-01

    The LHC cryogenic system will contain of about 100 tons of helium mostly located in underground elements of the machine. The amount of helium stored in the magnet cold masses located in one sector of the LHC machine will be of about 6400 kg. In case of a simultaneous resistive transition (quench) of the magnets of a full sector of the accelerator, the helium will be relieved to a dedicated relief system. The system will comprise header D, quench lines connected to medium pressure tanks, vent line open to environment and accessories. We analyse a dynamic behaviour of the system with respect to its thermo-mechanical properties and overall capacity. Spatial and time distribution of pressure, temperature, velocity, density and flow rates in the system elements are presented. Thermo-mechanical stresses in the critical pipe sections have been calculated.

  14. Strength Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strengthens your heart and lungs. When you strength train with weights, you're using your muscles to ... see there are lots of different ways to train with weights. Try a few good basic routines ...

  15. Strength Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en español Entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular Strength training is a vital part of a balanced exercise routine that includes aerobic activity and flexibility exercises. Regular aerobic exercise, such as running or ...

  16. Approximation of Sums of Experimental Radiative Strength Functions of Dipole Gamma-Transitions in the Region $E_\\gamma \\approx B_n$ for the Atomic Masses $40 \\leq a \\leq 200$

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhovoj, A M; Khitrov, V A

    2008-01-01

    The sums k(E1)+k(M1) of radiative strength functions of dipole primary gamma-transitions were approximated with high precision in the energy region of $0.5 < E_1 < B_n-0.5$ MeV for nuclei: 40K, 60Co, 71,74Ge, 80Br, 114Cd, 118Sn, 124,125Te, 128I, 137,138,139Ba, 140La, 150Sm, 156,158Gd, 160Tb, 163,164,165Dy, 166Ho, 168Er, 170Tm, 174Yb, 176,177Lu, 181Hf, 182Ta, 183,184,185,187W, 188,190,191,193Os, 192Ir, 196Pt, 198Au, 200Hg by sum of two independent functions. It has been shown that this parameter of gamma-decay are determined by the structure of the decaying and excited levels, at least, up to the neutron binding energy.

  17. Excitation energies and oscillator strengths for the 12 22 26 32 36 3 2 e → 12 22 26 32 35 32 2 o, 2o, 2Fo transitions in V4+

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Kumar; S N Tiwary; R P K Ray

    2011-03-01

    We have calculated the excitation energies ( ) and optical oscillator strengths (OOS), of both length (L) and velocity () forms, for the 12 22 26 32 36 3 2 e → 12 22 26 32 35 32 2 o, 2o, 2Fo transitions in V4+ ion of the potassium isoelectronic sequence by employing multiconfiguration Hartree–Fock (MCHF) method exactly in the same way as we did in our earlier work (Tiwary et al, Pramana – J. Phys. 46, 381 (1996)). We have compared the available relevant experimental data and our earlier theoretical results obtained by employing the configuration interaction (CI) method (Tiwary et al, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 16, 2457 (1983)). Our present investigation clearly demonstrates that the MCHF method is more accurate than the CI method.

  18. CHANG'E-3 contingency scheme and trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Cao, Jian-feng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Song-jie; Tang, Ge-shi; Xie, Jian-feng

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses contingency trajectories of CHANG'E-3 in the case of a failure of the lunar brake, which is crucial to the CHANG'E-3 mission, i.e., the first Chinese lunar soft-landing and rover mission. Considering the flight-time and control-energy requirements placed on the contingency trajectories, the paper proposes a direct return method and a low-energy return method and develops the corresponding contingency trajectories based on the CHANG'E-3 cislunar transfer trajectory. The direct return method was studied on return style, flight time, control energy, and influence of maneuver time on energy. The low-energy return method was investigated using the method of invariant manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit, the method of direct libration-point orbit transfer and injection, and the control strategy used for a low-energy trajectory. The results demonstrate that the control energy for direct return trajectories can be reduced using a certain flight course. When a flight time of less than half of a month is desired, a trajectory from the north celestial pole should be selected as a lunar approach trajectory for CHANG'E-3. Otherwise, a trajectory from the south celestial pole should be selected. Furthermore, these two trajectories have approximately equal velocity increments if their flight-time difference is close to half of a month. In the case of the low-energy return method, methods using approximate manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit and the direct transfer and injection to a libration-point orbit are proposed and shown to be useful. CHANG'E-3 would return via the Sun-Earth L2 libration point and would require four maneuvers during its flight. The low-energy return method offers remarkable energy savings of up to 267 m/s compared to the direct return method. The methodology not only provides a contingency control technique for CHANG'E-3 and for future lunar missions, but it also serves as a beneficial supplement to the present studies

  19. Determination of quadrupole strengths in the gamma*p-->Delta(1232) transition at Q2= 0.20 (GeV/c)2

    CERN Document Server

    Sparveris, N F; Baumann, D; Bernauer, J; Bernstein, A M; Bosnar, D; Botto, T; Böhm, R; Christopoulou, A; Dale, D; Ding, M; Distler, M O; Doria, L; Friedrich, J; Gayoso, C A; Karabarbounis, A; Makek, M; Merkel, H; Müller, U; Nakagawa, I; Neuhausen, R; Nungesser, L; Papanicolas, C N; Piegsa, A; Pochodzalla, J; Potokar, M; Seimetz, M; Sirca, S; Stave, S; Stiliaris, S; Walcher, T; Weis, M; Walcher, Th.

    2006-01-01

    We report new precise p$(\\vec{e},e^\\prime p)\\pi^0$ measurements at the peak of the $\\Delta^{+}(1232)$ resonance at $Q^2=\\unit[0.20](GeV/c)^2$ performed at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI). The new data are sensitive to both the electric quadrupole ($E2$) and the coulomb quadrupole ($C2$) amplitudes of the $\\gamma^* N\\to\\Delta$ transition. They yield precise quadrupole to dipole amplitude ratios CMR $= (-5.09 \\pm 0.28_{stat+sys}\\pm 0.30_{model})%$ and EMR $= (-1.96 \\pm 0.68_{stat+sys} \\pm 0.41_{model})%$ for $M^{3/2}_{1+} = (39.57 \\pm 0.75_{stat+sys}\\pm 0.40_{model})(10^{-3}/m_{\\pi^+})$. The new results are in disagreement with Constituent Quark Model predictions and in qualitative agreement with models that account for mesonic contributions, including recent Lattice calculations. They thus give further credence to the conjecture of deformation in hadronic systems favoring the attribution of the origin of deformation to the dominance of mesonic effects.

  20. Gamow-Teller strength for the analog transitions to the first T=1/2, J^pi=3/2- states in 13C and 13N and the implications for Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Zegers, R G T; Akimune, H; Austin, Sam M; Berg, A M van den; Brown, B A; Chamulak, D A; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Gal`es, S; Harakeh, M N; Hashimoto, H; Hayami, R; Hitt, G W; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Kawase, K; Kinoshita, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, S; Okamura, S; Shimbara, Y; Uchida, M; Ueno, H; Yamagata, T; Yosoi, M

    2007-01-01

    The Gamow-Teller strength for the transition from the ground state of 13C to the T=1/2, J^pi=3/2- excited state at 3.51 MeV in 13N is extracted via the 13C(3He,t) reaction at 420 MeV. In contrast to results from earlier (p,n) studies on 13C, a good agreement with shell-model calculations and the empirical unit cross section systematics from other nuclei is found. The results are used to study the analog 13N(e-,neutrino)13C reaction, which plays a role in the pre-explosion convective phase of type Ia supernovae. Although the differences between the results from the (3He,t) and (p,n) data significantly affect the deduced electron-capture rate and the net heat-deposition in the star due to this transition, the overall effect on the pre-explosive evolution is small.

  1. 世代更迭 E3争锋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华尔兹

    2013-01-01

    《GT赛车6》来了!不同于《GT赛车5》经历的长时间等待,已经对PS3机能了如指掌的制作组将在今年冬天为大家带来全新的《GT赛车》!“《GT》系列”每一作都伴随着惊人的进化,相信已经看过E3的《GT赛车6》预告片的玩家已经激动不已了吧,

  2. Ubiquitin E3 ligase FIEL1 regulates fibrotic lung injury through SUMO-E3 ligase PIAS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Travis; McKelvey, Alison C; Rajbhandari, Shristi; Dunn, Sarah R; Coon, Tiffany A; Connelly, William; Zhao, Joe Y; Kass, Daniel J; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Bill B

    2016-05-30

    The E3 small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) is a pivotal protein in regulating the TGFβ pathway. In this study, we discovered a new protein isoform encoded by KIAA0317, termed fibrosis-inducing E3 ligase 1 (FIEL1), which potently stimulates the TGFβ signaling pathway through the site-specific ubiquitination of PIAS4. FIEL1 targets PIAS4 using a double locking mechanism that is facilitated by the kinases PKCζ and GSK3β. Specifically, PKCζ phosphorylation of PIAS4 and GSK3β phosphorylation of FIEL1 are both essential for the degradation of PIAS4. FIEL1 protein is highly expressed in lung tissues from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), whereas PIAS4 protein levels are significantly reduced. FIEL1 overexpression significantly increases fibrosis in a bleomycin murine model, whereas FIEL1 knockdown attenuates fibrotic conditions. Further, we developed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor toward FIEL1 that is highly effective in ameliorating fibrosis in mice. This study provides a basis for IPF therapeutic intervention by modulating PIAS4 protein abundance.

  3. Spectrin’s chimeric E2/E3 enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven R; Petrofes Chapa, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this minireview, we cover the discovery of the human erythrocyte α spectrin E2/E3 ubiquitin conjugating/ligating enzymatic activity and the specific cysteines involved. We then discuss the consequences when this activity is partially inhibited in sickle cell disease and the possibility that the same attenuation is occurring in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We finish by discussing the reasons for believing that nonerythroid α spectrin isoforms (I and II) also have this activity and the importance of testing this hypothesis. If correct, this would suggest that the nonerythroid spectrin isoforms play a major role in protein ubiquitination in all cell types. This would open new fields in experimental biology focused on uncovering the impact that this enzymatic activity has upon protein–protein interactions, protein turnover, cellular signaling, and many other functions impacted by spectrin, including DNA repair. PMID:26283706

  4. Akt is negatively regulated by the MULAN E3 ligase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seunghee Bae; Jongdoo Kim; Hong-Duck Um; In-Chul Park; Su-Jae Lee; Seon Young Nam; Young-Woo Jin; Jae Ho Lee; Sungkwan An; Sun-Yong Kim; Jin Hyuk Jung; Yeongmin Yoon; Hwa Jun Cha; Hyunjin Lee; Karam Kim; Jongran Kim; In-Sook An

    2012-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt functions in multiple cellular processes,including cell survival and tumor development.Studies of the mechanisms that negatively regulate Akt have focused on dephosphorylation-mediated inactivation.In this study,we identified a negative regulator of Akt,MULAN,which possesses both a RING finger domain and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.Akt was found to directly interact with MULAN and to be ubiquitinated by MULAN in vitro and in vivo.Other molecular assays demonstrated that phosphorylated Akt is a substantive target for both interaction with MULAN and ubiquitination by MULAN.The results of the functional studies suggest that the degradation of Akt by MULAN suppresses cell proliferation and viability.These data provide insight into the Akt ubiquitination signaling network.

  5. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; Singh, Manoj; Walmsley, Philip; Fisher, Ian R.; Boyer, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbT e3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298-355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW=0.30 ±0.01 c* . However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. We propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbT e3 . Finally, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.

  6. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  7. Nuclear targeting of an endosomal E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocock, Jeffrey P; Carmicle, Stephanie; Madamba, Egbert; Erickson, Ann H

    2010-06-01

    Ring finger protein 13 (RNF13) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase embedded in endosome membranes. The protein undergoes constitutive post-translational proteolysis, making its detection difficult unless cells are incubated with a proteasome inhibitor to allow biosynthetic forms to accumulate. When cells were treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), RNF13 avoided proteolysis. A similar stabilization was seen on ionomycin treatment of cells. Drug treatment stabilized both the full-length protein and a membrane-embedded C-terminal fragment generated following ectodomain shedding. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that PMA treatment caused the protein to accumulate in recycling endosomes, where it colocalized with transferrin receptor, and on the inner nuclear membrane, where it colocalized with lamin B. Expression of dominant-negative Rab11 inhibited nuclear localization, suggesting RNF13 was targeted to the inner nuclear membrane through recycling endosomes. New protein synthesis was necessary for this targeting. Nuclear localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy and by purification of the inner nuclear membrane. Stress-induced transport of an endosomal protein to the inner nuclear membrane is a novel mechanism for introduction of regulatory proteins to the DNA environment. RNF13, with its ubiquitin ligase-active RING domain, has the potential to turn over key nuclear proteins in response to signals received at the plasma membrane.

  8. $\\pi_{e3}$ form factor $f_{-}$ near mass shell

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoruchenko, M I

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Ward-Takahashi identity (gWTI) in the pion sector for broken isotopic symmetry is derived and used for the model-independent calculation of the longitudinal form factor $f_{-}$ of the $\\pi_{e3}$ vector vertex. The on-shell $f_{-}$ is found to be proportional to the mass difference of pions and the difference between vector isospin $ T = 1 $ and scalar isospin $ T = 2 $ pion radii. A numerical estimate of the form factor gives a value two times higher than the earlier estimate in the quark model. Off-shell form factors are known to be ambiguous because of the gauge dependence and the freedom in parameterization of the fields. The near-mass-shell $f_{-}$ appears to be an exception, allowing the experimental verification of the gWTI consequences. We calculate the near-mass-shell $f_{-}$ using the gWTI and dispersion techniques. The results are discussed in the context of the conservation of vector current (CVC) condition.

  9. Aβ-Induced Synaptic Alterations Require the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Elizabeth M; Scudder, Samantha L; Goo, Marisa S; Patrick, Gentry N

    2016-02-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which patients experience progressive cognitive decline. A wealth of evidence suggests that this cognitive impairment results from synaptic dysfunction in affected brain regions caused by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein into the pathogenic peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Specifically, it has been shown that Aβ decreases surface AMPARs, dendritic spine density, and synaptic strength, and also alters synaptic plasticity. The precise molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for ubiquitination in Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction in cultured rat neurons. We find that Aβ promotes the ubiquitination of AMPARs, as well as the redistribution and recruitment of Nedd4-1, a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase we previously demonstrated to target AMPARs for ubiquitination and degradation. Strikingly, we show that Nedd4-1 is required for Aβ-induced reductions in surface AMPARs, synaptic strength, and dendritic spine density. Our findings, therefore, indicate an important role for Nedd4-1 and ubiquitin in the synaptic alterations induced by Aβ. Synaptic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include surface AMPAR loss, which can weaken synapses. In a cell culture model of AD, we found that AMPAR loss correlates with increased AMPAR ubiquitination. In addition, the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1, known to ubiquitinate AMPARs, is recruited to synapses in response to Aβ. Strikingly, reducing Nedd4-1 levels in this model prevented surface AMPAR loss and synaptic weakening. These findings suggest that, in AD, Nedd4-1 may ubiquitinate AMPARs to promote their internalization and weaken synaptic strength, similar to what occurs in Nedd4-1's established role in homeostatic synaptic scaling. This is the first demonstration of Aβ-mediated control of a ubiquitin ligase to regulate surface AMPAR expression. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361590-06$15.00/0.

  10. Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joint made by single-shot explosive welding technique using Cu intermediate plate. Cu chukanzai wo mochiita doji bakusetsuho ni yoru Al/Cu izai tsugite no setsugo kyodo no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izuma, T.; Niwatsukino, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joints was tried by single-shot explosive welding technique using a Cu intermediate plate (Cu-IP). As the preliminary experiment, a relatively thin Al alloy plate (4 mm in thickness) and Cu plate (2.5 mm) were bonded by explosive welding to study the effect of bonding conditions on interfacial zone (IZ) structure and bonding strength. As a result, the thickness of IZs increased with an explosive mass involving reduction of bonding strengths, and the use of Cu-IP was effective in reducing the energy applied to IZ because the energy contributed to formation of IZ. As the fabrication experiment of practical Al/Cu transition joints, a pure Al plate and pure Cu plate of 20 mm in thickness and Cu-IPs of 1.0 and 1.5 mm were bonded by explosive welding. As a result, the IZ thickness was 20-70 [mu]m and 5 [mu]m without/with Cu-IP, respectively, and the joint showed the same tensile strength as the base Al plate, suggesting possible production of practical Al/Cu electrical transition joints. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Atomic data from the Iron Project. LIII. Relativistic allowed and forbidden transition probabilities for Fe XVII

    CERN Document Server

    Nahar, S N; Chen, G X; Pradhan, A K; Nahar, Sultana N.; Eissner, Werner; Chen, Guo-Xin; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive set of fine structure levels and corresponding transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XVII is presented. A total of 490 bound energy levels of Fe XVII of total angular momenta 0 <= J <= 7 of even and odd parities with 2 <= n <= 10, 0 <= l <= 8, 0 <= L <= 8, and singlet and triplet multiplicities, are obtained. They translate to over 2.6 x 10^4 allowed (E1) transitions that are of dipole and intercombination type, and about 3000 forbidden transitions that include electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), electric octopole (E3), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) type representing the most detailed calculations to date for the ion. Oscillator strengths f, line strengths S, and coefficients A of spontaneous emission for the E1 type transitions are obtained in the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix approximation. A valus for the forbidden transitions are obtained from atomic structure calculations using codes SUPERSTRUCTURE and GRASP. The energy le...

  12. Global Kinetic Analysis of Mammalian E3 Reveals pH-dependent NAD+/NADH Regulation, Physiological Kinetic Reversibility, and Catalytic Optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Michael A; Beard, Daniel A; Bazil, Jason N

    2016-02-05

    Mammalian E3 is an essential mitochondrial enzyme responsible for catalyzing the terminal reaction in the oxidative catabolism of several metabolites. E3 is a key regulator of metabolic fuel selection as a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc). E3 regulates PDHc activity by altering the affinity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, an inhibitor of the enzyme complex, through changes in reduction and acetylation state of lipoamide moieties set by the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Thus, an accurate kinetic model of E3 is needed to predict overall mammalian PDHc activity. Here, we have combined numerous literature data sets and new equilibrium spectroscopic experiments with a multitude of independently collected forward and reverse steady-state kinetic assays using pig heart E3. The latter kinetic assays demonstrate a pH-dependent transition of NAD(+) activation to inhibition, shown here, to our knowledge, for the first time in a single consistent data set. Experimental data were analyzed to yield a thermodynamically constrained four-redox-state model of E3 that simulates pH-dependent activation/inhibition and active site redox states for various conditions. The developed model was used to determine substrate/product conditions that give maximal E3 rates and show that, due to non-Michaelis-Menten behavior, the maximal flux is different compared with the classically defined kcat.

  13. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Rodrigues, E. I. B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  14. Biophysical analysis of apolipoprotein E3 variants linked with development of type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Georgiadou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE is a major protein of the lipoprotein transport system that plays important roles in lipid homeostasis and protection from atherosclerosis. ApoE is characterized by structural plasticity and thermodynamic instability and can undergo significant structural rearrangements as part of its biological function. Mutations in the 136-150 region of the N-terminal domain of apoE, reduce its low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor binding capacity and have been linked with lipoprotein disorders, such as type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP in humans. However, the LDL-receptor binding defects for these apoE variants do not correlate well with the severity of dyslipidemia, indicating that these variants may carry additional properties that contribute to their pathogenic potential. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we examined whether three type III HLP predisposing apoE3 variants, namely R136S, R145C and K146E affect the biophysical properties of the protein. Circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy revealed that these mutations do not significantly alter the secondary structure of the protein. Thermal and chemical unfolding analysis revealed small thermodynamic alterations in each variant compared to wild-type apoE3, as well as effects in the reversibility of the unfolding transition. All variants were able to remodel multillamelar 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC vesicles, but R136S and R145C had reduced kinetics. Dynamic light scattering analysis indicated that the variant R136S exists in a higher-order oligomerization state in solution. Finally, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS binding suggested that the variant R145C exposes a larger amount of hydrophobic surface to the solvent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our findings suggest that single amino acid changes in the functionally important region 136-150 of apoE3 can affect the molecule's stability and conformation in solution and may

  15. E3 Success Story - Transforming and Promoting Sustainable Manufacturing in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama E3 is expanding to other manufacturing sectors and expanding its scope. Alabama E3 now includes a workforce training and education component and is also developing a new innovation engineering green module that focuses on improving sustainability

  16. Apolipoprotein E3/E3 genotype decreases the risk of pituitary dysfunction after traumatic brain injury due to various causes: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; Taheri, Serpil; Ulutabanca, Halil; Caglayan, Ahmet Okay; Ozkul, Yusuf; Dundar, Munis; Selcuklu, Ahmet; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2008-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating public health problem which may result in hypopituitarism. However, the mechanisms and the risk factors responsible for hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction due to TBI are still unclear. Although APO E is one of the most abundant protein in hypothalamo-pituitary region, there is no study investigating the relation between APO E polymorphism and TBI-induced hypopituitarism. This study was undertaken to determine whether APO E genotypes modulate the pituitary dysfunction risk after TBI due to various causes, including traffic accident, boxing, and kickboxing. Ninety-three patients with TBI (mean age, 30.61 +/- 1.25 years) and 27 healthy controls (mean age, 29.03 +/- 1.70 years) were included in the study. Pituitary functions were evaluated, and APO E genotypes (E2/E2; E3/E3; E4/E4; E2/E3; E2/E4; E3/E4) were screened. Twenty-four of 93 subjects (25.8%) had pituitary dysfunction after TBI. The ratio of pituitary dysfunction was significantly lower in subjects with APO E3/E3 (17.7%) than the subjects without APO E3/E3 genotype (41.9%; p = 0.01), and the corresponding odds ratio was 0.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.78). In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence for the first time that APO E polymorphism is associated with the development of TBI-induced pituitary dysfunction. Present data demonstrated that APO E3/E3 genotype decreases the risk of hypopituitarism after TBI. The demonstration of the association between the APO E polymorphism and TBI may provide a new point of view in this field and promote further studies.

  17. Genome-wide and functional annotation of human E3 ubiquitin ligases identifies MULAN, a mitochondrial E3 that regulates the organelle's dynamics and signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Specificity of protein ubiquitylation is conferred by E3 ubiquitin (Ub ligases. We have annotated approximately 617 putative E3s and substrate-recognition subunits of E3 complexes encoded in the human genome. The limited knowledge of the function of members of the large E3 superfamily prompted us to generate genome-wide E3 cDNA and RNAi expression libraries designed for functional screening. An imaging-based screen using these libraries to identify E3s that regulate mitochondrial dynamics uncovered MULAN/FLJ12875, a RING finger protein whose ectopic expression and knockdown both interfered with mitochondrial trafficking and morphology. We found that MULAN is a mitochondrial protein - two transmembrane domains mediate its localization to the organelle's outer membrane. MULAN is oriented such that its E3-active, C-terminal RING finger is exposed to the cytosol, where it has access to other components of the Ub system. Both an intact RING finger and the correct subcellular localization were required for regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting that MULAN's downstream effectors are proteins that are either integral to, or associated with, mitochondria and that become modified with Ub. Interestingly, MULAN had previously been identified as an activator of NF-kappaB, thus providing a link between mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling. These findings suggest the existence of a new, Ub-mediated mechanism responsible for integration of mitochondria into the cellular environment.

  18. Antibody to the E3 Glycoprotein Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael D.; Buckley, Marilyn J.; Melanson, Vanessa R.; Glass, Pamela J.; Norwood, David; Hart, Mary Kate

    2010-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies were isolated that exhibited specificity for a furin cleavage site deletion mutant (V3526) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). These antibodies comprise a single competition group and bound the E3 glycoprotein of VEEV subtype I viruses but failed to bind the E3 glycoprotein of other alphaviruses. These antibodies neutralized V3526 virus infectivity but did not neutralize the parental strain of Trinidad donkey (TrD) VEEV. However, the E3-specific antibodies did inhibit the production of virus from VEEV TrD-infected cells. In addition, passive immunization of mice demonstrated that antibody to the E3 glycoprotein provided protection against lethal VEEV TrD challenge. This is the first recognition of a protective epitope in the E3 glycoprotein. Furthermore, these results indicate that E3 plays a critical role late in the morphogenesis of progeny virus after E3 appears on the surfaces of infected cells. PMID:20926570

  19. Response of plasmaspheric configuration to substorms revealed by Chang’e 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Han; Shen, Chao; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Chen, Bo; Yan, Jun; Zou, Yongliao; Jorgensen, Anders M.; He, Fei; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Huang, Ya; Xu, Ronglan

    2016-08-01

    The Moon-based Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) of the Chang’e 3 mission provides a global and instantaneous meridian view (side view) of the Earth’s plasmasphere. The plasmasphere is one inner component of the whole magnetosphere, and the configuration of the plasmasphere is sensitive to magnetospheric activity (storms and substorms). However, the response of the plasmaspheric configuration to substorms is only partially understood, and the EUVC observations provide a good opportunity to investigate this issue. By reconstructing the global plasmaspheric configuration based on the EUVC images observed during 20–22 April 2014, we show that in the observing period, the plasmasphere had three bulges which were located at different geomagnetic longitudes. The inferred midnight transit times of the three bulges, using the rotation rate of the Earth, coincide with the expansion phase of three substorms, which implies a causal relationship between the substorms and the formation of the three bulges on the plasmasphere. Instead of leading to plasmaspheric erosion as geomagnetic storms do, substorms initiated on the nightside of the Earth cause local inflation of the plasmasphere in the midnight region.

  20. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object

  1. (e, 3e) reactions at moderate energies visualization of average field effects in atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzakov, K A; Gusev, A A; Popov, Y V; Vinitsky, S I

    2002-01-01

    In the case of helium atom the theory is presented for quasi-elastic A (e, 3e) A sup + sup + and A (e, 3 -1e) A sup + sup + atomic reactions in the coplanar symmetric geometry at incident electron energy of several hundreds eV. The comparison with the recent (e, 3 - 1 e) experiment has allowed one to observe the effect of the mean atomic field as well as postcollisional effects.

  2. 不同强度砂浆界面过渡区对再生骨料混凝土性能的影响%Influence of Mortar Transition Zone with Different Strength Class on Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔正龙; 路沙沙; 汪振双

    2011-01-01

    为了探明不同强度砂浆界面过渡区对再生骨料混凝土性能的影响,试验以再生骨料表面不同的砂浆强度以及附着率作为变量,配置了不同强度等级的再生骨料混凝土,与普通混凝土进行了对比性强度试验以及碳化试验.试验结果表明,高强度原生混凝土经破碎后作为再生骨料配制低强度等级的再生混凝土,即再生混凝土内部旧砂浆界面过渡区强度比再生混凝土内部新砂浆界面过渡区强度高时,再生骨料混凝土的强度与普通混凝土强度几乎相同,再生骨料表面砂浆的强度以及附着率对再生混凝土的强度影响不大,但碳化深度有所增大.当使用低强度原生混凝土经破碎后作为再生骨料配制高强度等级再生混凝土,也就是再生混凝土内部再生骨料与旧砂浆界面过渡区强度比新砂浆界面过渡区强度低时,再生骨料混凝土的强度与普通混凝土相差较大,再生骨料表面砂浆的强度以及附着率对再生混凝土强度影响较大.%In this research, the experiment aimed to investigate the influence of surface mortar strength and adhesive rate around coarse aggregate on recycled aggregate concrete. Different strength class concretes were produced with surface mortar strength and adhesive rate changing. The strength and carbonization tests were carried to evaluate the recycled aggregate concrete properties. The experiment showed that for lower strength class recycled aggregate concrete with higher strength parent concrete, the strength of recycled aggregate concrete and ordinary concrete were nearly the same. The effect of surface mortar strength and adhesive rate around coarse aggregate on recycled aggregate concrete was lower, while the carbonization depth of recycled aggregate concrete was higher than ordinary concrete. However, for higher strength and the same strength class recycled aggregate concrete with lower strength parent concrete, there were big

  3. Families in Transition .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  4. Intricate Crystal Structure of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase (E3) with its Binding Protein: Multiple Copies, Dynamic and Static Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makal, A.; Hong, Y. S.; Potter, R.; Vettaikkorumakankauv, A. K.; Korotchkina, L. G.; Patel, M. S.; Ciszak, E.

    2004-01-01

    Human E3 and binding protein E3BP are two components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Crystallization of E3 with 221-amino acid fragment of E3BP (E3BPdd) led to crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 2.6 Angstroms. Structure determination involved molecular replacement using a dimer of E3 homolog as a search model and de novo building of the E3BPdd peptide. Solution was achieved by inclusion of one E3 dimer at a time, followed by refinement until five E3 dimers were located. This complete content of E3 provided electron density maps suitable for tracing nine peptide chains of E3BPdd, eight of them being identified with partial occupancies. Final content of the asymmetric unit consists of five E3 dimers, each binding one E3BPdd molecule. In four of these molecular complexes, E3BPdd is in static disorder resulting in E3BPdd binding to either one or the other monomer of the E3 dimer. However, E3BPdd of the fifth E3 dimer forms specific contacts that lock it at one monomer. In addition to this static disorder, E3BPdd reveals high mobility in the limited space of the crystal lattice. Support from NIH and NASA.

  5. E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 drives the growth and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liqiu; Song, Mei; Li, Xin; Tang, Lili; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Lixing; Pan, Yihang; Chouchane, Lotfi; Ma, Xiaojing

    2017-03-22

    Patients with triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are at high risk for recurrence and metastasis at an early time despite standard treatment, underscoring the need for novel therapeutic modalities. Here we report for the first time a distinctive and profound role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 in the growth and metastasis of TNBC. An analysis of primary TNBC specimen by whole exon sequencing revealed strong gene amplifications of UBR5 associated with the disease. UBR5 overexpression in TNBC tissues was confirmed at mRNA and protein levels. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of ubr5 in an experimental murine mammary carcinoma model of TNBC dramatically abrogated tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, which could be reversed completely via reconstitution with wild type UBR5 but not a catalytically inactive mutant. Loss of UBR5 caused an impairment in angiogenesis within the tumor, associated with increased apoptosis, necrosis, and growth arrest. Absence of UBR5 in the tumor triggered aberrant epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), principally via abrogated expression of E-cadherin, which resulted in severely reduced tumor metastasis to secondary organs. Use of NOD/SCID mice revealed that tumor-derived UBR5 facilitated tumor growth in a manner completely dependent upon immune cells in the microenvironment, whereas it promoted metastasis in a tumor cell-autonomous fashion. Our findings unveil UBR5 as a novel and critical regulator of tumor growth, metastasis, and immune response, and highlight the potential for UBR5 as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of highly aggressive breast and ovarian cancers that fail conventional therapy.

  6. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL,

    Science.gov (United States)

    coldhardened by deforming to 83%. It was found that it has low static notch sensitivity (lower than that of heat-treated steels), that static strength ...is raised appreciably by increased cold plastic deformation, and that its fatigue strength is raised substantially by mechanical polishing. (Author)

  7. Procedure Redesign Methods : E3-Control: a redesign methodology for control procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Hofman, W.J.; Tan, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the core research methodology, e3-control, that is applied throughout the ITAIDE project for the purpose of control procedure redesign. We present the key concept of the e3-control methodology and its technical guidelines. Based on the output of this chapter, domain experts

  8. Characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in apo E3-leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppänen, P.; Luoma, J.S.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.

    1998-01-01

    Apo E3-leiden transgenic mice express human dysfunctional apo E variant and develop hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis on a high fat/high cholesterol diet. We characterized diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in apo E3-leiden transgenic mice using immunocytochemical methods in order to examine foam

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1Q95E-3GD5E [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1Q95E-3GD5E 1Q95 3GD5 E E ANPLYQKHIISINDLSRDDLNLVLATAAKLKANPQPELL...KHKVIASCFFEASTRTRLSFETSMHRLGASVVGFSDSANTSLGKKGETLADTISVISTYVDAIVMRHPQEGAARLATEFSGNVPVLNAGDGSNQHPTQTLLDLFTIQETQGRLDNLHVAMVGD...TELEEYAHYAG-IPVINALTD-HEHPCQVVADLLTIRENFGRLAGLKLAYVGDG--NNVAHSLLLGCAKVG-MSIAVATPEGFTPDPAVSARASEIAGRTGAEVQIL-...line> ILE CA 374 ALA CA 275 THR CA 238 3GD...5 E 3GD5E

  10. Characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in apo E3-leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppänen, P.; Luoma, J.S.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.

    1998-01-01

    Apo E3-leiden transgenic mice express human dysfunctional apo E variant and develop hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis on a high fat/high cholesterol diet. We characterized diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in apo E3-leiden transgenic mice using immunocytochemical methods in order to examine foam

  11. Procedure Redesign Methods : E3-Control: a redesign methodology for control procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Hofman, W.J.; Tan, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the core research methodology, e3-control, that is applied throughout the ITAIDE project for the purpose of control procedure redesign. We present the key concept of the e3-control methodology and its technical guidelines. Based on the output of this chapter, domain experts m

  12. Map-Based Cloning of the Gene Associated With the Soybean Maturity Locus E3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Hideshima, Rumiko; Xia, Zhengjun; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Sato, Shusei; Nakamoto, Yumi; Yamanaka, Naoki; Takahashi, Ryoji; Ishimoto, Masao; Anai, Toyoaki; Tabata, Satoshi; Harada, Kyuya

    2009-01-01

    Photosensitivity plays an essential role in the response of plants to their changing environments throughout their life cycle. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], several associations between photosensitivity and maturity loci are known, but only limited information at the molecular level is available. The FT3 locus is one of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flowering time that corresponds to the maturity locus E3. To identify the gene responsible for this QTL, a map-based cloning strategy was undertaken. One phytochrome A gene (GmPhyA3) was considered a strong candidate for the FT3 locus. Allelism tests and gene sequence comparisons showed that alleles of Misuzudaizu (FT3/FT3; JP28856) and Harosoy (E3/E3; PI548573) were identical. The GmPhyA3 alleles of Moshidou Gong 503 (ft3/ft3; JP27603) and L62-667 (e3/e3; PI547716) showed weak or complete loss of function, respectively. High red/far-red (R/FR) long-day conditions enhanced the effects of the E3/FT3 alleles in various genetic backgrounds. Moreover, a mutant line harboring the nonfunctional GmPhyA3 flowered earlier than the original Bay (E3/E3; PI553043) under similar conditions. These results suggest that the variation in phytochrome A may contribute to the complex systems of soybean flowering response and geographic adaptation. PMID:19474204

  13. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  14. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  15. A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Kim, Minjin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are important cellular components that determine the specificity of proteolysis in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, an increasing number of studies have indicated that E3 ubiquitin ligases also participate in transcription. Intrigued by the apparently paradoxical functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in both proteolysis and transcriptional activation, we investigated the underlying design principles using mathematical modeling. We found that the antagonistic functions integrated in E3 ubiquitin ligases can prevent any undesirable sustained activation of downstream genes when E3 ubiquitin ligases are destabilized by unexpected perturbations. Interestingly, this design principle of the system is similar to the operational principle of a safety interlock device in engineering systems, which prevents a system from abnormal operation unless stability is guaranteed.

  16. Overview of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) E3 ligase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Johannes; Bakke, Oddmund; Morth, J Preben

    2016-12-14

    E3 ligases are critical checkpoints for protein ubiquitination, a signal that often results in protein sorting and degradation but has also been linked to regulation of transcription and DNA repair. In line with their key role in cellular trafficking and cell-cycle control, malfunction of E3 ligases is often linked to human disease. Thus, they have emerged as prime drug targets. However, the molecular basis of action of membrane-bound E3 ligases is still unknown. Here, we review the current knowledge on the membrane-embedded MARCH E3 ligases (MARCH-1-6,7,8,11) with a focus on how the transmembrane regions can contribute via GxxxG-motifs to the selection and recognition of other membrane proteins as substrates for ubiquitination. Further understanding of the molecular parameters that govern target protein recognition of MARCH E3 ligases will contribute to development of strategies for therapeutic regulation of MARCH-induced ubiquitination.

  17. E3 ubiquitin ligases as drug targets and prognostic biomarkers in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bielskienė

    2015-01-01

    E3 ligases are of interest as drug targets for their ability to regulate proteins stability and functions. Compared to the general proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which blocks the entire protein degradation, drugs that target a particular E3 ligase are expected to have better selectivity with less associated toxicity. Components of different E3 ligases complexes (FBW7, MDM2, RBX1/ROC1, RBX2/ROC2, cullins and many others are known as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in melanomagenesis. These proteins participate in regulation of different cellular pathways and such important proteins in cancer development as p53 and Notch. In this review we summarized published data on the role of known E3 ligases in the development of melanoma and discuss the inhibitors of E3 ligases as a novel approach for the treatment of malignant melanomas.

  18. Strength and Balance Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  19. Structure of the HHARI catalytic domain shows glimpses of a HECT E3 ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E Spratt

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-signaling pathway utilizes E1 activating, E2 conjugating, and E3 ligase enzymes to sequentially transfer the small modifier protein ubiquitin to a substrate protein. During the last step of this cascade different types of E3 ligases either act as scaffolds to recruit an E2 enzyme and substrate (RING, or form an ubiquitin-thioester intermediate prior to transferring ubiquitin to a substrate (HECT. The RING-inBetweenRING-RING (RBR proteins constitute a unique group of E3 ubiquitin ligases that includes the Human Homologue of Drosophila Ariadne (HHARI. These E3 ligases are proposed to use a hybrid RING/HECT mechanism whereby the enzyme uses facets of both the RING and HECT enzymes to transfer ubiquitin to a substrate. We now present the solution structure of the HHARI RING2 domain, the key portion of this E3 ligase required for the RING/HECT hybrid mechanism. The structure shows the domain possesses two Zn²⁺-binding sites and a single exposed cysteine used for ubiquitin catalysis. A structural comparison of the RING2 domain with the HECT E3 ligase NEDD4 reveals a near mirror image of the cysteine and histidine residues in the catalytic site. Further, a tandem pair of aromatic residues exists near the C-terminus of the HHARI RING2 domain that is conserved in other RBR E3 ligases. One of these aromatic residues is remotely located from the catalytic site that is reminiscent of the location found in HECT E3 enzymes where it is used for ubiquitin catalysis. These observations provide an initial structural rationale for the RING/HECT hybrid mechanism for ubiquitination used by the RBR E3 ligases.

  20. Strength Training for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  1. Strength Training for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  2. COMPETITION BUILDS STRENGTH IN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Transitioning from a“planned”economy to a“market”economy may be a long and arduous task for China,but opening its financial markets to foreign competition will help build stability and strength for the Chinese economy, says U.S.Ambassador Alan Holmer.Hol

  3. Transition Energies and Absorption Oscillator Strengths for {{c}_{4}}^{\\prime 1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{u}}^{+}-{{\\rm{X}}}^{1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{g}}^{+}, {b}^{\\prime 1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{u}}^{+}-{{\\rm{X}}}^{1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{g}}^{+}, and {{c}_{5}}^{\\prime 1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{u}}^{+}-{{\\rm{X}}}^{1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{g}}^{+} Band Systems in N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, C.; Velasco, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical transition energies and absorption oscillator strengths for the {{c}4}\\prime 1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ (v‧ = 0–2, 5, 7, 8) ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+(v\\prime\\prime =0{--}14) and {{c}5}\\prime 1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ (v‧ = 0, 2) ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+ (v″ = 0–14) Rydberg bands, and {b}\\prime 1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ (v‧ = 0–9, 11, 12, 14–19, 21, 22) ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+ (v″ = 0–14) valence bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The strong interaction between {}1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ states has been dealt with through a vibronic interaction matrix. As a consequence of the Rydberg-valence interaction, irregularities in the vibrational structure of the above band systems are observed. Good agreement is found with the scarce high-resolution data that are available for oscillator strengths. The new band oscillator strengths reported here may be useful for a reliable interpretation of the spectra from atmospheres of the Earth, Titan, and Triton, where {{{N}}}2 is the mayor constituent.

  4. E3 Success Story - Whirlpool Trains Staff on Lean and Green Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whirlpool Corporation invited Green Suppliers Network representatives to its Monterrey facility to provide training on the Lean and Green Advantage. The project sought to expand E3 initiatives to every part of the company's operations.

  5. E3 Success Story - Advancing Performance in Sustainability and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3: North Carolina advances performance in sustainability and workforce development strategies for the state's manufacturers. The initiative helps communities and manufacturers address energy and sustainability challenges by leveraging expertise.

  6. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2...... ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. For misfolded proteins, substrate recognition is generally delegated to molecular chaperones that subsequently interact with specific E3 ligases. An important exception is San1, a yeast E3 ligase. San1 harbors extensive regions...... of intrinsic disorder, which provide both conformational flexibility and sites for direct recognition of misfolded targets of vastly different conformations. So far, no mammalian ortholog of San1 is known, nor is it clear whether other E3 ligases utilize disordered regions for substrate recognition. Here, we...

  7. Structure and function of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase reveals aspects of RING and HECT ligases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riley, B E; Lougheed, J C; Callaway, K; Velasquez, M; Brecht, E; Nguyen, L; Shaler, T; Walker, D; Yang, Y; Regnstrom, K; Diep, L; Zhang, Z; Chiou, S; Bova, M; Artis, D R; Yao, N; Baker, J; Yednock, T; Johnston, J A

    2013-01-01

    Parkin is a RING-between-RING E3 ligase that functions in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to specific substrates, and mutations in Parkin are linked to Parkinson's disease, cancer and mycobacterial infection...

  8. Protein microarrays for the identification of praja1 e3 ubiquitin ligase substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Christian M; Eddins, Michael J; Strickler, James E

    2011-06-01

    Although they are the primary determinants of substrate specificity, few E3-substrate pairs have been positively identified, and few E3's profiled in a proteomic fashion. Praja1 is an E3 implicated in bone development and highly expressed in brain. Although it has been well studied relative to the majority of E3's, little is known concerning the repertoire of proteins it ubiquitylates. We sought to identify high confidence substrates for Praja1 from an unbiased proteomic profile of thousands of human proteins using protein microarrays. We first profiled Praja1 activity against a panel of E2's to identify its optimal partner in vitro. We then ubiquitylated multiple, identical protein arrays and detected putative substrates with reagents that vary in ubiquitin recognition according to the extent of chain formation. Gene ontology clustering identified putative substrates consistent with information previously known about Praja1 function, and provides clues into novel aspects of this enzyme's function.

  9. Strength Modeling Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.

    1985-01-01

    Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

  10. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... foundation in research in VIA-strengths by Seligman & Peterson (2004) and in research on strengths by Linley (2008). Based on this research the VIA-test was created for adults and later for children and youths from the age of 10. For children younger than 10 years of age Peterson & Park (2011) have made...... interviews with the parents. For younger children there has been no possibility to test for strengths. In a Danish PhD project a tool to map children’s strengths was needed for children aged 6-16 and with permission from the VIA-institute ‘The Strength Compass’ was made in cooperation with The Danish...

  11. Ghosts of Milky Way's past: the globular cluster ESO 37-1 (E 3)

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente; Bidin, C Moni; Ortolani, S; Carraro, G

    2015-01-01

    Context. In the Milky Way, most globular clusters are highly conspicuous objects that were found centuries ago. However, a few dozen of them are faint, sparsely populated systems identified largely during the second half of the past century. One of the faintest is ESO 37-1 (E 3) and as such it remains poorly studied, with no spectroscopic observations published so far, although it was discovered in 1976. Aims. We investigate the globular cluster E 3 in an attempt to better constrain its fundamental parameters. Spectroscopy of stars in the field of E 3 is shown here for the first time. Methods. Deep, precise VI CCD photometry of E 3 down to V=26 mag is presented and analyzed. Low resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra of 9 candidate members are studied to derive radial velocity and metallicity. Proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue are used to explore the kinematics of the bright members of E 3. Results. Isochrone fitting indicates that E 3 is probably very old, with an age of about 13 Gyr; its dis...

  12. 低速磁浮交通轨道结构强度计算与分析%Strength Calculation and Analysis on Track Structure for Low-speed Maglev Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓嘉; 赵春发; 庞玲; 蔡文锋

    2012-01-01

    结合株洲机车厂低速磁浮试验线工程,建立了包含F形导轨、H形轨枕、混凝土轨道梁及其联接件的磁浮线路上部结构有限元模型,计算了列车悬浮静荷载、悬浮动荷载以及列车滑撬和滑轮支承荷载作用下轨道结构的应力与变形,并依据相关标准和规范对轨道结构设计进行校核.结果表明:低速磁浮轨道的导轨、轨枕、M16和M30螺栓均满足其强度设计要求;为了提高F形导轨与轨枕的联接强度,降低F形导轨两磁极反应面的垂向位移差,可适当加大导轨与轨枕连接螺栓的直径.%In combination with the low-speed maglev test-line project on the CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co. , LTD. , a finite element model of track superstructures including the F-shaped lead rail, the H-shaped sleeper, the concrete girder and all the fastenings is developed. Then stress responses and deformations of the track structure are calculated under the train static levitation loads, dynamic levitation loads, skid loads and supporting pulley loads. Furthermore, the track structure strength is checked according to relevant design guidelines and standards. Analysis results show that the rail, the sleeper, the M16 and M30 bolts meet the strength design requirements. In order to enhance the joint strength between the lead rail and the sleeper, and decreasing the vertical displacement difference between both magnetic pole response surfaces of F-shaped rail, the nominal diameter of bolt linking the rail and sleeper should be increased properly.

  13. ns2np4 (n = 4, 5) lone pair triplets whirling in M*F2E3 (M* = Kr, Xe): Stereochemistry and ab initio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Jean; Matar, Samir F.

    2017-02-01

    The stereochemistry of ns2np4 (n = 4, 5) lone pair LP characterizing noble gas Kr and Xe (labeled M*) in M*F2 difluorides is examined within coherent crystal chemistry and ab initio visualizations. M*2+ in such oxidation state brings three lone pairs (E) and difluorides are formulated M*F2E3. The analyses use electron localization function (ELF) obtained within density functional theory calculations showing the development of the LP triplets whirling {E3} quantified in the relevant chemical systems. Detailed ELF data analyses allowed showing that in α KrF2E3 and isostructural XeF2E3 difluorides the three E electronic clouds merge or hybridize into a torus and adopt a perfect gyration circle with an elliptical section, while in β KrF2 the network architecture deforms the whole torus into an ellipsoid shape. Original precise metrics are provided for the torus in the different compounds under study. In KrF2 the geometric changes upon β → α phase transition is schematized and mechanisms for the transformation with temperature or pressure are proposed. The results are further highlighted by electronic band structure calculations which show similar features of equal band gaps of 3 eV in both α and β KrF2 and a reorganization of frontier orbitals due to the different orientations of the F-Kr-F linear molecule in the two tetragonal structures.

  14. Strength of Plastics,

    Science.gov (United States)

    evaluating the strength of structural elements is examined. The book is intended for design engineers, factory laboratory personnel, scientific research workers, and the design institutes. (Author-PL)

  15. Evidence of an Antimicrobial Peptide Signature Encrypted in HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido-Ferreira, Ivan Lavander; Kronenberger, Thales; Sayegh, Raphael Santa Rosa; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; da Silva Junior, Pedro Ismael

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is a hallmark of the eukaryotic cell. In jawed vertebrates, it has been co-opted by the adaptive immune system, where proteasomal degradation produces endogenous peptides for major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation. However, proteolytic products are also necessary for the phylogenetically widespread innate immune system, as they often play a role as host defense peptides (HDPs), pivotal effectors against pathogens. Here, we report the identification of the arachnid HDP oligoventin, which shares homology to a core member of the UPP, E3 ubiquitin ligases. Oligoventin has broad antimicrobial activity and shows strong synergy with lysozymes. Using computational and phylogenetic approaches, we show high conservation of the oligoventin signature in HECT E3s. In silico simulation of HECT E3s self-proteolysis provides evidence that HDPs can be generated by fine-tuned 26S proteasomal degradation, and therefore are consistent with the hypothesis that oligoventin is a cryptic peptide released by the proteolytic processing of an Nedd4 E3 precursor protein. Finally, we compare the production of HDPs and endogenous antigens from orthologous HECT E3s by proteasomal degradation as a means of analyzing the UPP coupling to metazoan immunity. Our results highlight the functional plasticity of the UPP in innate and adaptive immune systems as a possibly recurrent mechanism to generate functionally diverse peptides. PMID:28119686

  16. A novel role of Drosophila cytochrome P450-4e3 in permethrin insecticide tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhzaz, Selim; Cabrero, Pablo; Brinzer, Robert A; Halberg, Kenneth A; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of insects to xenobiotics, such as insecticides, triggers a complex defence response necessary for survival. This response includes the induction of genes that encode key Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxification enzymes. Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules are critical organs in the detoxification and elimination of these foreign compounds, so the tubule response induced by dietary exposure to the insecticide permethrin was examined. We found that expression of the gene encoding Cytochrome P450-4e3 (Cyp4e3) is significantly up-regulated by Drosophila fed on permethrin and that manipulation of Cyp4e3 levels, specifically in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules, impacts significantly on the survival of permethrin-fed flies. Both dietary exposure to permethrin and Cyp4e3 knockdown cause a significant elevation of oxidative stress-associated markers in the tubules, including H2O2 and lipid peroxidation byproduct, HNE (4-hydroxynonenal). Thus, Cyp4e3 may play an important role in regulating H2O2 levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it resides, and its absence triggers a JAK/STAT and NF-κB-mediated stress response, similar to that observed in cells under ER stress. This work increases our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insecticide detoxification and provides further evidence of the oxidative stress responses induced by permethrin metabolism.

  17. A Dual E3 Mechanism for Rub1 Ligation to Cdc53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Daniel C.; Monda, Julie K.; Grace, Christy R.R.; Duda, David M.; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Kurz, Thimo; Schulman, Brenda A. (Dundee); (SJCH)

    2010-09-16

    In ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) cascades, a thioester-linked E2 {approx} UBL complex typically interacts with an E3 enzyme for UBL transfer to the target. Here we demonstrate a variant mechanism, whereby the E2 Ubc12 functions with two E3s, Hrt1 and Dcn1, for ligation of the UBL Rub1 to Cdc53's WHB subdomain. Hrt1 functions like a conventional RING E3, with its N terminus recruiting Cdc53 and C-terminal RING activating Ubc12Rub1. Dcn1's potentiating neddylation domain (Dcn1{sup P}) acts as an additional E3, reducing nonspecific Hrt1-mediated Ubc12 {approx} Rub1 discharge and directing Ubc12's active site to Cdc53. Crystal structures of Dcn1{sup P}-Cdc53{sup WHB} and Ubc12 allow modeling of a catalytic complex, supported by mutational data. We propose that Dcn1's interactions with both Cdc53 and Ubc12 would restrict the otherwise flexible Hrt1 RING-bound Ubc12 {approx} Rub1 to a catalytically competent orientation. Our data reveal mechanisms by which two E3s function synergistically to promote UBL transfer from one E2 to a target.

  18. Electron delocalization and relaxation behavior in Cu-doped B i2S e3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingze; Wang, Zhenhua; Yang, Liang; Li, Da; Yao, Q. R.; Rao, G. H.; Gao, Xuan P. A.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-08-01

    C uxB i2S e3 is known for superconductivity due to Cu intercalation in the van der Waals gaps between the quintuple layers of B i2S e3 at x >0.10 . Here we report the synthesis and transport properties of Cu-doped C uxB i2S e3 films prepared by the chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) method with 0.11 ≥x ≥0 . It is found that the insulatinglike temperature-dependent resistivity of polycrystalline C uxB i2S e3 films exhibits a marked metallic downturn and an increase of carrier concentration below ˜37 K. There is also a time-dependent slow relaxation behavior in the resistance at low temperature. These effects might be related to the strong hybridization between C u+ and C u2 + conduction bands from the intercalated C u+ and substituted C u2 + sites in B i2S e3 films. The findings here have important implications for the understanding and development of doping-induced superconductivity in topological insulators.

  19. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...

  20. Dipole strength distribution of {sup 50}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayer, Udo; Beck, Tobias; Beller, Jacob; Mertes, Laura; Pai, Haridas; Pietralla, Norbert; Ries, Philipp; Romig, Christopher; Werner, Volker; Zweidinger, Markus [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    A first nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiment with a 68% isotopically enriched {sup 50}Ti target has been performed at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC to investigate particle-bound dipole excitations in this nucleus. The target was irradiated with an unpolarized bremsstrahlung photon beam at endpoint energies of 7.5 MeV and 9.7 MeV. The observed excited states are analyzed with respect to their excitation energies, spin quantum numbers and transition strengths. A complementary NRF experiment with polarized photons will be conducted at the High Intensity gamma-ray Source in Durham, NC, USA to determine the polarity of the dipole transitions. Data will be analyzed with regard to the Pygmy Dipole Resonance, a weakly-collective electric dipole excitation which starts to form in nuclei of this mass region. The measured transition strengths will be compared to microscopic calculations in the quasiparticle-phonon model. The investigation of the magnetic dipole strength distribution will focus on strong spin-flip transitions between the p,f spin-orbit partners expected in the nuclear shell model. First results of the measurements and the evaluation will be presented and discussed.

  1. The centrosomal E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO31-SCF regulates neuronal morphogenesis and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Vadhvani

    Full Text Available Neuronal development requires proper migration, polarization and establishment of axons and dendrites. Growing evidence identifies the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS with its numerous components as an important regulator of various aspects of neuronal development. F-box proteins are interchangeable subunits of the Cullin-1 based E3 ubiquitin ligase, but only a few family members have been studied. Here, we report that the centrosomal E3 ligase FBXO31-SCF (Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein regulates neuronal morphogenesis and axonal identity. In addition, we identified the polarity protein Par6c as a novel interaction partner and substrate targeted for proteasomal degradation in the control of axon but not dendrite growth. Finally, we ascribe a role for FBXO31 in dendrite growth and neuronal migration in the developing cerebellar cortex. Taken together, we uncovered the centrosomal E3 ligase FBXO31-SCF as a novel regulator of neuronal development.

  2. Influence of chemical bond length changes on the crystal field strength and “ligand metal” charge transfer transitions in Cs2GeF6 doped with Mn4+ and Os4+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brik, M. G.

    2007-07-01

    Detailed study of dependence of the crystal field strength 10Dq and lowest charge transfer (CT) energies for different interionic distances in Cs2GeF6:Mn4+ and Cs2GeF6:Os4+crystals is presented. The calculations were performed using the first-principles discrete-variational Dirac Slater (DV-DS) method. As a result, the functional dependencies of 10Dq and lowest CT energy on the metal ligand distance R were obtained without any fitting or semiempirical parameters. It was shown that 10Dq depends on R as 1/Rn, with n=4.0612 and 4.3874 for Cs2GeF6:Mn4+ and Cs2GeF6:Os4+, respectively. Two approximations (linear and quadratic) are obtained for the dependence of the lowest CT energy on R; CT energy decreases when R increases with dE(CT)/dR=-638 and -1080 cm-1/pm for Cs2GeF6:Mn4+ and Cs2GeF6:Os4+, respectively, if the linear approximation is used. These values can be used for estimations of the lowest CT energies for Mn4+ and Os4+ ions in other hosts with fluorine ligands. Estimations of the electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) constants, Huang Rhys parameters, and Stokes shifts for all the above-mentioned crystals were performed using the obtained 10Dq and E(CT) functions.

  3. RBR E3 ubiquitin ligases: new structures, new insights, new questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Donald E; Walden, Helen; Shaw, Gary S

    2014-03-15

    The RBR (RING-BetweenRING-RING) or TRIAD [two RING fingers and a DRIL (double RING finger linked)] E3 ubiquitin ligases comprise a group of 12 complex multidomain enzymes. This unique family of E3 ligases includes parkin, whose dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of early-onset Parkinson's disease, and HOIP (HOIL-1-interacting protein) and HOIL-1 (haem-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1), members of the LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex). The RBR E3 ligases share common features with both the larger RING and HECT (homologous with E6-associated protein C-terminus) E3 ligase families, directly catalysing ubiquitin transfer from an intrinsic catalytic cysteine housed in the C-terminal domain, as well as recruiting thioester-bound E2 enzymes via a RING domain. Recent three-dimensional structures and biochemical findings of the RBRs have revealed novel protein domain folds not previously envisioned and some surprising modes of regulation that have raised many questions. This has required renaming two of the domains in the RBR E3 ligases to more accurately reflect their structures and functions: the C-terminal Rcat (required-for-catalysis) domain, essential for catalytic activity, and a central BRcat (benign-catalytic) domain that adopts the same fold as the Rcat, but lacks a catalytic cysteine residue and ubiquitination activity. The present review discusses how three-dimensional structures of RBR (RING1-BRcat-Rcat) E3 ligases have provided new insights into our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of these important enzymes in ubiquitin biology.

  4. Fluorescence study of domain structure and lipid interaction of human apolipoproteins E3 and E4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Hata, Mami; Dhanasekaran, Padmaja; Nickel, Margaret; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Phillips, Michael C; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoforms exhibit different conformational stabilities and lipid-binding properties that give rise to altered cholesterol metabolism among the isoforms. Using Trp-substituted mutations and site- directed fluorescence labeling, we made a comprehensive comparison of the conformational organization of the N- and C-terminal domains and lipid interactions between the apoE3 and apoE4 isoforms. Trp fluorescence measurements for selectively Trp-substituted variants of apoE isoforms demonstrated that apoE4 adopts less stable conformations in both the N- and C-terminal domains compared to apoE3. Consistent with this, the conformational reorganization of the N-terminal helix bundle occurs at lower guanidine hydrochloride concentration in apoE4 than in apoE3 as monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Trp residues to acrylodan attached at the N-terminal helix. Upon binding of apoE3 and apoE4 variants to egg phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles, similar changes in Trp fluorescence or FRET efficiency were observed for the isoforms, indi- cating that the opening of the N-terminal helix bundle occurs similarly in apoE3 and apoE4. Introduction of mutations into the C-terminal domain of the apoE isoforms to prevent self-association and maintain the monomeric state resulted in great increase in the rate of binding of the C-terminal helices to a lipid surface. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different conformational organizations of the N- and C-terminal domains have a minor effect on the steady-state lipid-binding behavior of apoE3 and apoE4: rather, self-association property is a critical determinant in the kinetics of lipid binding through the C-terminal helices of apoE isoforms.

  5. Strengths of Remarried Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaub, Patricia Kain; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on remarried families' (N=80) perceptions of family strengths, marital satisfaction, and adjustment to the remarried situation. Results indicated that although most would like to make some changes, scores on the measurements used were high. A supportive environment was the most important predictor of family strength and success. (JAC)

  6. Building on Our Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Comments on the feeling that the American family is disintegrating, and that many criticisms traditionally made about Black families are now made about White families. Suggests that people need to stress family strengths. As an example, five major strengths of Black families are described: flexibility, work and achievement ethics, religiosity, and…

  7. Case study of the interdisciplinary integration in an IST-E3 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    Case study of a specific IST-E3 project funded by the EU commissions 5th framework program. The case study highlights the difficulties in integrating different disciplinary approaches and suggests that a more openended research strategy should be applied by the commission.......Case study of a specific IST-E3 project funded by the EU commissions 5th framework program. The case study highlights the difficulties in integrating different disciplinary approaches and suggests that a more openended research strategy should be applied by the commission....

  8. Monitoring of high-risk pregnancies using E3 and HPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieglmayer, Ch.; Spona, J.

    1981-01-01

    Routine determinations of HPL and E3 together with other clinical and laboratory checks offer usable information on the state of pregnancy and assist the doctor in taking decisions on the use of therapeutical measures. The anamnesis, the presence of placental insufficiency of EPH-gestosis are important indications for monitoring the pregnancy using HPL and E3. A commercial RIA apparatus (Centria 2) allowing the determination of HPL in a mere hour was compared with our established laboratory method. In 140 determinations, the correlation was r=0.75. Considering its capacity and method, the instrument seems to be more suitable for a small specialized laboratory.

  9. Folding Behaviour for Proteins BBL and E3BD with Gō-like Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Guang-Hong; ZHANG Jian; WANG Jun; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Folding behaviour of protein BBL and its homologue domain E3BD are studied by using an off-lattice Gō-like model. It is found that the folding behaviours of these two proteins are different. Protein BBL folds in a downhill manner, which is consistent with experiments. In contrast, protein E3BD folds cooperatively and has a bimodal distribution of the Q values (the similarity to the native state). By analysing the native structures of the two proteins, it is found that the difference in folding behaviours can be attributed to the different structural features described by the number of nonlocal contacts per residue.

  10. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe : the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delcourt, Cecile; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Buitendijk, Gabrielle H. S.; Foster, Paul J.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E.; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, Jose; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimaki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C. W.

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000

  11. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten;

    2016-01-01

    conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology...

  12. Total Synthesis and Tentative Structural Elucidation of Cryptomoscatone E3: Interplay of Experimental and Computational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Luiz F T; Sarotti, Ariel M; Pilli, Ronaldo A

    2015-12-18

    A successful combination of computational chemistry and total synthesis was explored to tentatively elucidate the absolute configuration of cryptomoscatone E3, a polyketide isolated from the Brazilian tree Cryptocarya mandiocanna. Two independent synthetic approaches are discussed based on asymmetric allylation, ring closing metathesis, and aldol reactions.

  13. Yeast SREBP cleavage activation requires the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Emerson V; Nwosu, Christine C; Tong, Zongtian; Roguev, Assen; Cummins, Timothy D; Kim, Dong-Uk; Hayles, Jacqueline; Park, Han-Oh; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Powell, David W; Krogan, Nevan J; Espenshade, Peter J

    2011-04-22

    Mammalian lipid homeostasis requires proteolytic activation of membrane-bound sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors through sequential action of the Golgi Site-1 and Site-2 proteases. Here we report that while SREBP function is conserved in fungi, fission yeast employs a different mechanism for SREBP cleavage. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified four genes defective for SREBP cleavage, dsc1-4, encoding components of a transmembrane Golgi E3 ligase complex with structural homology to the Hrd1 E3 ligase complex involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. The Dsc complex binds SREBP and cleavage requires components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway: the E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc4, the Dsc1 RING E3 ligase, and the proteasome. dsc mutants display conserved aggravating genetic interactions with components of the multivesicular body pathway in fission yeast and budding yeast, which lacks SREBP. Together, these data suggest that the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase complex functions in a post-ER pathway for protein degradation.

  14. Motion of Bishop Frenet Offsets of Ruled Surfaces in E3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Abd-Ellah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study the motion of two associated ruled surfaces in Euclidean 3-space E3. In particular, the motion of Bishop Frenet offsets of ruled surfaces is investigated. Additionally, the characteristic properties for such ruled surfaces are given. Finally, an application is presented and plotted using computer aided geometric design.

  15. Selectivity of E2-E3 interactions in the human ubiquitin system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, S.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Highly selective interactions between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and RING-type E3 ligases are crucial for the adequate and efficient action of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like pathways. Within these cascades, E2 enzymes provide a connecting link between activation and the final covalent conjugation,

  16. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe : the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delcourt, Cecile; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Buitendijk, Gabrielle H. S.; Foster, Paul J.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E.; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, Jose; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimaki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Europea

  17. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The variance of the U-box domain in 64 Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) E3s (ubiquitin-protein ligases) was used to examine the interactions between E3s and E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes). E2s and E3s are components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. Seven U-box proteins were...

  18. Novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate histone protein levels in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Core histone proteins are essential for packaging the genomic DNA into chromatin in all eukaryotes. Since multiple genes encode these histone proteins, there is potential for generating more histones than what is required for chromatin assembly. The positively charged histones have a very high affinity for negatively charged molecules such as DNA, and any excess of histone proteins results in deleterious effects on genomic stability and cell viability. Hence, histone levels are known to be tightly regulated via transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. We have previously elucidated the posttranslational regulation of histone protein levels by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc4/5 and the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-Terminus domain containing E3 ligase Tom1 in the budding yeast. Here we report the identification of four additional E3 ligases containing the RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains that are involved in the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of excess histones in yeast. These E3 ligases are Pep5, Snt2 as well as two previously uncharacterized Open Reading Frames (ORFs YKR017C and YDR266C that we have named Hel1 and Hel2 (for Histone E3 Ligases respectively. Mutants lacking these E3 ligases are sensitive to histone overexpression as they fail to degrade excess histones and accumulate high levels of endogenous histones on histone chaperones. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that these E3 ligases interact with the major E2 enzyme Ubc4 that is involved in the degradation related ubiquitylation of histones. Using mutagenesis we further demonstrate that the RING domains of Hel1, Hel2 and Snt2 are required for histone regulation. Lastly, mutants corresponding to Hel1, Hel2 and Pep5 are sensitive to replication inhibitors. Overall, our results highlight the importance of posttranslational histone regulatory mechanisms that employ multiple E3

  19. Effects of ageing on expression of the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and Akt-dependent regulation of Foxo transcription factors in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Akira; Shiozuka, Masataka; Takayama, Yuzo; Hoshino, Takayuki; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFbx and MuRF1 are transcriptionally upregulated in the process of sarcopenia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ageing on mRNA/protein expression of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and Akt/Foxo signalling in gastrocnemius muscles of female mice. Old mice exhibited a typical sarcopenic phenotype, characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength, decreased amount of myofibrillar proteins, incidence of aberrant muscle fibres, and genetic signature to sarcopenia. Activation levels of Akt were lower in adult and old mice than in young mice. Consequently, Akt-mediated phosphorylation levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3 proteins were decreased. Nuclear levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3 proteins showed an overall increasing trend in old mice. MAFbx mRNA expression was decreased in old mice relative to adult mice, whereas MuRF1 mRNA expression was less affected by ageing. At the protein level, MAFbx was less affected by ageing, whereas MuRF1 was increased in old mice relative to adult mice, with ubiquitin-protein conjugates being increased with ageing. In conclusion, we provided evidence for no mRNA upregulation of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and disconnection between their expression and Akt/Foxo signalling in sarcopenic mice. Their different responsiveness to ageing may reflect different roles in sarcopenia.

  20. Pathfinding the Flight Advanced Stirling Convertor Design with the ASC-E3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Kyle; Smith, Eddie; Collins, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) was initially developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) as a technology development project. The ASC technology fulfills NASA's need for high efficiency power convertors for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Early successful technology demonstrations between 2003 to 2005 eventually led to the expansion of the project including the decision in 2006 to use the ASC technology on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). Sunpower has delivered 22 ASC convertors of progressively mature designs to date to GRC. Currently, Sunpower with support from GRC, Lockheed Martin Space System Company (LMSSC), and the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the flight ASC-F in parallel with the ASC-E3 pathfinders. Sunpower will deliver four pairs of ASC-E3 convertors to GRC which will be used for extended operation reliability assessment, independent validation and verification testing, system interaction tests, and to support LMSSC controller verification. The ASC-E3 and -F convertors are being built to the same design and processing documentation and the same product specification. The initial two pairs of ASC-E3 are built before the flight units and will validate design and processing changes prior to implementation on the ASC-F flight convertors. This paper provides a summary on development of the ASC technology and the status of the ASC-E3 build and how they serve the vital pathfinder role ahead of the flight build for ASRG. The ASRG is part of two of the three candidate missions being considered for selection for the Discovery 12 mission.

  1. Strength of Hard Alloys,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial replacement of titanium carbide by tantalum carbide in three-phase WC-TiC-Co alloys tends to have a favorable effect on mechanical properties such as fatigue strength under bending and impact durability.

  2. The uniaxial compressive strength of the Arctic summer sea ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hongwei; LI Zhijun; HUANG Wenfeng; LU Peng; LEI Ruibo

    2015-01-01

    The results on the uniaxial compressive strength of Arctic summer sea ice are presented based on the sam-ples collected during the fifth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2012 (CHINARE-2012). Exper-imental studies were carried out at different testing temperatures (−3, −6 and −9°C), and vertical samples were loaded at stress rates ranging from 0.001 to 1 MPa/s. The temperature, density, and salinity of the ice were measured to calculate the total porosity of the ice. In order to study the effects of the total porosity and the density on the uniaxial compressive strength, the measured strengths for a narrow range of stress rates from 0.01 to 0.03 MPa/s were analyzed. The results show that the uniaxial compressive strength decreases linearly with increasing total porosity, and when the density was lower than 0.86 g/cm3, the uniaxial com-pressive strength increases in a power-law manner with density. The uniaxial compressive behavior of the Arctic summer sea ice is sensitive to the loading rate, and the peak uniaxial compressive strength is reached in the brittle-ductile transition range. The dependence of the strength on the temperature shows that the calculated average strength in the brittle-ductile transition range, which was considered as the peak uniaxial compressive strength, increases steadily in the temperature range from −3 to −9°C.

  3. Light Distribution in the E3 and E4 Scintillation Counters of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is an important component of the ATLAS calorimetry because they play a crucial role in the search for new particles. The E3 and E4 are crack scintillators of TileCal that extend into the gap region between the EM barrel and EM endcaps. They thus sample the energy of the EM showers produced by particles interacting with the dead material in the EM calorimeters and with the inner detector cables. This project focuses on the study of the light collection uniformity in the E3 and E4 scintillating tiles using low energy electrons as the ionising particles. It is important to have uniform light response in the tiles because it would ensure a good energy resolution for the dead region. However, many factors affect the uniform light collection within the scintillating tiles.

  4. A Bacterial Inhibitor of Host Programmed Cell Death Defenses is an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjusevic,R.; Abramovitch, R.; Martin, G.; Stebbins, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae protein AvrPtoB is translocated into plant cells, where it inhibits immunity-associated programmed cell death (PCD). The structure of a C-terminal domain of AvrPtoB that is essential for anti-PCD activity reveals an unexpected homology to the U-box and RING-finger components of eukaryotic E3 ubiquitin ligases, and we show that AvrPtoB has ubiquitin ligase activity. Mutation of conserved residues involved in the binding of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes abolishes this activity in vitro, as well as anti-PCD activity in tomato leaves, which dramatically decreases virulence. These results show that Pseudomonas syringae uses a mimic of host E3 ubiquitin ligases to inactivate plant defenses.

  5. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CTRIP controls CLOCK levels and PERIOD oscillations in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaze, Angélique; Lamouroux, Annie; Vias, Carine; Hung, Hsiu-Cheng; Weber, Frank; Rouyer, François

    2011-06-01

    In the Drosophila circadian clock, the CLOCK/CYCLE complex activates the period and timeless genes that negatively feedback on CLOCK/CYCLE activity. The 24-h pace of this cycle depends on the stability of the clock proteins. RING-domain E3 ubiquitin ligases have been shown to destabilize PERIOD or TIMELESS. Here we identify a clock function for the circadian trip (ctrip) gene, which encodes a HECT-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase. ctrip expression in the brain is mostly restricted to clock neurons and its downregulation leads to long-period activity rhythms in constant darkness. This altered behaviour is associated with high CLOCK levels and persistence of phosphorylated PERIOD during the subjective day. The control of CLOCK protein levels does not require PERIOD. Thus, CTRIP seems to regulate the pace of the oscillator by controlling the stability of both the activator and the repressor of the feedback loop.

  6. Petrology and oxygen isotope compositions of chondrules in E3 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Ebel, Denton S.; Connolly, Harold C.; Kita, Noriko T.; Ushikubo, Takayuki

    2011-11-01

    Chondrules in E3 chondrites differ from those in other chondrite groups. Many contain near-pure endmember enstatite (Fs metal, Cr-bearing troilite, and, in some cases Mg, Mn- and Ca-sulfides. Olivine and more FeO-rich pyroxene grains are present but much less common than in ordinary or carbonaceous chondrite chondrules. In some cases, the FeO-rich grains contain dusty inclusions of metal. The oxygen three-isotope ratios (δ 18O, δ 17O) of olivine and pyroxene in chondrules from E3 chondrites, which are measured using a multi-collection SIMS, show a wide range of values. Most enstatite data plots on the terrestrial fractionation (TF) line near whole rock values and some plot near the ordinary chondrite region on the 3-isotope diagram. Pyroxene with higher FeO contents (˜2-10 wt.% FeO) generally plots on the TF line similar to enstatite, suggesting it formed locally in the EC (enstatite chondrite) region and that oxidation/reduction conditions varied within the E3 chondrite chondrule-forming region. Olivine shows a wide range of correlated δ 18O and δ 17O values and data from two olivine-bearing chondrules form a slope ˜1 mixing line, which is approximately parallel to but distinct from the CCAM (carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mixing) line. We refer to this as the ECM (enstatite chondrite mixing) line but it also may coincide with a line defined by chondrules from Acfer 094 referred to as the PCM (Primitive Chondrite Mineral) line ( Ushikubo et al., 2011). The range of O isotope compositions and mixing behavior in E3 chondrules is similar to that in O and C chondrite groups, indicating similar chondrule-forming processes, solid-gas mixing and possibly similar 16O-rich precursors solids. However, E3 chondrules formed in a distinct oxygen reservoir. Internal oxygen isotope heterogeneity was found among minerals from some of the chondrules in E3 chondrites suggesting incomplete melting of the chondrules, survival of minerals from previous generations of

  7. Shark (Prionace glauca) elastoidin: characterization of its collagen as [alpha 1(E)]3 homotrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S; Uematsu, Y; Miyauchi, Y

    1986-01-01

    A new type of collagen was isolated from elastoidin of great blue shark by limited pepsin digestion. The collagen alpha chain of elastoidin, designated alpha 1(E), was very similar in electrophoretic and chromatographic behavior and amino acid composition to shark skin alpha 1(I) chain, but they were genetically-distinct on the basis of CNBr-peptide maps. The collagen molecule of elastoidin was shown to be an [alpha 1(E)]3 homotrimer.

  8. The substrate binding domains of human SIAH E3 ubiquitin ligases are now crystal clear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhongduo; Hou, Feng; Harding, Rachel; Huang, Xinyi; Dong, Aiping; Walker, John R.; Tong, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Seven in absentia homologs (SIAHs) comprise a family of highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligases that play an important role in regulating signalling pathways in tumorigenesis, including the DNA damage repair and hypoxia response pathways. SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been found to function as a tumour repressor and a proto-oncogene, respectively, despite the high sequence identity of their substrate binding domains (SBDs). Ubiquitin-specific protease USP19 is a deubiquitinase that forms a complex with SIAHs and counteracts the ligase function. Much effort has been made to find selective inhibitors of the SIAHs E3 ligases. Menadione was reported to inhibit SIAH2 specifically. We used X-ray crystallography, peptide array, bioinformatic analysis, and biophysical techniques to characterize the structure and interaction of SIAHs with deubiquitinases and literature reported compounds. We solved the crystal structures of SIAH1 in complex with a USP19 peptide and of the apo form SIAH2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the SIAH/USP19 complex is conserved in evolution. We demonstrated that menadione destabilizes both SIAH1 and SIAH2 non-specifically through covalent modification. The SBDs of SIAH E3 ligases are structurally similar with a subtle stability difference. USP19 is the only deubiquitinase that directly binds to SIAHs through the substrate binding pocket. Menadione is not a specific inhibitor for SIAH2. The crystallographic models provide structural insights into the substrate binding of the SIAH family E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critically involved in regulating cancer-related pathways. Our results suggest caution should be taken when using menadione as a specific SIAH2 inhibitor.

  9. HSV-1 ICP0: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Counteracts Host Intrinsic and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Perusina Lanfranca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0, is required for efficient lytic viral replication and regulates the switch between the lytic and latent states of HSV-1. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0 directs the proteasomal degradation of several cellular targets, allowing the virus to counteract different cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how ICP0’s E3 ubiquitin ligase activity inactivates the host intrinsic defenses, such as nuclear domain 10 (ND10, SUMO, and the DNA damage response to HSV-1 infection. In addition, we will examine ICP0’s capacity to impair the activation of interferon (innate regulatory mediators that include IFI16 (IFN γ-inducible protein 16, MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88, and Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like protein. We will also consider how ICP0 allows HSV-1 to evade activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B inflammatory signaling pathway. Finally, ICP0’s paradoxical relationship with USP7 (ubiquitin specific protease 7 and its roles in intrinsic and innate immune responses to HSV-1 infection will be discussed.

  10. Identification of Arabidopsis MYB56 as a novel substrate for CRL3(BPM) E3 ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Bernhardt, Anne; Lee, JooHyun; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2015-02-01

    Controlled stability of proteins is a highly efficient mechanism to direct diverse processes in living cells. A key regulatory system for protein stability is given by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which uses E3 ligases to mark specific proteins for degradation. In this work, MYB56 is identified as a novel target of a CULLIN3 (CUL3)-based E3 ligase. Its stability depends on the presence of MATH-BTB/POZ (BPM) proteins, which function as substrate adaptors to the E3 ligase. Genetic studies have indicated that MYB56 is a negative regulator of flowering, while BPMs positively affect this developmental program. The interaction between BPMs and MYB56 occurs at the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a key regulator in initiating flowering in Arabidopsis, and results in instability of MYB56. Overall the work establishes MYB transcription factors as substrates of BPM proteins, and provides novel information on components that participate in controlling flowering time in plants. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Construction of new operation interface for the LABIHS simulator using the ELIPSE E3 studio software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Oliveira, Mauro V., E-mail: silas@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS), located at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), has a compact simulator that simulate the processes of a pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant of 930 MWe of power. This simulator is composed by a HP-UX workstation computer, where the simulation software runs, and a set of computer stations, that represent an advanced control room, where the simulator is operated by software control panels that represent several systems of the simulated nuclear power plant. The current HSIs for the LABIHS simulator was built using iLog software tool. The development of new human-system interfaces (HSIs) for the simulator is one of the research fields of LABIHS. This paper presents the screen components development process for a new HSI for the LABIHS simulator, using the software Elipse{sup TM} E3 Studio. These new components developed using the E3 Studio are similar to the ones used in the current simulator interface. The article shows some comparisons between the component and screen development with Elipse{sup TM} E3 Studio processes and using iLog Studio. (author)

  12. MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for HIV-1 Vif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonaga Mitsunori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Vif plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle by antagonizing a host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G. Vif interacts with A3G and induces its polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation via the formation of active ubiquitin ligase (E3 complex with Cullin5-ElonginB/C. Although Vif itself is also ubiquitinated and degraded rapidly in infected cells, precise roles and mechanisms of Vif ubiquitination are largely unknown. Here we report that MDM2, known as an E3 ligase for p53, is a novel E3 ligase for Vif and induces polyubiquitination and degradation of Vif. We also show the mechanisms by which MDM2 only targets Vif, but not A3G that binds to Vif. MDM2 reduces cellular Vif levels and reversely increases A3G levels, because the interaction between MDM2 and Vif precludes A3G from binding to Vif. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MDM2 negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in non-permissive target cells through Vif degradation. These data suggest that MDM2 is a regulator of HIV-1 replication and might be a novel therapeutic target for anti-HIV-1 drug.

  13. Instanton induced Yukawa couplings from distant E3 and E(-1) instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); Witkowski, Lukas T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-07

    We calculate non-perturbative contributions to Yukawa couplings on D3-branes at orbifold singularities due to E3 and fractional E(-1) instantons which do not intersect the visible sector branes. While distant E3 instantons on bulk cycles typically contribute to Yukawa couplings, we find that distant fractional E(-1) can also give rise to new Yukawa couplings. However, fractional E(-1) instantons only induce Yukawa couplings if they are located at a singularity which shares a collapsed homologous two-cycle with the singularity supporting the visible sector. The non-perturbative contributions to Yukawa couplings exhibit a different flavour structure than the tree-level Yukawa couplings and, as a result, they can be sources of flavour violation. This is particularly relevant for schemes of moduli stabilisation which rely on superpotential contributions from E3 instantons, such as KKLT or the Large Volume Scenario. As a byproduct of our analysis, we shed some new light on the properties of annulus diagrams with matter field insertions in stringy instanton calculus.

  14. Arabidopsis HIGH PLOIDY2 sumoylates and stabilizes flowering locus C through its E3 ligase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Soo eKwak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowering Locus C (FLC, a floral repressor, plays an important role in flowering. The mechanisms regulating FLC gene expression and protein function have been studied extensively; however, post-translational regulation of FLC remains unclear. Here, we identified Arabidopsis HIGH PLOIDY2 (HPY2 as an E3 SUMO ligase for FLC. In vitro and vivo pull-down assays showed that FLC physically interacts with HPY2. In vitro assays showed that the stimulation of FLC sumoylation by HPY2 was dependent on SUMO-activating enzyme E1 and -conjugating enzyme E2, indicating that HPY2 was an E3 SUMO ligase for FLC. In transgenic plants, inducible HPY2 overexpression increased the concentration of FLC, indicating that HPY2 stabilized FLC through direct sumoylation. Flowering time in hpy2-2 mutants was shorter than in wild-type plants under long- and short-day conditions, with a greater effect under short-day conditions, and FLC was downregulated in hpy2-2 mutants. These data indicate that HPY2 regulates FLC function and stability at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels through its E3 SUMO ligase activity.

  15. Bayesian priors for transiting planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M

    2016-01-01

    As astronomers push towards discovering ever-smaller transiting planets, it is increasingly common to deal with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) events, where the choice of priors plays an influential role in Bayesian inference. In the analysis of exoplanet data, the selection of priors is often treated as a nuisance, with observers typically defaulting to uninformative distributions. Such treatments miss a key strength of the Bayesian framework, especially in the low SNR regime, where even weak a priori information is valuable. When estimating the parameters of a low-SNR transit, two key pieces of information are known: (i) the planet has the correct geometric alignment to transit and (ii) the transit event exhibits sufficient signal-to-noise to have been detected. These represent two forms of observational bias. Accordingly, when fitting transits, the model parameter priors should not follow the intrinsic distributions of said terms, but rather those of both the intrinsic distributions and the observational ...

  16. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-11-01

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  17. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Calvin W., E-mail: cjohnson@mail.sdsu.edu

    2015-11-12

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  18. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive or negative (attractive.

  19. Phase transitions in the web of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.

  20. Photometric characterization of the Chang'e-3 landing site using LROC NAC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Boyd, A.; Robinson, M. S.; Wagner, R.; Stopar, J. D.; Plescia, J. B.; Speyerer, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    China's robotic Chang'e-3 spacecraft, carrying the Yutu rover, touched down in Mare Imbrium on the lunar surface on 14 December 2013. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) imaged the site both before and after landing. Multi-temporal NAC images taken before and after the landing, phase-ratio images made from NAC images taken after the landing, and Hapke photometric techniques were used to evaluate surface changes caused by the disturbance of regolith at the landing site (blast zone) by the descent engines of the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. The reflectance of the landing site increased by 10 ± 1% (from I/F = 0.040 to 0.044 at 30° phase angle) as a result of the landing, a value similar to reflectance increases estimated for the Apollo, Luna, and Surveyor landing sites. The spatial extent of the disturbed area at the Chang'e-3 landing site, 2530 m2, also falls close to what is predicted on the basis of correlations between lander mass, thrust, and blast zone areas for the historic landed missions. A multi-temporal ratio image of the Chang'e-3 landing site reveals a main blast zone (slightly elongate in the N-S direction; ∼75 m across N-S and ∼43 m across in the E-W direction) and an extended diffuse, irregular halo that is less reflective than the main blast zone (extending ∼40-50 m in the N-S direction and ∼10-15 m in the E-W direction beyond the main blast zone). The N-S elongation of the blast zone likely resulted from maneuvering during hazard avoidance just prior to landing. The phase-ratio image reveals that the blast zone is less backscattering than surrounding undisturbed areas. The similarities in magnitude of increased reflectance between the Chang'e-3 landing site and the Surveyor, Apollo, and Luna landing sites suggest that lunar soil reflectance changes caused by interaction with rocket exhaust are not significantly altered over a period of 40-50 years. The reflectance changes are independent of regolith composition

  1. Phase transitions in dissipative Josephson chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbert, P.A.; Fazio, R.; Schoen, G. (Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (NL)); Zimanyi, G.T. (Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (USA))

    1990-03-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase transitions of a chain of Josephson junctions, taking into account the quantum fluctuations due to the charging energy and the effects of an Ohmic dissipation. We map the problem onto a generalized Coulomb gas model, which then is transformed into a sine-Gordon field theory. Apart from the expected dipole unbinding transition, which describes a transition between globally superconducting and resistive behavior, we find a quadrupole unbinding transition at a critical strength of the dissipation. This transition separates two superconducting states characterized by different local properties.

  2. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve

  3. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  4. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  5. Spin Resonance Strength Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, E. D.

    2009-08-01

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  6. Spin resonance strength calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant,E.D.

    2008-10-06

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  7. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  8. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  9. 原子电四极矩E2光谱跃迁几率的算符形式和多电子效应研究%Operator forms and many-electron correlation effects for atomic electron quadrupole transition probabilities and oscillator strengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易有根; 朱正和; 郑志坚

    2001-01-01

    利用多组态Dirac-Fock广义扩展平均能级(MCDF-EAL)方法系统地计算了铍LiI3d→2s、3p→2p, 碳CIII 2s3d 1 D2→2s21S0、2p2 1S 0, 钙CaI 4s3d 1 D2→4s2 1S0,钛TiIII 3d23P→3d23 F、3d4s3D→3d2 3F,铜CuII 3d94s1D2→3d10 1S0, 锌ZnI 4s4d 1 D2→4s2 1S0和铯CsI 5d→6s等电四极矩E2光谱跃迁的能级间隔、跃迁几率和振 子强度,计算中考虑了重要的核的有限体积效应、Breit修正和QED修正,所得结果和最近的 实验数据及其它理论计算值进行了比较。%A fully relativistic Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method with Breit and QED corrections is used to calculate the forbidden transition energy level separatio ns and transition probabilities and oscillator strengths for the transitions LiI 3d→2s、3p→2p, C III 2s3d 1 D2→2s2 1S0、2p2 1S0, CaI 4s3d 1 D2→4s2 1S 0, TiIII 3d2 3P→3d2 3F, CuII 3d94s1 D2→3d10 1S0, ZnI 4s4d 1 D2→4s2 1S0 and CsI 5d→6s. In calculation, we consider signifi cant Breit and QED corrections, the results are in good agreements with recent experimental data and other theoretical values.

  10. Notch strength of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The notch strength of composites is discussed. The point stress and average stress criteria relate the notched strength of a laminate to the average strength of a relatively long tensile coupon. Tests of notched specimens in which microstrain gages have been placed at or near the edges of the holes have measured strains much larger that those measured in an unnotched tensile coupon. Orthotropic stress concentration analyses of failed notched laminates have also indicated that failure occurred at strains much larger than those experienced on tensile coupons with normal gage lengths. This suggests that the high strains at the edge of a hole can be related to the very short length of fiber subjected to these strains. Lockheed has attempted to correlate a series of tests of several laminates with holes ranging from 0.19 to 0.50 in. Although the average stress criterion correlated well with test results for hole sizes equal to or greater than 0.50 in., it over-estimated the laminate strength in the range of hole sizes from 0.19 to 0.38 in. It thus appears that a theory is needed that is based on the mechanics of failure and is more generally applicable to the range of hole sizes and the varieties of laminates found in aircraft construction.

  11. Analysis on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Fu, Xiaohui; Zeng, Xingguo; Yao, Meijuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Su, Yan; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Li, Chunlai; Zou, Yongliao

    2015-04-01

    Recent lunar orbital observations suggested that the surface reflectance calculated based on the Apollo 16 standard area and Apollo 16 sample laboratory measurement is significantly different from its true value [1-3], one reason is the composition and maturity differences between the 62231 sampling site and the Apollo 16 standard site existed, the other reason is the physical properties of the returned lunar sample, such as porosity, have been changed during the sampling operations. So more new standard targets on the Moon, besides the widely used Apollo 16 area, are needed for imaging spectrometers on lunar missions to improve their reflectance calibration accuracies. The Chang'E-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), which is just fixed at the front of the Yutu rover [4], equipped with a white spectralon panel as reflectance calibration standard, can perform in situ multispectral observations around the Chang'E-3 landing site without altering the physical and mineralogical natures of lunar soils. Therefore, it provides an opportunity to establish a new reliable standard target for in-flight reflectance calibration. The reflectance calibration target should be compositional homogeneous, the topography of which must be flat, and the reflectance should be identical with no nearby units of other different materials. As we have known, Chang'e-3 probe landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum, the landing site is relatively flat at a spatial coverage of ~660km2, and this region belongs to Eratosthenian low-Ti/high-Ti mare basalts [5-6]. According to much higher resolution topography data, elemental data and reflectance data of Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3[7-8], we preliminary analyse the possibility on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target. Firstly, the overall terrain of the 4 km×4 km area around the landing site is flat, but there are still three bigger craters existed. Secondly, the composition on Chang'E-3

  12. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit of Golgi-resident Defective for SREBP Cleavage (Dsc) E3 Ligase Complex Requires Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Espenshade, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Layers of quality control ensure proper protein folding and complex formation prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. The fission yeast Dsc E3 ligase is a Golgi-localized complex required for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor activation that shows architectural similarity to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation E3 ligases. The Dsc E3 ligase consists of five integral membrane proteins (Dsc1-Dsc5) and functionally interacts with the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48. Utilizing an in vitro ubiquitination assay, we demonstrated that Dsc1 has ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that requires the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4. Mutations that specifically block Dsc1-Ubc4 interaction prevent SREBP cleavage, indicating that SREBP activation requires Dsc E3 ligase activity. Surprisingly, Golgi localization of the Dsc E3 ligase complex also requires Dsc1 E3 ligase activity. Analysis of Dsc E3 ligase complex formation, glycosylation, and localization indicated that Dsc1 E3 ligase activity is specifically required for endoplasmic reticulum exit of the complex. These results define enzyme activity-dependent sorting as an autoregulatory mechanism for protein trafficking.

  14. An integrated design of the payload for Chang'e 3 Lunar Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhouchangyi, Zhouchangyi

    Chang’e 3 detector is launched in China Xichang Satellite Launch Center on December 2, 2013. Its project task was a complete success. CE-3 detector achieved a soft landing and started its lunar exploration andinspection. It is composed of the lander and Rover (Yutu). This paper introduces an integrated designing payload of Chang’e 3 Lunar Rover. Chang’e 3 Lunar Rover is allocated with infrared imaging spectrometer,moon-measuring radar, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer(APXS), panoramic camera and other payloads. The infrared spectrometer is used to analyse the infrared spectrum and take images of the patrolling areas, to analyse the mineral composition and distribution of the lunar surface, and to do a comprehensive study of the energy sources and mineral sources.The radar is used for inspecting the thickness and structure of the lunar soil on the patrolling path as well as probing the structure of the shallow lunar crust. The APXS will use the method of alpha-particle-induced X-ray fluorescence to study in detail the composition of soil in specific areas. The panoramic camera is for obtaining three-dimensional images of the lunar surface around the patrolling path, accomplishing the inspection of near landscapes and topographic analysis. Limited by the total weight, the Rover is equipped with a payload controller, through which an integrated design consisting of the power supply, data processing, electronic units, operating management and other functions of the payload is done, to realize the centralized power supply, centralized management, centralized data processing, centralized operating controlling and centralized interfaces with the integrated electronic system of the Rover.

  15. Topographic modeling and analysis of the landing site of Chang'E-3 on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Li, Fei; Ye, Lei; Qiao, Si; Huang, Jun; Wu, Xueying; Zhang, He

    2014-11-01

    The Chinese lunar probe Chang'E-3, carrying the “Jade Rabbit” lunar rover, successfully landed in the Sinus Iridum area on the Moon on December 14, 2013. This paper presents the characterization activities that were done for the selection of the landing area, including topographic modeling and analysis based on multisource lunar remote sensing data. Seven meter-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data were integrated to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 20 m for the entire Sinus Iridum landing area. Long baseline slopes were assessed according to this DEM for all of this area. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter narrow-angle camera images and 1.5 m-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery were used to derive DEMs with higher resolution (4 m) at several local regions within the Sinus Iridum landing area. Slope analyses at lander footprint scale (˜8 m) were performed in these local regions. Craters were detected from the DEMs and the derived orthophotos, and size-frequency distributions were generated. Crater morphological statistics, including the depth/diameter ratios, rim height/diameter ratios and wall slopes, were analyzed. The results showed that the Sinus Iridum landing area is relatively flat. Most of the area has slopes of less than 15°. The steeper slopes are mainly alongside craters and ridges. The crater size-frequency distribution is close to the equilibrium distribution. The crater ages, as indicated by their morphological statistics, vary from mature to relatively fresh in different regions. These topographic modeling and analysis results were used for strategic planning to identify the landing site for the Chang'E-3 and made a useful contribution to the success of the Chang'E-3 mission.

  16. Alteration of airway responsiveness mediated by receptors in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic E3 rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-wen LONG; Xu-dong YANG; Lei CAO; She-min LU; Yong-xiao CAO

    2009-01-01

    Aim:Airway hyperresponsiveness is a constant feature of asthma.The aim of the present study was to investigate airway hyperreactivity mediated by contractile and dilative receptors in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced model of rat asthma.Methods:Asthmatic E3 rats were prepared by intraperitoneal injection with OVA/aluminum hydroxide and then challenged with intranasal instillation of OVA-PBS two weeks later.The myograph method was used to measure the responses of constriction and dilatation in the trachea,main bronchi and lobar bronchi.Results:In asthmatic E3 rata,β2 adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of airway smooth muscle pre-contracted with 5-HT was inhibited,and there were no obvious difference in relaxation compared with normal E3 rats.Contraction of lobar bronchi mediated by 5-HT and sarafotoxin 6c was more potent than in the trachea or main bronchi.Airway contractions mediated by the endothelin (ET)A receptor,ETB receptor and M3 muscarinic receptor were augmented,and the augmented contraction was most obvious in lobar bronchi.The order of efficacy of contraction for lobar bronchi induced by agonists was ET-1,sarafotoxin 6c>ACh>5-HT.OX8 (an antibody against CD8+ T cells) strongly shifted and 0X35 (an antibody against CD4+ T cells) modestly shifted isoprenaline-induced concentration-relaxation curves in a nonparallel fashion to the left with an increased Rmax in asthmatic rats and sarafotoxin 6c-induced concentration-contractile curves to the right with a decreased Emax.Conclusion:The inhibition of airway relaxation and the augmentation of contraction mediated by receptors contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and involve CD8+ and CD4+ T cells.

  17. Momentum correlation of the final-state wavefunction for (e, 3e) collisions on helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sui- Meng

    2004-01-01

    Based on our earlier paper, the momentum correlation of the four bodies in the final state is further considered for (e, 3e) processes on helium. A fivefold differential cross section (FDCS) for electron-impact double ionization of helium is calculated by use of the modified model for high incident energy (1-5.6keV). It has been found that the present results give a better description for the experimental data, as compared with the results of our earlier paper.

  18. The Processing and Analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun-ze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR, which is one of the most important science payloads onboard the Chang'E-3 (CE-3 rover, is used to obtain electromagnetic image less than 100 m beneath the lunar surface. This paper describes the system composition and working mechanism of the LPR and presents a detailed analysis of its data. We investigated special signal-processing methods and present the result of channel-1 data. The result shows that the effective echo occurs at depths greater than 100 m. Moreover, an unusual reflection exists at depth of 40 m, which may be the boundary of two geological units beneath the lunar surface.

  19. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Eric S.; Böhm, Kerstin; Lydeard, John R.; Yang, Haidi; Stadler, Michael B.; Cavadini, Simone; Nagel, Jane; Serluca, Fabrizio; Acker, Vincent; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M.; Tichkule, Ritesh B.; Schebesta, Michael; Forrester, William C.; Schirle, Markus; Hassiepen, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In the 1950s the drug thalidomide administered as a sedative to pregnant women led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite its teratogenicity, thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide (together known as Immunomodulatory Drugs: IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-dysplasia. IMiDs target the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase and promote the ubiquitination of Ikaros/Aiolos transcription fac...

  20. CHANG'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer: ground verification test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongya; Peng, Wenxi; Cui, XingZhu; Wang, Huanyu

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang’E-3 rover Yutu, with which the major elemental composition of lunar soils and rocks can be measured on site. In order to assess the instrument performance and the accuracy of determination, ground verification test was carried out with two blind samples(basaltic rock, powder). Details of the experiments and data analysis method are discussed. The results show that the accuracy of quantitative analysis for major elements(Mg,Al,Si,K,Ca,Ti,Fe) is better than 15%.

  1. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates Ubiquitination and Degradation of Mixed-Lineage Kinase 3

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing, Natalya A.; Brockman, April L.; Chadee, Deborah N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and has important functions in migration, invasion, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. We investigated the role of the E3 ligase carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) in the regulation of MLK3 protein levels. We show that CHIP interacts with MLK3 and, together with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5 (UbcH5a, -b, -c, or -d), ubiquitinates MLK3 in vitro. CHIP or Hs...

  2. A prediction for |U{sub e3}| from patterns in the charged lepton spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrandis, Javier; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2004-09-22

    It is shown that empirical relations between the charged lepton spectra and the quark spectra together with a bimaximal or near bimaximal neutrino mixing matrix necessarily imply that there is a contribution to |U{sub e3}| given by {theta}{sub C}/ 3{radical}2 {approx} {radical}(m{sub e}/2m{sub {mu}}) {approx} 0.052, where {theta}{sub C}is the Cabibbo angle. This prediction could be tested in the near future reactor experiments. The charged lepton mixing also generates a less robust prediction for the angle {theta}{sub 23} and a small contribution to the phase {delta}.

  3. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o

  4. Pygmy dipole strength in 90Zr

    CERN Document Server

    Schwengner, R; Tsoneva, N; Benouaret, N; Beyer, R; Erhard, M; Grosse, E; Junghans, A R; Klug, J; Kosev, K; Lenske, H; Nair, C; Schilling, K D; Wagner, A

    2008-01-01

    The dipole response of the N=50 nucleus 90Zr was studied in photon-scattering experiments at the electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at kinetic electron energies of 7.9, 9.0, and 13.2 MeV. We identified 189 levels up to an excitation energy of 12.9 MeV. Statistical methods were applied to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. In this way we derived the photoabsorption cross section up to the neutron-separation energy. This cross section matches well the photoabsorption cross section obtained from (gamma,n) data and thus provides information about the extension of the dipole-strength distribution toward energies below the neutron-separation energy. An enhancement of E1 strength has been found in the range of 6 MeV to 11 MeV. Calculations within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model ascribe this strength to a vibration of the excessive neutrons against the N = Z neutron-proton c...

  5. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Zheng, S. J.; Mayeur, J. R.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Mara, N. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Polcar, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  6. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Monclús

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  7. Blocking an N-terminal acetylation–dependent protein interaction inhibits an E3 ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Daniel C.; Hammill, Jared T.; Min, Jaeki; Rhee, David Y.; Connelly, Michele; Sviderskiy, Vladislav O.; Bhasin, Deepak; Chen, Yizhe; Ong, Su-Sien; Chai, Sergio C.; Goktug, Asli N.; Huang, Guochang; Monda, Julie K.; Low, Jonathan; Kim, Ho Shin; Paulo, Joao A.; Cannon, Joe R.; Shelat, Anang A.; Chen, Taosheng; Kelsall, Ian R.; Alpi, Arno F.; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; Wang, Xusheng; Peng, Junmin; Singh , Bhuvanesh; Harper, J. Wade; Schulman, Brenda A.; Guy, R. Kip (MSKCC); (Dundee); (SJCH); (Harvard-Med); (MXPL)

    2017-06-05

    N-terminal acetylation is an abundant modification influencing protein functions. Because ~80% of mammalian cytosolic proteins are N-terminally acetylated, this modification is potentially an untapped target for chemical control of their functions. Structural studies have revealed that, like lysine acetylation, N-terminal acetylation converts a positively charged amine into a hydrophobic handle that mediates protein interactions; hence, this modification may be a druggable target. We report the development of chemical probes targeting the N-terminal acetylation–dependent interaction between an E2 conjugating enzyme (UBE2M or UBC12) and DCN1 (DCUN1D1), a subunit of a multiprotein E3 ligase for the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. The inhibitors are highly selective with respect to other protein acetyl-amide–binding sites, inhibit NEDD8 ligation in vitro and in cells, and suppress anchorage-independent growth of a cell line with DCN1 amplification. Overall, our data demonstrate that N-terminal acetyl-dependent protein interactions are druggable targets and provide insights into targeting multiprotein E2–E3 ligases.

  8. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  9. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sukumar; Du, Kangping; Brautigan, David L; Abbas, Tarek; Larner, James M

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer resists radiotherapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here, we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically, ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 protein, is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene (CDKN1A) in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, overexpression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. In vitro and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone HSP70. These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity, thus suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.Implications: The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(6); 651-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eric S; Böhm, Kerstin; Lydeard, John R; Yang, Haidi; Stadler, Michael B; Cavadini, Simone; Nagel, Jane; Serluca, Fabrizio; Acker, Vincent; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M; Tichkule, Ritesh B; Schebesta, Michael; Forrester, William C; Schirle, Markus; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Ottl, Johannes; Hild, Marc; Beckwith, Rohan E J; Harper, J Wade; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Thomä, Nicolas H

    2014-08-07

    In the 1950s, the drug thalidomide, administered as a sedative to pregnant women, led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite the teratogenicity of thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, these immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-deletion-associated dysplasia. IMiDs target the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)) and promote the ubiquitination of the IKAROS family transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3 by CRL4(CRBN). Here we present crystal structures of the DDB1-CRBN complex bound to thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. The structure establishes that CRBN is a substrate receptor within CRL4(CRBN) and enantioselectively binds IMiDs. Using an unbiased screen, we identified the homeobox transcription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Our studies suggest that IMiDs block endogenous substrates (MEIS2) from binding to CRL4(CRBN) while the ligase complex is recruiting IKZF1 or IKZF3 for degradation. This dual activity implies that small molecules can modulate an E3 ubiquitin ligase and thereby upregulate or downregulate the ubiquitination of proteins.

  11. Noninvasive visualization of adenovirus replication with a fluorescent reporter in the E3 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hidetaka A; Le, Long P; Davydova, Julia G; Gavrikova, Tatyana; Yamamoto, Masato

    2005-11-15

    To overcome the inefficacy and undesirable side effects of current cancer treatment strategies, conditionally replicative adenoviruses have been developed to exploit the unique mechanism of oncolysis afforded by tumor-specific viral replication. Despite rapid translation into clinical trials and the established safety of oncolytic adenoviruses, the in vivo function of these agents is not well understood due to lack of a noninvasive detection system for adenovirus replication. To address this issue, we propose the expression of a reporter from the adenovirus E3 region as a means to monitor replication. Adenovirus replication reporter vectors were constructed with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene placed in the deleted E3 region under the control of the adenoviral major late promoter while retaining expression of the adenovirus death protein to conserve the native oncolytic capability of the virus. Strong EGFP fluorescence was detected from these vectors in a replication-dependent manner, which correlated with viral DNA replication. Fluorescence imaging in vivo confirmed the ability to noninvasively detect fluorescent signal during replication, which generally corresponded with the underlying level of viral DNA replication. EGFP representation of viral replication was further confirmed by Western blot comparison with the viral DNA content in the tumors. Imaging reporter expression controlled by the adenoviral major late promoter provides a viable approach to noninvasively monitor adenovirus replication in preclinical studies and has the potential for human application with clinically relevant imaging reporters.

  12. Diagramming Transactive Building Business Cases: Using Principles of e3 Value to Document Valuation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Maria C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Energy management in buildings is becoming more transactive. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office recently defined innovative use cases wherein market-like mechanisms are used to manage energy within buildings, between buildings, and between buildings and third-party entities, such as power utilities. A next step toward defining a set of transactive use cases in the buildings domain is to carefully diagram the corresponding business cases to capture details of transactions among all stakeholders and their economic value propositions. The principles of e3-value diagramming are applied in this report toward creating business value diagrams. These principles are extended to be consistent with Universal Modeling Language use-case diagrams. Example diagrams are presented for a subset of buildings-domain use cases that were introduced in an earlier Pacific Northwest National Laboratory report. The diagrams are intended to clearly represent an understanding of the transactions through which individual entities accumulate value in their respective use cases, and the diagrams should therefore support economic valuation studies. The report reviews some of the foundational principles of e3 value and includes authors’ insights concerning the formulation of these diagrams using Universal Modeling Language as a more systematic modeling approach.

  13. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  14. Rock size-frequency distribution analysis at the Chang'E-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kaichang; Xu, Bin; Peng, Man; Yue, Zongyu; Liu, Zhaoqin; Wan, Wenhui; Li, Lichun; Zhou, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the rock size-frequency distribution at the Chang'E-3 landing site. Using 84 Navcam stereo images acquired at 7 waypoints by the Yutu rover and an interactive stereo image processing system, a total of 582 rocks larger than 0.05 m in diameter were identified and measured. The statistical results of the size-frequency distribution show that the cumulative fractional area covered by rocks versus their diameter follows a simple exponential function and has a convex-up shape on log-log graphs with the slope increasing with diameter. The cumulative number of rocks versus diameter derived by numerically integrating the cumulative fractional area also shows a good fit with the data. A diameter-height relationship was also determined from height and diameter ratios. The observed rock statistics were also compared with those from other lunar missions, including the Surveyor, Apollo, and Lunokhod missions; results suggest that the rock distribution at the Chang'E-3 landing site is similar to that found by Surveyor III.

  15. No evidence for multiple stellar populations in the low-mass Galactic globular cluster E 3

    CERN Document Server

    Salinas, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M~1.4 x 10^4 M_sun) globular cluster E 3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue CN absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multi stellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E 3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found.

  16. Self-clearance mechanism of mitochondrial E3 ligase MARCH5 contributes to mitochondria quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song-Hee; Park, Yong-Yea; Yoo, Young-Suk; Cho, Hyeseong

    2016-01-01

    MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls mitochondrial dynamics proteins and misfolded proteins, and has been proposed to play a role in mitochondria quality control. However, it remains unclear how mutant MARCH5 found in cancer tissues is removed from cells. Here, we show that mutation in the MARCH5 ligase domain increased its half-life fourfold, resulting in a drastic increase in its protein level. Abnormal accumulation of the E3 ligase-defective MARCH5 mutants MARCH5(H43W) and MARCH5(C65/68S) was diminished by overexpression of active MARCH5(WT) ; the mutant proteins were degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that MARCH5 forms homodimers, and that substitution of Gly to Leu at the first putative GxxxG dimerization motif, but not the second, resulted in a loss of dimeric interaction. Moreover, overexpression of the dimerization-defective mutant MARCH5(4GL) could not decrease the level of accumulated MARCH5(H43W) , suggesting that dimerization of MARCH5 is necessary for self-clearance. Abnormal accumulation of MARCH5(H43W) and mitochondrial hyperfusion led to NF-ĸB activation, which was suppressed by overexpression of MARCH5(WT) . Together, the data reveal a self-protective mechanism involving MARCH5, which can target its own dysfunctional mutant for degradation in order to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis.

  17. MARCH1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Dampens the Innate Inflammatory Response by Modulating Monocyte Functions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbas, Tristan; Raymond, Maxime; Sabourin, Antoine; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Guimont-Desrochers, Fanny; Yun, Tae Jin; Cailhier, Jean-François; Ishido, Satoshi; Lesage, Sylvie; Cheong, Cheolho; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    Ubiquitination was recently identified as a central process in the pathogenesis and development of numerous inflammatory diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, and asthma. Treatment with proteasomal inhibitors led to severe side effects because ubiquitination is heavily involved in a plethora of cellular functions. Thus, new players regulating ubiquitination processes must be identified to improve therapies for inflammatory diseases. In addition to their role in adaptive immunity, endosomal MHC class II (MHCII) molecules were shown to modulate innate immune responses by fine tuning the TLR4 signaling pathway. However, the role of MHCII ubiquitination by membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) E3 ubiquitin ligase in this process remains to be assessed. In this article, we demonstrate that MARCH1 is a key inhibitor of innate inflammation in response to bacterial endotoxins. The higher mortality of March1(-/-) mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS was associated with significantly stronger systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines and splenic NK cell activation; however, we did not find evidence that MARCH1 modulates LPS or IL-10 signaling pathways. Instead, the mechanism by which MARCH1 protects against endotoxic shock rests on its capacity to promote the transition of monocytes from Ly6C(Hi) to Ly6C(+/-) Moreover, in competitive bone marrow chimeras, March1(-/-) monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils outcompeted wild-type cells with regard to bone marrow egress and homing to peripheral organs. We conclude that MARCH1 exerts MHCII-independent effects that regulate the innate arm of immunity. Thus, MARCH1 might represent a potential new target for emerging therapies based on ubiquitination reactions in inflammatory diseases.

  18. Percolation transitions with nonlocal constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Pyoung-Seop; Lee, Hyun Keun; Noh, Jae Dong

    2012-09-01

    We investigate percolation transitions in a nonlocal network model numerically. In this model, each node has an exclusive partner and a link is forbidden between two nodes whose r-neighbors share any exclusive pair. The r-neighbor of a node x is defined as a set of at most N(r) neighbors of x, where N is the total number of nodes. The parameter r controls the strength of a nonlocal effect. The system is found to undergo a percolation transition belonging to the mean-field universality class for r1/2, the system undergoes a peculiar phase transition from a nonpercolating phase to a quasicritical phase where the largest cluster size G scales as G~N(α) with α=0.74(1). In the marginal case with r=1/2, the model displays a percolation transition that does not belong to the mean-field universality class.

  19. Strength Pada Amalgam

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Handayani

    2008-01-01

    Amalgam didefinisikan sebagai campuran dari dua atau beberapa logam (alloy) yang salah satunya adalali merkuri. Dental amalgam sendiri merupakan campuran dari merkuri (Hg), perak (Ag), timah (Sn), tembaga (Cu) dan bahan-bahan lain yang memiliki fungsinya masing-masing, dimana sebagian diantaranya akan saling mengatasi kekurangan yang ditimbulkan logam lain, jika logam tersebut dikombinasikan dengan perbandingan yang tepat. Amalgam mempunyai strength (kekuatan) yang cukup besar sehingga dap...

  20. Character strengths and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  1. Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of NR2E3 affect in vivo dimerization and interaction with CRX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Roduit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NR2E3 (PNR is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for proper photoreceptor determination and differentiation. In humans, mutations in NR2E3 have been associated with the recessively inherited enhanced short wavelength sensitive (S- cone syndrome (ESCS and, more recently, with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. NR2E3 acts as a suppressor of the cone generation program in late mitotic retinal progenitor cells. In adult rod photoreceptors, NR2E3 represses cone-specific gene expression and acts in concert with the transcription factors CRX and NRL to activate rod-specific genes. NR2E3 and CRX have been shown to physically interact in vitro through their respective DNA-binding domains (DBD. The DBD also contributes to homo- and heterodimerization of nuclear receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed NR2E3 homodimerization and NR2E3/CRX complex formation in an in vivo situation by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET(2. NR2E3 wild-type protein formed homodimers in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. NR2E3 homodimerization was impaired in presence of disease-causing mutations in the DBD, except for the p.R76Q and p.R104W mutant proteins. Strikingly, the adRP-linked p.G56R mutant protein interacted with CRX with a similar efficiency to that of NR2E3 wild-type and p.R311Q proteins. In contrast, all other NR2E3 DBD-mutant proteins did not interact with CRX. The p.G56R mutant protein was also more effective in abolishing the potentiation of rhodospin gene transactivation by the NR2E3 wild-type protein. In addition, the p.G56R mutant enhanced the transrepression of the M- and S-opsin promoter, while all other NR2E3 DBD-mutants did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest different disease mechanisms in adRP- and ESCS-patients carrying NR2E3 mutations. Titration of CRX by the p.G56R mutant protein acting as a repressor in trans may account for the severe clinical phenotype in adRP patients.

  2. Involvement of NF-κB and muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 in cigarette smoke-induced catabolism in C2 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Sharon; Rom, Oren; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for muscular damage and sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength in old age. Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced oxidative stress and p38 MAPK activation have been shown to be the main cellular mechanisms leading to skeletal muscle catabolism. In order to investigate the involvement of NF-κB as another possible cellular mechanism by which CS promotes muscle catabolism, C2 myotubes, from an in vitro skeletal muscle cell line, were exposed to different time periods of whole vapor phase CS in the presence or absence of NF-κB inhibitor, IMD-0354. The CS-induced reduction in diameter of myotubes and time-dependent degradation of the main contractile protein myosin heavy chain were abolished by NF-κB inhibition. Also, C2 exposure to CS resulted in IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation, which led to upregulation of the muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1, but not MAFbx/atrogin-1. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that vapor phase CS exposure to skeletal myotubes triggers NF-κB activation leading to skeletal muscle cell damage and breakdown of muscle proteins mediated by muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1. Our findings provide another possible molecular mechanism for the catabolic effects of CS in skeletal muscle.

  3. PERCOLATION TRANSITION IN ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Tian; CHEN Yihong; XU Zhengmiao; XU Yuanze; HUANG Yun

    1994-01-01

    The electric conductivity, dynamic modulus and yield stress of the developed electrorheological fluid (ERF) are measured at different volume fraction and different electric field strength using a modified Rheosetrics Mechanical Spectrometer (Model 605). The percolation theory is introduced to explain electrorheological effect and found that the ERF's have the similar percolated network structure as that of other ordinary suspensions with a critical volume fraction value independent of electric field strength. A master curve of dimensionless modulus against dimensionless volume fraction is obtained. which shows that the essence of ER phenomenon actually is one kind of the second ofder phase transition.

  4. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  5. Structural analysis of lunar subsurface with Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2016-01-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information on lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E-3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in situ detector, Chang'E-3 LPR has relative higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars and earth-based radars. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E-3 in Mare Imbrium. Filter method and amplitude recovery algorithms are utilized to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Based on the processed radar image, we observe numerous diffraction hyperbolae, which may be caused by discrete reflectors beneath the lunar surface. Hyperbolae fitting method is utilized to reverse the average dielectric constant to certain depth (ε bar). Overall, the estimated ε bar increases with the depth and ε bar could be classified into three categories. Average ε bar of each category is 2.47, 3.40 and 6.16, respectively. Because of the large gap between the values of ε bar of neighboring categories, we speculate a three-layered structure of the shallow surface of LPR exploration region. One possible geological picture of the speculated three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is weathered layer of ejecta blanket with its average thickness and bound on error is 0.95±0.02 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding average thickness is about 2.30±0.07 m, which is in good agreement with the two primary models of ejecta blanket thickness as a function of distance from the crater center. The third layer is regarded as a mixture of stones and soil. The

  6. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...... of Aalborg Clay by use of triaxial tests from four different locations. Both the drained strength (c and ϕ) and the undrained strength (cu) are assessed through two different methods: one where the strength is assumed to vary with the effective stress and another where the strength is found to be constant....

  7. Novel roles of Skp2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence, cancer progression, and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guocan Wang; Chia-Hsin Chan; Yuan Gao; Hui-Kuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) belongs to the F-box protein family.It is a component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex.Skp2 has been shown to regulate cellular proliferation by targeting several cell cycle-regulated proteins for ubiquitination and degradation,including cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27.Skp2 has also been demonstrated to display an oncogenic function since its overexpression has been observed in many human cancers.This review discusses the recent discoveries on the novel roles of Skp2 in regulating cellular senescence,cancer progression,and metastasis,as well as the therapeutic potential of targeting Skp2 for human cancer treatment.

  8. RING finger palmitoylation of the endoplasmic reticulum Gp78 E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, Maria; Huang, Kun; El-Husseini, Alaa; Nabi, Ivan R

    2012-07-30

    Gp78 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase within the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. We show that Flag-tagged gp78 undergoes sulfhydryl cysteine palmitoylation (S-palmitoylation) within the RING finger motif, responsible for its ubiquitin ligase activity. Screening of 19 palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs) identified five that increased gp78 RING finger palmitoylation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Myc-DHHC6 overexpression promoted the peripheral ER distribution of Flag-gp78 while RING finger mutation and the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate restricted gp78 to the central ER. Palmitoylation of RING finger cysteines therefore regulates gp78 distribution to the peripheral ER. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. K-shell (e, 3e) double ionization of beryllium by relativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M; Joulakian, B [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Member FR CNRS 2843 Jean Barriol 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2009-03-28

    The (e, 3e) process, producing hollow metastable Be{sup 2+}(2s{sup 2}) by very energetic electrons (>100 keV), is studied by using a relativistic procedure based on the application of the first term of the Born series for the determination of the corresponding fully differential cross section. The very fast projectile electron, impinging on the K shell of the neutral beryllium, is described by Dirac plane-wave solutions with the appropriate wave vectors. All atomic electrons and the two final-state-bound electrons are taken into account by non-relativistic Jastrow-type correlated functions. The two slow ejected electrons in the continuum are described by the fully correlated three-Coulomb (3C) function. The comparison of the results with those obtained by our recent non-relativistic approach shows the necessity of the introduction of the relativistic treatment.

  10. Analysis of observational data from Extreme Ultra-Violet Camera onboard Chang'E-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; He, Han; He, Fei; Chen, Bo; Feng, Jian-Qing; Ping, Jin-Song; Shen, Chao; Xu, Rong-Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Xin

    2016-02-01

    The Extreme Ultra-Violet Camera (hereafter EUVC) is a scientific payload onboard the lander of the Chang'E-3 (hereafter CE-3) mission launched on December 1st, 2013. Centering on a spectral band around 30.4 nm, EUVC provides the global images of the Earth's plasmasphere from the meridian view, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 R_{oplus} in 150 × 150 pixels and a cadence of 10 minutes. Along with the data being publicly released online, some unsettled issues in the early stage have been clarified, including the geometrical preparations, the refined approach on the coefficient K for the background, and the alignment among the images. A demo of data after all the above processes is therefore presented as a guidance for users who are studying the structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere.

  11. TRIM E3 ligases interfere with early and late stages of the retroviral life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep D Uchil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the TRIpartite interaction Motif (TRIM family of E3 ligases have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities. Here we report a near comprehensive screen for antiretroviral activities of 55 TRIM proteins (36 human, 19 mouse. We identified approximately 20 TRIM proteins that, when transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, affect the entry or release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV, murine leukemia virus (MLV, or avian leukosis virus (ALV. While TRIM11 and 31 inhibited HIV entry, TRIM11 enhanced N-MLV entry by interfering with Ref1 restriction. Strikingly, many TRIM proteins affected late stages of the viral life cycle. Gene silencing of endogenously expressed TRIM 25, 31, and 62 inhibited viral release indicating that they play an important role at late stages of the viral life cycle. In contrast, downregulation of TRIM11 and 15 enhanced virus release suggesting that these proteins contribute to the endogenous restriction of retroviruses in cells.

  12. [Suppression of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in interleukin-1 signaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiang-Tian; Bu, Xin; Zhao, Hu; Su, Jin

    2015-08-25

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of Cbl-b, a member of E3 ubiquitin ligase family, on interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway in synoviocytes. The protein expression levels of Cbl-b and IL-1-induced matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) in synoviocytes were analyzed by Western blot. Collagen substrates were incubated with the conditioned medium collected from synoviocytes cultures and then subjected to SDS-PAGE for analysis of collagen degradation. The results showed that compared with wild-type cells, Cbl-b-deficient cells expressed more MMP-13 protein and had enhanced ability to degrade collagens under IL-1 stimulation. These data suggest that Cbl-b may negatively regulate IL-1-triggered degradation of collagen matrix in synoviocytes.

  13. Structure and aggregation proclivity of C12E3 in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Ts.; Ivanova, A.; Velinova, M.; Tadjer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Olygo(ethylene glycol) alkyl ethers - CxEy are well known for their high surface activity and rich phase behavior. These substances exhibit some unusual aggregation characteristics in aqueous solution even at concentrations well below CMC attributed to the formation of pre-aggregates of small size, e.g., dimers. To verify this, a series of C12E3 dimers with initial geometries taken from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations is subject to geometry optimization with two quantum chemical methods: DFT and ONIOM in implicit water solvent. The resulting structures are classified into groups based on structural parameters. Their stability is assessed by relative and binding energy and rationalized in terms of molecular characteristics. All studied dimers are stable and various mutual alignments of the surfactants therein are feasible. The loss of surface area is outlined as the predominant stabilizing factor. Substantial number of the structures is suitable for further aggregation.

  14. Design and Environmental Verification of Chang'E-3 Moon-night Survival Device for APXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.; Wu, J.; Hu, Y. M.; Chang, J.; Gong, Y. Z.; Cai, M. S.; Wang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; Cui, X. Z.; Wang, J. Y.

    2015-09-01

    The Active Particle X-ray Spectrum (APXS) is one of the 4 scientific payloads of Chang'E-3 (CE-3) Lunar Rover, of which the scientific object is to identify the elements of lunar soil and rock samples. In this paper, the moon-night temperature of the moon surface will be described, and due to the cold environment the APXS will undergo after its landing. Thus, a specialized instrument which is named the moon-night survival device using the Radioisotope Heat Unit (RHU) as its heater source is designed to ensure APXS storage temperature requirements with limited sources on the satellite. In the end, a series of environmental tests are performed, and the installation of RHU on the launch tower as well as the status of the APXS working on orbit is presented since its launching in 2013.

  15. Design and Experimental Verification of Chang'E-3 Moon-night Survival Device for APXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng-yi, Chen; Jian, Wu; Yi-ming, Hu; Jin, Chang; Yi-zhong, Gong; Ming-sheng, Cai; Huan-yu, Wang; Jia-yu, Zhang; Xing-zhu, Cui; Jin-zhou, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The Active Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is one of the 4 scientific payloads of Chang'E-3 (CE-3) Lunar Rover, of which the scientific object is to identify the elements of lunar soil and rock samples by a carried radioactive source to trigger and detect the characteristic X-ray from them. According to the extreme temperature environment of the APXS and under the restriction of limited resources, this paper presents the design and analysis of the moon-night survival device RHU (radioisotope heating unit) for the APXS, and describes the corresponding environmental tests on its structure dynamics and moon-night survival. Finally, its reinstallation on the launch tower and the preliminary result of its on-orbit operation are introduced.

  16. Speed Measurement and Motion Analysis of Chang'E-3 Rover Based on Differential Phase Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pan; Qing-hui, Liu; Xin, Zheng; Qing-bao, He; Ya-jun, Wu

    2016-04-01

    On 14th December 2013, the Chang'E-3 made a successful soft landing on the lunar surface, and then carried out the tasks of separating the lander and the rover, and taking pictures of each other. With the same beam VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique to observe the signals transmitted by the lander and the rover simultaneously, the differential phase delay between them is calculated, which can reflect the minor changes of the rover's position on a scale of a few centimeters. Based on the high sensitivity of differential phase delay, the rover's speeds during 5 movements are obtained with an average of 0.056 m/s. The relationship between the rover's shake in the moving process and the lunar terrain is analyzed by using the spectrum of the residual of the differential phase delay after the first-order polynomial fitting.

  17. Cullin4B/E3-ubiquitin ligase negatively regulates -catenin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachana Tripathi; Satya Keerthi Kota; Usha K Srinivas

    2007-09-01

    -catenin is the key transducer of Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member (Wnt) signalling, upregulation of which is the cause of cancer of the colon and other tissues. In the absence of Wnt signals, -catenin is targeted to ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation. Here we present the functional characterization of E3-ubiquitin ligase encoded by cul4B. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Cul4B in a mouse cell line C3H T10 (1/2) results in an increase in -catenin levels. Loss-of-function mutation in Drosophila cul4 also shows increased -catenin/Armadillo levels in developing embryos and displays a characteristic naked-cuticle phenotype. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Cul4B and -catenin are part of a signal complex in Drosophila, mouse and human. These preliminary results suggest a conserved role for Cul4B in the regulation of -catenin levels.

  18. Ret Finger Protein: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Juxtaposed to the XY Body in Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Gillot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During prophase I of male meiosis, the sex chromosomes form a compact structure called XY body that associates with the nuclear membrane of pachytene spermatocytes. Ret Finger Protein is a transcriptional repressor, able to interact with both nuclear matrix-associated proteins and double-stranded DNA. We report the precise and unique localization of Ret Finger Protein in pachytene spermatocytes, in which Ret Finger Protein takes place of lamin B1, between the XY body and the inner nuclear membrane. This localization of Ret Finger Protein does not seem to be associated with O-glycosylation or sumoylation. In addition, we demonstrate that Ret Finger Protein contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. These observations lead to an attractive hypothesis in which Ret Finger Protein would be involved in the positioning and the attachment of XY body to the nuclear lamina of pachytene spermatocytes.

  19. Chang'e 3 and Jade Rabbit's: observations and the landing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jinsong

    Chang’E-3 was launched and landed on the near side of the Moon in December 2013. It is realizing the 2nd phase of Chinese lunar scientific exploration projects. Together with the various in-situ optical observations around the landing sites, the mission carried 4 kinds of radio science experiments, cover the various lunar scientific disciplines as well as lunar surface radio astronomy studies. The key payloads onboard the lander and rover include the near ultraviolet telescope, extreme ultraviolet cameras, ground penetrating radar, very low frequency radio spectrum analyzer, which have not been used in earlier lunar landing missions. Optical spectrometer, Alpha Paticle X-ray spectrometer and Gama Ray spectrometer is also used. The mission is using extreme ultraviolet camera to observe the sun activity and geomagnetic disturbances on geo-space plasma layer of extreme ultraviolet radiation, studying space weather in the plasma layer role in the process; the mission also carries the first time lunar base optical astronomical observations. Most importantly, the topography, landforms and geological structure has been explored in detail. Additionally, the very precise Earth-Moon radio phase ranging technique was firstly tested and realized in this mission. It may increase the study of lunar dyanmics together with LLR technique. Similar to Luna-Glob landers, together with the VLBI radio beacons, the radio transponders are also set on the Chang’E-3. Transponder will receive the uplink X band radio wave transmitted from the two newly constructed Chinese deep space stations, where the high quality hydrogen maser atomic clocks have been used as local time and frequency standard. Radio science receivers have been developed by updating the multi-channel open loop Doppler receiver developed for VLBI and Doppler tracking in Yinghuo-1 and Phobos-Glob Martian missions. This experiment will improve the study of lunar dynamics, by means of measuring the lunar physical liberations

  20. Immersive Virtual Moon Scene System Based on Panoramic Camera Data of Chang'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Liu, J.; Mu, L.; Yan, W.; Zeng, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    The system "Immersive Virtual Moon Scene" is used to show the virtual environment of Moon surface in immersive environment. Utilizing stereo 360-degree imagery from panoramic camera of Yutu rover, the system enables the operator to visualize the terrain and the celestial background from the rover's point of view in 3D. To avoid image distortion, stereo 360-degree panorama stitched by 112 images is projected onto inside surface of sphere according to panorama orientation coordinates and camera parameters to build the virtual scene. Stars can be seen from the Moon at any time. So we render the sun, planets and stars according to time and rover's location based on Hipparcos catalogue as the background on the sphere. Immersing in the stereo virtual environment created by this imaged-based rendering technique, the operator can zoom, pan to interact with the virtual Moon scene and mark interesting objects. Hardware of the immersive virtual Moon system is made up of four high lumen projectors and a huge curve screen which is 31 meters long and 5.5 meters high. This system which take all panoramic camera data available and use it to create an immersive environment, enable operator to interact with the environment and mark interesting objects contributed heavily to establishment of science mission goals in Chang'E-3 mission. After Chang'E-3 mission, the lab with this system will be open to public. Besides this application, Moon terrain stereo animations based on Chang'E-1 and Chang'E-2 data will be showed to public on the huge screen in the lab. Based on the data of lunar exploration,we will made more immersive virtual moon scenes and animations to help the public understand more about the Moon in the future.

  1. Chaperone-dependent E3 ligase CHIP ubiquitinates and mediates proteasomal degradation of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Zeng, Jingmin; Antonova, Galina N; Snead, Connie; Venema, Richard C; Fulton, David; Qian, Shuibing; Patterson, Cam; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Catravas, John D

    2007-11-01

    The nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) exists in multimeric protein complexes, including heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Inhibition of HSP90 by geldanamycin causes proteasomal degradation of sGC protein. In this study, we have investigated whether COOH terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP), a co-chaperone molecule that is involved in protein folding but is also a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase, could play a role in the process of degradation of sGC. Transient overexpression of CHIP in COS-7 cells degraded heterologous sGC in a concentration-related manner; this downregulation of sGC was abrogated by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Transfection of tetratricopeptide repeats and U-box domain CHIP mutants attenuated sGC degradation, suggesting that both domains are indispensable for CHIP function. Results from immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that CHIP is associated with sGC, HSP90, and HSP70 in COS-7 cells. Furthermore, CHIP increased the association of HSP70 with sGC. In in vitro ubiquitination assays using purified proteins and ubiquitin enzymes, E3 ligase CHIP directly ubiquitinated sGC; this ubiquitination was potentiated by geldanamycin in COS-7 cells, followed by proteasomal degradation. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, endogenous sGC was also degraded by adenovirus-infected wild-type CHIP but not by the chaperone interaction-deficient K30A CHIP, whereas CHIP, but not K30A, attenuated sGC expression in, and nitric oxide donor-induced relaxation of, rat aortic rings, suggesting that CHIP plays a regulatory role under physiological conditions. This study reveals a new mechanism for the regulation of sGC, an important mediator of cellular and vascular function.

  2. Lenalidomide Stabilizes the Erythropoietin Receptor by Inhibiting the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RNF41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiorka, Ashley A; McGraw, Kathy L; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Griner, Lori N; Zhang, Ling; Clark, Justine A; Caceres, Gisela; Sokol, Lubomir; Komrokji, Rami S; Reuther, Gary W; Wei, Sheng; Tavernier, Jan; List, Alan F

    2016-06-15

    In a subset of patients with non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), lenalidomide promotes erythroid lineage competence and effective erythropoiesis. To determine the mechanism by which lenalidomide promotes erythropoiesis, we investigated its action on erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) cellular dynamics. Lenalidomide upregulated expression and stability of JAK2-associated EpoR in UT7 erythroid cells and primary CD71+ erythroid progenitors. The effects of lenalidomide on receptor turnover were Type I cytokine receptor specific, as evidenced by coregulation of the IL3-Rα receptor but not c-Kit. To elucidate this mechanism, we investigated the effects of lenalidomide on the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF41. Lenalidomide promoted EpoR/RNF41 association and inhibited RNF41 auto-ubiquitination, accompanied by a reduction in EpoR ubiquitination. To confirm that RNF41 is the principal target responsible for EpoR stabilization, HEK293T cells were transfected with EpoR and/or RNF41 gene expression vectors. Steady-state EpoR expression was reduced in EpoR/RNF41 cells, whereas EpoR upregulation by lenalidomide was abrogated, indicating that cellular RNF41 is a critical determinant of drug-induced receptor modulation. Notably, shRNA suppression of CRBN gene expression failed to alter EpoR upregulation, indicating that drug-induced receptor modulation is independent of cereblon. Immunohistochemical staining showed that RNF41 expression decreased in primary erythroid cells of lenalidomide-responding patients, suggesting that cellular RNF41 expression merits investigation as a biomarker for lenalidomide response. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide has E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitory effects that extend to RNF41 and that inhibition of RNF41 auto-ubiquitination promotes membrane accumulation of signaling competent JAK2/EpoR complexes that augment Epo responsiveness. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3531-40. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Chang'E-3 data pre-processing system based on scientific workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    tan, xu; liu, jianjun; wang, yuanyuan; yan, wei; zhang, xiaoxia; li, chunlai

    2016-04-01

    The Chang'E-3(CE3) mission have obtained a huge amount of lunar scientific data. Data pre-processing is an important segment of CE3 ground research and application system. With a dramatic increase in the demand of data research and application, Chang'E-3 data pre-processing system(CEDPS) based on scientific workflow is proposed for the purpose of making scientists more flexible and productive by automating data-driven. The system should allow the planning, conduct and control of the data processing procedure with the following possibilities: • describe a data processing task, include:1)define input data/output data, 2)define the data relationship, 3)define the sequence of tasks,4)define the communication between tasks,5)define mathematical formula, 6)define the relationship between task and data. • automatic processing of tasks. Accordingly, Describing a task is the key point whether the system is flexible. We design a workflow designer which is a visual environment for capturing processes as workflows, the three-level model for the workflow designer is discussed:1) The data relationship is established through product tree.2)The process model is constructed based on directed acyclic graph(DAG). Especially, a set of process workflow constructs, including Sequence, Loop, Merge, Fork are compositional one with another.3)To reduce the modeling complexity of the mathematical formulas using DAG, semantic modeling based on MathML is approached. On top of that, we will present how processed the CE3 data with CEDPS.

  4. Role of SKP1-CUL1-F-Box-Protein (SCF) E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Skin Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Ming Xie; Wenyi Wei; Yi Sun

    2013-01-01

    Many biological processes such as cell proliferation,differentiation,and cell death depend precisely on the timely synthesis and degradation of key regulatory proteins.While protein synthesis can be regulated at multiple levels,protein degradation is mainly controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS),which consists of two distinct steps:(1) ubiquitylation of targeted protein by E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme,E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and E3 ubiquitin ligase,and (2) subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome.Among all E3 ubiquitin ligases,the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ligases are the largest family and are responsible for the turnover of many key regulatory proteins.Aberrant regulation of SCF E3 ligases is associated with various human diseases,such as cancers,including skin cancer.In this review,we provide a comprehensive overview of all currently published data to define a promoting role of SCF E3 ligases in the development of skin cancer.The future directions in this area of research are also discussed with an ultimate goal to develop small molecule inhibitors of SCF E3 ligases as a novel approach for the treatment of human skin cancer.Furthermore,altered components or substrates of SCF E3 ligases may also be developed as the biomarkers for early diagnosis or predicting prognosis.

  5. FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS, PHASE I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program included the testing and evaluation of commercial and military field- strength meters. It also included a study of the interpretation of...field- strength measurement data taken under multipath conditions. As part of the field- strength meter evaluation, five instruments, the AN/TRM-7, NF...interpretation of the measured data is the variability of field- strength values obtained over an area. Such variability is caused by the presence of multipath

  6. A hybrid toxin from bacteriophage f1 attachment protein and colicin E3 has altered cell receptor specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakes, K S; Davis, N G; Zinder, N D

    1988-01-01

    A hybrid protein was constructed in vitro which consists of the first 372 amino acids of the attachment (gene III) protein of filamentous bacteriophage f1 fused, in frame, to the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of colicin E3. The hybrid toxin killed cells that had the F-pilus receptor for phage f1 but not F- cells. The activity of the hybrid protein was not dependent upon the presence of the colicin E3 receptor, BtuB protein. The killing activity was colicin E3 specific, since F+ cells expr...

  7. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  8. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  9. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  10. Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.

  11. Tessellations & Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes two sixth-grade lessons on the work of M. C. Escher: (1) the first lesson instructs students on tessellations, or tiles that interlock in a repeated pattern; (2) the second lesson explores Escher's drawings of transitions from two- to three-dimensional space. (DSK)

  12. Presidential Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-09

    Morton Mintz and Stuart Auerbach, “Ford Solicits Suggestions on No. 2 Man,” Washington Post, Aug. 11, 1974, p. A1. 64 Fred Austin, “Ford Begins Move...representatives of the federal departments and agencies to ensure a smooth transition. Management and organizational issues should be CRS-23 105 Carl Brauer

  13. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Observations Close to Enceladus: E3, E5 and E7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, R. L.; Johnson, R. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Goldstein, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C.; Coates, A. J.; Paty, C. S.; Jia, Y.; Omidi, N.; Russell, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected freshly-produced water-group ions (O+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+) and heavier water dimer ions (HxO2)+ very close to Enceladus where the plasma begins to emerge from the south polar plume (1). The data were obtained during two close (52 and 25 km) flybys of Enceladus in 2008 (E3 and E5) and are consistent with measurements from the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS). The ions are observed in CAPS detectors looking in the Cassini ram direction close to the ram kinetic energy, indicative of a nearly stagnant plasma flow in the plume. North of Enceladus the plasma slowing commences about 4 to 6 Enceladus radii away, while south of Enceladus signatures of the plasma interaction with the plume are detected 22 Enceladus radii away. Here we review and contrast these observations including the E7 flyby (anticipated Nov. 2, 2009). E7 is planned for a closest approach ~103 km south of Enceladus and CAPS should detect ions at rest with respect to Enceladus and over a broad range of gyrophase angles. Plasma fluid parameters both upstream and downstream of these encounters are extracted from the CAPS data. In addition, we compare the CAPS ion measurements with both fluid and 3D hybrid simulations. The MHD simulations (BATSRUS) are tuned to agree with Cassini Magnetometer (MAG) observations during the encounters then compared with CAPS observations. For example, for the E3 encounter the CAPS/BATSRUS comparison is striking, with features reproduced such as: the overall spatial scale of the interaction, the slowing of the ion flow within the dust plume to less than 5 km/s with respect to Enceladus, the temperature, flow and density signature of the geometric wake, and the flow perturbation along the magnetic field due to wake expansion. For E5, BATSRUS tuned against MAG suggests a 15 km/s bulk plasma flow toward Saturn during the encounter. We search for signatures of this flow in the CAPS ion data. 1.) Tokar,R.L. et al. Geophys. Res

  14. Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, E L; Liebes, L; Wasserheit, C; Noz, M E; Blank, E W; Zabalegui, A; Melamed, J; Furmanski, P; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate radiometal-labeled humanized BrE-3 (huBrE-3) monoclonal antibody as a radioimmunolocalization and therapeutic agent in breast cancer patients, tumor localization, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, and immunogenicity of (111)In-labeled combined 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 3-methyl- and 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 4-methyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (MX-DTPA) huBrE-3 were studied. Seven women with BrE-3 antigen-positive, metastatic breast carcinoma underwent (111)In huBrE-3 infusion (5 mCi; 50 mg), followed by serial gamma camera imaging and plasma sampling. Region of interest analysis of images was used to make radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3. Data were extrapolated to 90Y huBrE-3. Human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response was measured in serum samples obtained up to 3 months after infusion. Patients tolerated infusions well. Seventy-six percent of 105 known sites of disease were identified on planar and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. For six of seven patients, a biexponential model fit the plasma time-activity curve best with an average T1/2alpha=10.6+/-8.5 (SD) h and average T1/2beta=114.2+/-39.2 h. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3 for whole body averaged 0.53+/-.08 rads/mCi. Dose estimates for 90Y huBrE-3 for marrow averaged 8.4+/-11.9 rads/mCi, and for tumors, 70+/-31.5 rads/mCi. Liver radioactivity uptake averaged 19.7+/-8.8% injected dose at 24 h after infusion, translating into an average radiation absorbed dose 21.1+/-12 rads/90Y mCi administered. Only one of seven patients demonstrated a low level of HAHA response. Although the plasma half-lives are longer and marrow dose higher for radiolabeled huBrE-3 compared with the murine construct, the excellent tumor localization, good tumor dosimetry, and low immunogenicity support the use of 90Y-huBrE-3 antibody for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer.

  15. The Arabidopsis MIEL1 E3 ligase negatively regulates ABA signalling by promoting protein turnover of MYB96

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong Gil; Seo, Pil Joon

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant responses to various environmental challenges. Controlled protein turnover is an important component of ABA signalling. Here we show that the RING-type E3 ligase MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) regulates ABA sensitivity by promoting MYB96 turnover in Arabidopsis. Germination of MIEL1-deficient mutant seeds is hypersensitive to ABA, whereas MIEL1-overexpressing transgenic seeds are less sensitive. MIEL1 can interact with MYB96, a regul...

  16. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe: the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Foster, Paul J; Hammond, Christopher J; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, José; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2016-02-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact of visual outcomes in European populations (including temporal trends and European subregions), identification of risk factors and pathways for eye diseases (lifestyle, vascular and metabolic factors, genetics, epigenetics and biomarkers) and development and validation of prediction models for eye diseases. Coordinating these existing data will allow a detailed study of the risk factors and consequences of eye diseases and visual impairment, including study of international geographical variation which is not possible in individual studies. It is expected that collaborative work on these existing data will provide additional knowledge, despite the fact that the risk factors and the methods for collecting them differ somewhat among the participating studies. Most studies also include biobanks of various biological samples, which will enable identification of biomarkers to detect and predict occurrence and progression of eye diseases. This article outlines the rationale of the consortium, its design and presents a summary of the methodology.

  17. Interaction between Mnk2 and CBCVHL ubiquitin ligase E3 complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pingzhang; WANG Xin; WANG Feng; CAI Tianjing; LUO Ying

    2006-01-01

    MAP kinase-interacting kinase-2 (Mnk2) is one of the downstream kinases activated by MAP kinases. It phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), although the role of eIF4E phosphorylation and the role of Mnk2 in the process of protein translation are not well understood. Except for eIF4E, other physiological substrates of Mnk2 are still unidentified. To look for these unidentified substrates and to reveal the physiological function of Mnk2, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening with Mnk2 as the bait. The results demonstrated Mnk2 could interact with VHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor), Rbx1 (ring-box 1) and Cul2 (Cullin2) proteins in yeast cells. Furthermore, we validated the interaction between Mnk2 and VHL proteins in mammalian cells by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Because the three proteins VHL, Rbx1 and Cul2 are all components of the CBCVHL ubiquitin ligase E3 complex, it has been shown that Mnk2 can interact with CBCVHL complex, and is probably one of the new substrates of the CBCVHL complex. Furthermore, during the interaction of Mnk2 with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor- binding protein 1 (VBP1), it appears that Mnk2 also joins to modulate cell shape as VBP1 plays an important role in the process of the maturation of the cytoskeleton and in the process of morphogenesis.

  18. High Precision Topographic Mapping at Chang'E-3 Landing Site with Multi-Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, B.; Xu, B.; Liu, Z.; Di, K.; Zhou, J.

    2014-04-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) is the first lander and rover of China following the success of Chang'e-1 and Chang'e-2 (CE-2) orbiters. High precision topographic mapping can provide detailed terrain information to ensure the safety of the rover as well as to support scientific investigations. In this research, multi-source data are co-registered into a uniform geographic framework for high precision topographic mapping at the CE-3 landing site. CE-2 CCD images with 7 m- and 1.5 m- resolutions are registered using selfcalibration bundle adjustment method with ground control points (GCPs) selected from LRO WAC mosaic map and LOLA DTM. The trajectory of CE-3 descent images are recovered using self-calibration free net bundle adjustment, and then the topographic data is rectified by absolute orientation with GCPs selected from the adjusted CE-2 DEM and DOM. Finally, these topographic data are integrated into the same geographic framework for unified, multi-scale, high precision mapping of the CE-3 landing site. Key technologies and the mapping products of this research have been used to support the surface operations of CE-3 mission.

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is essential for mouse embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kajiro

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological conditions. Trip12 is a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ARF and APP-BP1. However, the significance of Trip12 in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is indispensable for mouse embryogenesis. A homozygous mutation in Trip12 (Trip12(mt/mt that disrupts the ubiquitin ligase activity resulted in embryonic lethality in the middle stage of development. Trip12(mt/mt embryos exhibited growth arrest and increased expression of the negative cell cycle regulator p16. In contrast, Trip12(mt/mt ES cells were viable. They had decreased proliferation, but maintained both the undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate. Trip12(mt/mt ES cells had increased levels of the BAF57 protein (a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and altered gene expression patterns. These data suggest that Trip12 is involved in global gene expression and plays an important role in mouse development.

  20. The evolutionarily conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase AtCHIP contributes to plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess a sophisticated immune system to recognize and respond to microbial threats in their environment. The level of immune signaling must be tightly regulated so that immune responses can be quickly activated in the presence of pathogens, while avoiding autoimmunity. HSP90s, along with their diverse array of co-chaperones, forms chaperone complexes that have been shown to play both positive and negative roles in regulating the accumulation of immune receptors and regulators. In this study, we examined the role of AtCHIP, an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that was known to interact with chaperones including HSP90s in multicellular organisms including fruit fly, C. elegans, plants and human. Atchip knockout mutants display enhanced disease susceptibility to a virulent oomycete pathogen, and overexpression of AtCHIP causes enhanced disease resistance at low temperature. Although CHIP was reported to target HSP90 for ubiquitination and degradation, accumulation of HSP90.3 was not affected in Atchip plants. In addition, protein accumulation of nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat domain immune receptor (NLR SNC1 is not altered in Atchip mutant. Thus, while AtCHIP plays a role in immunity, it does not seem to regulate the turnover of HSP90 or SNC1. Further investigation is needed in order to determine the exact mechanism behind AtCHIP’s role in regulating plant immune responses.

  1. BICP0 and its RING finger domain act as ubiquitin E3 ligases in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Lirong; QIAO Wentao; CHEN Qimin; WANG Chen; GENG Yunqi

    2005-01-01

    Bovine infected-cell protein 0 (BICP0) encoded by bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) immediate early gene is necessary for efficient productive infection, in a large part because it activates all 3 classes of BHV-1 genes. It also has the ability to efficiently transactivate promoters that are not derived from BHV-1. To investigate the mechanism by which BICP0 achieves these effects, we expressed and purified BICP0 and its different mutants in E. coli. In vitro assays showed that both full-length BICP0 and its isolated RING finger domain induce the accumulation of polyubiquitin chains. Mutations within the RING finger region that abolish the in vitro ubiquitination activity also cause severe reductions in BICP0 activity in other assays. Based on these, we conclude that BICP0 has the potential to act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase during viral infection and its RING finger domain is necessary for this function. These strongly support the hypothesis that BICP0 might influence virus infection through its ability to interact with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

  2. CRL4A(CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase restricts BK channel activity and prevents epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiye; Ye, Jia; Zou, Xiaolong; Xu, Zhenghao; Feng, Yan; Zou, Xianxian; Chen, Zhong; Li, Yuezhou; Cang, Yong

    2014-05-21

    Ion channels regulate membrane excitation, and mutations of ion channels often cause serious neurological disorders including epilepsy. Compared with extensive analyses of channel protein structure and function, much less is known about the fine tuning of channel activity by post-translational modification. Here we report that the large conductance, Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels are targeted by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4A(CRBN) for polyubiquitination and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inactivation of CRL4A(CRBN) releases deubiquitinated BK channels from the ER to the plasma membrane, leading to markedly enhanced channel activity. Mice with CRL4A(CRBN) mutation in the brain or treated with a CRL4A(CRBN) inhibitor are very sensitive to seizure induction, which can be attenuated by blocking BK channels. Finally, the mutant mice develop spontaneous epilepsy when aged. Therefore, ubiquitination of BK channels before their cell surface expression is an important step to prevent systemic neuronal excitability and epileptogenesis.

  3. Natural polymorphisms in C. elegans HECW-1 E3 ligase affect pathogen avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard C; Paek, Jennifer; Kim, Dennis H

    2011-11-16

    Heritable variation in behavioural traits generally has a complex genetic basis, and thus naturally occurring polymorphisms that influence behaviour have been defined only in rare instances. The isolation of wild strains of Caenorhabditis elegans has facilitated the study of natural genetic variation in this species and provided insights into its diverse microbial ecology. C. elegans responds to bacterial infection with conserved innate immune responses and, although lacking the immunological memory of vertebrate adaptive immunity, shows an aversive learning response to pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report the molecular characterization of naturally occurring coding polymorphisms in a C. elegans gene encoding a conserved HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, HECW-1. We show that two distinct polymorphisms in neighbouring residues of HECW-1 each affect C. elegans behavioural avoidance of a lawn of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Neuron-specific rescue and ablation experiments and genetic interaction analysis indicate that HECW-1 functions in a pair of sensory neurons to inhibit P. aeruginosa lawn avoidance behaviour through inhibition of the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1 (ref. 10), which we have previously shown promotes P. aeruginosa lawn avoidance behaviour. Our data establish a molecular basis for natural variation in a C. elegans behaviour that may undergo adaptive changes in response to microbial pathogens.

  4. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  5. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TMEM129 Is a Tri-Spanning Transmembrane Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. van de Weijer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER are transported back into the cytosol for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The human cytomegalovirus protein US11 hijacks this ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD pathway to downregulate human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules in virus-infected cells, thereby evading elimination by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Recently, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase transmembrane protein 129 (TMEM129 as a key player in this process, where interference with TMEM129 activity in human cells completely abrogates US11-mediated class I degradation. Here, we set out to further characterize TMEM129. We show that TMEM129 is a non-glycosylated protein containing a non-cleaved signal anchor sequence. By glycosylation scanning mutagenesis, we show that TMEM129 is a tri-spanning ER-membrane protein that adopts an Nexo–Ccyto orientation. This insertion in the ER membrane positions the C-terminal really interesting new gene (RING domain of TMEM129 in the cytosol, making it available to catalyze ubiquitination reactions that are required for cytosolic degradation of secretory proteins.

  6. Natural variation and dosage of the HEI10 meiotic E3 ligase control Arabidopsis crossover recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Piotr A.; Underwood, Charles J.; Lambing, Christophe; Martinez-Garcia, Marina; Lawrence, Emma J.; Ziolkowska, Liliana; Griffin, Catherine; Choi, Kyuha; Franklin, F. Chris H.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2017-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations. We mapped rQTL1 to semidominant polymorphisms in HEI10, which encodes a conserved ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates crossovers. Null hei10 mutants are haploinsufficient, and, using genome-wide mapping and immunocytology, we show that transformation of additional HEI10 copies is sufficient to more than double euchromatic crossovers. However, heterochromatic centromeres remained recombination-suppressed. The strongest HEI10-mediated crossover increases occur in subtelomeric euchromatin, which is reminiscent of sex differences in Arabidopsis recombination. Our work reveals that HEI10 naturally limits Arabidopsis crossovers and has the potential to influence the response to selection. PMID:28223312

  7. The HECTD3 E3 ubiquitin ligase suppresses cisplatin-induced apoptosis via stabilizing MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zehua; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Wenlin; Zhou, Zhongmei; Zhang, Junran; Zhang, Jing; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Ceshi

    2013-01-01

    Homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus domain containing 3 (HECTD3) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with unknown functions. Here, we show that HECTD3 confers cancer cell resistance to cisplatin. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis and identified mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) as an HECTD3-interacting protein. HECTD3 promotes MALT1 ubiquitination with nondegradative polyubiquitin chains by direct interacting with the MALT1 through its N-terminal destruction of cyclin domain. HECTD3 does not target MALT1 for degradation but stabilize it. HECTD3 depletion dramatically decreases the levels of MALT1 in MCF7 and HeLa cells treated with cisplatin, which is correlated to an increase in apoptosis. Knockdown of MALT1 likewise increases cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells. However, HECTD3 over-expression leads to a decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of MALT1 partially rescues HECTD3 depletion-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that HECTD3 promotes cell survival through stabilizing MALT1. Our data have important implications in cancer therapy by providing novel molecular targets.

  8. The HECTD3 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Suppresses Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Stabilizing MALT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus domain containing 3 (HECTD3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with unknown functions. Here, we show that HECTD3 confers cancer cell resistance to cisplatin. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis and identified mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1 as an HECTD3-interacting protein. HECTD3 promotes MALT1 ubiquitination with non-degradative polyubiquitin chains by direct interacting with the MALT1 through its N-terminal destruction of cyclin domain. HECTD3 does not target MALT1 for degradation but stabilize it. HECTD3 depletion dramatically decreases the levels of MALT1 in MCF7 and HeLa cells treated with cisplatin, which is correlated to an increase in apoptosis. Knockdown of MALT1 likewise increases cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells. However, HECTD3 overexpression leads to a decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of MALT1 partially rescues HECTD3 depletion–induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that HECTD3 promotes cell survival through stabilizing MALT1. Our data have important implications in cancer therapy by providing novel molecular targets.

  9. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiao-Li

    2016-04-29

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

  10. Myc protein is stabilized by suppression of a novel E3 ligase complex in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung H.; Wright, Jason B.; Gerber, Scott A.; Cole, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Myc protein turnover is critical for maintaining basal levels of Myc activity in normal cells and a prompt response to changing growth signals. We characterize a new Myc-interacting factor, TRPC4AP (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4-associated protein)/TRUSS (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ubiquitous scaffolding and signaling protein), which is the receptor for a DDB1 (damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1)–CUL4 (Cullin 4) E3 ligase complex for selective Myc degradation through the proteasome. TRPC4AP/TRUSS binds specifically to the Myc C terminus and promotes its ubiquitination and destruction through the recognition of evolutionarily conserved domains in the Myc N terminus. TRPC4AP/TRUSS suppresses Myc-mediated transactivation and transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we found that TRPC4AP/TRUSS expression is strongly down-regulated in most cancer cell lines, leading to Myc protein stabilization. These studies identify a novel pathway targeting Myc degradation that is suppressed in cancer cells. PMID:20551172

  11. ATLs and BTLs, plant-specific and general eukaryotic structurally-related E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Plinio

    2014-02-01

    Major components of the ubiquitin proteasome system are the enzymes that operate on the transfer of ubiquitin to selected target substrate, known as ubiquitin ligases. The RING finger is a domain that is present in key classes of ubiquitin ligases. This domain coordinates the interaction with a suitable E2 conjugase and the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to protein targets. Additional domains coupled to the same polypeptide are important for modulating the function of these ubiquitin ligases. Plants contain several types of E3 ubiquitin ligases that in many cases have expanded as multigene families. Some families are specific to the plant lineage, whereas others may have a common ancestor among plants and other eukaryotic lineages. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATLs) and BCA2 zinc finger ATLs (BTLs) are two families of ubiquitin ligases that share some common structural features. These are intronless genes that encode a highly related RING finger domain, and yet during evolutionary history, their mode of gene expansion and function is rather different. In each of these two families, the co-occurrence of transmembrane helices or C2/C2 (BZF finger) domains with a selected variation on the RING finger has been subjected to strong selection pressure in order to preserve their unique domain architectures during evolution.

  12. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  13. Termination of single-crystal B i2S e3 surfaces prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weimin; Zhu, Haoshan; Yarmoff, Jory A.

    2016-11-01

    Bismuth Selenide (B i2S e3) is a topological insulator with a two-dimensional layered structure that enables clean and well-ordered surfaces to be prepared by cleaving. Although some studies have demonstrated that the cleaved surface is terminated with Se, as expected from the bulk crystal structure, other reports have indicated either a Bi- or mixed-termination. Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used here to compare surfaces prepared by ex situ cleaving, in situ cleaving, and ion bombardment and annealing (IBA) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Surfaces prepared by in situ cleaving and IBA are well ordered and Se-terminated. Ex situ cleaved samples could be either Se-terminated or Bi-rich, are less well ordered and have adsorbed contaminants. This suggests that a chemical reaction involving atmospheric contaminants, which may preferentially adsorb at surface defects, could contribute to the nonreproducibility of the termination.

  14. RING finger E3 ligase PPP1R11 regulates TLR2 signaling and innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Alison C; Lear, Travis B; Dunn, Sarah R; Evankovich, John; Londino, James D; Bednash, Joseph S; Zhang, Yingze; McVerry, Bryan J; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Bill B

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes many types of PAMPs that originate from gram-positive bacteria. Here we describe a novel mechanism regulating TLR2 protein expression and subsequent cytokine release through the ubiquitination and degradation of the receptor in response to ligand stimulation. We show a new mechanism in which an uncharacterized RING finger E3 ligase, PPP1R11, directly ubiquitinates TLR2 both in vitro and in vivo, which leads to TLR2 degradation and disruption of the signaling cascade. Lentiviral gene transfer or knockdown of PPP1R11 in mouse lungs significantly affects lung inflammation and the clearance of Staphylococcus aureus. There is a negative correlation between PPP1R11 and TLR2 levels in white blood cell samples isolated from patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections. These results suggest that PPP1R11 plays an important role in regulating innate immunity and gram-positive bacterial clearance by functioning, in part, through the ubiquitination and degradation of TLR2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18496.001 PMID:27805901

  15. Modulation of immune cell functions by the E3 ligase CBL-b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eLutz-Nicoladoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of immunological tolerance is a critical hallmark of the immune system. Several signaling checkpoints necessary to balance activating and inhibitory input to immune cells have been described so far, among which the E3 ligase Cbl-b appears to be a central player. Cbl-b is expressed in all leukocyte subsets and regulates several signaling pathways in T cells, NK cells, B cells and different types of myeloid cells. In most cases Cbl-b negatively regulates activation signals through antigen or pattern recognition receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. In line with this function, cblb-deficient immune cells display lower activation thresholds and cblb knockout mice spontaneously develop autoimmunity and are highly susceptible to experimental autoimmunity. Interestingly, genetic association studies link cblb-polymorphisms with autoimmunity also in humans. Vice versa, the increased activation potential of cblb-deficient cells renders them more potent to fight against malignancies or infections. Accordingly, several reports have shown that cblb knockout mice reject tumors, which mainly depends on cytotoxic T and NK cells. Thus targeting Cbl-b may be an interesting strategy to enhance anti-cancer immunity. In this review we summarize the findings on the molecular function of Cbl-b in different cell types and illustrate the potential of Cbl-b as target for immunomodulatory therapies.

  16. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2012-01-09

    Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance. © 2012 Ling et al.

  17. E3 ubiquitin ligases Pellinos as regulators of pattern recognition receptor signaling and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei E; Murphy, Michael; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-07-01

    Pellinos are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases discovered for their role in catalyzing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Pelle, an interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase homolog in the Drosophila Toll pathway. Subsequent studies have revealed the central and non-redundant roles of mammalian Pellino-1, Pellino-2, and Pelino-3 in signaling pathways emanating from IL-1 receptors, Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, T- and B-cell receptors. While Pellinos ability to interact with many signaling intermediates suggested their scaffolding roles, recent findings in mice expressing ligase-inactive Pellinos demonstrated the importance of Pellino ubiquitin ligase activity. Cell-specific functions of Pellinos have emerged, e.g. Pellino-1 being a negative regulator in T lymphocytes and a positive regulator in myeloid cells, and details of molecular regulation of receptor signaling by various members of the Pellino family have been revealed. In this review, we summarize current information about Pellino-mediated regulation of signaling by pattern recognition receptors, T-cell and B-cell receptors and tumor necrosis factor receptors, and discuss Pellinos roles in sepsis and infectious diseases, as well as in autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disorders. We also provide our perspective on the potential of targeting Pellinos with peptide- or small molecule-based drug compounds as a new therapeutic approach for septic shock and autoimmune pathologies.

  18. MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase mediates UT-A1 urea transporter ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangping; Huang, Haidong; Fröhlich, Otto; Yang, Yuan; Klein, Janet D; Price, S Russ; Sands, Jeff M

    2008-11-01

    UT-A1 is the primary urea transporter in the apical plasma membrane responsible for urea reabsorption in the inner medullary collecting duct. Although the physiological function of UT-A1 has been well established, the molecular mechanisms that regulate its activity are less well understood. Analysis of the UT-A1 amino acid sequence revealed a potential MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase-binding motif in the large intracellular loop of UT-A1, suggesting that UT-A1 urea transporter protein may be regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, we report that UT-A1 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome but not the lysosome proteolytic pathway. Inhibition of proteasome activity causes UT-A1 cell surface accumulation and concomitantly increases urea transport activity. UT-A1 interacts directly with MDM2; the binding site is located in the NH2-terminal p53-binding region of MDM2. MDM2 mediates UT-A1 ubiquitination both in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of MDM2 promotes UT-A1 degradation. The mechanism is likely to be physiologically important as UT-A1 ubiquitination was identified in kidney inner medullary tissue. The ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway provides an important novel mechanism for UT-A1 regulation.

  19. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...... to the theoretical research on non-destructive testing of such materials relating strength to stiffness and pore geometry.It is demonstrated that solutions for stiffness, tensile strength, and pore strength (damaging pore pressure, frost, fire) for some ideal porous materials can be determined theoretically only...... from knowing about pore geometry, solid phase stiffness, and zero-porosity strength. Pore geometry is the very important common denominator which controls both both stiffness and strength.The accurate results obtained are finally used to suggest generalizations with respect to strength in general...

  20. Tests of Hadronic Probes of GT Strength

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    There are many important problems where one wishes to know the distribution of Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in circumstances where it cannot be measured directly (for example, because of energy-release limitations). Then one must rely on hadronic probes to infer the GT strength. It is therefore essential to test these probes as extensively as possible. The isospin-analog transitions in $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+}$ -decay and $^{37}$Cl$(p, n)$ provide an excellent ground for such a test. Recent $^{37}$Cl$ (p, n) $ studies, while qualitatively in agreement with our previous ISOLDE work on $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+} $ -decay, show quantitative discrepancies that appear to grow as the excitation energy in the residual nuclei increases. Because of the bulk of the GT strengh appears at these high excitation energies, it is important to extend the $\\beta$-decay data to even higher excitation energies where, because of rapidly diminishing phase-space, strong GT transitions correspond to very weak $\\beta$ -branches. We propose to do...

  1. Gamma-ray strength functions in thermally excited rotating nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Døssing, T; Maj, A; Matsuo, M; Vigezzi, E; Bracco, A; Leoni, S; Broglia, R A

    2001-01-01

    A general discussion and illustration is given of strength functions for rotational transitions in two-dimensional E(gamma_1) x E(gamma_2) spectra. Especially, a narrow component should be proportional to the compound damping width, related to the mixing of basis rotational bands into compound bands with fragmented transition strength. Three E(gamma_1) x E(gamma_2) spectra are made by setting gates on triple coincidences, selecting cascades which feed into specific low-lying bands in the nucleus 168Hf. In each of the gated spectra, we find a ridge, carrying about 100 decay paths. This ridge is ascribed to rotational transitions in the excitation energy range of 1.0 to 1.5 MeV above the yrast line. The FWHM of the ridges are around 40 keV, about a factor of two smaller than calculated on the basis of mixed cranked mean field bands.

  2. Effects of Shock Pressure on Transition Pressure in Zr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying-Hua; ZHANG Lin; CAI Ling-Cang

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of free surface velocity profiles of high-purity Zr samples under shock-wave loading are performed to study the dynamic strength and phase transition parameters. The peak pressure of the compression waves is within the range from 9 to 14 GPa, and the Hugoniot elastic limit is 0.5 GPa. An anomalous structure of shock waves is observed due to the α - ω phase transition in Zr. Shock pressure has effects on transition pressure which increases with increasing compression strength, and the stronger shocks have a lower transit time.

  3. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  4. Transition Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.

  5. SUMO E3 Ligase AtMMS21 Regulates Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengchun Zhang; Yanli Qi; Ming Liu; ChengweiYang

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) play crucial roles in plant growth and development,and in stress responses.The MMS21 is a newly-identified Arabidopsis thaliana L.SUMO E3 ligase gene aside from the SIZ1,and its function requires further elucidation.Here,we show that MMS21 deficient plants display improved drought tolerance,and constitutive expression of MMS21 reduces drought tolerance.The expression of MMS21 was reduced by abscisic acid (ABA),polyethylene glycol (PEG) or drought stress.Under drought conditions,mms21 mutants showed the highest survival rate and the slowest water loss,and accumulated a higher level of free proline compared to wild-type (WT) and MMS21 over-expression plants.Stomatal aperture,seed germination and cotyledon greening analysis indicated that mms21 was hypersensitive to ABA.Molecular genetic analysis revealed that MMS21 deficiency led to elevated expression of a series of ABA-mediated stress-responsive genes,including COR15A,RD22,and P5CS1 The ABA and drought-induced stress-responsive genes,including RAB18,RD29A and RD29B,were inhibited by constitutive expression of MMS21.Moreover,ABA-induced accumulation of SUMO-protein conjugates was blocked in the mms21 mutant.We thus conclude that MMS21 plays a role in the drought stress response,likely through regulation of gene expression in an ABA-dependent pathway.

  6. CHK2 stability is regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Limones, C; Lara-Chica, M; Jiménez-Jiménez, C; Pérez, M; Moreno, P; Muñoz, E; Calzado, M A

    2016-08-18

    The serine threonine checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) is a critical protein involved in the DNA damage-response pathway, which is activated by phosphorylation inducing cellular response such as DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation or apoptosis. Although CHK2 activation mechanisms have been amply described, very little is known about degradation control processes. In the present study, we identify the ubiquitin E3 ligase SIAH2 as an interaction partner of CHK2, which mediates its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. CHK2 degradation is independent of both its activation and its kinase activity, but also of the phosphorylation in S456. We show that SIAH2-deficient cells present CHK2 accumulation together with lower ubiquitination levels. Accordingly, SIAH2 depletion by siRNA increases CHK2 levels. In response to DNA damage induced by etoposide, interaction between both proteins is disrupted, thus avoiding CHK2 degradation and promoting its stabilization. We also found that CHK2 phosphorylates SIAH2 at three residues (Thr26, Ser28 and Thr119), modifying its ability to regulate certain substrates. Cellular arrest in the G2/M phase induced by DNA damage is reverted by SIAH2 expression through the control of CHK2 levels. We observed that hypoxia decreases CHK2 levels in parallel to SIAH2 induction. Similarly, we provide evidence suggesting that resistance to apoptosis induced by genotoxic agents in cells subjected to hypoxia could be partly explained by the mutual regulation between both proteins. These results indicate that SIAH2 regulates CHK2 basal turnover, with important consequences on cell-cycle control and on the ability of hypoxia to alter the DNA damage-response pathway in cancer cells.

  7. The role of the e3 ligase cbl-B in murine dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Wallner

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are potent antigen-presenting cells with a promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. Cbl proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases and have been implicated in regulating the functional activity of various immune cells. As an example, c-Cbl negatively affects DC activation. We here describe that another member of the Cbl-protein family (i.e. Cbl-b is highly expressed in murine bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Differentiation of cblb-/- bone marrow mononuclear cells into classical BMDCs is unaltered, except enhanced induction of DEC-205 (CD205 expression. When tested in mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR, cblb-/- BMDCs exhibit increased allo-stimulatory capacity in vitro. BMDCs were next in vitro stimulated by various toll like receptor (TLR-agonists (LPS, Poly(I:C, CpG and exposed to FITC-labeled dextran. Upon TLR-stimulation, cblb-/- BMDCs produce higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α and exhibit a slightly higher level of FITC-dextran uptake. To further characterize the functional significance of cblb-/- BMDCs we tested them in antigen-specific T cell responses against ovalbumin (OVA protein and peptides, activating either CD8(+ OT-I or CD4(+ OT-II transgenic T cells. However, cblb-/- BMDCs are equally effective in inducing antigen-specific T cell responses when compared to wildtype BMDCs both in vitro and in vivo. The migratory capacity into lymph nodes during inflammation was similarly not affected by the absence of Cbl-b. In line with these observations, cblb-/- peptide-pulsed BMDCs are equally effective vaccines against OVA-expressing B16 tumors in vivo when compared to wildtype BMDCs. We conclude that in contrast to c-Cbl, Cbl-b plays only a limited role in the induction of Ag-specific T cell responses by murine BMDCs in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Iduna is a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Yun-Il; Shin, Joo-Ho; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Chi, Zhikai; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Lee, Yunjong; Ko, Han Seok; Lee, Byoung Dae; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation is crucial for regulation of cell signaling and protein quality control. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a cell-signaling molecule that mediates changes in protein function through binding at PAR binding sites. Here we characterize the PAR binding protein, Iduna, and show that it is a PAR-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity requires PAR binding because point mutations at Y156A and R157A eliminate Iduna’s PAR binding and Iduna’s E3 ligase activity. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity also requires an intact really interesting new gene (RING) domain because Iduna possessing point mutations at either H54A or C60A is devoid of ubiquitination activity. Tandem affinity purification reveals that Iduna binds to a number of proteins that are either PARsylated or bind PAR including PAR polymerase-1, 2 (PARP1, 2), nucleolin, DNA ligase III, KU70, KU86, XRCC1, and histones. PAR binding to Iduna activates its E3 ligase function, and PAR binding is required for Iduna ubiquitination of PARP1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, and KU70. Iduna’s PAR-dependent ubiquitination of PARP1 targets it for proteasomal degradation. Via PAR binding and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, Iduna protects against cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and rescues cells from G1 arrest and promotes cell survival after γ-irradiation. Moreover, Iduna facilitates DNA repair by reducing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after MNNG exposure and facilitates DNA repair following γ-irradiation as assessed by the comet assay. These results define Iduna as a PAR-dependent E3 ligase that regulates cell survival and DNA repair. PMID:21825151

  9. Association of NR2E3 but not NRL mutations with retinitis pigmentosa in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Li Jia; Chiang, Sylvia W Y; Tam, Pancy O S; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Chan, Carmen K M; Wang, Ningli; Lam, Dennis S C; Pang, Chi Pui

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Mutations in the NR2E3 and NRL genes have been implicated in both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In this study, the mutation profiles of these two genes were investigated in Chinese RP patients. Methods. In 172 RP patients and 360 normal control subjects (180 from Hong Kong and 180 from Beijing), the coding exons and the exon-intron boundaries of NR2E3 and NRL were screened by direct DNA sequencing after PCR. Association analysis was performed for common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), whereas in silico programs were used for analysis of rare missense variants. Results. In NR2E3, 14 novel sequence changes have been identified. Two missense variants, p.G56R and p.V118M, were exclusively found in RP patients with frequencies at 1.2% (2/172) and 1.7% (3/172), respectively. All five patients were found to be heterozygous for these two mutations. Computational analysis suggested functional defects on the NR2E3 protein, indicating disease-causing roles. The p.E121K variant of NR2E3, which reportedly caused enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) in Caucasians, was found concurrently in RP patients (13.4%) and control subjects from Hong Kong (10.5%) and Beijing (12.8%). In NRL, six novel sequence changes were identified, none of them associated with RP. Conclusions. In this study, NR2E3 mutations (p.G56R, p.V118M) were found to be responsible for approximately 2.9% of overall RP in Chinese patients, comparable to the contributions of RHO and RP1 mutations. The p.E121K in NR2E3 is a common SNP in the Chinese, suggesting another genetic or environmental factor is involved in its causative role in ESCS in Caucasians.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, theoretical study and anti-hepatic cancer activity study of 4-(1E,3Z,6E)-3-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-oxohepta-1,3,6-trien-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-nitrobenzoate, a novel curcumin congener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Gupta, Preeti; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap; Jafri, Asif; Arshad, M.; Banerjee, Monisha

    2017-08-01

    In the present work 4-(1E,3Z,6E)-3-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-oxohepta-1,3,6-trien-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-nitrobenzoate (2), a novel curcumin ester was synthesized. The molecular structure and spectroscopic analysis were performed using experimental techniques like FT-IR, 1H,13C NMR, mass and UV-visible as well as theoretical calculations. The theoretical calculations were done by DFT level of theory using B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) basis set. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated using DFT method and assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED). The electronic properties such as frontier orbitals and band gap energies have been calculated using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The strength and nature of weak intramolecular interactions have been studied by AIM approach. Global and local reactivity descriptors have been computed to predict reactivity and reactive sites in the molecule. First hyperpolarizability values have been calculated to describe the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the synthesized compounds. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis has also been carried out. The anti-hepatic cancer activity of compound 2 was also carried out.

  11. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  12. Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....

  13. FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS, PHASE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of the strength of radio frequency fields at high frequency and above has followed practices which are standard for the measurement...of field strength at medium and low frequencies. Variability of measurements made in practical situations and a lack of reproducibility of...measurements made under apparently identical conditions has prompted an investigation of equipment and methods used in the determinations. The field strength

  14. Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....

  15. Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana E3 ubiquitin-ligase AtSINAL7 and identification of the ubiquitination sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Peralta

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination leading to degradation by the proteasome is an important mechanism in regulating key cellular functions. Protein ubiquitination is carried out by a three step process involving ubiquitin (Ub activation by a E1 enzyme, the transfer of Ub to a protein E2, finally an ubiquitin ligase E3 catalyzes the transfer of the Ub peptide to an acceptor protein. The E3 component is responsible for the specific recognition of the target, making the unveiling of E3 components essential to understand the mechanisms regulating fundamental cell processes through the protein degradation pathways. The Arabidopsis thaliana seven in absentia-like 7 (AtSINAL7 gene encodes for a protein with characteristics from a C3HC4-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. We demonstrate here that AtSINAL7 protein is indeed an E3 protein ligase based on the self-ubiquitination in vitro assay. This activity is dependent of the presence of a Lys residue in position 124. We also found that higher AtSINAL7 transcript levels are present in tissues undergoing active cell division during floral development. An interesting observation is the circadian expression pattern of AtSINAL7 mRNA in floral buds. Furthermore, UV-B irradiation induces the expression of this transcript indicating that AtSINAL7 may be involved in a wide range of different cell processes.

  16. E3B1/ABI-1 Isoforms Are Down-Regulated in Cancers of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia A. Baba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa. A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.

  17. Conformational Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerminski, Ryszard; Roitberg, Adrian; Choi, Chyung; Ulitsky, Alexander; Elber, Ron

    1991-10-01

    Two computational approaches to study plausible conformations of biological molecules and the transitions between them are presented and discussed. The first approach is a new search algorithm which enhances the sampling of alternative conformers using a mean field approximation. It is argued and demonstrated that the mean field approximation has a small effect on the location of the minima. The method is a combination of the LES protocol (Locally Enhanced Sampling) and simulated annealing. The LES method was used in the past to study the diffusion pathways of ligands from buried active sites in myoglobin and leghemoglobin to the exterior of the protein. The present formulation of LES and its implementation in a Molecular Dynamics program is described. An application for side chain placement in a tetrapeptide is presented. The computational effort associated with conformational searches using LES grows only linearly with the number of degrees of freedom, whereas in the exact case the computational effort grows exponentially. Such saving is of course associated with a mean field approximation. The second branch of studies pertains to the calculation of reaction paths in large and flexible biological systems. An extensive mapping of minima and barriers for two different tetrapeptides is calculated from the known minima and barriers of alanine tetrapeptide which we calculated recently.1 The tetrapeptides are useful models for the formation of secondary structure elements since they are the shortest possible polymers of this type which can still form a complete helical turn. The tetrapeptides are isobutyryl-val(χ1=60)-ala-ala and isobutyryl-val(χ1=-60)-ala-ala. Properties of the hundreds of minima and of the hundreds intervening barriers are discussed. Estimates for thermal transition times between the many conformers (and times to explore the complete phase space) are calculated and compared. It is suggested that the most significant effect of the side chain size is

  18. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  19. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  20. Energy and Oscillator Strength of V20+ Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-wen; HAN Qiu-ju; HU Mu-hong; YANG Di; LI Jin-ying

    2006-01-01

    The ionization potentials and fine structure splittings of 1 s2nl (l = s,p,and d;n ≤ 9) states for lithium-like V20+ ion are calculated by using the full-core plus correlation (FCPC) method.The quantum defects of these three Rydberg series are determined according to the singlechannel quantum defect theory (QDT).The energies of any highly excited states with n ≥ 10 for these series can be reliably predicted using the quantum defects that are function of energy.The dipole oscillator strengths for the 1s22s-1s2np and 1s22p-1s2nd (n ≤ 9) transitions of V20+ion are calculated with the energies and FCPC wave functions obtained above.Combining the QDT with the discrete oscillator strengths,the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from the given initial state to highly excited states (n ≥ 10) and the oscillator strength density corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained.

  1. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  2. Overview to Strength Development and Strength Trainings in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Hekim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are some important phases within psychomotor development process in children. Periods of movements related to sport appear in this phases. In this phase which contains 7-12 age period in children, a significant increment occurs in the physical and motoric development levels of children. Physical and motoric developments are supported by directing children in this age group to sport. In a plenty of studies, it was stated that participating to sports in children supports motoric features and physical development. Strength is one of the most important motoric features which develop via participating to sports. Children strength development is effected at positive direction by adaptation exercise made to support strength development. Psychomotor development basis are considered to obtain the best efficiency from workouts aimed strength development in children and to remove risks to be generate any injury/disability. In this research, strength development, contributions of participating in sports to strength development, strength training in children and children responses to strength training were all emphasized.

  3. Progressive resistance muscle strength training of hospitalized frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D H; Wall, P T; Bariola, J R; Bopp, M M; Frost, Y M

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether frail elderly patients recuperating from acute illnesses could safely participate in and gain appreciable improvement in muscle strength from progressive resistance muscle strength training. Muscle strength (one repetition maximum), functional abilities (sit-to-stand maneuver and 20-sec maximal safe gait speed), and body composition were measured before and at the conclusion of a 10-wk program of lower limb progressive resistance muscle strength training. The nonrandomized study was conducted in a 30-bed geriatric rehabilitation unit of a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital and a 28-bed transitional care unit of a community nursing home. Participants included 19 recuperating elderly subjects (14 male, 5 female; 13 ambulatory, 6 nonambulatory) >64 yr (mean age, 82.8+/-7.9 yr). The one repetition maximum increased an average of 74%+/-49% (median, 70%; interquartile range, 38%-95%, and an average of 20+/-13 kg (P = 0.0001). Sit-to-stand maneuver times improved in 15 of 19 cases (79%). Maximum safe gait speeds improved in 10 of 19 cases (53%). Four of the six nonambulatory subjects progressed to ambulatory status. No subject experienced a complication. A carefully monitored program of progressive resistance muscle strength training to regain muscle strength is a safe and possibly effective method for frail elderly recuperating from acute illnesses. A randomized control study is needed to examine the degree to which progressive resistance muscle strength training offers advantages, if any, over routine posthospital care that includes traditional low-intensity physical therapy.

  4. A preliminary investigating the geomorphological characteristics of surrounding Chang'E-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Mu, L.; Zuo, W.; Li, H.; Feng, J.

    2015-12-01

    On 2013 December 14, at 13:11:13(UTC), China's first lunar probe to make a soft landing, Chang'E-3(CE-3), touched down on the east edge of Mare Imbrium beside a crater with a diameter of 430m in the east part of Sinus Iridum. To better understand the environment of this region, We utilizes the available lunar topography, image and geology data with high resolution(in meters), as well as image data captured by the landing camera and topography camera on CE-3(in centimeters) to analyze the topography, landforms, geology and lunar dust from perspectives ranging from large spatial areas(hundreds of kilometers like Sinus Iridum and North Mare Imbrium, 45×75 km) to a smaller scale of kilometers near the landing site(4×4 km) and finally to the immediate area around the landing site in meters. We can find that:1)The probe landed on a flat lunar mare with an elevation of -2615m. The landing site is high titanium basalt stratum, and its geological age is young Eratoshenian. 10km to the north of the landing site is the older Mare Imbrium stratum, and the location of the landing site is in the area that is the intersection of these two strata; 2)The landing site lies on the edge of a plateau in a flat plain with a declining trend from west to east, and the topographic slope and waviness of the area are low, which is typical for terrain in lunar mare; 3)The adjacent area of the landing point is flat terrain, with landforms such as craters, domes, strata and rocks with different albedos, which are good targets for scientific exploration; 4)By comparing images captured before and after landing, we find that during the landing process of CE-3, lots of lunar dust was blown away by the engine plume, and the scope of influence is about 60m from east to west and 135m from south to north. Thus, this leads to a redistribution of lunar dust and changes in space weathering on the lunar surface.

  5. Association between melanocytic nevi and risk of breast diseases: The French E3N prospective cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kvaskoff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While melanocytic nevi have been associated with genetic factors and childhood sun exposure, several observations also suggest a potential hormonal influence on nevi. To test the hypothesis that nevi are associated with breast tumor risk, we explored the relationships between number of nevi and benign and malignant breast disease risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively analyzed data from E3N, a cohort of French women aged 40-65 y at inclusion in 1990. Number of nevi was collected at inclusion. Hazard ratios (HRs for breast cancer and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Associations of number of nevi with personal history of benign breast disease (BBD and family history of breast cancer were estimated using logistic regression. Over the period 15 June 1990-15 June 2008, 5,956 incident breast cancer cases (including 5,245 invasive tumors were ascertained among 89,902 women. In models adjusted for age, education, and known breast cancer risk factors, women with "very many" nevi had a significantly higher breast cancer risk (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01-1.27 versus "none"; ptrend = 0.04, although significance was lost after adjustment for personal history of BBD or family history of breast cancer. The 10-y absolute risk of invasive breast cancer increased from 3,749 per 100,000 women without nevi to 4,124 (95% CI = 3,674-4,649 per 100,000 women with "very many" nevi. The association was restricted to premenopausal women (HR = 1.40, ptrend = 0.01, even after full adjustment (HR = 1.34, ptrend = 0.03; phomogeneity = 0.04, but did not differ according to breast cancer type or hormone receptor status. In addition, we observed significantly positive dose-response relationships between number of nevi and history of biopsy-confirmed BBD (n = 5,169; ptrend<0.0001 and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (n = 7,472; ptrend = 0.0003. The main limitations of our study

  6. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  7. A Very Fast Pulsed Electron Gun for (e, 2e) and (e, 3e) Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaoShiping; MaXinwen; ShaShan; ZhuXiaolong; LiuHuipin

    2003-01-01

    Reaction microscope is a powerful tool for studying ion-atom/molecule dynamics, it can also be employed to investigate electron impact ionization processes. Traditionally these processes are studied by using the (e, 2e) or (e, 3e) techniques, most data are collected for single ionization and for very small scattering angles, i.e. (e, 2e), experimental data of double ionization (e, 3e)[1] and multiple ionization are scarce, because in most cases the efficiencies (mainly determined by solid angles) are extremely small for (e, 3e) processes, about 10-7~10-9. On the other hand, the new technique-reaction microscope can detect mutli-fragments in one collision with very

  8. SUSY and the Electroweak Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Farrar, Glennys R S; Farrar, Glennys R.; Losada, Marta

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the effective 3 dimensional theory previously constructed for the MSSM and multi-Higgs models to determine the regions of parameter space in which the electroweak phase transition is sufficiently strong for a $B+L$ asymmetry to survive in the low temperature phase. We find that the inclusion of all supersymmetric scalars and all 1-loop corrections has the effect of enhancing the strength of the phase transition. Without a light stop or extension of the MSSM the phase transition is sufficiently first order only if the lightest Higgs mass $M_{h}\\lsi 70$ GeV and $tan\\beta\\lsi 1.75$.

  9. Ultimate Strength, Committee III.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Estefan, S.; Fasano, E.;

    2003-01-01

    Concern for the ductile of ships and offshore structures and their structural components under ultimate conditions. Attention shall be given to the influence of fabrication imperfections and inservice damage and degradation on reserve strength. Uncertainties in strength models for design shall...

  10. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  11. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  12. A multifluid mix model with material strength effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scannapieco, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-23

    We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.

  13. Remolded Undrained Strength of Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Zhen-shun(洪振舜); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); NEGAMI Takehito

    2003-01-01

    Extensive data of undrained shear strength for various remolded soils are compiled to normalize the remolded undrained strength. Remolded soils have a wide spectrum of liquid limits ranging from 25% to 412%. It is found that the remolded undrained strength is a function of water content and liquid limit. Furthermore, a simple index designated as normalized water content w* is introduced for normalizing remolded undrained strength for various soils. The normalized water content w* is the ratio of water content to liquid limit. The relationship between the remolded undrained strength and the normalized water content can be expressed by a simple equation. The new simple equation is not only valuable theoretically for helping in assessing the in-situ mechanical behavior, but also useful to ocean engineering practice.

  14. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  15. Structural and spectral investigations of the recently synthesized chalcone (E)-3-mesityl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one, a potential chemotherapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Soliman, Saied M; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Ali, M; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Wadood, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones, represent an important subgroup of the polyphenolic family, which have shown a wide spectrum of medical and industrial application. Due to their redundancy in plants and ease of preparation, this category of molecules has inspired considerable attention for potential therapeutic uses. They are also effective in vivo as anti-tumor promoting, cell proliferating inhibitors and chemo preventing agents. Synthesis and molecular structure investigation of (E)-3-mesityl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one (3) is reported. The structure of the title compound 3 is confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The optimized molecular structure of the studied compound is calculated using DFT B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) method. The calculated geometric parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from our reported X-ay structure. The calculated IR fundamental bands were assigned and compared with the experimental data. The electronic spectra of the studied compound have been calculated using the time dependant density functional theory (TD-DFT). The longest wavelength band is due to H → L (79 %) electronic transition which belongs to π-π* excitation. The (1)H- and (13)C-NMR chemical shifts were calculated using gauge independent atomic orbitals (GIAO) method, which showed good correlations with the experimental data (R(2) = 0.9911-0.9965). The natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were performed to predict the natural atomic charges at different atomic sites. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was used to visualize the charge distribution on the molecule. Molecular docking results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against GPb and may act as potential anti-diabetic compound. (E)-3-Mesityl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one single crystal is grown and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-vis, DFT and optimized geometrical parameters are close to the experimental

  16. The effect of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption on serum lipids in healthy normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic adults depends on presence of the APOE E3/E3 genotype: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakovic Marica

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies associate consumption of whole grain foods, including breads, with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk; however, few studies have compared wheat whole grains with wheat refined grains. Methods This study investigated effects of 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread in comparison to white bread on fasting serum lipids in normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14 and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14 adults. The influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 3 within the APOE gene (E2, E3, E4 and 2 within the hepatic lipase gene promoter (LIPC -514C>T, LIPC -250G>A were considered. Results At baseline, HGI participants had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference, body fat, and fasted glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol, compared to NGI participants; however, none of these in addition to none of the other serum lipids, differed between bread treatments, within either participant group. For participants with the APOE E3/E3 genotype, LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.02 increased in the NGI group (n = 7, and TAG (P = 0.03 and TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.04 increased in the HGI group (n = 10, following consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough compared to white bread. Conclusions In summary, 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread did not significantly modulate serum lipids in NGI or HGI adults; however, it significantly increased LDL-cholesterol, TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol in participants with the APOE E3/E3 genotype. These data add to limited literature comparing wheat whole grains to wheat refined grains on CVD risk and highlight the need to consider genetic variation in relation to lipoprotein lipid content and CVD risk.

  17. Using Transiting Planets to Model Starspot Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Davenport, James R A; Hawley, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Photometry from Kepler has revealed the presence of cool starspots on the surfaces of thousands of stars, presenting a wide range of spot morphologies and lifetimes. Understanding the lifetime and evolution of starspots across the main sequence reveals critical information about the strength and nature of stellar dynamos. We probe the dynamo by modeling the starspot properties over time using Kepler light curves. In particular, we use planetary systems like Kepler 17 that show in-transit starspot crossing features. Spot-occulting transits probe smaller-scale starspot features on the stellar surface along a fixed latitude region. Our approach is novel in modeling both the in- and out-of transit light curve features, allowing us to break fundamental degeneracies between spot size, latitude, and contrast. With continuous monitoring from Kepler we are able to observe small changes in the positions and sizes of spots from many transits, spanning 4 years of data. Additionally, for stars without transiting planets l...

  18. Relativistic Configuration Interaction Treatment of Generalized Oscillator Strength for Krypton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huang-Chun; QU Yi-Zhi; LIU Chun-Hua

    2007-01-01

    A fully relativistic configuration interaction method is developed to investigate the transition energies and general oscillator strengths of the lower lying states of krypton, for both optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions. The calculated results are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The calculated transition energies for the 5s and 5s' transitions are 9.970 and 10.717eV, which agree with the experimental data of 10.033 and 10.643 eV. The calculated oscillator strengths are 0.211 and 0.170, comparable with the experimental results 0.214(±0.012) and 0.194 (±0.012), respectively. The momentum transfer positions ( K2 in a.u.) of the minimum and maximum GOSs in the 4s24p6 → 4s24p5 (5s + 5s') transitions are 1.105 and 2.225, comparable with the measurements results 1.24 and 2.97 [Phys. Rev. A 67 (2003) 062708].

  19. Effects of dietary fish oil on serum lipids and VLDL kinetics in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Mensink, R.P.; Hof, H.B. van 't; Offermans, R.F.G.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Studying the effects of dietary fish oil on VLDL metabolism in humans is subject to both large intra- and interindividual variability. In the present study we therefore used hyperlipidentic apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice, which have impaired chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VDL) r

  20. Phosphorylation in vitro of eukaryotic initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 by protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Benne, R; Hershey, J W;

    1976-01-01

    is composed of 9 to 11 nonidentical polypeptides; only 2 of these, with molecular weights of 120,000 and 70,000, were phosphorylated. A lower level of phosphorylation of initiation factor IF-E3 was found with the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; the polypeptide of molecular weight 140,000 was the major...

  1. Nr2e3 and Nrl can reprogram retinal precursors to the rod fate in Xenopus retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvain, Vera A; Knox, Barry E

    2007-07-01

    Transformation of undifferentiated progenitors into specific cell types is largely dependent on temporal and spatial expression of a complex network of transcription factors. Here, we examined whether neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) and photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor Nr2e3 transcription factors contribute to cell fate determination. We cloned the Xenopus Nr2e3 gene and showed that its temporal and spatial expression is similar to its mammalian ortholog. We tested its in vivo function by misexpressing these transcription factors in Xenopus eye primordia, demonstrating that either human Nr2e3 or Nrl directed photoreceptor precursors to become rods at the expense of cones. Furthermore, overexpression of Xenopus Nrl dramatically increased the number of lens fibers, whereas human Nrl did not, suggesting evolutionary divergence of function of the Nrl gene family. Misexpression of Nrl and Nr2e3 together were more effective than either transcription factor alone in directing precursors to the rod fate. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Tumour suppressor RNF43 is a stem-cell E3 ligase that induces endocytosis of Wnt receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koo, B.K.; Spit, M.; Jordens, I.; Low, T.Y.; Stange, D.E.; van de Wetering, M.; van Es, J.H.; Mohammed, S.; Heck, A.J.R.; Maurice, M.M.; Clevers, H.

    2012-01-01

    LGR5+ stem cells reside at crypt bottoms, intermingled with Paneth cells that provide Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor signals. Here we find that the related RNF43 and ZNRF3 transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases are uniquely expressed in LGR5+ stem cells. Simultaneous deletion of the two genes en

  3. Rosuvastatin reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting VLDL production and enhancing hepatobiliary lipid excretion in ApoE*3-Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, DJM; Post, SM; Groenendijk, M; Solaas, K; van der Boom, H; van Duyvenvoorde, W; de Wit, ECM; Bloks, VW; Kuipers, F; Havekes, LM; Princen, HMG

    The present study was designed to investigate the lipid-lowering properties and mechanisms of action of a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, rosuvastatin, in female ApoE*3-Leiden transgenic mice. Mice received a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet containing either rosuvastatin (0 [control], 0.00125%,

  4. X-ray and Optical Study of Low Core Density Globular Clusters NGC6144 and E3

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, Shih Hao; Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H G; Bassa, Cees; Anderson, Scott F; Pooley, David

    2009-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope observation of two low core density globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found 6 X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144, among which 4 are expected to be background sources; 3 X-ray sources are also found within the half-mass radius of E3, of which 3 is expected to be background source. Therefore, we cannot exclude that all our sources are background sources. However, combining the results from X-ray and optical observations, we found that 1-2 sources in NGC6144 and 1 source in E3 are likely to be cataclysmic variables and that 1 source in NGC6144 is an active binary, based on the X-ray and optical properties. The number of faint X-ray sources in NGC6144 and E3 found with Chandra and HST is higher than a prediction based on collision frequency, but is closer to that based on mass. Our observations strongly suggest that the compact binary sy...

  5. K48-linked KLF4 ubiquitination by E3 ligase Mule controls T-cell proliferation and cell cycle progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Duncan, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    T-cell proliferation is regulated by ubiquitination but the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here we report that Lys-48-linked ubiquitination of the transcription factor KLF4 mediated by the E3 ligase Mule promotes T-cell entry into S phase. Mule is elevated in T cells upon TCR...

  6. Aging Triggers Cytoplasmic Depletion and Nuclear Translocation of the E3 Ligase Mahogunin: A Function for Ubiquitin in Neuronal Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnù, Stefano; Mateo, María Inés; Palomer, Ernest; Jurado-Arjona, Jerónimo; Dotti, Carlos G

    2017-05-04

    A decline in proteasome function is causally connected to neuronal aging and aging-associated neuropathologies. By using hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo, we show that aging triggers a reduction and a cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of the E3 ubiquitin ligase mahogunin (MGRN1). Proteasome impairment induces MGRN1 monoubiquitination, the key post-translational modification for its nuclear entry. One potential mechanism for MGRN1 monoubiquitination is via progressive deubiquitination at the proteasome of polyubiquitinated MGRN1. Once in the nucleus, MGRN1 potentiates the transcriptional cellular response to proteotoxic stress. Inhibition of MGRN1 impairs ATF3-mediated neuronal responsiveness to proteosomal stress and increases neuronal stress, while increasing MGRN1 ameliorates signs of neuronal aging, including cognitive performance in old animals. Our results imply that, among others, the strength of neuronal survival in a proteasomal deterioration background, like during aging, depends on the fine-tuning of ubiquitination-deubiquitination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction: Transitions from Violence. Analysing the Effects of Transitional Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Buckley-Zistel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice refers to processes of dealing with the aftermath of violent conflicts and human rights abuses in order to provide for a peaceful future. It makes use of a number of instruments and mechanisms – including tribunals, truth commissions, memory work, and reparations – which aim at uncovering the truth about past crimes, putting past wrongs right, holding perpetrators accountable, vindicating the dignity of victim-survivors, and contributing to reconciliation. The objective of this focus section is to critically assess the potential of transitional justice, its achievements thus far, any conflicting goals, and the inherent or external obstacles that limit its influence and reach. Through empirical case studies from across the globe it paints a multi-faceted picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  8. Binding and repressive activities of apolipoprotein E3 and E4 isoforms on the human ApoD promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levros, Louis-Charles; Labrie, Marilyne; Charfi, Cyndia; Rassart, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) gene expression is increased in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis. We previously showed that transgenic mice that overexpress human ApoD show a better resistance against paraquat or OC43 coronavirus-induced neurodegeneration. Here, we identified several nuclear factors from the cortex of control and OC43-infected mice which bind a fragment of the proximal ApoD promoter in vitro. Of interest, we detected apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Human ApoE consists of three isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) with the E4 and E2 alleles representing a greater and a lower risk for developping AD, respectively. Our results show that ApoE is located in the nucleus and on the ApoD promoter in human hepatic and glioblastoma cells lines. Furthermore, overexpression of ApoE3 and ApoE4 isoforms but not ApoE2 significantly inhibited the ApoD promoter activity in U87 cells (E3/E3 genotype) cultured under normal or different stress conditions while ApoE knock-down by siRNA had a converse effect. Consistent with these results, we also demonstrated by ChIP assay that E3 and E4 isoforms, but not E2, bind the ApoD promoter. Moreover, using the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization database, we observed an inverse correlation between ApoD and ApoE mRNA expression during development and in several regions of the mouse brain, notably in the cortex, hippocampus, plexus choroid, and cerebellum. This negative correlation was also observed for cortex layers IV-VI based on a new Transcriptomic Atlas of the Mouse Neocortical Layers. These findings reveal a new function for ApoE by regulating ApoD gene expression.

  9. The effect of energy feedbacks on continental strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Weinberg, Roberto F; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2006-07-06

    The classical strength profile of continents is derived from a quasi-static view of their rheological response to stress--one that does not consider dynamic interactions between brittle and ductile layers. Such interactions result in complexities of failure in the brittle-ductile transition and the need to couple energy to understand strain localization. Here we investigate continental deformation by solving the fully coupled energy, momentum and continuum equations. We show that this approach produces unexpected feedback processes, leading to a significantly weaker dynamic strength evolution. In our model, stress localization focused on the brittle-ductile transition leads to the spontaneous development of mid-crustal detachment faults immediately above the strongest crustal layer. We also find that an additional decoupling layer forms between the lower crust and mantle. Our results explain the development of decoupling layers that are observed to accommodate hundreds of kilometres of horizontal motions during continental deformation.

  10. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...

  11. Measurement of Magic Wavelengths for the ^{40}Ca^{+} Clock Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Huang, Yao; Bian, Wu; Shao, Hu; Guan, Hua; Tang, Yong-Bo; Li, Cheng-Bin; Mitroy, J; Gao, Ke-Lin

    2015-06-05

    We demonstrate experimentally the existence of magic wavelengths and determine the ratio of oscillator strengths for a single trapped ion. For the first time, two magic wavelengths near 396 nm for the ^{40}Ca^{+} clock transition are measured simultaneously with high precision. By tuning the applied laser to an intermediate wavelength between transitions 4s_{1/2}→4p_{1/2} and 4s_{1/2}→4p_{3/2}, the sensitivity of the clock transition Stark shift to the oscillator strengths is greatly enhanced. Furthermore, with the measured magic wavelengths, we determine the ratio of the oscillator strengths with a deviation of less than 0.5%. Our experimental method may be applied to measure magic wavelengths for other ion clock transitions. Promisingly, the measurement of these magic wavelengths paves the way to building all-optical trapped ion clocks.

  12. Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quick summary of transition IDEA’s definition of transition services Considering the definition Students at the heart of planning their transition ... fix that! Keep reading… Back to top IDEA’s Definition of Transition Services Any discussion of transition services must begin with ...

  13. The ARC1 E3 ligase gene is frequently deleted in self-compatible Brassicaceae species and has a conserved role in Arabidopsis lyrata self-pollen rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriolo, Emily; Tharmapalan, Pirashaanthy; Wright, Stephen I; Goring, Daphne R

    2012-11-01

    Self-pollen rejection is an important reproductive regulator in flowering plants, and several different intercellular signaling systems have evolved to elicit this response. In the Brassicaceae, the self-incompatibility system is mediated by the pollen S-locus Cys-Rich/S-locus Protein11 (SCR/SP11) ligand and the pistil S Receptor Kinase (SRK). While the SCR/SP11-SRK recognition system has been identified in several species across the Brassicaceae, less is known about the conservation of the SRK-activated cellular responses in the stigma, following self-pollen contact. The ARM Repeat Containing1 (ARC1) E3 ubiquitin ligase functions downstream of SRK for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica, but it has been suggested that ARC1 is not required in Arabidopsis species. Here, we surveyed the presence of ARC1 orthologs in several recently sequenced genomes from Brassicaceae species that had diversified ∼20 to 40 million years ago. Surprisingly, the ARC1 gene was deleted in several species that had lost the self-incompatibility trait, suggesting that ARC1 may lose functionality in the transition to self-mating. To test the requirement of ARC1 in a self-incompatible Arabidopsis species, transgenic ARC1 RNA interference Arabidopsis lyrata plants were generated, and they exhibited reduced self-incompatibility responses resulting in successful fertilization. Thus, this study demonstrates a conserved role for ARC1 in the self-pollen rejection response within the Brassicaceae.

  14. Carbon-free D3d [E3ME3]2- (E=P,As;M=Ni,Pd,Pt):The smallest inorganic sandwich complexes with aromatic η3-P3- and η3-As3- ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A density functional theory and wave function theory investigation on the possibility of carbon-free phosphametallocenes [P3MP3]2-and arsenametallocenes [As3MAs3]2- (M=Ni, Pd, Pt) is presented in this work. Staggered singlet D3d [E3ME3]2- (E=P, As)-the smallest inorganic metallocenes possible to construct-proved to be the global minima of the heptaatomic sys- tems and may be targeted in future experiments. Cyclo-P3- and cyclo-As3- turned out to possess similar aromaticity to cyclo-P5- and cyclo-As5- and may serve as effective ligands to sandwich a wide range of transition metals. The first vertical electron detachment energies of Cs [E3ME3]Li+ monoanions with a staggered [E3ME3]2- sandwich core were predicted to be between 2.7 and 2.9 eV; the extent of stabilization by Li+ suggests that such materials be viable targets for experimental characterization.

  15. Cloning and Expression of Apolipoprotein E3 and Its Variant apoE2 and apoE4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain three isoforms of apolipoprotein E (apoE), the cDNA encoding apoE3 was obtained by RT-PCR from normal human liver tissue. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to obtain the cDNAs encoding apoE2 and apoE4 isoforms. The 3 cDNAs were subcloned into vector pGEM-3Z and verified by DNA sequencing. The expression recombinant which can express the target protein as a (His) 6-tagged fusion was constructed by subcloning apoE cDNA into vector pT7-PL. The purified proteins were gained by Ni-NTA column. The SDS-PAGE results revealed the 6 His fusion proteins (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) were correctly expressed and purified successfully.

  16. The activities of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA, a key repressor in light signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoecker, Ute

    2017-06-01

    Light is a critical signal to integrate plant growth and development with the environment. Downstream of photoreceptors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis which targets many positive regulators of light signaling, mainly transcription factors, for degradation in darkness. In light-grown plants COP1/SPA activity is repressed, allowing light responses to occur. This review provides an overview on our current knowledge on COP1/SPA repressor function, focusing in particular on the roles of the respective protein domains and the mechanisms of light-induced inactivation of COP1/SPA. Moreover, we summarize how COP1 activity is regulated by other interacting proteins, such as a SUMO E3 ligase and Phytochrome-Interacting Factors (PIFs), as well as by hormones. At last, several novel functions of COP1 that were recently revealed are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Report on Oak Ridge National Laboratory Testing of Drake/ACSS/MA2/E3X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Davis, Cody [General Cable Corporation; Temple, Bill [General Cable Corporation; Baker, Gord [General Cable Corporation; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A key to industry acceptance of a new technology is extensive validation in field trials. The Powerline Conductor Accelerated Test facility (PCAT) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is specifically designed to evaluate the performance and reliability of a new conductor technology under real world conditions. The facility is set up to capture large amounts of data during testing. General Cable used the ORNL PCAT facility to validate the performance of TransPowr with E3X Technology a standard overhead conductor with an inorganic high emissivity, low absorptivity surface coating. Extensive testing has demonstrated a significant improvement in conductor performance across a wide range of operating temperatures, indicating that E3X Technology can provide a reduction in temperature, a reduction in sag, and an increase in ampacity when applied to the surface of any overhead conductor. This report provides initial results of that testing.

  18. Cyclin F: A component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with roles in neurodegeneration and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, Jasmin; Rayner, Stephanie L; Hogan, Alison L; Fifita, Jennifer A; Lee, Albert; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Yang, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Cyclin F, encoded by CCNF, is the substrate recognition component of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, SCF(cyclin F). E3 ubiquitin ligases play a key role in ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation, an essential component of protein homeostatic mechanisms within the cell. By recognising and regulating the availability of several protein substrates, SCF(cyclin F) plays a role in regulating various cellular processes including replication and repair of DNA and cell cycle checkpoint control. Cyclin F dysfunction has been implicated in various forms of cancer and CCNF mutations were recently linked to familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, offering a new lead to understanding the pathogenic mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. In this review, we evaluate the current literature on the function of cyclin F with an emphasis on its roles in cancer and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  20. Small, N-terminal tags activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity by disrupting its autoinhibited conformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Burchell

    Full Text Available Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, mutations in which cause Autosomal Recessive Parkinson's Disease. Many studies aimed at understanding Parkin function, regulation and dysfunction are performed using N-terminal epitope tags. We report here that the use of small tags such as FLAG, cMyc and HA, influence the physical stability and activity of Parkin in and out of cells, perturbing the autoinhibited native state of Parkin, resulting in an active-for-autoubiquitination species.

  1. Inactivation of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Triggers Senescence and Inhibits Kras-Induced Immortalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjia Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates apoptosis and vasculogenesis by promoting degradation of NOXA and NF1, and co-operates with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis by activating NFκB and mTOR pathways via targeted degradation of tumor suppressive substrates including IκB, DEPTOR, p21 and p27. Here we investigated the role of Sag/Rbx2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence and immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and report that Sag is required for proper cell proliferation and KrasG12D-induced immortalization. Sag inactivation by genetic deletion remarkably suppresses cell proliferation by inducing senescence, which is associated with accumulation of p16, but not p53. Mechanistically, Sag deletion caused accumulation of Jun-B, a substrate of Sag-Fbxw7 E3 ligase and a transcription factor that drives p16 transcription. Importantly, senescence triggered by Sag deletion can be largely rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a, the p16 encoding gene, indicating its causal role. Furthermore, KrasG12D-induced immortalization can also be abrogated by Sag deletion via senescence induction, which is again rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a. Finally, we found that Sag deletion inactivates KrasG12D activity and block the MAPK signaling pathway, together with accumulated p16, to induce senescence. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Sag is a KrasG12D-cooperating oncogene required for KrasG12D-induced immortalization and transformation, and targeting SAG-SCF E3 ligase may, therefore, have therapeutic value for senescence-based cancer treatment.

  2. Non-vanishing $U_{e3}$ and $\\cos{2 \\theta_{23}}$ from a broken $Z_2$ symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Grimus, Walter; Kaneko, S; Lavoura, L; Sawanaka, H; Tanimoto, M; Grimus, Walter; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Kaneko, Satoru; Lavoura, Lu\\'{i}s; Sawanaka, Hideyuki; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the neutrino mass matrices in the flavour basis yielding a vanishing $U_{e3}$ are characterized by invariance under a class of effective $Z_2$ symmetries. A specific $Z_2$ in this class also leads to a maximal atmospheric mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. The breaking of that $Z_2$ can be parameterized by two dimensionless quantities, $\\e$ and $\\e'$; the effects of $\\e, \\e' \

  3. Dietary factors, metabolic syndrome and risks of breast cancer and type II diabetes in the E3N cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Fagherazzi, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer and type II diabetes are two of the main chronic diseases in women and are suspected to share common risk factors. But their etiologies are still partially unknown, in particular concerning some dietary factors and some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. If evidence is convincing that themetabolic syndrome is associated with an increased type II diabetes risk, questions remain unanswered regarding cholesterol level, anthropometric factors and breast cancer risk. The French E3...

  4. A family of Salmonella virulence factors functions as a distinct class of autoregulated E3 ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Cindy M.; Hicks, Stuart W.; Galán, Jorge E.; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2009-01-01

    Processes as diverse as receptor binding and signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and programmed cell death are manipulated by mimics of host proteins encoded by pathogenic bacteria. We show here that the Salmonella virulence factor SspH2 belongs to a growing class of bacterial effector proteins that harness and subvert the eukaryotic ubiquitination pathway. This virulence protein possesses ubiquitination activity that depends on a conserved cysteine residue. A crystal structure of SspH2 reveals a canonical leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain that interacts with a unique E3 ligase [which we have termed NEL for Novel E3 Ligase] C-terminal fold unrelated to previously observed HECT or RING-finger E3 ligases. Moreover, the LRR domain sequesters the catalytic cysteine residue contained in the NEL domain, and we suggest a mechanism for activation of the ligase requiring a substantial conformational change to release the catalytic domain for function. We also show that the N-terminal domain targets SspH2 to the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells and propose a model whereby binding of the LRR to proteins at the target site releases the ligase domain for site-specific function. PMID:19273841

  5. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G; Olivares-Illana, Vanesa

    2016-08-15

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated.

  6. Lafora disease E3-ubiquitin ligase malin is related to TRIM32 at both the phylogenetic and functional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentry Matthew S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that is mutated in Lafora disease, a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. In order to perform its function, malin forms a functional complex with laforin, a glucan phosphatase that facilitates targeting of malin to its corresponding substrates. While laforin phylogeny has been studied, there are no data on the evolutionary lineage of malin. Results After an extensive search for malin orthologs, we found that malin is present in all vertebrate species and a cephalochordate, in contrast with the broader species distribution previously reported for laforin. These data suggest that in addition to forming a functional complex, laforin and perhaps malin may also have independent functions. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32, which belongs to the tripartite-motif containing family of proteins. We present experimental evidence that both malin and TRIM32 share some substrates for ubiquitination, although they produce ubiquitin chains with different topologies. However, TRIM32-specific substrates were not reciprocally ubiquitinated by the laforin-malin complex. Conclusions We found that malin and laforin are not conserved in the same genomes. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32. The latter result suggests a common origin for malin and TRIM32 and provides insights into possible functional relationships between both proteins.

  7. FERM-dependent E3 ligase recognition is a conserved mechanism for targeted degradation of lipoprotein receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Anna C; Goult, Benjamin T; Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Hong, Cynthia; Schwabe, John W R; Tontonoz, Peter

    2011-12-13

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDL receptor) regulates LDL receptor (LDLR)-dependent cholesterol uptake, but its mechanism of action, including the molecular basis for its stringent specificity, is poorly understood. Here we show that IDOL uses a singular strategy among E3 ligases for target recognition. The IDOL FERM domain binds directly to a recognition sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of lipoprotein receptors. This physical interaction is independent of IDOL's really interesting new gene (RING) domain E3 ligase activity and its capacity for autoubiquitination. Furthermore, IDOL controls its own stability through autoubiquitination of a unique FERM subdomain fold not present in other FERM proteins. Key residues defining the IDOL-LDLR interaction and IDOL autoubiquitination are functionally conserved in their insect homologs. Finally, we demonstrate that target recognition by IDOL involves a tripartite interaction between the FERM domain, membrane phospholipids, and the lipoprotein receptor tail. Our data identify the IDOL-LDLR interaction as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the regulation of lipid uptake and suggest that this interaction could potentially be exploited for the pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism.

  8. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  9. Association of APOE (E2, E3 and E4) gene variants and lipid levels in ischemic stroke, its subtypes and hemorrhagic stroke in a South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satrupa; Kaul, Subhash; Jyothy, Akka; Munshi, Anjana

    2016-08-15

    In the present study we evaluated the association of APOE (E2/E3/E4) polymorphism with ischemic stroke (n=620), its subtypes and hemorrhagic stroke (n=250) in a South Indian population from Telangana. The genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP while lipid levels were measured using commercially available kits. We found significant difference in the genotypic distribution between hemorrhagic stroke patients and controls for certain genetic models [E2/E2 vs. E2/E4; E3/E3 vs. E2/E3; E3/E3 vs. E2/E4; E4/E4 vs. E2/E3; E4/E4 vs.E2/E4 and E3 vs. E4]. However, no significant difference was observed in genotypic distribution between ischemic stroke patients and controls. On analysing the genotypic distribution between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients, statistically significant difference was observed in specific genetic models [E2/E2 vs. E2/E4; E3/E3 vs. E2/E3; E3/E3 vs. E2/E4; E4/E4 vs. E2/E3 and E4/E4 vs. E2/E4]. In ischemic stroke subtypes analysing for alleles E3 vs. E2 and E3 vs. E4, we found significant association with intracranial large artery (p=0.01), cardioembolic stroke (p=0.001 and p=0.0004) and lacunar stroke (p=0.02). Analysing the association of various genotypes with different lipid levels significant association was observed for VLDL (P=0.000) and for triglyceride (P=0.000) levels with E2/E4 and E3/E4 genotypes in ischemic stroke but not in hemorrhagic stroke. In conclusion, our results suggest that APOE polymorphism does seem to play a role in hemorrhagic stroke and also in the development of specific subtypes of ischemic stroke. Further, in ischemic stroke VLDL and triglycerides levels were found to be significantly associated with E2/E4 and E3/E4 genotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Roles of the TRAF6 and Pellino E3 ligases in MyD88 and RANKL signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickson, Sam; Emmerich, Christoph H; Goh, Eddy T H; Zhang, Jiazhen; Kelsall, Ian R; Macartney, Thomas; Hastie, C James; Knebel, Axel; Peggie, Mark; Marchesi, Francesco; Arthur, J Simon C; Cohen, Philip

    2017-04-25

    It is widely accepted that the essential role of TRAF6 in vivo is to generate the Lys63-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub) chains needed to activate the "master" protein kinase TAK1. Here, we report that TRAF6 E3 ligase activity contributes to but is not essential for the IL-1-dependent formation of K63-Ub chains, TAK1 activation, or IL-8 production in human cells, because Pellino1 and Pellino2 generate the K63-Ub chains required for signaling in cells expressing E3 ligase-inactive TRAF6 mutants. The IL-1-induced formation of K63-Ub chains and ubiquitylation of IRAK1, IRAK4, and MyD88 was abolished in TRAF6/Pellino1/Pellino2 triple-knockout (KO) cells, but not in TRAF6 KO or Pellino1/2 double-KO cells. The reexpression of E3 ligase-inactive TRAF6 mutants partially restored IL-1 signaling in TRAF6 KO cells, but not in TRAF6/Pellino1/Pellino2 triple-KO cells. Pellino1-generated K63-Ub chains activated the TAK1 complex in vitro with similar efficiently to TRAF6-generated K63-Ub chains. The early phase of TLR signaling and the TLR-dependent secretion of IL-10 (controlled by IRAKs 1 and 2) was only reduced modestly in primary macrophages from knockin mice expressing the E3 ligase-inactive TRAF6[L74H] mutant, but the late-phase production of IL-6, IL-12, and TNFα (controlled only by the pseudokinase IRAK2) was abolished. RANKL-induced signaling in macrophages and the differentiation of bone marrow to osteoclasts was similar in TRAF6[L74H] and wild-type cells, explaining why the bone structure and teeth of the TRAF6[L74H] mice was normal, unlike TRAF6 KO mice. We identify two essential roles of TRAF6 that are independent of its E3 ligase activity.

  11. PyTransit: Transit light curve modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    PyTransit implements optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models for exoplanet transit light-curves. The two models are implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelization, and are accessed by an object-oriented python interface. PyTransit facilitates the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations. It offers efficient model evaluation for multicolour observations and transmission spectroscopy, built-in supersampling to account for extended exposure times, and routines to calculate the projected planet-to-star distance for circular and eccentric orbits, transit durations, and more.

  12. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Systematic Review of Muscle Strength Assessment and Muscle Strength Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-02-01

    To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion isokinetic dynamometry. A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles were reviewed. Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Slightly higher ICC values were found for the nonparetic extremity. Standard error of the mean (SEM) values showed that a change of 7% to 20% was required for a real group change to take place for most muscle groups, with the knee extensors showing the smallest SEM% values. The muscle strength of paretic muscles showed deficits when compared with both healthy and nonparetic muscles, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Nonparetic muscles only showed minor strength impairments when compared with healthy muscles. Criterion isokinetic dynamometry is a reliable test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Copyright

  13. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by fatigue and fluctuating muscle weakness as a result of impaired neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Although MG is a prototypic fatiguing disorder, little is known about how the condition affects fixed weakness, and if present, whether weakness...... is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pmuscle...

  14. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  15. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, J. W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.;

    2016-01-01

    environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...... facilitate interdisciplinary research, ensuring decision-making that supports sustainable development........ Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...

  16. Strength of Materials and Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ All engineering structures designed according to modern principles have to be strong and sufficiently rigid. Scientists and engineers have long recognized the importance of the strength of materials and structures, and dedicated much their efforts to both fundamental and industrial research into the theory for vast engineering materials and various structures. A lot of engineers need to be familiar with the fundamental principles of strength in materials and structures in order to design structures to resist failures. This book is a very good one to provide them with these principles.

  17. 天然产物(E)-3,5-二甲氧基二苯乙烯的合成%Synthesis of Natural Product (E) - 3, 5 - Dimethoxystilbene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金会; 刘海军

    2007-01-01

    以价廉易得的3,5-二羟基苯甲酸为原料,通过甲基化、还原、溴代、Arbuzor重排、Wittig-Horner缩合5步反应完成了目标化合物(E)-3,5-二甲氧基二苯乙烯的合成,总收率高达59.8%,各步反应所合成化合物结构均通过1H NMR及熔点进行了结构确证.

  18. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Bromide in the 4.5-20 eV Excitation Energy Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 徐克尊

    2004-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density spectrum of HBr in the valence shell energy region of 4.5-20 eV has been determined by a high-resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer. The optical oscillator strengths reported. It has been manifested clearly that the optical oscillator strengths of some transitions for the previous photoabsorption method are subject to severe line-saturation effects.

  19. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bone. And the benefits may go beyond physical health. Young athletes may feel better about themselves as they get stronger. Who Can Do Strength Training? Kids and teens who are ready to participate in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics ...

  20. Fast electromagnetic field strength probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Serra, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is impor

  1. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  2. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  3. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  4. Inactivation of SAG E3 ubiquitin ligase blocks embryonic stem cell differentiation and sensitizes leukemia cells to retinoid acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjia Tan

    Full Text Available Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG, also known as RBX2 (RING box protein-2, is the RING component of SCF (SKP1, Cullin, and F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase. Our previous studies have demonstrated that SAG is an anti-apoptotic protein and an attractive anti-cancer target. We also found recently that Sag knockout sensitized mouse embryonic stem cells (mES to radiation and blocked mES cells to undergo endothelial differentiation. Here, we reported that compared to wild-type mES cells, the Sag(-/- mES cells were much more sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (RA-induced suppression of cell proliferation and survival. While wild-type mES cells underwent differentiation upon exposure to RA, Sag(-/- mES cells were induced to death via apoptosis instead. The cell fate change, reflected by cellular stiffness, can be detected as early as 12 hrs post RA exposure by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy. We then extended this novel finding to RA differentiation therapy of leukemia, in which the resistance often develops, by testing our hypothesis that SAG inhibition would sensitize leukemia to RA. Indeed, we found a direct correlation between SAG overexpression and RA resistance in multiple leukemia lines. By using MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme (NAE, that inactivates SAG-SCF E3 ligase by blocking cullin neddylation, we were able to sensitize two otherwise resistant leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1 to RA. Mechanistically, RA sensitization by MLN4924 was mediated via enhanced apoptosis, likely through accumulation of pro-apoptotic proteins NOXA and c-JUN, two well-known substrates of SAG-SCF E3 ligase. Taken together, our study provides the proof-of-concept evidence for effective treatment of leukemia patients by RA-MLN4924 combination.

  5. The Nedd4-like ubiquitin E3 ligases target angiomotin/p130 to ubiquitin-dependent degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenji; An, Jian; Zhang, Pingzhao; Xu, Chen; Gao, Kun; Wu, Di; Wang, Dejie; Yu, Hongxiu; Liu, Jun O; Yu, Long

    2012-06-01

    AMOT (angiomotin) is a membrane-associated protein that is expressed in ECs (endothelial cells) and controls migration, TJ (tight junction) formation, cell polarity and angiogenesis. Recent studies have revealed that AMOT and two AMOT-like proteins, AMOTL1 and AMOTL2, play critical roles in the Hippo pathway by regulating the subcellular localization of the co-activators YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif). However, it has been unclear how AMOT is regulated. In the present study, we report that AMOT undergoes proteasomal degradation. We identify three members of Nedd4 (neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated)-like ubiquitin E3 ligases, Nedd4, Nedd4-2 and Itch, as the ubiquitin E3 ligases for the long isoform of AMOT, AMOT/p130. We demonstrate that Nedd4, Nedd4-2 and Itch mediate poly-ubiquitination of AMOT/p130 in vivo. Overexpression of Nedd4, Nedd4-2 or Itch leads to AMOT/p130 proteasomal degradation. Knockdown of Nedd4, Nedd4-2 and Itch causes an accumulation of steady-state level of AMOT/p130. We also show that three L/P-PXY motifs of AMOT/p130 and the WW domains of Nedd4 mediate their interaction. Furthermore, Nedd4-like ubiquitin E3 ligases might compete with YAP for the binding to AMOT/p130, and subsequently targeting AMOT/p130 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Together, these observations reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism of AMOT/p130.

  6. The Blue Light-Dependent Polyubiquitination and Degradation of Arabidopsis Cryptochrome2 Requires Multiple E3 Ubiquitin Ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Qin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xu; Park, Joon; Yang, Zhenming; Du, Xinglin; Bian, Mingdi; Lin, Chentao

    2016-10-01

    Cryptochromes are blue light receptors regulated by light-dependent ubiquitination and degradation in both plant and animal lineages. The Arabidopsis genome encodes two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, of which CRY2 undergoes blue light-dependent ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. The molecular mechanism regulating blue light-dependent proteolysis of CRY2 is still not fully understood. We found that the F-box proteins ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and Lov Kelch Protein2 (LKP2), which mediate blue light suppression of degradation of the CRY2 signaling partner CIB1, are not required for the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation. We further showed that the previously reported function of the COP1-SPA1 protein complex in blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is more likely to be attributable to its cullin 4 (CUL4)-based E3 ubiquitin ligase activity than its activity as the cryptochrome signaling partner. However, the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is only partially impaired in the cul4 mutant, the cop1-5 null mutant and the spa1234 quadruple mutant, suggesting a possible involvement of additional E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of CRY2. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is significantly impaired in the temperature-sensitive cul1 mutant allele (axr6-3), especially under the non-permissive temperature. Based on these and other results presented, we propose that photoexcited CRY2 undergoes Lys48-linked polyubiquitination catalyzed by the CUL4- and CUL1-based E3 ubiquitin ligases.

  7. A Sporadic Parkinson Disease Model via Silencing of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome/E3 Ligase Component SKP1A*

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman-Jacob, Tali; Reznichenko, Lydia; Youdim, Moussa B H; Mandel, Silvia A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new model of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) based on silencing of the SKP1A gene, a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase complex, Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box protein, which was found to be highly decreased in the substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients. Initially, an embryonic mouse substantia nigra-derived cell line (SN4741 cells) was infected with short hairpin RNA lentiviruses encoding the murine transcript of the SKP1A gene or with scrambled v...

  8. Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shiho; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ashida, Hiroshi; Toyotome, Takahito; Franchi, Luigi; Suzuki, Masato; Sanada, Takahito; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Núñez, Gabriel; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN+/− mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN+/+ mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via

  9. Overexpression of denticleless E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (DTL) is related to poor outcome in gastric carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Hirajima, Shoji; Miyamae, Mahito; Okajima, Wataru; Ohashi, Takuma; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; FUJIWARA, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Background Denticleless E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (DTL) has been identified in amplified region (1q32) of several cancers and has an oncogenic function. In this study, we tested whether DTL acts as a cancer-promoting gene through its activation/overexpression in gastric cancer (GC). Methods We analyzed 7 GC cell lines and 100 primary tumors that were curatively resected in our hospital between 2001 and 2003. Results Overexpression of the DTL protein was detected in GC cell lines (4/...

  10. RING E3 mechanism for ubiquitin ligation to a disordered substrate visualized for human anaphase-promoting complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas G.; VanderLinden, Ryan; Watson, Edmond R.; Qiao, Renping; Grace, Christy R. R.; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Weissmann, Florian; Frye, Jeremiah J.; Dube, Prakash; Ei Cho, Shein; Actis, Marcelo L.; Rodrigues, Patrick; Fujii, Naoaki; Peters, Jan-Michael; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2015-01-01

    For many E3 ligases, a mobile RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain stimulates ubiquitin (Ub) transfer from a thioester-linked E2∼Ub intermediate to a lysine on a remotely bound disordered substrate. One such E3 is the gigantic, multisubunit 1.2-MDa anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), which controls cell division by ubiquitinating cell cycle regulators to drive their timely degradation. Intrinsically disordered substrates are typically recruited via their KEN-box, D-box, and/or other motifs binding to APC and a coactivator such as CDH1. On the opposite side of the APC, the dynamic catalytic core contains the cullin-like subunit APC2 and its RING partner APC11, which collaborates with the E2 UBCH10 (UBE2C) to ubiquitinate substrates. However, how dynamic RING–E2∼Ub catalytic modules such as APC11–UBCH10∼Ub collide with distally tethered disordered substrates remains poorly understood. We report structural mechanisms of UBCH10 recruitment to APCCDH1 and substrate ubiquitination. Unexpectedly, in addition to binding APC11’s RING, UBCH10 is corecruited via interactions with APC2, which we visualized in a trapped complex representing an APCCDH1–UBCH10∼Ub–substrate intermediate by cryo-electron microscopy, and in isolation by X-ray crystallography. To our knowledge, this is the first structural view of APC, or any cullin–RING E3, with E2 and substrate juxtaposed, and it reveals how tripartite cullin–RING–E2 interactions establish APC’s specificity for UBCH10 and harness a flexible catalytic module to drive ubiquitination of lysines within an accessible zone. We propose that multisite interactions reduce the degrees of freedom available to dynamic RING E3–E2∼Ub catalytic modules, condense the search radius for target lysines, increase the chance of active-site collision with conformationally fluctuating substrates, and enable regulation. PMID:25825779

  11. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Yinghang [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Gong, Yubing, E-mail: gongyubing09@hotmail.co [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  12. E3 Charter Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a charter template which includes decisions made during the project planning phase, as well as local project goals, a communication strategy, an outreach strategy, distribution of responsibilities and a schedule.

  13. Photon strength functions studied with the method of two-step cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzátko, J.; Bečvář, F.; Krtička, M.; Cejnar, P.

    2000-07-01

    The method of two-step γ cascades, following the thermal neutron capture, has proved to be a promising tool for investigation of photon strength functions in the region of transition energies near 3 MeV. Using this method we studied behavior of photon strength functions in 108Ag, 116In, 125Te, 144,146Nd, 150Sm, 156,158Gd, 163Dy and 168Er. Besides the detailed information for individual nuclei a large amount of experimental data allows us to look for general trends in the mass region incorporating spherical, transitional and deformed nuclei. Despite continuing systematic study on other nuclei, some general conclusions could already be done.

  14. Real-space characterization of reactivity towards water at the B i2T e3 (111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Wen; Ding, Ding; Yang, Chao-Long; Gan, Yuan; Li, Shichao; Huang, Wen-Kai; Song, Ye-Heng; Jia, Zhen-Yu; Li, Xiang-Bing; Zhu, Zihua; Wen, Jinsheng; Chen, Mingshu; Li, Shao-Chun

    2016-06-01

    Surface reactivity is important in modifying the physical and chemical properties of surface-sensitive materials, such as the topological insulators. Even though many studies addressing the reactivity of topological insulators towards external gases have been reported, it is still under heavy debate whether and how the topological insulators react with H2O . Here, we employ scanning tunneling microscopy to directly probe the surface reaction of B i2T e3 towards H2O . Surprisingly, it is found that only the top quintuple layer is reactive to H2O , resulting in a hydrated Bi bilayer as well as some Bi islands, which passivate the surface and prevent subsequent reaction. A reaction mechanism is proposed with H2Te and hydrated Bi as the products. Unexpectedly, our study indicates that the reaction with water is intrinsic and not dependent on any surface defects. Since water inevitably exists, these findings provide key information when considering the reactions of B i2T e3 with residual gases or atmosphere.

  15. Sequence analysis of the E3 region and fiber gene of human adenovirus genome type 7h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajon, A E; Wadell, G

    1996-01-15

    Adenovirus type 7h is currently the predominant virulent genome type of serotype 7 isolated in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in association with severe infantile pneumonia. In order to characterize possible molecular determinants of pathogenicity, the nucleotide sequence of a 5904-bp fragment (76 to 93 mu) containing the entire E3 region and the fiber gene of Ad7h was established. The organization of the ORFs within the E3 region was similar to that reported for the prototype strains of Ad7 and Ad3. A comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of all ORFs revealed a higher homology between Ad7h and Ad7p than between Ad7h and Ad3 for 12.0K and 16.1K, whereas the 15.3K ORF and the adjacent fiber gene were strikingly more homologous to those of Ad3 (99.5 vs 81.1% and 98.2 vs 66.6%, respectively). The equivalent to ORF 7.7K in Ad7p was missing in Ad7h due to a deletion and a mutation affecting the start codon (ATG-->ATT). Although the hemagglutinin of the Ad7h fiber could not be characterized due to its lack of activity on monkey erythrocytes, our results indicate that Ad7h is an intermediate strain 7-3.

  16. Iron-binding E3 ligase mediates iron response in plants by targeting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selote, Devarshi; Samira, Rozalynne; Matthiadis, Anna; Gillikin, Jeffrey W; Long, Terri A

    2015-01-01

    Iron uptake and metabolism are tightly regulated in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), BRUTUS (BTS), which contains three hemerythrin (HHE) domains and a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, interacts with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are capable of forming heterodimers with POPEYE (PYE), a positive regulator of the iron deficiency response. BTS has been shown to have E3 ligase capacity and to play a role in root growth, rhizosphere acidification, and iron reductase activity in response to iron deprivation. To further characterize the function of this protein, we examined the expression pattern of recombinant ProBTS::β-GLUCURONIDASE and found that it is expressed in developing embryos and other reproductive tissues, corresponding with its apparent role in reproductive growth and development. Our findings also indicate that the interactions between BTS and PYE-like (PYEL) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors occur within the nucleus and are dependent on the presence of the RING domain. We provide evidence that BTS facilitates 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PYEL proteins in the absence of iron. We also determined that, upon binding iron at the HHE domains, BTS is destabilized and that this destabilization relies on specific residues within the HHE domains. This study reveals an important and unique mechanism for plant iron homeostasis whereby an E3 ubiquitin ligase may posttranslationally control components of the transcriptional regulatory network involved in the iron deficiency response.

  17. Ezrin ubiquitylation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, WWP1, and consequent regulation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania F Zaarour

    Full Text Available The membrane cytoskeleton linker ezrin participates in several functions downstream of the receptor Met in response to Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF stimulation. Here we report a novel interaction of ezrin with a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, WWP1/Aip5/Tiul1, a potential oncogene that undergoes genomic amplification and overexpression in human breast and prostate cancers. We show that ezrin binds to the WW domains of WWP1 via the consensus motif PPVY(477 present in ezrin's C-terminus. This association results in the ubiquitylation of ezrin, a process that requires an intact PPVY(477 motif. Interestingly ezrin ubiquitylation does not target the protein for degradation by the proteasome. We find that ezrin ubiquitylation by WWP1 in epithelial cells leads to the upregulation of Met level in absence of HGF stimulation and increases the response of Met to HGF stimulation as measured by the ability of the cells to heal a wound. Interestingly this effect requires ubiquitylated ezrin since it can be rescued, after depletion of endogenous ezrin, by wild type ezrin but not by a mutant of ezrin that cannot be ubiquitylated. Taken together our data reveal a new role for ezrin in Met receptor stability and activity through its association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1. Given the role of Met in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, our results may provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the role of ezrin in tumor progression.

  18. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SCF(Cyclin F) Transmits AKT Signaling to the Cell-Cycle Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Rajarshi; Bonacci, Thomas; Wang, Xianxi; Truong, Andrew; Arceci, Anthony; Zhang, Yanqiong; Mills, Christine A; Kernan, Jennifer L; Liu, Pengda; Emanuele, Michael J

    2017-09-26

    The oncogenic AKT kinase is a key regulator of apoptosis, cell growth, and cell-cycle progression. Despite its important role in proliferation, it remains largely unknown how AKT is mechanistically linked to the cell cycle. We show here that cyclin F, a substrate receptor F-box protein for the SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, is a bona fide AKT substrate. Cyclin F expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, a rare feature among the 69 human F-box proteins, and all of its known substrates are involved in proliferation. AKT phosphorylation of cyclin F enhances its stability and promotes assembly into productive E3 ligase complexes. Importantly, expression of mutant versions of cyclin F that cannot be phosphorylated by AKT impair cell-cycle entry. Our data suggest that cyclin F transmits mitogen signaling through AKT to the core cell-cycle machinery. This discovery has potential implications for proliferative control in malignancies where AKT is activated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The U-Box/ARM E3 ligase PUB13 regulates cell death, defense, and flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ahn, Il-Pyung; Ning, Yuese; Park, Chan-Ho; Zeng, Lirong; Whitehill, Justin G A; Lu, Haibin; Zhao, Qingzhen; Ding, Bo; Xie, Qi; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dai, Liangying; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-05-01

    The components in plant signal transduction pathways are intertwined and affect each other to coordinate plant growth, development, and defenses to stresses. The role of ubiquitination in connecting these pathways, particularly plant innate immunity and flowering, is largely unknown. Here, we report the dual roles for the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Plant U-box protein13 (PUB13) in defense and flowering time control. In vitro ubiquitination assays indicated that PUB13 is an active E3 ubiquitin ligase and that the intact U-box domain is required for the E3 ligase activity. Disruption of the PUB13 gene by T-DNA insertion results in spontaneous cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid (SA), and elevated resistance to biotrophic pathogens but increased susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens. The cell death, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens in pub13 are enhanced when plants are pretreated with high humidity. Importantly, pub13 also shows early flowering under middle- and long-day conditions, in which the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 and FLOWERING LOCUS T is induced while FLOWERING LOCUS C expression is suppressed. Finally, we found that two components involved in the SA-mediated signaling pathway, SID2 and PAD4, are required for the defense and flowering-time phenotypes caused by the loss of function of PUB13. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PUB13 acts as an important node connecting SA-dependent defense signaling and flowering time regulation in Arabidopsis.

  20. The Salmonella Effector Protein SopA Modulates Innate Immune Responses by Targeting TRIM E3 Ligase Family Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kamanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium stimulates inflammatory responses in the intestinal epithelium, which are essential for its ability to replicate within the intestinal tract. Stimulation of these responses is strictly dependent on the activity of a type III secretion system encoded within its pathogenicity island 1, which through the delivery of effector proteins, triggers signaling pathways leading to inflammation. One of these effectors is SopA, a HECT-type E3 ligase, which is required for the efficient stimulation of inflammation in an animal model of Salmonella Typhimurium infection. We show here that SopA contributes to the stimulation of innate immune responses by targeting two host E3 ubiquitin ligases, TRIM56 and TRIM65. We also found that TRIM65 interacts with the innate immune receptor MDA5 enhancing its ability to stimulate interferon-β signaling. Therefore, by targeting TRIM56 and TRIM65, SopA can stimulate signaling through two innate immune receptors, RIG-I and MDA5. These findings describe a Salmonella mechanism to modulate inflammatory responses by directly targeting innate immune signaling mechanisms.

  1. The putative E3 ubiquitin ligase ECERIFERUM9 regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and response during seed germination and postgermination growth in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2014-05-08

    The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Progressive Purkinje cell degeneration in tambaleante mutant mice is a consequence of a missense mutation in HERC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoji Mashimo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The HERC gene family encodes proteins with two characteristic domains: HECT and RCC1-like. Proteins with HECT domains have been described to function as ubiquitin ligases, and those that contain RCC1-like domains have been reported to function as GTPases regulators. These two activities are essential in a number of important cellular processes such as cell cycle, cell signaling, and membrane trafficking. Mutations affecting these domains have been found associated with retinitis pigmentosa, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cancer. In humans, six HERC genes have been reported which encode two subgroups of HERC proteins: large (HERC1-2 and small (HERC3-6. The giant HERC1 protein was the first to be identified. It has been involved in membrane trafficking and cell proliferation/growth through its interactions with clathrin, M2-pyruvate kinase, and TSC2 proteins. Mutations affecting other members of the HERC family have been found to be associated with sterility and growth retardation. Here, we report the characterization of a recessive mutation named tambaleante, which causes progressive Purkinje cell degeneration leading to severe ataxia with reduced growth and lifespan in homozygous mice aged over two months. We mapped this mutation in mouse chromosome 9 and then performed positional cloning. We found a GA transition at position 1448, causing a Gly to Glu substitution (Gly483Glu in the highly conserved N-terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein. Successful transgenic rescue, with either a mouse BAC containing the normal copy of Herc1 or with the human HERC1 cDNA, validated our findings. Histological and biochemical studies revealed extensive autophagy associated with an increase of the mutant protein level and a decrease of mTOR activity. Our observations concerning this first mutation in the Herc1 gene contribute to the functional annotation of the encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase and underline the crucial and unexpected role of this protein

  3. 基于E^3-Value的服务供应链运作管理流程和方法%E^3-value based operation management process and method for service supply chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霆; 徐晓飞; 金铮

    2011-01-01

    目前尽管存在较多以产品为中心的供应链运作管理流程和方法,但在服务供应链领域,由于服务不同于产品的诸多特性局限了其进一步的应用。因此,采用结构化分析思想和方法,提出了基于E3-value的服务供应链运作管理逻辑流程和方法,该方法以价值为导向,不但可以解决现有供应链运作管理模式的一些适应性问题,而且能够解决"供应链运作管理模式为什么是这样,潜在盈利性如何量化"问题。%There were extensive product-centered supply chain operation management processes and methods at present.In Service Supply Chain(SSC) domain,these methods and processes did not have further application due to the differences between service and product.For above reasons,by using analytic technique of structuring,E3-value based operation management logistic process and method for SSC were proposed.This value oriented method could not only resolve the problems of applicability and effectiveness of the existing supply chain management models and methods,but answer the questions of "why the management model is like this?" and "how to quantify the potential profitability of the supply chains?"

  4. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  5. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  6. The ideal strength and mechanical hardness of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenn, Christopher Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Relationships between intrinsic mechanical hardness and atomic-scale properties are reviewed, Hardness scales closely and linearly with shear modulus for a given class of material (covalent, ionic or metallic). A two-parameter fit and a Peierls-stress model produce a more universal scaling relationship, but no model can explain differences in hardness between the transition metal carbides and nitrides. Calculations of ''ideal strength'' (defined by the limit of elastic stability of a perfect crystal) are proposed. The ideal shear strengths of fcc aluminum and copper are calculated using ab initio techniques and allowing for structural relaxation of all five strain components other than the imposed strain. The strengths of Al and Cu are similar (8-9% of the shear modulus), but the geometry of the relaxations in Al and Cu is very different. The relaxations are consistent with experimentally measured third-order elastic constants. The general thermodynamic conditions of elastic stability that set the upper limits of mechanical strength are derived. The conditions of stability are shown for cubic (hydrostatic), tetragonal (tensile) and monoclinic (shear) distortions of a cubic crystal. The implications of this stability analysis to first-principles calculations of ideal strength are discussed, and a method to detect instabilities orthogonal to the direction of the applied stress is identified. The relaxed ideal shear and tensile strengths of bcc tungsten are also calculated using ab initio techniques and are favorably compared to recent nano-indentation measurements. The {100} tensile strength (29.5 GPa) is governed by the Bain instability. The shear strengths in the weak directions on {110}, {112}, and {123} planes are very nearly equal (~ 18 GPa) and occur at approximately the same strain (17-18%). This isotropy is a function of the linear elastic isotropy for shear in directions containing <111> in bcc and of the atomic configurations of

  7. The ideal strength and mechanical hardness of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenn, Christopher

    2000-04-01

    Relationships between intrinsic mechanical hardness and atomic-scale properties are reviewed, Hardness scales closely and linearly with shear modulus for a given class of material (covalent, ionic or metallic). A two-parameter fit and a Peierls-stress model produce a more universal scaling relationship, but no model can explain differences in hardness between the transition metal carbides and nitrides. Calculations of ''ideal strength'' (defined by the limit of elastic stability of a perfect crystal) are proposed. The ideal shear strengths of fcc aluminum and copper are calculated using ab initio techniques and allowing for structural relaxation of all five strain components other than the imposed strain. The strengths of Al and Cu are similar (8-9% of the shear modulus), but the geometry of the relaxations in Al and Cu is very different. The relaxations are consistent with experimentally measured third-order elastic constants. The general thermodynamic conditions of elastic stability that set the upper limits of mechanical strength are derived. The conditions of stability are shown for cubic (hydrostatic), tetragonal (tensile) and monoclinic (shear) distortions of a cubic crystal. The implications of this stability analysis to first-principles calculations of ideal strength are discussed, and a method to detect instabilities orthogonal to the direction of the applied stress is identified. The relaxed ideal shear and tensile strengths of bcc tungsten are also calculated using ab initio techniques and are favorably compared to recent nano-indentation measurements. The {l_brace}100{r_brace} tensile strength (29.5 GPa) is governed by the Bain instability. The shear strengths in the weak directions on {l_brace}110{r_brace}, {l_brace}112{r_brace}, and {l_brace}123{r_brace} planes are very nearly equal ({approx} 18 GPa) and occur at approximately the same strain (17-18%). This isotropy is a function of the linear elastic isotropy for shear in

  8. Investigation of the bond strength between the photo-sensitive polymer SU-8 and gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Johansson, Alicia; Sánchez Noguerón, E.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from a thorough investigation of the bond strength between the photo-polymer SU-8 and Au. The data were obtained by pull-test experiments, below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The different aspects that we investigated were:(i)the effect of using different...... any adhesion promoter we find a bond strength of 4.8+/-1.2 MPa for a 7.5 micr.-layer of SU-8. The value of the bond strength can be increased additionally by up to 75% using an adhesion promoter and fully optimising the processing con- ditions of the SU-8....

  9. High pressure, high strain rate material strength studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, B. A.; Arsenlis, A.; Barton, N.; Belof, J.; Cavallo, R.; Maddox, B.; Park, H.-S.; Prisbrey, S.; Rudd, R.; Comley, A.; Meyers, M.; Wark, J.

    2011-10-01

    Constitutive models for material strength are currently being tested at high pressures by comparing 2D simulations with experiments measuring the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability evolution in solid-state samples of vanadium (V), tantalum (Ta), and iron (Fe). The multiscale strength models being tested combine molecular dynamics, dislocation dynamics, and continuum simulations. Our analysis for the V experiments suggests that the material deformation at these conditions falls into the phonon drag regime, whereas for Ta, the deformation resides mainly in the thermal activation regime. Recent Fe-RT experiments suggest perturbation growth about the alpha-epsilon (bcc-hcp) phase transition threshold has been observed. Using the LLNL multiscale models, we decompose the strength as a function of strain rate into its dominant components of thermal activation, phonon drag, and work hardening. We have also developed a dynamic diffraction diagnostic technique to measure strength directly from shock compressed single crystal samples. Finally, recovery experiments allow a comparison of residual dislocation density with predictions from the multiscale model. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Non-equilibrium quantum phase transition via entanglement decoherence dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chen; Yang, Pei-Yun; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence dynamics of continuous variable entanglement as the system-environment coupling strength varies from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. Due to the existence of localized modes in the strong-coupling regime, the system cannot approach equilibrium with its environment, which induces a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition. We analytically solve the entanglement decoherence dynamics for an arbitrary spectral density. The nonequilibrium quantum phase transition is demonstrated as the system-environment coupling strength varies for all the Ohmic-type spectral densities. The 3-D entanglement quantum phase diagram is obtained. PMID:27713556

  11. Specimen type and size effects on lithium hydride tensile strength distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, Jr, R E

    1991-12-01

    Weibull's two-parameter statistical-distribution function is used to account for the effects of specimen size and loading differences on strength distributions of lithium hydride. Three distinctly differing uniaxial specimen types (i.e., an elliptical-transition pure tensile specimen, an internally pressurized ring tensile, and two sizes of four-point-flexure specimens) are shown to provide different strength distributions as expected, because of their differing sizes and modes of loading. After separation of strengths into volumetric- and surface-initiated failure distributions, the Weibull characteristic strength parameters for the higher-strength tests associated with internal fracture initiations are shown to vary as predicted by the effective specimen volume Weibull relationship. Lower-strength results correlate with the effective area to much lesser degree, probably because of the limited number of surface-related failures and the different machining methods used to prepare the specimen. The strength distribution from the fourth specimen type, the predominantly equibiaxially stressed disk-flexure specimen, is well below that predicted by the two-parameter Weibull-derived effective volume or surface area relations. The two-parameter Weibull model cannot account for the increased failure probability associated with multiaxial stress fields. Derivations of effective volume and area relationships for those specimens for which none were found in the literature, the elliptical-transition tensile, the ring tensile, and the disk flexure (including the outer region), are also included.

  12. Dissipation-driven quantum phase transitions in collective spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, S [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Parkins, A S [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)], E-mail: smor161@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2008-10-14

    We consider two different collective spin systems subjected to strong dissipation-on the same scale as interaction strengths and external fields-and show that either continuous or discontinuous dissipative quantum phase transitions can occur as the dissipation strength is varied. First, we consider a well-known model of cooperative resonance fluorescence that can exhibit a second-order quantum phase transition, and analyse the entanglement properties near the critical point. Next, we examine a dissipative version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick interacting collective spin model, where we find that either first- or second-order quantum phase transitions can occur, depending only on the ratio of the interaction and external field parameters. We give detailed results and interpretation for the steady-state entanglement in the vicinity of the critical point, where it reaches a maximum. For the first-order transition we find that the semiclassical steady states exhibit a region of bistability. (fast track communication)

  13. Transition to complete synchronization via near-synchronization in two coupled chaotic neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qing-Yun; Lu Qi-Shao; Wang Hai-Xia

    2005-01-01

    The synchronization transition in two coupled chaotic Morris-Lecar (ML) neurons with gap junction is studied with the coupling strength increasing. The conditional Lyapunov exponents, along with the synchronization errors are calculated to diagnose synchronization of two coupled chaotic ML neurons. As a result, it is shown that the increase in the coupling strength leads to incoherence, then induces a transition process consisting of three different synchronization states in succession, namely, burst synchronization, near-synchronization and embedded burst synchronization, and achieves complete synchronization of two coupled neurons finally. These sequential transitions to synchronization reveal a new transition route from incoherence to complete synchronization in coupled systems with multi-time scales.

  14. [Physiological and biochemical properties of the bacterial association of Klebsiella terrigena E6 and Bacillus firmus E3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnikov, A K; Kazakov, M L; Zlotnikov, K M; Kazakov, A V; Umarov, M M

    2007-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical properties of the natural rhizospheric association of Klebsiella terrigena E6 and Bacillusfirmus E3 were studied. It was demonstrated that this association fixed actively molecular nitrogen at a rate of 110 nmol ethylene per 1 mg protein per h. The dynamics of bacterial population in the association and in pure cultures were studied. The properties of this association depended on the ratio of its components; the maximal nitrogen fixation was recorded at a content of B. firmus E310 amounting to 15% of the total cell number. It was demonstrated that the stability basis of this association was the specific interactions via its components via metabolites--phenol and para-hydroxybenzoic acid--as well as via nitrogen fixation, respiration, and pH of the medium. A scheme of the interactions between the components of association is shown.

  15. Crystal structure of the substrate-recognition domain of the Shigella E3 ligase IpaH9.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kenji; Kim, Minsoo; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases caused by bacteria have significant impacts on global public health. During infection, pathogenic bacteria deliver a variety of virulence factors, called effectors, into host cells. The Shigella effector IpaH9.8 functions as an ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinating the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO)/IKK-γ to inhibit host inflammatory responses. IpaH9.8 contains leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) involved in substrate recognition and an E3 ligase domain. To elucidate the structural basis of the function of IpaH9.8, the crystal structure of the LRR domain of Shigella IpaH9.8 was determined and this structure was compared with the known structures of other IpaH family members. This model provides insights into the structural features involved in substrate specificity.

  16. Skeletal muscle atrophy and the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Sue C; Baehr, Leslie M

    2014-09-15

    Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1 were identified more than 10 years ago as two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases that are increased transcriptionally in skeletal muscle under atrophy-inducing conditions, making them excellent markers of muscle atrophy. In the past 10 years much has been published about MuRF1 and MAFbx with respect to their mRNA expression patterns under atrophy-inducing conditions, their transcriptional regulation, and their putative substrates. However, much remains to be learned about the physiological role of both genes in the regulation of mass and other cellular functions in striated muscle. Although both MuRF1 and MAFbx are enriched in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle, this review will focus on the current understanding of MuRF1 and MAFbx in skeletal muscle, highlighting the critical questions that remain to be answered.

  17. Structure of the Siz/PIAS SUMO E3 Ligase Siz1 and Determinants Required for SUMO Modification of PCNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Ali A.; Lima, Christopher D.; (SKI)

    2010-01-12

    Siz1 is a founding member of the Siz/PIAS RING family of SUMO E3 ligases. The X-ray structure of an active Siz1 ligase revealed an elongated tripartite architecture comprised of an N-terminal PINIT domain, a central zinc-containing RING-like SP-RING domain, and a C-terminal domain we term the SP-CTD. Structure-based mutational analysis and biochemical studies show that the SP-RING and SP-CTD are required for activation of the E2SUMO thioester, while the PINIT domain is essential for redirecting SUMO conjugation to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at lysine 164, a nonconsensus lysine residue that is not modified by the SUMO E2 in the absence of Siz1. Mutational analysis of Siz1 and PCNA revealed surfaces on both proteins that are required for efficient SUMO modification of PCNA in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Search for heavy top quark partners with charge 5e/3 in the single lepton final state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir, Sinan; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    A search is presented for a very heavy fermionic partner of the top quark with charge 5e/3 (X5 / 3), which is expected to decay into a top quark and a W boson. Events consistent with pair production of X5 / 3, where one of the four W bosons from the decays of X5 / 3 and top quarks decays leptonically, and all the other W bosons decay hadronically, are analyzed. The results from this semi-leptonic final state are then combined with same-sign dileptons signature to enhance the sensitivity. No excess of data above SM expectations is observed and 95 % CL upper limits on the X5 / 3 production cross section are set using the data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb-1 collected by the CMS detector at center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  19. Ubiquitylation of FACT by the cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 connects FACT to DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junhong; Li, Qing; McCullough, Laura; Kettelkamp, Charisse; Formosa, Tim; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2010-07-15

    FACT plays important roles in both gene transcription and DNA replication. However, how this protein complex is targeted to these two distinct cellular processes remains largely unknown. Here we show that ubiquitylation of the Spt16 subunit of FACT by Rtt101, the cullin subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, links FACT to DNA replication. We find Rtt101 interacts with and ubiquitylates Spt16 in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of RTT101 leads to reduced association of both FACT and the replicative helicase MCM with replication origins. Loss of Rtt101 also reduces binding of FACT to MCM, but not the association of FACT with Leo1 and Spt5, two proteins involved in transcription. Origin function is compromised in cells lacking Rtt101 or with an Spt16 mutation. These findings identify Spt16 as an Rtt101 substrate, and suggest that Spt16 ubiquitylation is important for FACT to function during DNA replication.

  20. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model “e3.at”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

  1. (E-3,4,5-Trimethoxy-N′-[(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-ylmethylidene]benzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Ishikawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title chromone-tethered benzohydrazide derivative, C20H18N2O6, the atoms of the E-3-(hydrazonomethyl-4H-chromen-4-one segment are essentially coplanar, the largest deviation being 0.065 (6 Å. The dihedral angle between this segment and the benzene ring of the trimethoxybenzene unit is 40.18 (10 Å. In the crystal, the molecule is linked to its inverse-symmetry equivalent by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions. The –CH=N—NH– segment is stacked on the benzene ring of the chromone unit of a translation-related equivalent molecule [centroid–centroid distance = 3.413 (6 Å].

  2. Discovery of antibiotic (E)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Renee; Kumarasiri, Malika; Peng, Zhihong; Otero, Lisandro H; Song, Wei; Suckow, Mark A; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Lastochkin, Elena; Antunes, Nuno T; Pi, Hualiang; Vakulenko, Sergei; Hermoso, Juan A; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2015-02-11

    In the face of the clinical challenge posed by resistant bacteria, the present needs for novel classes of antibiotics are genuine. In silico docking and screening, followed by chemical synthesis of a library of quinazolinones, led to the discovery of (E)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (compound 2) as an antibiotic effective in vivo against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This antibiotic impairs cell-wall biosynthesis as documented by functional assays, showing binding of 2 to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a. We document that the antibiotic also inhibits PBP1 of S. aureus, indicating a broad targeting of structurally similar PBPs by this antibiotic. This class of antibiotics holds promise in fighting MRSA infections.

  3. Skeletal muscle atrophy and the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1 were identified more than 10 years ago as two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases that are increased transcriptionally in skeletal muscle under atrophy-inducing conditions, making them excellent markers of muscle atrophy. In the past 10 years much has been published about MuRF1 and MAFbx with respect to their mRNA expression patterns under atrophy-inducing conditions, their transcriptional regulation, and their putative substrates. However, much remains to be learned about the physiological role of both genes in the regulation of mass and other cellular functions in striated muscle. Although both MuRF1 and MAFbx are enriched in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle, this review will focus on the current understanding of MuRF1 and MAFbx in skeletal muscle, highlighting the critical questions that remain to be answered. PMID:25096180

  4. PUB13, a U-box/ARM E3 ligase, regulates plant defense, cell death, and flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Dai, Liangying; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-08-01

    The ubiquitination pathway is involved in a variety of cellular processes in plant growth, development, and immune responses. However, the function of this pathway in connecting plant development and innate immunity is still largely unknown. Recently, we characterized the U-box/ARM E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB13, which regulates both immune responses and flowering time in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that the rice Spl11 gene can complement the cell death and flowering functions of PUB13 in the pub13 mutant. In addition, HFR1, which functions mainly in photomorphogenesis, was identified as one of the PUB13-interacting proteins through yeast two-hybrid screening and pull-down assays. Because the flowering phenotype of pub13 depends on photoperiod, we propose that PUB13 may regulate HFR1 to fine-tune photomorphogenesis and flowering time in Arabidopsis.

  5. A sporadic Parkinson disease model via silencing of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase component SKP1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman-Jacob, Tali; Reznichenko, Lydia; Youdim, Moussa B H; Mandel, Silvia A

    2009-11-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a new model of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) based on silencing of the SKP1A gene, a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase complex, Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box protein, which was found to be highly decreased in the substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients. Initially, an embryonic mouse substantia nigra-derived cell line (SN4741 cells) was infected with short hairpin RNA lentiviruses encoding the murine transcript of the SKP1A gene or with scrambled vector. SKP1A silencing resulted in increased susceptibility to neuronal damages induced by the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion and serum starvation, in parallel with a decline in the expression of the dopaminergic markers, dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter-2. SKP1A-deficient cells presented a delay in completion of the cell cycle and the inability to arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase when induced to differentiate. Instead, the cells progressed through S phase, developing rounded aggregates with characteristics of aggresomes including immunoreactivity for gamma-tubulin, alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin, tyrosine hydroxylase, Hsc-70 (70-kDa heat shock cognate protein), and proteasome subunit, and culminating in a lethal phenotype. Conversely, stably enforced expression of wild type SKP1A duplicated the survival index of naïve SN4741 cells under proteasomal inhibition injury, suggesting a new structural role of SKP1 in dopaminergic neuronal function, besides its E3 ligase activity. These results link, for the first time, SKP1 to dopamine neuronal function and survival, suggesting an essential role in sporadic PD. In summary, this new model has reproduced to a significant extent the molecular alterations described in sporadic PD at the cellular level, implicating Skp1 as a potential modifier in sporadic PD neurodegeneration.

  6. A Sporadic Parkinson Disease Model via Silencing of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome/E3 Ligase Component SKP1A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman-Jacob, Tali; Reznichenko, Lydia; Youdim, Moussa B. H.; Mandel, Silvia A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new model of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) based on silencing of the SKP1A gene, a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase complex, Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box protein, which was found to be highly decreased in the substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients. Initially, an embryonic mouse substantia nigra-derived cell line (SN4741 cells) was infected with short hairpin RNA lentiviruses encoding the murine transcript of the SKP1A gene or with scrambled vector. SKP1A silencing resulted in increased susceptibility to neuronal damages induced by the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion and serum starvation, in parallel with a decline in the expression of the dopaminergic markers, dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter-2. SKP1A-deficient cells presented a delay in completion of the cell cycle and the inability to arrest at the G0/G1 phase when induced to differentiate. Instead, the cells progressed through S phase, developing rounded aggregates with characteristics of aggresomes including immunoreactivity for γ-tubulin, α-synuclein, ubiquitin, tyrosine hydroxylase, Hsc-70 (70-kDa heat shock cognate protein), and proteasome subunit, and culminating in a lethal phenotype. Conversely, stably enforced expression of wild type SKP1A duplicated the survival index of naïve SN4741 cells under proteasomal inhibition injury, suggesting a new structural role of SKP1 in dopaminergic neuronal function, besides its E3 ligase activity. These results link, for the first time, SKP1 to dopamine neuronal function and survival, suggesting an essential role in sporadic PD. In summary, this new model has reproduced to a significant extent the molecular alterations described in sporadic PD at the cellular level, implicating Skp1 as a potential modifier in sporadic PD neurodegeneration. PMID:19748892

  7. HDAC7 Ubiquitination by the E3 Ligase CBX4 Is Involved in Contextual Fear Conditioning Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Sui, Wen-Hai; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Xu-Feng; Yuan, Rong-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Ma, Hui-Xian; Zhu, Ying-Xiao; Sun, Jin-Kai; Yi, Fan; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wang, Yue

    2017-04-05

    Histone acetylation, an epigenetic modification, plays an important role in long-term memory formation. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were demonstrated to promote memory formation, which raises the intriguing possibility that they may be used to rescue memory deficits. However, additional research is necessary to clarify the roles of individual HDACs in memory. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC7, within the dorsal hippocampus of C57BL6J mice, had a late and persistent decrease after contextual fear conditioning (CFC) training (4-24 h), which was involved in long-term CFC memory formation. We also showed that HDAC7 decreased via ubiquitin-dependent degradation. CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases involved in this process. Nur77, as one of the target genes of HDAC7, increased 6-24 h after CFC training and, accordingly, modulated the formation of CFC memory. Finally, HDAC7 was involved in the formation of other hippocampal-dependent memories, including the Morris water maze and object location test. The current findings facilitate an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of HDAC7 in the regulation of hippocampal-dependent memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current findings demonstrated the effects of histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) on hippocampal-dependent memories. Moreover, we determined the mechanism of decreased HDAC7 in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. We also verified that CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases. Finally, we demonstrated that Nur77, as one of the important targets for HDAC7, was involved in CFC memory formation. All of these proteins, including HDAC7, CBX4, and Nur77, could be potential therapeutic targets for preventing memory deficits in aging and neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373848-16$15.00/0.

  8. UBR-5, a Conserved HECT-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Notch-Type Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Komal; Gu, Anniya; Xu, Xia; Au, Vinci; Taylor, Jon; Flibotte, Stephane; Moerman, Donald G.; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Notch-type signaling mediates cell−cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell−cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells) to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCFSEL-10 E3 ubiquitin–ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components. PMID:27185398

  9. UBR-5, a Conserved HECT-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Notch-Type Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Safdar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Notch-type signaling mediates cell−cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell−cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCFSEL-10 E3 ubiquitin–ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components.

  10. HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest involves the DDB1-CUL4AVPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Belzile

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr has been shown to cause G2 cell cycle arrest in human cells by inducing ATR-mediated inactivation of p34cdc2, but factors directly engaged in this process remain unknown. We used tandem affinity purification to isolate native Vpr complexes. We found that damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1, viral protein R binding protein (VPRBP, and cullin 4A (CUL4A--components of a CUL4A E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, DDB1-CUL4A(VPRBP--were able to associate with Vpr. Depletion of VPRBP by small interfering RNA impaired Vpr-mediated induction of G2 arrest. Importantly, VPRBP knockdown alone did not affect normal cell cycle progression or activation of ATR checkpoints, suggesting that the involvement of VPRBP in G2 arrest was specific to Vpr. Moreover, leucine/isoleucine-rich domain Vpr mutants impaired in their ability to interact with VPRBP and DDB1 also produced strongly attenuated G2 arrest. In contrast, G2 arrest-defective C-terminal Vpr mutants were found to maintain their ability to associate with these proteins, suggesting that the interaction of Vpr with the DDB1-VPRBP complex is necessary but not sufficient to block cell cycle progression. Overall, these results point toward a model in which Vpr could act as a connector between the DDB1-CUL4A(VPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and an unknown cellular factor whose proteolysis or modulation of activity through ubiquitination would activate ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling and induce G2 arrest.

  11. Classificati,Expression Patter,and E3 Ligase Activity Assay of Rice U-Box-Containing Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Zeng; Chan Ho Park; R.C.Venu; Julian Gough; Guo-Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligases play a central role in determining the specificity of the ubiquitination system by selecting a myriad of appropriate candidate proteins for modification.The U-box is a recently identified,ubiquitin ligase activityrelated protein domain that shows greater presence in plants than in other organisms.In this study,we identified 77 putative U-box proteins from the rice genome using a battery of whole genome analysis algorithms.Most of the U-box protein genes are expressed,as supported by the identification of their corresponding expressed sequence tags (ESTs),full-length cDNAs,or massively parallel signature sequencing(MPSS)tags.Using the same algorithms,we identified 61 U-box proteins from the Arabidopsis genome.The rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins were classified into nine major classes based on their domain compositions.Comparison between rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins indicates that the majority of rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins have the same domain organizations.The inferred phylogeny established the homology between rice and Arabidopsis U-box/ARM proteins.Cell death assay using the rice protoplast system suggests that one rice U-box gene,OsPU851,might act as a negative regulator of cell death signaling.In addition,the selected U-box proteins were found to be functional E3 ubiquitin ligases.The identification and analysis of rice U-box proteins hereby at the genomic level will help functionally characterize this class of E3 ubiquitin ligase in the future.

  12. Influence of domain stability on the properties of human apolipoprotein E3 and E4 and mouse apolipoprotein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Dhanasekaran, Padmaja; Nickel, Margaret; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Mayu; Saito, Hiroyuki; Phillips, Michael C; Lund-Katz, Sissel

    2014-06-24

    The human apolipoprotein (apo) E4 isoform, which differs from wild-type apoE3 by the single amino acid substitution C112R, is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases, but the molecular basis for this variation between isoforms is not understood. Human apoE is a two-domain protein comprising an N-terminal helix bundle and a separately folded C-terminal region. Here, we examine the concept that the ability of the protein to bind to lipid surfaces is influenced by the stability (or readiness to unfold) of these domains. The lipid-free structures and abilities to bind to lipid and lipoprotein particles of a series of human and mouse apoE variants with varying domain stabilities and domain–domain interactions are compared. As assessed by urea denaturation, the two domains are more unstable in apoE4 than in apoE3. To distinguish the contributions of the destabilization of each domain to the greater lipid-binding ability of apoE4, the properties of the apoE4 R61T and E255A variants, which have the same helix bundle stabilities but altered C-terminal domain stabilities, are compared. In these cases, the effects on lipid-binding properties are relatively minor, indicating that the destabilization of the helix bundle domain is primarily responsible for the enhanced lipid-binding ability of apoE4. Unlike human apoE, mouse apoE behaves essentially as a single domain, and its lipid-binding characteristics are more similar to those of apoE4. Together, the results show that the overall stability of the entire apoE molecule exerts a major influence on its lipid- and lipoprotein-binding properties.

  13. DLG1 is an anchor for the E3 ligase MARCH2 at sites of cell-cell contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhifang; Huett, Alan; Kuballa, Petric; Giallourakis, Cosmas; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2008-01-01

    PDZ domain containing molecular scaffolds plays a central role in organizing synaptic junctions. Observations in Drosophila and mammalian cells have implicated that ubiquitination and endosomal trafficking, of molecular scaffolds are critical to the development and maintenance of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity. To elucidate if there is a connection between these pathways, we applied an integrative genomic strategy, which combined comparative genomics and proteomics with cell biological assays. Given the importance of ubiquitin in regulating endocytic processes, we first identified the subset of E3 ligases with conserved PDZ binding motifs. Among this subset, the MARCH family ubiquitin ligases account for the largest family and MARCH2 has been previously implicated in endosomal trafficking. Next, we tested in an unbiased fashion, if MARCH2 binds PDZ proteins in vivo using a modified tandem affinity purification strategy followed by mass spectrometry. Of note, DLG1 was co-purified from MARCH2, with subsequent confirmation that MARCH2 interacts with full-length DLG1 in a PDZ domain dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MARCH2 co-localized with DLG1 at sites of cell-cell contact. In addition, loss of the MARCH2 PDZ binding motif led to loss of MARCH2 localization at cell-cell contact sites and MARCH2 appeared to localize away from cell-cell junctions. In in vivo ubiquitination assays we show that MARCH2 promotes DLG1 ubiquitination. Overall, these results suggest that PDZ ligands with E3 ligase activity may link PDZ domain containing tumor suppressors to endocytic pathways and cell polarity determination.

  14. PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I.; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J.; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser65. We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser65. We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser65 or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr257, which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following Δψm depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 and/or PINK1 at Thr257 represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

  15. The weak fundamental NH-stretching transition in amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Sidsel D.; Hansen, Anne S.; Wallberg, Jens H.; Nielsen, Anne R.; Du, Lin; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2017-02-01

    Absolute intensities of NH-stretching fundamental and overtone transitions of gas phase aniline, methylamine, ethylamine, cyclopropylamine, methylethylamine, diethylamine and pyrrolidine have been measured with long path length conventional absorption spectroscopy. To support the assignments of NH-stretching transitions, transition frequencies and intensities were calculated with the local mode model using ab initio calculated local mode parameters and dipole moment functions obtained at the CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 level of theory. For aniline, the absolute intensities of the NH-stretching transitions show the typical decrease of approximately an order of magnitude for each successive vibrational excitation. For methylamine, ethylamine, cyclopropylamine, methylethylamine, diethylamine and pyrrolidine, the observed absolute intensities of the fundamental NH-stretching transition is weak and of similar strength or even weaker than the corresponding first overtone transition. Characteristic for the amines with a normal fundamental intensity is a conjugated double bond next to the amine group.

  16. Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Megevand, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational ...

  17. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.

  18. The Managerial Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Steven J.

    1980-01-01

    Having identified the problem of managerial transition in a previous article (CE 510 277), the author outlines a strategy for change which includes performance appraisal, definition of the management structure, and counselling for the individual in transition. (SK)

  19. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  20. Comparison of Remolded Shear Strength with Intrinsic Strength Line for Dredged Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Chandler proposed the intrinsic strength line to correlate the undrained shear strength of samples one-dimensionally consolidated from slurry with the void index proposed by Burland. The undrained shear strength on the intrinsic strength line is different from the remolded undrained shear strength that is an important parameter for design and construction of land reclamation. The void index is used in this study for normalizing the remolded strength behavior of dredged deposits. A quantitative relationship between remolded undrained shear strength and void index is established based on extensive data of dredged deposits available from sources of literature. Furthermore, the normalized remolded undrained shear strength is compared with intrinsic strength line. The comparison result indicates that the ratio of undrained shear strength on the intrinsic strength line over remolded undrained shear strength increases with an increase in applied consolidated stress.

  1. Holographic superconductor models with the Maxwell field strength corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Qiyuan; Wang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the quadratic field strength correction to the usual Maxwell field on the holographic dual models in the backgrounds of AdS black hole and AdS soliton. We find that in the black hole background, the higher correction to the Maxwell field makes the condensation harder to form and changes the expected relation in the gap frequency. This effect is similar to that caused by the curvature correction. However, in the soliton background we find that different from the curvature effect, the correction to the Maxwell field does not influence the holographic superconductor and insulator phase transition.

  2. Do lattice data constrain the vector interaction strength of QCD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Steinheimer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how repulsive interactions of deconfined quarks as well as confined hadrons have an influence on the baryon number susceptibilities and the curvature of the chiral pseudo-critical line in effective models of QCD. We discuss implications and constraints for the vector interaction strength from comparisons to lattice QCD and comment on earlier constraints, extracted from the curvature of the transition line of QCD and compact star observables. Our results clearly point to a strong vector repulsion in the hadronic phase and near-zero repulsion in the deconfined phase.

  3. Validation and Implementation of Uncertainty Estimates of Calculated Transition Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Ekman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties of calculated transition rates in LS-allowed electric dipole transitions in boron-like O IV and carbon-like Fe XXI are estimated using an approach in which differences in line strengths calculated in length and velocity gauges are utilized. Estimated uncertainties are compared and validated against several high-quality theoretical data sets in O IV, and implemented in large scale calculations in Fe XXI.

  4. Kinetics of shock-induced polymorphic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Shock-loading induces polymorphic phase transitions in some solids if the pressure exceeds that at which phase transition occurs under quasi-static compression. Volume changes in shock-induced transitions must occur very rapidly to produce the structured shock waves observed, so transition rates are large under these dynamic conditions. By contrast, the same transition might require minutes or hours under quasi-static loading. If shock-induced transition is so rapid that kinetic effects can be ignored, a steady two-wave structure is propagated. The first wave, of amplitude equal to the transition pressure, shocks the material to the phase boundary but produces no transition; the second, slower wave produces the transformed phase. When kinetic effects are important, this two-wave structure does not form immediately but by an evolutionary process which produces transients in the amplitudes and rise times of the stress waves. By measuring these transient effects, some facts about the kinetics of phase transitions have been inferred. Comprehensive studies on phase-transition kinetics in antimony, iron, and potassium chloride are described, with emphasis on a thermodynamic description of the intermediate states during transition. Complicating effects such as shear strength and wave perturbations due to free surfaces are discussed.

  5. Photon strength distributions in stable even-even molybdenum isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, A; Erhard, M; Grosse, E; Junghans, A R; Klug, J; Kosev, K; Nair, C; Nankov, N; Rusev, G; Schilling, K D; Schwengner, R

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic dipole-strength distributions up to the particle separation energies are studied for the stable even-even nuclides $^{92,94,96,98,100}$Mo in photon scattering experiments at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The influence of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states has been corrected by a simulation of $\\gamma$ cascades using a statistical model. After corrections for branching ratios of ground-state transitions, the photon-scattering cross-sections smoothly connect to data obtained from $(\\gamma,n)$-reactions. With the newly determined electromagnetic dipole response of nuclei well below the particle separation energies the parametrisation of the isovector giant-dipole resonance is done with improved precision.

  6. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  7. Rod differentiation factor NRL activates the expression of nuclear receptor NR2E3 to suppress the development of cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Edwin C T; Cheng, Hong; Hao, Hong; Jia, Lin; Khan, Naheed Wali; Swaroop, Anand

    2008-10-21

    Neural developmental programs require a high level of coordination between the decision to exit cell cycle and acquisition of cell fate. The Maf-family transcription factor NRL is essential for rod photoreceptor specification in the mammalian retina as its loss of function converts rod precursors to functional cones. Ectopic expression of NRL or a photoreceptor-specific orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 completely suppresses cone development while concurrently directing the post-mitotic photoreceptor precursors towards rod cell fate. Given that NRL and NR2E3 have overlapping functions and NR2E3 expression is abolished in the Nrl(-/-) retina, we wanted to clarify the distinct roles of NRL and NR2E3 during retinal differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that NRL binds to a sequence element in the Nr2e3 promoter and enhances its activity synergistically with the homeodomain protein CRX. Using transgenic mice, we show that NRL can only partially suppress cone development in the absence of NR2E3. Gene profiling of retinas from transgenic mice that ectopically express NR2E3 or NRL in cone precursors reveals overlapping and unique targets of these two transcription factors. Together with previous reports, our findings establish the hierarchy of transcriptional regulators in determining rod versus cone cell fate in photoreceptor precursors during the development of mammalian retina.

  8. CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 Ligase Regulates the Molecular Clock Activity by Promoting Ubiquitination-Dependent Degradation of the Mammalian CRY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Cazares, Victor; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The CUL4-DDB1 E3 ligase complex serves as a critical regulator in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle progression. However, whether this E3 ligase complex regulates clock protein turnover and the molecular clock activity in mammalian cells is unknown. Here we show that CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase ubiquitinates CRY1 and promotes its degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Depletion of the major components of this E3 ligase complex, including Ddb1, Cdt2, and Cdt2-cofactor Pcna, leads to CRY1 stabilization in cultured cells or in the mouse liver. CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase targets lysine 585 within the C-terminal region of CRY1 protein, shown by the CRY1 585KA mutant's resistance to ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the CUL4A-DDB1 complex. Surprisingly, both depletion of Ddb1 and over-expression of Cry1-585KA mutant enhance the oscillatory amplitude of the Bmal1 promoter activity without altering its period length, suggesting that CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 targets CRY1 for degradation and reduces the circadian amplitude. All together, we uncovered a novel biological role for CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase that regulates molecular circadian behaviors via promoting ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CRY1.

  9. Solvents effect on n→π*and π→π* transition of 9- fluorenone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... from the solvent of low dielectric constant to one of higher dielectric constant and vice ... media on transition energies, oscillator strength and other absorption ... designated I, II, III and IV in order of increase energy. (Figure 1).

  10. High strength, tough alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  11. Lijiang: From Brand to Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Wentian; Bai Yifeng

    2009-01-01

    @@ The tourism industry is facing unprecedented challenges after the financial crisis.During this "financial winter",how much influence has Lijiang's tourism,the one that has been the pillar industry of Lijiang and important economic growth point received? And how does the government of Lijiang deal with this? How to transform it from "Brand Lijiang" to "Strength Lijiang"? Member of National People's Congress,Lijiang's deputy secretary of municipal party committee,and Mayor Wang Junzheng accepted an exclusive interview with our reporter.

  12. Prediction of underwater target strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG TongQing; Mohammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    A model as well as its numerical method to calculate target strength of rigid body using Lighthill's acoustic analogy approach which developed from the propeller aircraft sound field study have been presented. The cases of ellipsoid target has been used to demonstrate the approach. The comparison of the numerical results with that of analytical formulation provides a satisfactory check for the validity of the approach. Some reasonable results have been discussed. The advantage of the present model is that it is suitable for any arbitrarily shaped rigid body moving with small Mach number.

  13. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    material. Thus, in these two cases. thes)rnbols at left represent strength values for specimns that effo-. of heat treament on the R curve isbroke from...Vol. 22, p. 135, 1988. 9. "Effect of Heat Treatment on Crack-Resistance Curves in a Liquid-Phase- Sintered Alumina" S.J. Bennison, 11.M. Chan and B.R...Subvinucat "rack Growth and Other Time. and Environment.Dependwn Behavior In Crustat Rocks," J. Geophys. Res.. 39, 4137-52 (1984). 9. "Effect of Heat

  14. Development of Nb-V-Ti Hot-Rolled High Strength Steel With Fine Ferrite and Precipitation Strengthening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Hai-long; DU Lin-xiu; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2009-01-01

    A hot-rolled steel with high yield strength of 700 MPa, good elongation of about 20% and low ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) lower than-70℃ has been developed in laboratory. The results show that adopting finishing rolling temperature of around 800 ℃ is rational, and coiling temperature is between 400 and 500℃. The strength of developed 700 MPa hot-rolled high strength steel is derived from the cumulative contribution of fine grain size, dislocation hardening and precipitation hardening. The fine grain strengthening and precipitation hardening are the dominant factors responsible for such high strength, and good elongation and toughness are predominantly due to fine grain ferrite.

  15. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and strength training to gain muscle strength in elderly women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesário, Denise Ferreira; Mendes, Geovânia Barbosa da Silva; Uchôa, Érica Patrícia Borba Lira; Veiga, Paulo Henrique Altran

    2014-01-01

    ...: To perform comparative analyze of results of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and strength training to gain muscle strength of biceps and quadriceps and grip in the elderly...

  16. Three Important Advances in Engineering Strength Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuMaohong; FanWen; MitustoshiYoshimine

    2003-01-01

    There are there great advances in the research on engineering strength theories in the latter half of the 20th Century. The first advance was the devel-opment of strength theory from the single-shear strength theory including the Tresca yield criterion and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion to theoctahe-dral-shear strength theory; the second one was that from the octahedral-shear strength theory to the twin-shear strength theory; and the third wasthe theories from the single criteria to the unifiedstrength theory. These three advances are summa-rized in this paper. It is interesting and useful for re-searchers to choose an appropriate failure criterion in studying the strength of materials and struc-tures, for engineers to correctly use it and for stu-dents to understand strength theory.

  17. Residual strength of damaged marine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.

    1994-09-01

    Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.

  18. Phase transitions of quadrupolar fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Seamus F.; Dubey, Girija S.; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.

    1997-07-01

    Gibbs ensemble simulations are reported for Lennard-Jones particles with embedded quadrupoles of strength Q*=Q/(ɛσ5)1/2=2.0 where ɛ and σ are the Lennard-Jones parameters. Calculations revealing the effect of the dispersive forces on the liquid-vapor coexistence were carried out by scaling the attractive r-6 term in the Lennard-Jones pair potential by a factor λ ranging from 0 to 1. Liquid-vapor coexistence is observed for all values of λ including λ=0 for Q*=2.0, unlike the corresponding dipolar fluid studied by van Leeuwen and Smit et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3991 (1993)] which showed no phase transition below λ=0.35 when the reduced dipole moment μ*=2.0. The simulation data are analyzed to estimate the critical properties of the quadrupolar fluid and their dependence on the strength λ of the dispersive force. The critical temperature and pressure show a clear quadratic dependence on λ, while the density is less confidently identified as being linear in λ. The compressibility is roughly linear in λ.

  19. Mouse RING finger protein Rnf133 is a testis-specific endoplasmic reticulum-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Nian; Chunsheng Han; Wei Zhang; Hexin Shi; Qingzhen Zhao; Qi Xie; Shangying Liao; Yan Zhang; Zhuqiang Zhang; Chen Wang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Spermatogenesis, the process by which sperms are generated within the male gonads, involves a number of events that occur only in the testis. Examples include the nucleus condensation as a result of histone sequential replacement by transition proteins 1, 2 and protamin, the formation of sperm-specific organelles such as acrosomes and sperm tails, and the shedding of majority of the cytoplasm as residual bodies.

  20. Transitive spaces of operators

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, K R; Radjavi, H

    2007-01-01

    We investigate algebraic and topological transitivity and, more generally, k-transitivity for linear spaces of operators. In finite dimensions, we determine minimal dimensions of k-transitive spaces for every k, and find relations between the degree of transitivity of a product or tensor product on the one hand and those of the factors on the other. We present counterexamples to some natural conjectures. Some infinite dimensional analogues are discussed. A simple proof is given of Arveson's result on the weak-operator density of transitive spaces that are masa bimodules.