WorldWideScience

Sample records for e-waste dismantling area

  1. Characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 from an e-waste dismantling area in Taizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zeping; Feng, Jialiang; Han, Wenliang; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2010-08-01

    Solvent extractable organic compounds in PM(2.5) samples collected in Taizhou, a city famous for its electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling industry in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed to identify the main emission sources based on molecular markers. Two types of plastics which were most frequently contained in the e-wastes, wires/cables and plastic blocks, were burned in the lab and the particles emitted analyzed. The concentrations of PAHs and phthalate esters at the e-waste dismantling area during our sampling periods were about two times of that at the reference urban site, indicating the high pollution level there. The high concentrations of quaterphenyl found at the dismantling area indicated that burning of plastics or polymers was an important emission source of the PAHs in the fine particles. The diagnostic analysis based on the compositions of alkanes, hopanes and other molecular markers showed that engine exhaust, biomass burning and kitchen emissions were also important emission sources at the e-waste dismantling area. Our results suggested that more effort should be paid to control the correlative emission sources such as transportation and kitchen to achieve better air quality at the e-waste dismantling area besides regulating the recycling activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang, E-mail: gqding@cdc.zj.cn; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (β{sub 2}-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ΣPCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g{sup −1}, p < 0.0001), but the mean level of ΣPBDEs in the exposure group was not significantly higher than that in the controls (139.32 vs. 75.74 ng g{sup −1}, p > 0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (p < 0.05). The mean level of ΣPCBs was negatively correlated with levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, serum creatinine and β{sub 2}-MG (p < 0.05). Additionally, the mean level of ΣPBDEs was positively correlated with levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that exposure to an e-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released

  3. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  4. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g −1 lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g −1 lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g −1 lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste

  5. Effects of environmental lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among occupationally exposed group in an E-waste dismantling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Lu, Xiao Song; Li, Ding Long; Yu, Yun Jiang

    2013-06-01

    To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45 μg/L, respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. PCDD/Fs in air and soil around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Tang, Y H; Peng, P A; Cai, Y

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air and farmland soil sampled in 2006 around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in Longtang in south China were investigated. The total toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 3.2-31.7 pg/m(3) in air and 5.8 12.4 ng/kg in farmland soil at an e-waste site and 0.063-0.091 pg/m(3) in air at a background site. PCDD/Fs in the air at the e-waste site were characterized with dominant 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF and higher concentrations of furans than dioxins, suggesting open burning of insulated wires was likely to be the main source of PCDD/Fs. Compared with the results in this study, the level of PCDD/F tended to lessen with the average TEQ concentration decreasing by 41 % and the pattern changed to be dominated by OCDD in the air of Longtang in 2010 when insulated wires were openly burned in only a small scale. Our results indicate that the lower chlorinated congeners with higher vapor pressures have enhanced atmospheric transport tendencies.

  7. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C 10 and C 11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of plants on the distribution and composition of PBDEs in soils of an e-waste dismantling area: Evidence of the effect of the rhizosphere and selective bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere effects on the distribution of PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils were investigated. The geometric means of the PBDEs in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were 32.6 ng/g and 12.2 ng/g, whereas the geometric means of the PBDEs in vegetable shoots and roots were 2.15 ng/g and 3.02 ng/g, respectively. PBDEs in soil at different distances from the root surface may first rise appreciably and then decrease to a non-rhizosphere level for long-term contaminated soils. Different PBDE compositions in roots and shoots indicated that PBDEs in shoots may be mainly taken up from the air. The ratios of BDE99/100 and BDE153/154 in plants and their corresponding soils were different. The bioaccumulations of BDEs 100 and 154 were much higher than those of BDEs 99 and 153, respectively. This indicated that the bioaccumulation was selective and influenced by the substitution pattern, with ortho-substituted isomers being more prevalent than meta-substituted isomers. -- Highlights: • PBDEs in rhizosphere soils were higher than those in non-rhizosphere soils. • PBDEs in soil may first be accumulated and then reduced towards root surface. • Bioaccumulation of PBDEs is selective and influenced by substituent effect. • Bioaccumulations of BDEs 100 and 154 were much higher than BDEs 99 and 153. -- The bioaccumulation of PBDE isomers was selective and influenced by the substituent effect, with ortho-substitution being favored over meta-substitution

  9. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H. Marike; Huo, Xia

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals

  10. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  11. VOCs elimination and health risk reduction in e-waste dismantling workshop using integrated techniques of electrostatic precipitation with advanced oxidation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiangyao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Guiying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); An, Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu, Yunkun; Li, Yunlu [Guangzhou Longest Environmental Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510660 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of VOCs removal during e-waste dismantling process. • EP-PC-ozonation integrated reactor show high and stable removal ability to VOCs. • Health risks of target VOCs decrease significantly after the treatment. - Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the electronic waste dismantling process (EWDP) were treated at a pilot scale, using integrated electrostatic precipitation (EP)-advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs, subsequent photocatalysis (PC) and ozonation). Although no obvious alteration was seen in VOC concentration and composition, EP technology removed 47.2% of total suspended particles, greatly reducing the negative effect of particles on subsequent AOTs. After the AOT treatment, average removal efficiencies of 95.7%, 95.4%, 87.4%, and 97.5% were achieved for aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, respectively, over 60-day treatment period. Furthermore, high elimination capacities were also seen using hybrid technique of PC with ozonation; this was due to the PC unit’s high loading rates and excellent pre-treatment abilities, and the ozonation unit’s high elimination capacity. In addition, the non-cancer and cancer risks, as well as the occupational exposure cancer risk, for workers exposed to emitted VOCs in workshop were reduced dramatically after the integrated technique treatment. Results demonstrated that the integrated technique led to highly efficient and stable VOC removal from EWDP emissions at a pilot scale. This study points to an efficient approach for atmospheric purification and improving human health in e-waste recycling regions.

  12. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals derived from electronic waste (e-waste), such as, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, distribution, metabolism, excretion and biological transmission. Our previous studies showed that heavy metal exposure have adverse effects on children's health including lower birth weight, lower anogenital distance, lower Apgar scores, lower current weight, lower lung function, lower hepatitis B surface antibody levels, higher prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and higher DNA and chromosome damage. Heavy metals influence a number of diverse systems and organs, resulting in both acute and chronic effects on children's health, ranging from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary and reproductive disease, as well as aggravation of pre-existing symptoms and disease. These effects of heavy metals on children's health are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging halogenated flame retardants and hexabromocyclododecanes in food samples from an e-waste processing area in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fang; Matsukami, Hidenori; Suzuki, Go; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Viet, Pham Hung; Takigami, Hidetaka; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of selected emerging halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in foodstuffs sourced from an e-waste processing area in Vietnam and two reference sites in Vietnam and Japan. Concentrations of all target HFRs in e-waste-impacted samples in this study exceed significantly (p e-waste processing activities exert a substantial impact on local environmental contamination and human dietary exposure. Significant linear positive correlations in concentrations of syn-Dechlorane Plus (DP) and anti-DP were found between soils and those in co-located chicken samples (p e-waste processing sites and non-e-waste processing areas elsewhere.

  14. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  15. Lead exposure is associated with risk of impaired coagulation in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhijun; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Zhehong; Zhang, Yuling; Xu, Xijin

    2018-05-12

    Environmental lead exposure leads to various deleterious effects on multiple organs and systems, including the hematopoietic system. To explore the effects of lead exposure on platelet indices in preschool children from an informal, lead-contaminated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, we collected venous blood samples from 466 preschool children (331 from an e-waste area (Guiyu) and 135 from a non-e-waste area (Haojiang)). Child blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while platelet indices were quantified using a Sysmex XT-1800i hematology analyzer. Higher blood lead levels are observed in e-waste lead-exposed preschool children. Significant relationships between high blood lead levels (exceeding current health limits) and elevated platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) were also uncovered. Furthermore, the median PLT and PCT levels of children from the exposed group both exceeded the respective recommended maximum reference range value, whereas the reference group did not. Location of child residence in Guiyu and BLLs were both risk factors related to platelet indices. These results suggest that high blood lead exposure from e-waste recycling may increase the risk of an amplified coagulation process through the activation of platelets in preschool children.

  16. Increased memory T cell populations in Pb-exposed children from an e-waste-recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Junjun; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhijun; Hylkema, Machteld N; Huo, Xia

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals could affect cell-mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the status of memory T cell development in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Blood lead (Pb) levels, peripheral T cell subpopulations, and serum levels of cytokines

  17. Levels and isomer profiles of Dechlorane Plus in the surface soils from e-waste recycling areas and industrial areas in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lu Shaoyou; Gao Shutao; Wang Jingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Huiru, E-mail: huiruli@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng Xiangying; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a highly chlorinated flame retardant. Levels of DP were measured in surface soils from e-waste recycling areas and industrial areas in South China. Higher DP levels were found in e-waste recycling areas (undetectable-47.4 ng/g) than those in industrial areas (0.0336-4.65 ng/g) in South China. The highest DP concentration (3327 ng/g) was found at the e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan, while DP levels fell dramatically with increasing distance away from the recycling site, suggesting that the e-waste recycling activities are an important source of DP emissions. The mean ratios of anti-DP to total DP (f{sub anti}) for different sampling areas ranged from 0.58 to 0.76 and showed no significant difference from the ratio for the technical DP products (t-test, p > 0.05). Further intensive studies are needed to investigate the process of DP degradation and its degradation products. - High DP concentrations were found in the soils from e-waste recycling regions, and e-waste recycling was the major source of DP emissions in South China.

  18. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in

  19. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  20. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  1. Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Miller, Greg [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Chu, Cordia [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11-12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, {delta}-Aminolaevulinic acid ({delta}-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 {mu}g/dL, 6.97 {mu}g/dL, and 2.78 {mu}g/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 {mu}g/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher {delta}-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No report on tinfoil processing impact on children's health before. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies reported health impacts of lead from e-waste processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with blood lead levels < 10 {mu}g/dL are associated with a decrease in IQ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold appears to exist at blood lead level of about 20 {mu}g/dL for urinary {delta}-ALA.

  2. Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Miller, Greg; Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun; Chu, Cordia; Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong

    2012-01-01

    Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11–12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, δ-Aminolaevulinic acid (δ-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 μg/dL, 6.97 μg/dL, and 2.78 μg/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 μg/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher δ-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. - Highlights: ► No report on tinfoil processing impact on children's health before. ► Few studies reported health impacts of lead from e-waste processing. ► Children with blood lead levels < 10 μg/dL are associated with a decrease in IQ. ► Threshold appears to exist at blood lead level of about 20 μg/dL for urinary δ-ALA.

  3. Radiation protection during backfitting or dismantling work in the controlled area of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, J.; Kausch, S.; Palmowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Backfitting measures or dismantling activities within the controlled area put special requirements on radiological protection. This is to be shown by the example of the following cases. Sanitation of the general decontamination services of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center; waste water, equipment decontamination, incineration and packaging facility; dismantling and disposal of high-radiation components including decontamination of buildings of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant at Mol; reconstruction of the HDR plant for safety experiments together with waste management for components and systems, as e.g. pressure vessel internals, pipes etc.; exchange of the steam dryer and the water separator including planning of the conditioning process in the Wuergassen nuclear power plant. This lecture deals with the engineering and organizational problems, especially accounting for radiological protection and enters into planning of measures for radiological protection, their organization and execution, problems of direct and remote-controlled work also being discussed. The question of personnel qualification is also commented on. (orig.) [de

  4. Eco-toxicity and metal contamination of paddy soil in an e-wastes recycling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junhui; Hang Min

    2009-01-01

    Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37 mg kg -1 ), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36 mg kg -1 ) and Zn (209.85 mg kg -1 ). Zn appeared to be strongly bound in the residual fraction (72.24-77.86%), no matter the soil was metal contaminated or not. However, more than 9% Cd and 16% Cu was present in the non-residual fraction in the metal contaminated soils than in the uncontaminated soil, especially for site G and site F. Compared with that of the control soil, the micronucleus rates of site G and site F soil treatments increased by 2.7-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively. Low germination rates were observed in site C (50%) and site G (50%) soil extraction treated rice seeds. The shortest root length (0.2377 cm) was observed in site G soil treated groups, which is only 37.57% of that of the control soil treated groups. All of the micronucleus ratio of Vicia faba root cells, rice germination rate and root length after treatment of soil extraction indicate the eco-toxicity in site F and G soils although the three indexes are different in sensitivity to soil metal contamination.

  5. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cd total ) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cd total in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cd total in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cd total in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r = − 0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • We characterize the Cd total in topsoils, pH and SOM in a typical e-waste recycling area. • The relationships between Cd total in topsoils, pH, and SOM were studied. • Impact of topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification on shallow groundwater quality

  6. Systematic characterization of generation and management of e-waste in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Hu, Jiukun; Tan, Quanyin; Liu, Lili; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been much effort to promote the management of e-waste in China. Policies have been affected to prohibit imports and to control pollution. Research has been conducted in laboratories and on large-scale industrial operations. A subsidy system to support sound e-waste recycling has been put in place. However, the handling of e-waste is still a concern in China and the issue remains unresolved. There has been relatively little work to follow up this issue or to interpret continuing problems from the perspective of sustainable development. This paper first provides a brief overview of conventional and emerging environmental pollution in Chinese "famous" e-waste dismantling areas, including Guiyu in Guangdong and Wenling in Zhejiang. Environmentalists have repeatedly proven that these areas are significantly polluted. Importing and backyard recycling are decreasing but are ongoing. Most importantly, no work is being done to treat or remediate the contaminated environmental media. The situation is exacerbated by the rising tide of e-waste generated by domestic update of various electronics. This study, therefore, employs a Sales Obsolescence Model approach to predict the generation of e-waste. When accounting for weight, approximately 8 million tons of e-waste will be generated domestically in 2015, of which around 50% is ferrous metals, followed by miscellaneous plastic (30%), copper metal and cables (8%), aluminum (5%), and others (7%). Of this, 3.6% will come from scrap PCBs and 0.2% from lead CRT glass. While more and more end-of-life electronics have been collected and treated by formal or licensed recyclers in China in terms of our analysis, many of them only have dismantling and separation activities. Hazardous e-wastes, including those from PCBs, CRT glass, and brominated flame retardant (BFR) plastics, have become problematic and probably flow to small or backyard recyclers without environmentally sound management. Traditional

  7. [Arsenic contents in soil, water, and crops in an e-waste disposal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun-xia; Yin, Xue-bin; Song, Jing; Li, Chen-xi; Qian, Wei; Zhao, Qi-guo; Luo, Yong-ming

    2008-06-01

    In order to study whether disposing electronic wastes and secondary metal smelting could cause an arsenic pollution in the environment or not, Luqiao town, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province was selected as a study area. The main purpose of this paper was to characterize arsenic contents in the local environment, including waters, sediments, soils and rice, and to assess the potential risk to humans. Additionally, the arsenic spatial distribution property and arsenic uptake-translocation rule in soil-rice system were also studied. The results showed that the average arsenic levels in the surface water and the groundwater were 8.26 microg/L and 18.52 microg/L, respectively, which did not exceed the limiting value of Chinese Environment Standards class III . Whereas,some groundwater exceeded the recommended standard by the WHO for drinking water (10 microg/L). The arsenic (on average 7.11 mg/kg) in paddy soils and arsenic (on average 6.17 mg/kg) in the vegetable garden soils were lower than the value recommended by the National Standard (level I). The average arsenic contents in brown rice and husks were 165.1 microg/kg and 144.2 microg/kg, which was also lower than the Chinese Foods Quality Standard. The arsenic contents between the corresponding soils-rice and husks-brown rice showed significantly positive correlations. By comparison, the arsenic contents of soils and husks collected around electroplating were relatively higher than most of other pollutant sources, indicating the electroplating may lead accumulation of arsenic in the paddy soil-rice system.

  8. Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-10-15

    We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-02-15

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cdtotal) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cdtotal in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cdtotal in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cdtotal in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chunfa, E-mail: wchf1680@sina.com [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 17 Chunhui Rd, Yantai 264003 (China); Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cd{sub total}) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cd{sub total} in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cd{sub total} in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cd{sub total} in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r = − 0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • We characterize the Cd{sub total} in topsoils, pH and SOM in a typical e-waste recycling area. • The relationships between Cd{sub total} in topsoils, pH, and SOM were studied. • Impact of topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification on

  11. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in China were recruited and required to undergo physical examination, blood tests, and lung function tests during the study period. Birth outcome such as birth weight and birth height were obtained by questionnaire. Children living in the e-waste-exposed area have a lower birth weight, chest circumference, height, and lung function when compare to their peers from the reference areas (all p value <0.05). Both Spearman and partial correlation analyses showed that birth weight and chest circumference were positively correlated with lung function levels including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). After adjustment for the potential confounders in further linear regression analyses, birth weight, and chest circumference were positively associated with lung function levels, respectively. Taken together, birth weight and chest circumference may be good predictors for lung function levels in preschool children.

  12. Challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, P.F.; Schilz, F.; Rondeau, J.M.; Piketty, L.; Dupraz, B.; Conte, D.; Duguey, M.; Louet, C.A.; Dorison, A.; Dutzer, M.; Boucau, J.; Eimer, M.; Boutin, D.; Revilla, J.L.; Golshan, M.; Smith, G.

    2015-01-01

    This document is made up of short articles whose issue is reactor dismantling. The first article presents the French strategy that can be featured by immediate dismantling (the dismantling process is prepared a long time before decommissioning and begins as soon as the reactor is shut down) and massive dismantling (a lot of nuclear facilities will be decommissioned in a near future). The following 4 articles give the viewpoints of ASN (Nuclear Safety Authority), EDF (for its fleet of PWRs), CEA (for its experimental reactors and nuclear facilities) and AREVA (for the EURODIF George Besse plant). Costs and financing are dealt with in an article that says that the cost is greatly dependent on the final state: a complete nuclear-free area or an area whose radioactivity is below safe standards and that law implies to constitute provisions all along the operating life of the facility to cover dismantling costs. Dismantling generates a huge amount of very low-level radioactive wastes particularly metal scraps that might be recycled and get out of nuclear industry, an article details the feasibility of such recycling. Another article shows the impact of massive dismantling on the management of radioactive wastes. In an article Westinghouse presents its experience in the cutting of internal equipment of the reactor core. The last 2 articles presents the dismantling strategies in Spain and in the UK. (A.C.)

  13. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country.

  14. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metal concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consisting of residential areas, kindergarten/school, and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012-2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90, and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71, and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the reference area, and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination, and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had a high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust, respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk.

  15. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ho, Shuk-mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metals concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consists of residential areas, kindergarten/school and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012–2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90 and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71 and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than the reference area and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk. PMID:27230155

  16. Enhanced phytoremediation potential of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil from e-waste recycling area in the presence of randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chaofeng; Tang Xianjin; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Zhang Congkai; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Liang Fang; Chen Xincai; Zhu Youfeng; Lin Qi; Chen, Yingxu

    2009-01-01

    The crude recycling of electronic and electric waste (e-waste) is now creating soil pollution problems with organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study aimed to compare the phytoremediation potential of four plant species (rice, alfalfa, ryegrass and tall fescue) for PCBs contaminated soil from Taizhou city, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in China. In addition, the enhanced effects of randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on PCBs phytoremediation potential were evaluated. Higher PCBs removal percentages of 25.6-28.5% in rhizosphere soil were observed after 120 days, compared with those of the non-rhizosphere (10.4-16.9%) and unplanted controls (7.3%). The average PCBs removal percentages of four plant species increased from 26.9% to 37.1% in the rhizosphere soil with addition of RAMEB. Meanwhile, relatively high microbial counts and dehydrogenase activity were detected in planted soils and a stimulatory effect by RAMEB addition was found. The present study indicated that all the plant candidates were feasible for phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil from the e-waste recycling area, and tall fescue with RAMEB amendment seemed as a promising remediation strategy. High PCBs removal percentage was due to the increased PCBs bioavailability as well as biostimulation of microbial communities after plantation and RAMEB addition.

  17. Enhanced phytoremediation potential of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil from e-waste recycling area in the presence of randomly methylated-{beta}-cyclodextrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Chaofeng [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tang Xianjin; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Zhang Congkai; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Liang Fang; Chen Xincai; Zhu Youfeng [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Lin Qi, E-mail: linqi@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Chen, Yingxu [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-12-30

    The crude recycling of electronic and electric waste (e-waste) is now creating soil pollution problems with organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study aimed to compare the phytoremediation potential of four plant species (rice, alfalfa, ryegrass and tall fescue) for PCBs contaminated soil from Taizhou city, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in China. In addition, the enhanced effects of randomly methylated-{beta}-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on PCBs phytoremediation potential were evaluated. Higher PCBs removal percentages of 25.6-28.5% in rhizosphere soil were observed after 120 days, compared with those of the non-rhizosphere (10.4-16.9%) and unplanted controls (7.3%). The average PCBs removal percentages of four plant species increased from 26.9% to 37.1% in the rhizosphere soil with addition of RAMEB. Meanwhile, relatively high microbial counts and dehydrogenase activity were detected in planted soils and a stimulatory effect by RAMEB addition was found. The present study indicated that all the plant candidates were feasible for phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil from the e-waste recycling area, and tall fescue with RAMEB amendment seemed as a promising remediation strategy. High PCBs removal percentage was due to the increased PCBs bioavailability as well as biostimulation of microbial communities after plantation and RAMEB addition.

  18. Heavy metal and persistent organic compound contamination in soil from Wenling: an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Shi, Dezhi; Cheema, Sardar A; Khan, Muhammad I; Zhang, Congkai; Chen, Yingxu

    2010-01-15

    The present study was conducted to investigate the levels and sources of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg and As) and persistent organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils taken from Wenling, an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou, China. The results suggested that most heavy metals exceeded the respective Grade II value of soil quality standards from State Environmental Protection Administration of China and also exceeded the Dutch optimum values. Total PAHs in soil ranged from 371.8 to 1231.2 microg/kg, and relatively higher PAHs concentrations were found in soils taken from simple household workshops. PCBs were detectable in all samples with total concentrations ranging from 52.0 to 5789.5 microg/kg, which were 2.1-232.5 times higher than that from the reference site (24.9 microg/kg). Results of this study suggested soil in the Wenling e-waste recycling area were heavily contaminated by heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs. Furthermore, compared with large-scale plants, simple household workshops contributed more heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs pollution to the soil environment, indicating that soil contamination from e-waste recycling in simple household workshops should be given more attention.

  19. Heavy metals in PM_2_._5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-01-01

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM_2_._5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM_2_._5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p  5 μg/dL was significantly associated with asthma (OR, 9.50; 95% CI, 1.16–77.49). Higher blood chromium and blood manganese were associated with more cough and wheeze, respectively. Our data suggest that living in e-waste exposed area may lead to increased levels of heavy metals, and accelerated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma. - Highlights: • Higher levels of Pb and Cd pollution are found in PM_2_._5 and in blood from Guiyu. • Higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms is observed in children from Guiyu. • Living in Guiyu is associated with increased levels of Pb and Cd. • Living in Guiyu may lead to elevated prevalence of respiratory symptoms. • High prevalence of cough and phlegm in Guiyu comes from contacting with e-waste. - Heavy metal levels in PM_2_._5 and in blood, and the association between living area and heavy metals, respiratory symptoms and asthma.

  20. Distributions and compositions of old and emerging flame retardants in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in an e-waste contaminated area of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yan; Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated rhizosphere effects on the distributions and compositions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and dechlorane plus (DPs) in rhizosphere soils (RS) and non-rhizosphere soils (NRS) in an e-waste recycling area in South China. The concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs ranged from 13.9 to 351, 11.6 to 70.8, and 0.64 to 8.74 ng g −1 in RS and 7.56 to 127, 8.98 to 144, and 0.38 to 8.45 ng g −1 in NRS, respectively. BDE-209 and DBDPE were the dominant congeners of PBDEs and NBFRs, respectively. PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs were more enriched in RS than NRS in most vegetables species. Further analysis suggested that the differentiation of the rhizosphere effect on halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) was not solely controlled by the octanol-water coefficients. This difference was also reflected by the correlations between total organic carbon (TOC) and PBDEs, NBFRs, or DPs, which indicated that organic carbon was a more pivotal controlling factor for PBDEs and DPs than for NBFRs in soil. We also found significant positive correlations between PBDEs and their replacement products, which indicated a similar emission pattern and environmental behaviour. - Highlights: • Most flame retardants were enriched in rhizosphere soils compared to bulk soils. • Rhizosphere effects were more significant for NBFRs than for PBDEs. • PBDEs were significantly correlated with the total organic carbon in soils. • Result suggested that PBDEs have not been replaced by other BFRs in the e-waste. - The influences of rhizosphere effects on the distributions of PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs in soils were different.

  1. Heavy metals and organic compounds contamination in soil from an e-waste region in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Huang, Bo; Bi, Xinhui; Ren, Zhaofang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples collected from farmland and 7 soil or dust samples collected from the workshops in South China, where e-waste was dismantled using primitive techniques. The results show that Cd, Cu and Hg were the most abundant metals, in particular Cd pollution was serious in farmland soils, and the median concentrations in farmland soils were beyond the environmental quality standard for soils (China Grade II). A correlation between Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and PCBs or PBDEs was significant indicating similar sources. Among the PCB congeners, high relative similarity was observed between the e-waste dump site soil (EW1) and Aroclor 1254, implying that the technical product Aroclor 1254 was one of the major sources of PCB contamination. High concentrations of PCBs in workshop dusts (D2 and D3) (1958 and 1675 μg kg(-1)) demonstrated that the workshops dismantling electrical wires and cables, electrical motors, compressors and aluminum apparatus containing PCBs in lubricants represent strong PCB emission sources to this area. Principal component analysis (PCA) and PBDE homologue patterns verify that farmland soils surrounding the e-waste recycling sites were enriched with lower brominated congeners, and the major source of PBDEs in dust samples might potentially be associated with the extensive use of deca-mix technical products as a flame retardant. The difference between e-waste soils, dusts and farmland soils can be observed in the PCA score plot of PCBs and PBDEs, and E-waste soils and dusts exhibited more diversity than farmland soils. Furthermore, a prediction of the particular kinds of pollution from different recycling activities through the analysis of each contamination and the connections between them was investigated.

  2. The challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Leroyer, Veronique; Rollinger, Francois; Gauthier, Florence; Depauw, Denis; Reynal, Nathalie; Fraysse, Thierry; Burger, Eric; Bertrand, Adrien; Vallat, Christophe; Bernet, Philippe; Eimer, Michel; Boutin, Dominique; Bietrix, Philippe; Richard, Francoise; Piketty, Laurence; Mouchet, Chantal; Charre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations which address the contexts and challenges of dismantling (legal framework, safety and radiation protection challenges, waste processing industry), and propose illustrations of dismantling challenges (example of operations to prepare EURODIF dismantling and CLIGEET work-group on EURODIF dismantling, examples of dismantling of EDF installations and CLIs' opinion on the dismantling of EDF installations, Brennilis dismantling follow-up performed by the CLI, examples of dismantling of CEA installations and opinion of a CLI on the dismantling of CEA installations)

  3. Method for dismantling shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Rokuro; Kondo, Nobuhiro; Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Kawasato, Ken; Hiraga, Tomoaki.

    1990-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to enable operators to dismantle shieldings contaminated by radioactivity easily and in a short period of time without danger of radiation exposure. A plurality of introduction pipes are embedded previously to the shielding walls of shielding members which contain a reactor core in a state where both ends of the introduction pipes are in communication with the outside. A wire saw is inserted into the introduction pipes to cut the shieldings upon dismantling. Then, shieldings can be dismantled easily in a short period of time with no radiation exposure to operator's. Further, according to the present invention, since the wire saw can be set easily and a large area can be cut at once, operation efficiency is improved. Further, since remote control is possible, cutting can be conducted in water and complicated places of the reactor. Biting upon starting the wire saw in the introduction pipe is reduced to facilitate startup for the rotation. (I.S.)

  4. Dismantling technologies trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this work dismantling technologies trends realized by the CEA are reviewed. There following technologies are presented: Data acquisition from facilities; Scenario studies; Remote handling and carriers; Dismantling techniques; Decontamination.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in adipose tissue and matched serum from an E-waste recycling area (Wenling, China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Quan-Xia; Wang, Wenyue; Li, Xing-Hong; Yu, Lianlian; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    To Date, the knowledge on relationship between PCBs/PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) levels during pregnancy still needs to be extended. Meanwhile, studies on congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were limited. This study reports the levels of PCBs/PBDEs in serum-adipose tissue samples (n = 64) from expectant women living surrounding e-waste recycling sites in Wenling, China. Their concentrations varied from several to hundreds of ng g −1 lipid. Maternal exposure to PCBs was associated with lower TSH during pregnancy, suggesting possible implication for maternal health and fetal development. The compound levels between the adipose tissue and matched serum samples were highly correlated (p < 0.001), generating a predicted adipose-serum partitioning relationship for individual PCB congener and PBDE congener. Molecular characteristics, such as K ow value, molecular weight and molecular volume, may play a key role in the variable partitioning of some compounds between serum and adipose tissue. - Highlights: • PCBs/PBDEs were detected in the pregnant women from Wenling, China. • Exposure from e-waste recycling activities might considerably contribute to the elevated levels. • The adipose-serum partitioning ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were predicted. • Maternal exposure to PCBs may be associated with lower TSH during pregnancy. - The congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were predicted in humans, and association of PCBs/PBDEs exposure was examined with THs levels

  6. EDF's dismantling experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mira, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The dismantling policy at EDF, taking into account technical, economical and socio-political factors, is presented. The various current realizations are reviewed and their dismantling solution discussed: Chinon A2, Chinon A1, Marcoule G1, G2, G3, Brennilis (EL4). Several dismantling projects are also described (Chinon A3, St-Laurent A1-A2, Chooz A). The various dismantling operations are presented and scheduled

  7. LEP Dismantling: Wagons Roll!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first trucks transporting material from LEP and its four experiments left CERN on 31 January. Since the LEP dismantling operation began, the material had been waiting to be removed from the sites of the four experiments and the special transit area on the Prévessin site. On the evening of 30 January, the French customs authorities gave the green light for the transport operation to begin. So first thing the next day, the two companies in charge of recycling the material, Jaeger & Bosshard (Switzerland) and Excoffier (France), set to work. Only 1500 truckloads to go before everything has been removed!

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  9. Dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallec, M.; Kus, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear facilities have a long estimable lifetime but necessarily limited in time. At the end of their operation period, basic nuclear installations are the object of cleansing operations and transformations that will lead to their definitive decommissioning and then to their dismantling. Because each facility is somewhere unique, cleansing and dismantling require specific techniques. The dismantlement consists in the disassembly and disposing off of big equipments, in the elimination of radioactivity in all rooms of the facility, in the demolition of buildings and eventually in the reconversion of all or part of the facility. This article describes these different steps: 1 - dismantling strategy: main de-construction guidelines, expected final state; 2 - industries and sites: cleansing and dismantling at the CEA, EDF's sites under de-construction; 3 - de-construction: main steps, definitive shutdown, preparation of dismantling, electromechanical dismantling, cleansing/decommissioning, demolition, dismantling taken into account at the design stage, management of polluted soils; 4 - waste management: dismantlement wastes, national policy of radioactive waste management, management of dismantlement wastes; 5 - mastery of risks: risk analysis, conformability of risk management with reference documents, main risks encountered at de-construction works; 6 - regulatory procedures; 7 - international overview; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  10. Spatial distribution and implications to sources of halogenated flame retardants in riverine sediments of Taizhou, an intense e-waste recycling area in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Fu, Jie; He, Huan; Fu, Jianjie; Tang, Qiaozhi; Dong, Minfeng; Pan, Yongqiang; Li, An; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Limin

    2017-10-01

    Concentrations and spatial distribution pattern of organohalogen flame retardants were investigated in the riverine surface sediments from Taizhou, an intensive e-waste recycling region in China. The analytes were syn- and anti- Dechlorane Plus (DP), Dechloranes 602, 603, and 604, a DP monoadduct, two dechlorinated DPs and 8 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentrations of Σ 8 PBDEs, ΣDP, ΣDec600s, and ΣDP-degradates ranged from recycling facilities. Such patterns were largely shared by Dec602 and dechlorinated DP, although their concentration levels were much lower. These major flame retardants significantly correlate with each other, and cluster together in the loading plot of principle component analysis. In contrast, most non-deca PBDE congeners do not correlate with DPs. Dec604 stood out having distinctly different spatial distribution pattern, which could be linked to historical use of mirex. Organic matter content of the sediment was not the dominant factor in determining the spatial pattern of pollution by halogenated flame retardants in the rivers of this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste electrical and electronic Equipment (E-Wastes) management in Ghana: environmental impacts at Agbogbloshie, Accra Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukure, Sampson Atiemo

    2016-07-01

    degree of contamination with BS (Cdeg=1173) being the highest followed by DS (Cdeg=988). The school compound showed the least degree of contamination (Cdeg=60). The human health risk assessment for adult workers within the scrap yard showed workers at the burning sites have the greatest risk of exposure (HI=5.9). In the case of children under six years of age the cumulative non cancer risk assessment revealed that the burning site posed the highest risk(HI=28) interestingly followed by the residential site, dismantling site, the school compound, the market and recreational areas. The barriers of environmentally sound e-wastes recycling identified in this study included; prices of metals, availability of unskilled labour, inadequate recycling infrastructure, absence of legal framework, competition from the informal sector as well as low level of environmental awareness. The integrated extended producer responsibility model proposed in this study is unique as it incorporates the principles of extended producer responsibility with government controlled e-waste fund system. The success of the e-waste management system depends largely on the commitment of all stakeholders. (au)

  12. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. National School of Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivaldi, Fabienne

    2003-01-01

    The National Institut of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques founded of 2001 a National School of Dismantling, NSD, at the end, which was validated by CEA, COGEMA, EDF and ANDRA. This school addresses four major issues: Decontamination; Dismantling; Demolition and waste Disposal (4D). Dedicated for instructing scientific and technical knowledge and know-how, needed in dismantling the nuclear installations, NSD has as targets: - personnel at engineering and operational level; - personnel occupied with involved trades from conception through intervention; - students and employees on leave; - employees while training on the job. Initial basic education for students in collaboration with schools and universities concerns: - master degree in radioactive waste management; - master degree in dismantling; - professional license in 3 D; - pro 4 D graduation. NSD is also engaged in continual formation for employees qualified, or not, adapted to the needs generated by the following tasks and personnel: - introduction in dismantling; - project team; - specialist engineer; - team head; - agent for remedial action; - agent for dismantling. The National School of Dismantling joins a network of human and technological capabilities confined within the 4 D frame, namely: - scientific and technical competencies (experts, instructors working in the nuclear field and dismantling); - pedagogical competence (professionals from basic and continual education); - specific material means such as those used by construction site schools, mock-ups, rooms for practical training etc

  14. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  15. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p <0.05),

  16. The Superphenix dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents selected abstracts of Remy Carle's presentation on the dismantling of Superphenix (october 1998). The author wonders about the consequences of such a decision. After a chronological account of this fast reactor project, its cost and the scientific and technical contribution, the dismantling problem is considered. For EDF (Electricite De France) the dismantling dimension is considered at the same time of the design. The main problem is the liquid sodium reprocessing: a technical but also a financing problem. The end of the speech deals with the political aspects of Superphenix and the relations with the public. (A.L.B.)

  17. Spatial assessment of potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soils from informal e-waste recycling in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nartey Kyere

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing annual global volume of e-waste, and of its inherently valuable fraction, has created an opportunity for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by using unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from this waste. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions, such as heavy metals, into the soil, posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. Using a handheld global positioning system, 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected and analysed for cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Using geostatistical techniques and sediment quality guidelines, this research seeks to assess the potential risk these heavy metals posed to the proposed Korle Ecological Restoration Zone by informal e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. Analysis of heavy metals revealed concentrations exceeded the regulatory limits of both Dutch and Canadian soil quality and guidance values, and that the ecological risk posed by the heavy metals extended beyond the main burning and dismantling sites of the informal recyclers to the school, residential, recreational, clinic, farm and worship areas. The heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn had normal distribution, spatial variability, and spatial autocorrelation. Further analysis revealed the decreasing order of toxicity, Hg>Cd>Pb> Cu>Zn>Cr, of contributing significantly to the potential ecological risk in the study area.

  18. Some regulation aspects in dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the French regulation framework, operations linked to dismantling are controlled by an overall technical and legislative system applied to all the different stages of the facility (commissioning, etc.). Government control on facilities under dismantling is aimed at dismantling operation safety and security, and dismantling waste processing in order to ensure public and environmental protection

  19. Analysis of monomeric and oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants in fish muscle tissues using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: Application to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from an e-waste processing area in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Matsukami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography (LC, a novel analytical method was developed to quantify eight monomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (m-PFRs and three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs in fish muscle samples. The optimization and validation experiments indicate that the developed method can determine accurately the concentrations of analytes in fish muscle samples. The recoveries of analytes in fish muscle samples were in the range of 74–105%. The coefficients of variation of the concentrations of analytes in fish muscle samples were 0.6–8.9%. The concentrations of analytes in procedural blanks were below the limit of quantification (LOQ values. Furthermore, the developed method was applied to the analysis of m-PFRs and o-PFRs in the muscle samples of tilapias collected from an electronic waste (e-waste processing area in northern Vietnam. The concentrations of m-PFRs such as tris(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP, tris(2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCIPP, and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP were dominant among the investigated m-PFRs. The respective concentrations of TCEP, TCIPP, and TPHP were up to 160, 300, and 230 ng g−1 lipid weight, respectively, whereas those of o-PFRs were up to 10 ng g−1 lipid weight. The results of this study indicate lower accumulation potential of o-PFRs compared with m-PFRs for the first time.

  20. UDIN's dismantling projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, C.

    1993-01-01

    The role of UDIN (Central unit for nuclear facility decommissioning) at the CEA is reviewed together with the main specific aspects of nuclear dismantling: the different options and dismantling strategies and costs. The characteristics of the main on-going projects are described: graphite-gas reactors (G2/G3), RAPSODIE (RNR), AT1 (pilot RNR fuel reprocessing plant), ELAN II B (Cesium source conditioning plant), EL4 (heavy water/CO2 reactor), RM2 (fuel control radio-metallurgical laboratory) and UB-UM (Uranium enrichment plant)

  1. The dismantling of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Duthe, M.; Mignon, H.; Lambert, F.; Pradel, Ph.; Hillewaere, J.P.; Dupre la Tour, St.; Mandil, C.; Weil, L.; Eickelpasch, N.; Finsterwalder, L.

    1997-01-01

    for nuclear installations, the dismantling is an important part of their exploitation. The technology of dismantling is existing and to get a benefit from the radioactive decay, it seems more easy for operating company such E.D.F. to wait for fifty years before dismantling. But in order to get the knowledge of this operation, the Safety Authority wanted to devote this issue of 'Controle'to the dismantling method. This issue includes: the legal aspects, the risks assessment, the dismantling policy at E.D.F., the site of Brennilis (first French experience of dismantling), the dismantling techniques, the first dismantling of a fuel reprocessing plant, comparison with classical installations, economic aspect, some German experiences, the cleansing of the american site of Handford. (N.C.)

  2. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  3. E-Waste and the Sustainable Organisation: Griffith University's Approach to E-Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Georgina; Wolski, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide details of Griffith University's (GU) approach for sustainably dealing with electronic waste (e-waste) and the benefits of using the e-waste programme as a valuable educational case study for ESD. Design/methodology/approach: The e-waste programme is explained with reference to key resources and literature, so…

  4. The radiation protection principles model as a tool in the e-waste procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitomeneas, S. Th., E-mail: stsit@teipir.gr [Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Aigaleo (Greece); Vourlias, K., E-mail: kvourlias@yahoo.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Geronikolou, St. A., E-mail: sgeronik@bioacademy.gr [Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2016-03-25

    The electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) management is a global environmental problem dominated by the precautionary principle application, resulted to preliminary and ambiguous potential adverse effects, of extensive scientific uncertainty. In order to overcome the detected stochastic effects confusions in this field, we propose the inclusion of the principles of justification-optimization-limitation and of prudent avoidance. This model is already, established in radiation protection, so that toxicity as a result of the e-waste management would decrease, whilst the precious metals would be saved. We, further, resolve the classification of rejected items as reusable or as waste, so that the procedure of dismantling and recycling becomes easier, and the collecting-transporting-placement at an e-waste landfill would be safer. In conclusion, our proposing pattern in the e-waste management enforces the sustainable reducing-reusing-recycling, saves time/money and advances safety by including more sources of e-waste (military, medical etc) that were excluded previously.

  5. The radiation protection principles model as a tool in the e-waste procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitomeneas, S. Th.; Vourlias, K.; Geronikolou, St. A.

    2016-01-01

    The electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) management is a global environmental problem dominated by the precautionary principle application, resulted to preliminary and ambiguous potential adverse effects, of extensive scientific uncertainty. In order to overcome the detected stochastic effects confusions in this field, we propose the inclusion of the principles of justification-optimization-limitation and of prudent avoidance. This model is already, established in radiation protection, so that toxicity as a result of the e-waste management would decrease, whilst the precious metals would be saved. We, further, resolve the classification of rejected items as reusable or as waste, so that the procedure of dismantling and recycling becomes easier, and the collecting-transporting-placement at an e-waste landfill would be safer. In conclusion, our proposing pattern in the e-waste management enforces the sustainable reducing-reusing-recycling, saves time/money and advances safety by including more sources of e-waste (military, medical etc) that were excluded previously.

  6. Lessons learned. Optimization of the plant structure at the beginning of the dismantling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesterhenn, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    The processes of shutdown and dismantling of the NPP Muehlheim-Kaerlich included several steps: conservation operation including fuel element removal, decontamination and radiological characterization, conservation of components that may still be used, removal and disposal of operating supply items, preparation of concepts for the dismantling process and realization of dismantling. The authors describe in detail the safety concept, the waste tracking program, the operational organization and reduction of area subject to radiological surveillance during the dismantling and renaturation project.

  7. Dismantling of Vandellos I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armada, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Spain is witnessing the phase-out of a nuclear power plant. It is a unique experience in our country and therefore the dismantling work has been watched closely, not only from here but also from abroad. The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) is in charge of managing the dismantling and decommissioning work of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant, located in the municipality of L'Hospitalet de l'Infant (Tarragona). the work began five years ago and has been executed on schedule. the appearance of what was one of the first Spanish commercial nuclear power plants has been changed radically to leave premises suitable for any other activity. (Author)

  8. Dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallec, Michele; Kus, Jean-Pierre; Mogavero, Robert; Genelot, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Although the operational life of nuclear plants is long (around 60 years for French reactors) it is nonetheless limited in time, the stopping of it being essentially due to the obsolescence of materials and processes or to economic or safety considerations. The nuclear power plants are then subjected to cleanup and dismantling operations which have different objectives and require specific techniques. The cleanup and/or dismantling of a nuclear power produces significant quantities of waste which is generally of a different nature to that produced during the operation of the concerned plant. The radioactive waste produced by these operations is destined to be sent to the waste disposal facilities of the French National Agency for the Management of Nuclear Waste. (authors)

  9. International E-Waste Management Network (IEMN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT) have collaborated since 2011 to build global capacity for the environmentally sound management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), which is commonly called e-waste.

  10. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor dismantling project. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomii, Hiroyuki; Seiki, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    In the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling project, radiation control was performed properly with routine and special monitoring to keep the occupational safety and to collect data necessary for future dismantling of nuclear facilities. This report describes a summary of radiation control in the dismantling activities and some results of parametric analysis on dose equivalent evaluation, and introduces the following knowledge on radiological protection effectiveness of the dismantling systems applied in the project. a) Use of remote dismantling systems was effective in reducing equivalent workplace exposure. b) Utilization of existing facilities as radiation shield or radioactivity containment was effective in reducing workplace exposure, and also in increasing work efficiency. c) Use of underwater cutting systems was useful to minimize air contamination, and to reduce the dose equivalent rate in the working area. d) In the planning of dismantling, it is necessary to optimize the radiation protection by analyzing dismantling work procedures and evaluating radiological features of the dismantling systems applied, including additional work which the systems require brought from such activities. (author)

  11. Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management among ... and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management among Nigerian Collegiate ... with e-waste may pose potential threat to human health and the environment.

  12. Characterization of brominated flame retardants from e-waste components in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danfeng; Duan, Huabo; Song, Qingbin; Liu, Yicheng; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Weijun; Luo, Jiahui; Wang, Jinben

    2017-10-01

    Many studies show that high levels of many toxic metals and persistent and bio-accumulative chemicals have been found in electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling sites and their surrounding environmental media. Both flame-retardant plastic housing materials and printed circuit boards (PCBs) could be the major contributors. However, relatively little work has focused on the use or content of toxic substances and their changing in scrap housing materials and PCBs from home appliances. This study evaluated the existence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)) in housing plastics and PCBs from home appliances collected from various e-waste recyclers in China. These were then analyzed for the potential migration of BFRs from the e-waste components into their recycled products. The results show that both PBDEs and TBBPA were found with high level in most of e-waste samples, indicating that the widespread use of BFRs in home appliances are entering into the end-of-life stage. For the plastics samples, CRT TVs and LCD monitors should be given priority for the control of BFRs. Regarding PBDEs, the dominant congeners of BDE-209 in the plastics samples contributed 90.72-93.54% to the total concentrations of PBDEs, yet there are large variations for PCBs samples: BDE-28, -47, -99, and -153 were also important congeners compositions, except for BDE-209. Compared with previous studies, the BFRs concentrations in current Chinese e-waste are trending to decline. This study also found that BFRs in housing plastics and PCBs will be transferred into the recycled products with other purpose use, and the new products could have highly enriched capacities for BFRs. The obtained results could be helpful to manage e-waste and their components properly in order to minimize associated environmental and health risks of BFRs, particularly for their further reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brennilis, laboratory of dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article comments some aspects of the dismantlement activity on the Brennilis site (in Brittany) where a heavy water reactor has been operated from 1966 to 1985. Half of the deconstruction work has been performed between 1996 and 2006. As the model proposed by EDF for this operation raised some questions, works have been stopped for a while, until July 2011 when a decree authorized them again, but for some parts of the site only. The reactor block must wait as no technical solution exists for storage. But, the experience from this site will be used for eight other first generation power plants

  14. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.

    1985-01-01

    The dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities raises specific problems. A large part of these problems relates to the management of the waste resulting from dismantling. From the experience gained in the different centers CEA and COGEMA it appears that there are industrial solutions in the group CEA and that an engineering company such as SGN can export them [fr

  16. Machine for dismantling metal parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Loginovskiy, V.I.; Yagudin, S.Z.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce the outlays of time for dismantling metal parts under conditions of eliminating open gas and oil gushers in operational drilling. This goal is achieved because the machine for dismantling the metal parts is equipped with a set of clamping elements arranged on the chassis, where each of them has a drive.

  17. Nuclab Marcoule: a dedicated waste management and dismantling support laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, Olivier; Bec-Espitalier, Lionel; Rosen, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Formerly dedicated to plutonium production support, NucLab was renovated to perform a wide range of analyses for dismantling, plant operation and process development activities mainly at Marcoule but also for external clients. The laboratory is a CEA entity in the Nuclear Energy Division. It provides services to several industrial operators (nuclear processes and power plants) in the fields of analytical chemistry, radioactivity measurements, in situ nuclear measurements, decontamination processes, industrial chemistry processes, and waste treatment. NucLab supports research, production, and dismantling activities in all areas of dismantling operations (authors)

  18. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stade. Decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant - from the nuclear power plant to the green lawn. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Stade (KKS) was shutdown in 2003 and is being dismantled since 2005. The contribution covers the following issues: What means decommissioning and dismantling? What was the reason for decommissioning? What experiences on the dismantling of nuclear power plants are available? What is the dismantling procedure? What challenges for the power plant personal result from dismantling? What happens with the deconstruction material? What happens with the resulting free area (the ''green lawn'')? What is the legal frame work for dismantling?

  20. DISMANTLING OF THE FUEL CELL LABORATORY AT RESEARCH CENTRE JUELICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahn, B.; Matela, K.; Bensch, D.; Ambos, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The fuel cell laboratory was constructed in three phases and taken into operation in the years 1962 to 1966. The last experimental work was carried out in 1996. After all cell internals had been disassembled, the fuel cell laboratory was transferred to shutdown operation in 1997. Three cell complexes, which differed, in particular, by the type of shielding (lead, cast steel, concrete), were available until then for activities at nuclear components. After approval by the regulatory authority, the actual dismantling of the fuel cell laboratory started in March 2000. The BZ I laboratory area consisted of 7 cells with lead shieldings of 100 to 250 mm thickness. This area was dismantled from April to September 2000. Among other things, approx. 30,000 lead bricks with a total weight of approx. 300 Mg were dismantled and disposed of. The BZ III laboratory area essentially consisted of cells with concrete shieldings of 1200 to 1400 mm thickness. The dismantling of this area started in the fir st half of 2001 and was completed in November 2002. Among other things, approx. 900 Mg of concrete was dismantled and disposed of. Since more than 90 % of the dismantled materials was measurable for clearance, various clearance measurement devices were used during dismantling. The BZ II laboratory area essentially consists of cells with cast steel shieldings of 400 to 460 mm thickness. In September 2002 it was decided to continue using this laboratory area for future tasks. The dismantling of the fuel cell laboratory was thus completed. After appropriate refurbishment, the fuel cell laboratory will probably take up operation again in late 2003

  1. Decommissioning of the AVR reactor, concept for the total dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnet, C.; Wimmers, M.; Birkhold, U.

    1998-01-01

    After more than 21 years of operation, the 15 MWe AVR experimental nuclear power plant with pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor was shout down in 1988. Safestore decommissioning began in 1994. In order to completely dismantle the plant, a concept for Continued dismantling was developed according to which the plant could be dismantled in a step-wise procedure. After each step, there is the possibility to transform the plant into a new state of safe enclosure. The continued dismantling comprises three further steps following Safestore decommissioning: 1. Dismantling the reactor vessels with internals; 2. Dismantling the containment and the auxiliary units; 3. Gauging the buildings to radiation limit, release from the validity range of the AtG (Nuclear Act), and demolition of the buildings. For these steps, various technical procedures and concepts were developed, resulting in a reference concept in which the containment will essentially remain intact (in-situ concept). Over the top of the outer reactor vessel a disassembling area for remotely controlled tools will be erected that tightens on that vessel and can move down on the vessel according to the dismantling progress. (author)

  2. Economic analysis of e-waste market under imperfect information

    OpenAIRE

    Prudence Dato

    2015-01-01

    Despite international regulations that prohibit the trans-boundary movement of electronic and electric waste (e-waste), non-reusable e-waste is often illegally mixed with reusable e-waste and results in being sent to developing countries. As developing countries are not well prepared to properly manage e-waste, this illegal trade has important negative externalities, and creates ‘environmental injustice’. The two main information problems on the e-waste market are imperfect monitoring and imp...

  3. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  4. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D ampersand D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given

  5. Nuclear installations: decommissioning and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of seven talks given during the 1995 EUROFORUM conference about decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear installations in the European Community. The first two papers give a detailed description of the legal, financial and regulatory framework of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities in the European Union and a review of the currently available decommissioning techniques for inventory, disassembly, decontamination, remote operations and management of wastes. Other papers describe some legal and technical aspects of reactor and plants dismantling in UK, Germany, Spain and France. (J.S.)

  6. Environmental Assessment for decontamination and dismantlement, Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1092) of the proposed decontamination and dismantlement of the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. Under the Decontamination and Dismantlement EA, the DOE proposes to clean up facilities, structures, and utilities; dismantle specific structures; and mitigate or eliminate any environmental impacts associated with the cleanup, dismantlement, and related activities. Related activities include utilization of specific areas by new tenants prior to full-scale cleanup. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  7. Technical challenges for dismantlement verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion

  8. The promising opportunity of dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering, mechanics and waste conditioning companies are thriving around the market of nuclear facilities dismantlement which is promised to a huge development in the coming decade. This paper presents a map of the opportunities of the dismantlement market throughout Europe (research and power reactors, fuel fabrication plants, spent fuel reprocessing plants) and a cost estimation of a given dismantling work with respect to the different steps of the work. In France a small core of about twenty companies is involved in nuclear dismantlement but the French market is also looking towards foreign specialists of this activity. The British market is also targeted by the French companies but for all the actors the technological or commercial advance gained today will be determining for the future markets. (J.S.)

  9. Definition of a dismantling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, H.; Claes, J.; Geens, L.

    1988-01-01

    The shutdown of the fuel reprocessing plant of Eurochemic having been decided, a study for defining the facilities to be dismantled and how to do it, was conducted by Belgoprocess. The cost of the operation was estimated by an accurate investigation and by a pilot project on the dismantling of the wastes storage building. The work carried out up to now and the problems to be solved are summarized [fr

  10. BRET fuel assembly dismantling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Bennett, K.L.; Kelley, R.S. Jr.; Stringer, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    An automated remote nuclear fuel assembly milling and dismantling machine has been designed, developed, and demonstrated at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington. The machine can be used to dismantle irradiated breeder fuel assemblies from the Fast Flux Test Facility prior to fuel reprocessing. It can be installed in an existing remotely operated shielded hot cell facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  11. E-waste management in India: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Zhishi; Awasthi, Mrigendra Kumar; Li, Jinhui

    2018-05-01

    Environmental deterioration and health risk due to improper e-waste management has become a serious issue in India. The major portion of e-waste reaches an unorganized e-waste recycling sector and is then treated by using crude methods. This review article presents a brief highlight on e-waste management status, legislation, and technology uses in India. The present e-waste management needs to be more focused on environmentally sound management, by more active support from all the participants involved in the e-waste flow chain in India.

  12. Portrayals in Print: Media Depictions of the Informal Sector’s Involvement in Managing E-Waste in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Radulovic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, media stories have exposed health and environmental harm caused by informal electronics recycling in less industrialized countries. Greater awareness of these risks helped inform regulations across the globe and the development of recycling standards. Yet, media depictions also shape public perceptions of informal workers and their role in handling electronic waste, or e-waste. This paper examines how mainstream print media describes the informal sector’s involvement in handling e-waste in India, especially as policymakers and other stakeholders currently grapple with how to integrate informal workers into formal, more transparent e-waste management schemes. This study evaluates depictions of the informal sector in print articles from both non-Indian and Indian news media outlets, employing controversy mapping principles and digital research tools. Findings may help inform stakeholder agendas seeking to influence public awareness on how to integrate informal workers into viable e-waste management solutions. Subsequent research based on these results could also help stakeholders understand the actors and networks that shape such media depictions. Results from the dataset show that most news articles describe informal workers negatively or problematically due to activities causing health risks and environmental damage, but usually do not discern which activities in the value chain (e.g., collection, dismantling, metals extraction represent the greatest risks. Comparatively fewer articles portray informal workers positively or as contributing to e-waste solutions. Most articles also do not explain challenges that arise when working with informal workers. As such, media depictions today often lag behind policy debates and obscure multiple facets—good and bad—of the informal sector’s involvement in managing e-waste. Thus, an opportunity exists for policymakers, manufacturers, and advocacy groups to bridge the gap between

  13. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aktsoglou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste management schemes in Greece and othercountries (Japan, Switzerland are also quoted.

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  15. The good wealth of dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering, mechanical and waste conditioning companies are working hard on the market of nuclear facilities dismantling. This market has a great future ahead of it in the ten years to come. According to the European Commission, 50 to 60 reactors among the 157 actually in service in the European Union should be dismantled by 2025. The cost per reactor is estimated to 10-15% of the initial investment, which represents an enormous amount of money, estimated to 20-39 billion euros for the only French nuclear park. In France, this market is shared by a core of about 20 companies, like Spie Nucleaire, Onet, Vinci (Nuvia) and Areva. Some dismantling sites require a specific skill, in particular those in relation with the research activity of the CEA (the French atomic energy commission) or involving specific technologies (research reactors, spent fuel reprocessing plants, sodium-cooled rectors..). (J.S.)

  16. Decommissioning and dismantling of the reprocessing plant Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiben, K.; Fritz, P.

    1995-01-01

    Reprocessing activities were discontinued in late 1990. The facility was drained and rinsed, and 80 m3 of HLWC have since been stored in special tanks, awaiting vitrification. Decommissioning work is scheduled to proceed in six phases. The reprocessing areas of the facility will be prepared for release from radiological control and dismantled in the first phase. The remaining facilities can be deregulated, and storage tanks dismantled, only after termination of phase 1. The goal of the following phase is clearance from radiological control of all controlled areas, and the last phase is to cover dismantling of all buildings and restoration of a green field site. The overall costs of these activities are estimated to amount to DM 1.657 million. The article explains the contents of the first permits for decommissioning as well as the documents prepared for planning of work and licence application. (orig./HP) [de

  17. The timing of reactor dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.

    2000-01-01

    Work has been progressing across the world for the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. The initial work focused on the early, complete dismantling but this was associated with small size reactors and was done for experimental or demonstration purposes. The situation now is that an increasing number of full size power reactors are being shutdown and decision are being made as to the decommissioning strategy to be applied, e.g. with respect to the appropriate timing of reactor dismantling. There are two basic approaches to the timing of reactor dismantling, which are to either proceed with dismantling on an early time scale or to delay it for a period of years. There are a number of examples worldwide of both approaches being taken but one common feature of the approach taken by most countries is that decisions are made on a case by case basis, taking account of relevant factors, and as a result the strategy can vary from reactor to reactor and from country to country. Decisions on timing take account of the following main factors: safety, radioactive decay, financial factors, radioactive waste, reactor type, technology, repository availability, site re-use, regulatory standards, plant knowledge/records, other issues

  18. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

  19. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-01-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow

  20. Dismantling system of concrete thermal shielding walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Nobuhiro; Saiki, Yoshikuni; Ono, Yorimasa; Tokioka, Masatake; Ogino, Nobuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and efficient dismantling of concrete thermal shielding walls in nuclear reactors. Method: Concrete thermal shielding walls are cut and dismantled into dismantled blocks by a plasma cutting tool while sealing the top opening of bioshielding structures. The dismantled blocks are gripped and conveyed. The cutting tool is remote-handled while monitoring on a television receiver. Slugs and dusts produced by cutting are removed to recover. Since the dismantling work is carried out while sealing the working circumstance and by the remote control of the cutting tool, the operators' safety can be secured. Further, since the thermal sealing walls are cut and dismantled into blocks, dismantling work can be done efficiently. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. OPTIMASI PEMILIHAN LOKASI FASILITAS PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH ELEKTRONIK (E-WASTE DI INDONESIA DENGAN MODEL ELECTRE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertiwi Andarani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limbah elektronik adalah masalah yang muncul di Indonesia karena mengandung bahan yang berpotensi berbahaya. Dalam rangka menciptakan manajemen yang ramah lingkungan dari limbah elektronik, fasilitas yang memadai diperlukan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memilih lokasi yang optimal untuk mengembangkan fasilitas pengolahan limbah elektronik (FLPE. Pemilihan lokasi yang optimal dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode model ELECTRE III. ELECTRE adalah keluarga metode analisis keputusan multi-kriteria yang berasal di Eropa. Kriteria yang dipilih untuk analisis ini adalah penduduk setempat, penduduk yang dilayani, persentase belanja bulanan, harga rata-rata rumah tangga per unit, populasi pengangguran, status finansial dari penduduk lokal, jarak dari fasilitas yang telah ada, dan jarak dari pelabuhan terdekat. ELECTRE III membutuhkan penentuan tiga ambang batas, yaitu ambang kelalaian (q, ambang batas preferensi (p, dan ambang veto (v dalam upaya untuk lebih beradaptasi dengan ketidakpastian. Bobot masing-masing kriteria yang ditentukan sesuai dengan kepentingan relatif terhadap kriteria lain. Lokasi optimal untuk FPLE adalah Provinsi Banten berdasarkan model ELECTRE III.   Kata Kunci: limbah elektronik, fasilitas, optimasi, ELECTRE Abstract E-waste is an emerging issue in Indonesia due to its potentially hazardous content and some precious metal. In order to create an environmentally sound management of e-waste, a facility is necessary. The objectives of this study are to to select the optimal location of e-waste dismantling and sorting facility (DSF/FLPE.  The optimal location selection was conducted using the method of ELECTRE III model. ELECTRE is a family of multi-criteria decision analysis methods that originated in Europe. The criteria chosen for this analysis are local population, population served, the percentage of monthly expenditure, average household price per unit, unemployed population, financial status of the local population

  2. E-waste recycling: where does it go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Schnoor, Jerald L; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-10-16

    E-waste recycling has become a hotly debated global issue. This study, using China as a case study, analyzes the environmental, economic, and social implications of e-waste recycling in the developing world. More practical approaches, taking into account local economic and social conditions and the principles of Extended Producer Responsibility, are recommended to alleviate the increasing environmental disruption from improper e-waste disposal.

  3. Nuclear cleanup and decontamination for dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargues, S.; Solignac, Y.; Lapierre, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In the May 2003 issue of the review 'Controle', the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de Surete Nucleaire or ASN) reviewed the radiation protection and waste management principles applicable to dismantling operations carried out on nuclear installations, i.e. reactors, research laboratories, fuel cycle installations and nuclear power reactors. Estelle Chapelain, of the DGSNR (French General Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection), pointed out that dismantling work does not involve the same radioactive risks as operating an installation. For instance, 'the risk of disseminating radioactive material is generally greater because the dismantling process supposes the removal of one or more containment barriers'. In addition to this risk of internal exposure, the possibility of external irradiation of personnel must be taken into account due to the nature of the work carried out by the operators. The probability of conventional hazards is also accentuated, these hazards varying as work progresses (fire hazards during cutting operations, hazards associated with handling tasks, etc). Other risks must also be considered: hazards due to the ageing of installations, to loss of traceability, and finally the risks associated with waste management. Waste management falls within a strict regulatory framework specified by the decree dated December 31, 1999, which makes it compulsory to carry out a 'waste survey' with the aim of producing an inventory of waste and improving waste management. These surveys include 'waste zoning' to identify those areas liable to have been contaminated. These requirements lead operators to adapt their cleanup methodology in order to distinguish suspect rooms or equipment from those that can be deemed with certainty to be conventional. In its conclusion, the safety authority recalls the importance of 'the safety and radiation protection of dismantling operations being effectively managed and optimised, without imposing

  4. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling activities. Dismantling of the reactor enclosure and the auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiki, Yoshihiro; Kubo, Takashi.

    1996-01-01

    As the final stage of the JPDR decommissioning program, after the major components were removed from each building of JPDR, the dismantling activities proceeded to the decontamination of contaminated concrete surface and the final radiation survey of buildings. These activities were conducted to verify the developed techniques and the detailed procedures for decontamination, and to allow unrestricted use of the JPDR buildings. Following the decontamination of buildings, the dismantling of each building was started. Before dismantling the buildings, the radiation control designations were changed. The buildings that contaminated embedded pipes were changed from first-class radiation controlled areas to second-class radiation controlled areas. On the other hand, the buildings that had no contaminated pipes were changed to uncontrolled areas. A first-class radiation controlled area allows the use of unsealed sources ; thus, radioactive contamination may exist. A second-class radiation controlled area is one where only sealed sources are allowed. Significant quantities of data and experience were obtained during these activities. The practical procedures for decontamination, the final survey of radioactivity, and the dismantling work of buildings were described in this report. (author)

  5. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles

    The simple and partial Mantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two or more matrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...

  6. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Rousset, François

    2012-01-01

    1. The simple and partialMantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two ormorematrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...

  7. Dismantling without contaminating: The EUREX plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The EUREX pilot plant of ENEA Research Centre of Saluggia (Italy) reprocessed, between 1970 and 1983, some 600 elements and 1.5 tonnes of irradiated fuel from MTR and CANDU reactors. The general programme of denuclearization of the site actually focuses on the main priority of the conditioning of the about 400 m 3 of High and Low Level Liquid wastes stored in Saluggia. For this reason, in 1997 a project for the H and LLW conditioning, named 'CORA' has started. The 'CORA' unit will solidify the liquid wastes applying the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology; due to the low volume amount of wastes to vitrify, the 'CORA' project has been accurately tailored in order to reduce social impact on public acceptance, costs and conditioning plant volumes to dismantle at the end of the work. For this reason, all the main nuclear components of the conditioning unit (input tank and pretreatment section, CC Melter, pot handling, off-gas system, interim glass storage) will be hosted inside four existing cells of the EUREX plant, duly dismantled. The EUREX plant services (electric and process fluid supplies, controlled areas, ventilation system...) will be reused too, revamped in some cases. The reuse of a nuclear plant which was built in the 60's, as the EUREX is, for future conditioning activities to be 'transplanted' there in the next years, it is not quite an easy job: the partial EUREX dismantling must permit an easy recovery of process areas and spread of contamination from old components (tanks, pipes, valves...) has to be minimized as far as possible. In order to minimize contamination spread, pipe cutting is made by a hydraulic shear, leaving the cut edges closed. Size reduction of pipes and tanks, to optimize the 5 m 3 steel storage containers filling is, as far as possible, made out of the working area of the cells. To achieve this goal a preliminary sketch of pipes to be cut and where the minimal cuts ought to be done is prepared before each intervention. The time

  8. Preliminary dismantling for the decommissioning of nuclear licensed facilities at the CEA Centre in Fontenay aux Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estivie, D.; Bohar, M.P.; Jeanjacques, M.; Binet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Under the perimeter modification programme for the Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLFs) of the French Atomic Energy Commission centre at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR), preliminary dismantling work proved necessary to decommission the buildings outside the nuclear perimeter and create interim storage areas for waste packages. This summary describes the dismantling of Buildings 07, 53 and 91/54, which are the most representative of the preliminary dismantling work. (author)

  9. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  10. The Pierrelatte's military factories dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrelier, P.; Kassel, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The site of Pierrelatte in France, receives since 1958 gaseous diffusion plants assigned to the uranium enrichment for military uses. Since 1996 Cogema implements, by order of the Cea, a dismantling operation of the site. The operation which will begin in 2000, is going to last ten years. This project shows difficulties that make it innovative. Its originality, the planning, the risks, the program progressing and the regulation aspects are detailed in this paper. Beyond the complicated technical operations, the wastes management is of primary importance for the good development of the operations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  12. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1993-01-01

    The German law governing decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations can be called to be embryonic as compared to other areas of the nuclear regulatory system, and this is why the AIDN/INLA regional meeting organised by the German national committee in July 1992 in Schwerin has been intended to elaborate an assessment of the current legal situation and on this basis establish proposals for enhancement and development, taking into account the experience reported by experts from abroad. The proceedings comprise the paper of the opening session, 'Engineering and safety aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations', and the papers and discussions of the technical sessions entitled: - Comparative assessment of the regulatory regimes. - Legislation governing the decommissioning of nuclear installations in Germany. - Analysis of the purpose and law making substance of existing regulatory provisions for the decommissioning of nuclear installations. All seventeen papers of the meeting have been prepared for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Chemical Decontamination of Metallic Waste from Uranium Conversion Plant Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Byun, J. I.; Jang, N. S.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant. Pre-work was carried as follows; installation of the access control facility, installation of a changing room and shower room, designation of an emergency exit way and indicating signs, installation of a radiation management facility, preparation of a storage area for tools and equipments, inspection and load test of crane, distribution and packaging of existing waste, and pre-decontamination of the equipment surface and the interior. First, decommissioning work was performed in kiln room, which will be used for temporary radioactive waste storage room. Kiln room housed hydro fluorination rotary kiln for production of uranium tetra-fluoride. The kiln is about 0.8 m in diameter and 5.5 m long. The total dismantled waste was 6,690 kg, 73 % of which was metallic waste and 27 % the others such as cable, asbestos, concrete, secondary waste, etc. And effluent treatment room and filtration room were dismantled for installation of decontamination equipment and lagoon sludge treatment equipment. There were tanks and square mixer in these rooms. The total dismantled waste was 17,250 kg, 67% of which was metallic waste and 33% the others. These dismantled metallic wastes consist of stainless and carbon steel. In this paper, the stainless steel plate and pipe were decontaminated by the chemical decontamination with ultrasonic

  14. Extreme E-waste generated from successful Operations Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Zhilyaev, Dmitry; Parajuly, Keshav

    This paper identifies how research in the field of Operations Management (OM) has been extremely successful in reducing costs for the manufacturing of electrical and electronic equipment by focusing on design for assembly and manufacturing. The downside is the generation of extreme amounts of e......-waste. Based on a literature survey, 2251 kg of e-waste and on case study, this research identifies the need to extend product lifetimes to drive down e-waste. The study concludes that more research is needed on designs for disassembly, repair, refurbishment, and remanufacturing to meet future requirements...

  15. Experience in the decontamination and dismantling of alpha facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charamathieu, A.

    1988-01-01

    Experience in dismantling alpha-containing radiochemical installations in France is described. The dismantling programme undertaken by the Societe des Techniques en Milieu Ionisant since 1977 is tabulated. This includes the dismantling of CALCIO and FLUO (plutonium metal), the dismantling of a slag processing plant, the dismantling of part of a medium activity plutonium mine and the dismantling of rooms 82-100 at Marcoule, France. (author)

  16. Dismantling the nuclear research reactor Thetis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiels, P. [Belgoprocess, 2480 Dessel (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The research reactor Thetis, in service since 1967 and stopped in 2003, is part of the laboratories of the institution of nuclear science of the University of Ghent. The reactor, of the pool-type, was used as a neutron-source for the production of radio-isotopes and for activation analyses. The reactor is situated in a water pool with inner diameter of 3 m. and a depth of 7.5 m. The reactor core is situated 5.3 m under water level. Besides the reactor, the pool contains pneumatic loops, handling tools, graphite blocks for neutron moderation and other experimental equipment. The building houses storage rooms for fissile material and sources, a pneumatic circuit for transportation of samples, primary and secondary cooling circuits, water cleaning resin circuits, a ventilation system and other necessary devices. Because of the experimental character of the reactor, laboratories with glove boxes and other tools were needed and are included in the dismantling program. The building is in 3 levels with a crawl-space. The ground-floor contains the ventilation installation, the purification circuits with tanks, cooling circuits and pneumatic transport system. On the first floor, around the reactor hall, the control-room, visiting area, end-station for pneumatic transport, waste-storage room, fuel storage room and the labs are located. The second floor contains a few laboratories and end stations of the two high speed transfer tubes. The lowest level of the pool is situated under ground level. The reactor has been operated at a power of 150 kW and had a max operating power of 250 kW. Belgoprocess has been selected to decommission the reactor, the labs, storage halls and associated circuits to free release the building for conventional reuse and for the removal of all its internals as legal defined. Besides the dose-rate risk and contamination risk, there is also an asbestos risk of contamination. During construction of the installation, asbestos-containing materials were

  17. EL-3 dismantling of an experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The EL3 experimental reactor has been definitively stopped in march 1979. Its decommissioning has been pronounced in the end of 1982. This article is consecrated at decontamination and dismantling works necessited by its passage at the dismantling level 2 [fr

  18. Decontamination and dismantling at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the dismantling policy at the CEA (French Research Center on the atomic energy), the financing of the decontamination and the dismantling, the regulatory framework, the knowledge and the technology developed at the CEA, the radiation protection, the environment monitoring and the installations. (A.L.B.)

  19. E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sahadat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Sustainability is being prioritized for all development activities by integrating societal, economic, environmental, technological, cultural, and gender perspectives. Considering the adverse potential eco-toxicological impacts and diverse health effects of e-waste, an urgent global multilateral agreement is needed addressing its management (i.e., handling, storage, transportation, recycling, and final disposal, whether by land filling or incineration. Due to the global nature of the issue and the difficulty of establishing sustainable and environmentally sound processing of e-waste in low-income countries, multinational negotiation and collaboration is the only realistic solution. Furthermore, comprehensive global e-waste management and policies could help to off-set the hazards of e-waste and are the best approach for achieving sustainable development.

  20. Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environmental litters of solid e-waste (Butu and. Okoro, 2014 ... environmentally sound manner (Inoka, 2016). Caution can ..... e-Stewards (2013) The globally responsible way to recycle ... behavior on discarding of their electrical/electronic.

  1. Relationship between e-waste recycling and human health risk in India: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    Informal recycling of waste (including e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in India. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals, among other substances, are a major health concern for workers engaged in waste disposal and processing, and for residents living near these facilities, and are also a detriment to the natural environment. The main objective of this review article was to evaluate the status of these impacts. The review found that, huge quantity of e-waste/waste generated, only a small amount is treated formally; the remainder is processed through the informal sector. We also evaluated the exposure pathways, both direct and indirect, and the human body load markers (e.g., serum, blood, breast milk, urine, and hair), and assessed the evidence for the association between these markers and e-waste exposure. Our results indicated that the open dumping and informal e-waste recycling systems should be replaced by the best available technology and environmental practices, with proper monitoring and regular awareness programs for workers and residents. Further and more detailed investigation in this area is also recommended.

  2. Technical report on dismantling of incinerator building of JNC with strict environmental assessments especially for the contamination of surroundings of incinerator by Dioxin's in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Masanori; Ohmori, Koji; Nomura, Takeshi; Numano, Tatuo; Usui, Kazuya; Irinouchi, Shigenori

    2003-03-01

    Building of incinerator for general waste located at Tokai of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC in short) were dismantled form April 2002 to March 2003 under environmental control According to the regulation entitled 'Outline for the prevention of exposure of Dioxin's to operators engaged in dismantling of waste incinerator' issued on June 01, 2000 by Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan, the regulation requests proper protection methodology to dismantling the incinerator and surroundings contaminated by Dioxin's. This report consists of Environmental assessment under Japanese law and regulations and Procedure of actual dismantling of incinerator building with law-abiding stand point. 1. Environmental assessment; Survey of several laws and regulations concerning on the Dioxin's and actual site assessment to analyze the content of Dioxin's for surroundings of incinerator building. Ground design of dismantling procedures, waste management for disposed during dismantling and scheduling for dismantling of building. 2. Dismantling procedures; Prior to dismantling operation, contamination map by Dioxin's were established then restricted areas were determined. Protection methodology to dioxin's exposure for operators were selected and started dismantling operation after getting permission from the Labor Standards Bureau of Ibaraki Prefecture. Dismantling operations were carried out with respect o above mentioned regulations to prevent the operators exposure to Dioxin's if they are exists in soil or surroundings of building. Finally, dismantling operations were completed without accidents and confirmed no-exposure of Dioxin's to operators of dismantling. Waste generated during dismantling were recycled using specialized recycling companies in Ibaraki prefecture. Dismantling operation of incinerator was first experience at Ibaraki Prefecture, so the officials of Labor Standards Bureau were carried out on-the-spot inspection and have no claim from

  3. The assessment of source attribution of soil pollution in a typical e-waste recycling town and its surrounding regions using the combined organic and inorganic dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Xie, Xianming; Gu, X W Sophie; Wang, Jinji

    2017-01-01

    Guiyu is a well-known electronic waste dismantling and recycling town in south China. Concentrations and distribution of the 21 mineral elements and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected there were evaluated. Principal component analyses (PCA) applied to the data matrix of PAHs in the soil extracted three major factors explaining 85.7% of the total variability identified as traffic emission, coal combustion, and an unidentified source. By using metallic or metalloid element concentrations as variables, five principal components (PCs) were identified and accounted for 70.4% of the information included in the initial data matrix, which can be denoted as e-waste dismantling-related contamination, two different geological origins, anthropogenic influenced source, and marine aerosols. Combining the 21 metallic and metalloid element datasets with the 16 PAH concentrations can narrow down the coarse source and decrease the unidentified contribution to soil in the present study and therefore effectively assists the source identification process.

  4. Present status of refining and conversion facility dismantling. Progress in latter half of 2010FY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Kazumi; Sugitsue, Noritake; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Ikegami, Sohei; Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tokuyasu, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    The Refining and Conversion Facility located in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center had the natural uranium conversion process and reprocessed uranium conversion process. The construction of this facility was started in 1979 and completed in October 1981. Dismantling of equipments in radiation controlled area of this facility was started from 2008. Equipments in radiation controlled area (excluding ventilating equipment and liquid waste treatment equipment) will be dismantled by the 2011 fiscal year, and ventilating equipment and liquid waste treatment equipment will be dismantled by the 2014 fiscal year. This report describes the master plan of this decommissioning and shows as the progress in latter half year of 2010FY, the actual time schedule, the method of decommissioning, the decommissioning progress appearance with photographs, work rates of each room / each worker class, and the quantity of dismantled materials and secondary wastes. (author)

  5. Laser dismantling of a glovebox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.; Fender, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 5 kW laser has been used to cut up a 2.6 x 1 x 1 m glove box made of 5 mm mild steel with 12.5 mm perspex windows and 3 mm neoprene gaskets. The laser cut all components including the sandwich of perspex, neoprene and steel with ease. The production of fibrous filaments of perspex during the cutting process has been almost avoided by modifying the cutting variables. The combustion of material beyond that being cut has also been prevented by adopting the correct level of laser power. The problems encountered with loss of glove box rigidity with progressive dismantling are discussed, together with the relevance these problems have to possible cutting methods other than lasers. (author)

  6. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p < 0.01). Trophic magnification was observed for migratory bird species but not for resident, which was attributed to high heterogeneity of SCCP in e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C 10 and C 11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area. - Highlights: • SCCPs in terrestrial bird species from an e-waste area are first reported. • Elevated SCCP level was found as compared with other regions. • Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP levels than migratory birds. • Trophic magnification was observed for migratory but not for resident bird species. • Two homologue patterns were found among seven bird species. - SCCP concentration in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste site was first reported in this study

  7. Development of a handling technology for underwater inspection and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, N.

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of underwater inspection and dismantling of nuclear facilities, a prototype of a freely submersible, remote-controlled handling system was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. Particular interest was taken in the specific boundary conditions of the area of application and the methodological concept. The system was developed in three phases; in each phase, a prototype was constructed and tested. (orig.) [de

  8. Solving the E-waste problem (StEP) green paper. E-waste country study Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhart, Andreas [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Amera, Tadesse; Belay, Mehari [PAN (Ethiopia)

    2013-04-10

    The generation and management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is an increasing concern in many African countries. Attempts to bridge the digital divide as well as rapid economic development continue to boost the market penetration of many types of electricity powered devices. This also leads to rapidly increasing e-waste volumes, which are mostly not yet managed in an environmentally sound manner. In order to build a strong foundation for the development of Ethiopia's e-waste management strategy, it was deemed necessary to generate reliable data on e-waste volumes and current management practices and options, as well as to investigate possibilities for improved e-waste management and other relevant aspects. This study, financed by the Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP) Initiative under a grant of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), was jointly carried out by the Oeko-Institut e.V. and PAN-Ethiopia. It aims to fill key knowledge gaps and provide a more solid base for further decision making for both, national decision-makers and co-operation projects in this field. The information contained in this report is derived from existing literature sources and statistics, interviews conducted in Ethiopia, and field assessments in Addis Ababa in August 2012.

  9. The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osibanjo, O; Nnorom, I C

    2007-12-01

    Information and telecommunications technology (ICT) and computer Internet networking has penetrated nearly every aspect of modern life, and is positively affecting human life even in the most remote areas of the developing countries. The rapid growth in ICT has led to an improvement in the capacity of computers but simultaneously to a decrease in the products lifetime as a result of which increasingly large quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) are generated annually. ICT development in most developing countries, particularly in Africa, depends more on secondhand or refurbished EEEs most of which are imported without confirmatory testing for functionality. As a result large quantities of e-waste are presently being managed in these countries. The challenges facing the developing countries in e-waste management include: an absence of infrastructure for appropriate waste management, an absence of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste, an absence of any framework for end-of-life (EoL) product take-back or implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR). This study examines these issues as they relate to practices in developing countries with emphasis on the prevailing situation in Nigeria. Effective management of e-waste in the developing countries demands the implementation of EPR, the establishment of product reuse through remanufacturing and the introduction of efficient recycling facilities. The implementation of a global system for the standardization and certification/labelling of secondhand appliances intended for export to developing countries will be required to control the export of electronic recyclables (e-scarp) in the name of secondhand appliances.

  10. Estimation of future outflows of e-waste in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct an approach and a methodology to estimate the future outflows of electronic waste (e-waste) in India. Consequently, the study utilizes a time-series multiple lifespan end-of-life model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos for estimating the current and future quantities of e-waste in India. The model estimates future e-waste generation quantities by modeling their usage and disposal. The present work considers two scenarios for the approximation of e-waste generation based on user preferences to store or to recycle the e-waste. This model will help formal recyclers in India to make strategic decisions in planning for appropriate recycling infrastructure and institutional capacity building. Also an extension of the model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos is developed with the objective of helping decision makers to conduct WEEE estimates under a variety of assumptions to suit their region of study. During 2007-2011, the total WEEE estimates will be around 2.5 million metric tons which include waste from personal computers (PC), television, refrigerators and washing machines. During the said period, the waste from PC will account for 30% of total units of WEEE generated.

  11. Hazardous E-waste and its impact on soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharini, K.; Cynthia, J. Bernadette; Kamalambikai, B.; Sudar Celestina, J. P. Arul; Muthu, D.

    2017-07-01

    E-waste disposal has been a significant issue over the past few decades with the development of technology and the plethora of electronic products produced. The inclusive term E-Waste encapsulates various forms of electrical and electronical equipment which provides no value to the current owners and it is one among the fastest growing waste streams. E-Waste is a complex, non-biodegradable waste which is generally dumped in mountain like heaps. These wastes are said to have a large quantities of lead, cadmium, arsenic etc.it is mandatory to dispose such scrupulously since they have the ability to affect the soil and water parameters. Solid waste management is a blooming field which strives to reduce the accumulation of used electronic gadgets. Rainwater gets infiltrated through the e-waste landfill and it leaches through the soil which in turn reaches the groundwater directly thereby affecting the water intended for drinking and domestic purposes. This study focuses on the consequences of toxic waste by comparing the difference in properties of the soil structure prior to and after the e-waste landfill at various concentrations.

  12. E-WASTE: ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUAZ HAWARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available “E-waste” is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their “useful life”. This includes discarded computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries. E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain components of some of these electronic products contain materials; such as lead; that are hazardous, depending on their condition and density. If improperly disposed, E-wastes can leach lead and other substances into soil and groundwater posing a threat to human health and environment. Many of these electronic products can be reused, refurbished, or recycled in an environmentally sound manner so that they are less harmful to the ecosystem. This paper highlights the types and hazards of E-wastes particularly the computers’ waste. The dimensions and ethicality of the problem in the third-world countries are reviewed. The needs for the appropriate management of e-waste and options that can be implemented are discussed. After reviewing the Islamic concepts for environmental protection, ethical implications for curriculum development as well research directions are highlighted. Elements for a course on e-waste as well as some across-the-curriculum topics are proposed. This is specially tailored to suit the faculty of Engineering at the International Islamic University-Malaysia.

  13. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling activities. Management of JPDR dismantling waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masayoshi; Nakata, Susumu; Ito, Shinichi

    1996-01-01

    The management of wastes, both radioactive and non-radioactive, is one of the most important issues for a safe and reasonable dismantling operation of nuclear power plants. A large amount of radioactive wastes is arising from a reactor dismantling operation in a relatively short period time, ranging in a wide variety from very low level to relatively high level. Moreover non-radioactive waste is also in a huge amount. The dismantling operation of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) resulted in 24,440 tons of dismantling wastes, of which about 15% was radioactive and 85% non-radioactive. These wastes were managed successfully implementing a well developed management plan for JPDR dismantling waste. Research and development works for handling of JPDR dismantling wastes were performed, including fixation of loose contamination on surface, volume reduction and waste containers for on-site transportation and interim storage. The JPDR dismantling wastes generated were classified and categorized depending on their materials, characteristics and activity level. Approximately 2,100 tons of radioactive wastes were stored in the interim storage facilities on site using developed containers, and 1,670 tons of radioactive concrete waste were used for a safe demonstration test of a simple near-surface disposal for very low level waste. Other dismantling wastes such as steel and concrete which were categorized as non-radioactive were recycled and reused as useful resources. This paper describes the management of the JPDR dismantling wastes. (author)

  14. LEP Dismantling - a first Step into New Era

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to remove the LEP machine and most of the services from the underground areas in order to install the LHC within the time constraints of its civil engineering and installation programmes The dismantling of LEP will be the first project to be executed under the new INB (Installation Nucléaire de Base) convention for the LHC. This talk will give an overview of the LEP Dismantling project covering traceability, planning, infrastructure and execution. It will explain what it means for our accelerators to be classified as INB's and will introduce the changes in working and safety procedures, which will be enforced from the beginning of October. Note: The presentation will be made in French with the transparencies in English.

  15. Towards a more professional demolition and dismantling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The work of the National Economic Development Office Demolition and Dismantling Group in four areas which are crucial to the economic performance of the demolition and dismantling industry and its safety record is considered. The first concerns the availability and accessibility of information about unconventional structures and details are given of the sort of information often kept for different types of structure. Secondly, the need is stressed for guidelines for the client, particularly on the risks involved and the choice of a competent contractor. Thirdly, basic credentials which it is important for contractors to set out in order to establish a good reputation for the industry are set out. Finally, the particular case of nuclear power station decommissioning is considered with reference to the size of the market, the pioneering knowledge to be gained from the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, private sector involvement and the special techniques required. (U.K.)

  16. Consideration of dismantling operations in the design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg; Bonin.

    1984-12-01

    This analysis shows that the parameters and the constraints taken into account at the design level to facilitate the exploitation and the maintenance make the dismantling and its preparation easier [fr

  17. Dismantling institutional racism: theory and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Mason, Mondi; Yonas, Michael; Eng, Eugenia; Jeffries, Vanessa; Plihcik, Suzanne; Parks, Barton

    2007-06-01

    Despite a strong commitment to promoting social change and liberation, there are few community psychology models for creating systems change to address oppression. Given how embedded racism is in institutions such as healthcare, a significant shift in the system's policies, practices, and procedures is required to address institutional racism and create organizational and institutional change. This paper describes a systemic intervention to address racial inequities in healthcare quality called dismantling racism. The dismantling racism approach assumes healthcare disparities are the result of the intersection of a complex system (healthcare) and a complex problem (racism). Thus, dismantling racism is a systemic and systematic intervention designed to illuminate where and how to intervene in a given healthcare system to address proximal and distal factors associated with healthcare disparities. This paper describes the theory behind dismantling racism, the elements of the intervention strategy, and the strengths and limitations of this systems change approach.

  18. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993 in Kiev, Ukraine, titled, ''Toward a Nuclear-Free Future--Barriers and Problems.'' It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians and Americans to discuss the legal, political, economic, technical, and safeguards and security dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, the Ukrainian Parliament's nonapproval of START 1, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues. This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns and possible impacts of the Ukraine's dismantlement of its nuclear weapons

  19. General Research and Development problems in dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorin, C.

    1993-01-01

    R and D studies for dismantling nuclear facilities have been conducted in several domains: safety evaluation (3D cameras, gamma camera, gamma low level control bench, alpha measures); general studies (such as the Baladin software, an expert system for dismantling); decontamination techniques (utilisation of acid or base liquids, laser, ...); cutting techniques and tools (remote controlled grinder, remote controlled robot, carrier crane); robotics for remote operations and handling; waste processing

  20. The installation and dismantling of electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to construction of aluminium electrolytic cells, their installation and dismantling. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  1. The dismantling of CEA nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    After having indicated locations of French nuclear installations which are currently being dismantled (about 30 installations), and recalled the different categories of radioactive wastes with respect to their activity level and the associated storage options, this article gives an overview of various aspects of dismantling, more precisely in the case of installations owned and managed by the CEA. These operations comprise the dismantling itself, the recovery and packaging of wastes, old effluents and spent fuels. The organisation and responsible departments within the CEA are presented, and the author outlines some operational problematic issues met due to the age of installations (traceability of activities, regulation evolutions). The issue of financing is then discussed, and its uncertainties are outlined. The dismantling strategy within the CEA-DEN is described, with reference to legal and regulatory frameworks. The next parts of the article address the organisation and the economic impact of these decontamination and dismantling activities within the CEA-DEN, highlight how R and D and advanced technology are a support to this activities as R and D actions address all scientific and technical fields of nuclear decontamination and dismantling. An overview of three important dismantling works is proposed: Fontenay-aux-Roses, the Marcoule CEA centre (a reference centre in the field of nuclear dismantling and decontamination) and the Grenoble CEA centre (reconversion in R and D activities in the fields of technologies of information, of communication, technologies, for health, and in renewable energies). The last part addresses the participation to the Strategic Committee of the Nuclear Sector (CSFN)

  2. Jose Cabrera dismantling and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondaro, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was the first commercial power reactor (Westinghouse 1 loop PWR 510 MWth, 160 MWe) commissioned in Spain and provided the base for future development and training. The reactor construction started in 1963 and it was officially on-line by 1969. The NPP operated from 1969 until 2006 when it became the first reactor to be shut down after completing its operational period. The containment is reinforced concrete with a stainless steel head. In 2010 responsibility for D and D was transferred to Enresa to achieve IAEA level 3 (a green field site available for unrestricted re-uses) by 2017. Of the total of more than 104,000 tons of materials that will be generated during dismantling, it is estimated that only ∼4,000 tons will be radioactive waste, some of which, 40 t are considered as intermediate level long-lived wastes and the rest (3,960 t) will be categorized as VLLW and ILLW. The Project is divided into five phases: Phase 0 - Removal of fuel and preliminary work.. Phase 1 - Preparatory Activities for D and D. complete. Phase 2 - Dismantling of Major Components. Phase 3 - Removal of Auxiliary Installations, Decontamination and Demolition. Phase 4 - Environmental Restoration. Phase 2, is currently ongoing (50% completed). To manage the diverse aspects of decommissioning operations, Enresa uses an internally developed computerized project management tool. The tool, based on knowledge gathered from other Enresa projects, can process operations management, maintenance operations, materials, waste, storage areas, procedures, work permits, operator dose management and records. Enresa considers that communication is important for both internal and external stakeholder relations and can be used to inform, to neutralize negative opinions and attitudes, to remove false expectations and for training. Enresa has created a new multi-purpose area (exhibition/visitor centre) and encourages visits from the public, local schools, local and

  3. Jose Cabrera dismantling and decommissioning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondaro, Manuel [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was the first commercial power reactor (Westinghouse 1 loop PWR 510 MWth, 160 MWe) commissioned in Spain and provided the base for future development and training. The reactor construction started in 1963 and it was officially on-line by 1969. The NPP operated from 1969 until 2006 when it became the first reactor to be shut down after completing its operational period. The containment is reinforced concrete with a stainless steel head. In 2010 responsibility for D and D was transferred to Enresa to achieve IAEA level 3 (a green field site available for unrestricted re-uses) by 2017. Of the total of more than 104,000 tons of materials that will be generated during dismantling, it is estimated that only ∼4,000 tons will be radioactive waste, some of which, 40 t are considered as intermediate level long-lived wastes and the rest (3,960 t) will be categorized as VLLW and ILLW. The Project is divided into five phases: Phase 0 - Removal of fuel and preliminary work.. Phase 1 - Preparatory Activities for D and D. complete. Phase 2 - Dismantling of Major Components. Phase 3 - Removal of Auxiliary Installations, Decontamination and Demolition. Phase 4 - Environmental Restoration. Phase 2, is currently ongoing (50% completed). To manage the diverse aspects of decommissioning operations, Enresa uses an internally developed computerized project management tool. The tool, based on knowledge gathered from other Enresa projects, can process operations management, maintenance operations, materials, waste, storage areas, procedures, work permits, operator dose management and records. Enresa considers that communication is important for both internal and external stakeholder relations and can be used to inform, to neutralize negative opinions and attitudes, to remove false expectations and for training. Enresa has created a new multi-purpose area (exhibition/visitor centre) and encourages visits from the public, local schools, local and

  4. The Dirt on E-Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    Most smart technology leaders can name multiple efforts they have already taken or expect to pursue in their schools to "green up" IT operations, such as powering off idle computers and virtualizing the data center. One area that many of them may not be so savvy about, however, is hardware disposal: "What to do with the old stuff?" After all, it…

  5. Occurrence of emerging flame retardants from e-waste recycling activities in the northern part of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Someya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the contamination status of 21 emerging flame retardants (FRs in soils (n = 32 and river sediments (n = 8 from an e-waste recycling (EWR site in the northern part of Vietnam. Among analyzed FRs, higher levels of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE (ND–4200 ng/g dw, 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE (ND–350 ng/g dw and Dechlorane Plus isomers (DPs (ND–65 ng/g dw were found in soils near EWR workshops and open burning places. The highest concentrations of DBDPE (20 ng/g dw, BTBPE (5.7 ng/g dw and DPs (6.7 ng/g dw were also detected in sediments collected from the middle of the EWR site. The levels decreased concomitantly with increasing distance from the EWR site. These results indicate that these FRs were released to the surrounding environment from improper recycling activities, such as manual dismantling of devices and open burning of e-wastes. Moreover, the estimated daily intakes of those FRs via soil ingestion were approximately ten times higher for children than adults. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study on characterization of soil and sediment contamination by a series of emerging FRs at an EWR site in Vietnam.

  6. 多溴联苯醚在电子拆解区及周边土壤和灰尘中的分布规律和源分析%Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers(PBDEs)in Soils and Dusts in E-waste Recycling and Aurrounding Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 王俊霞; 徐峰; 张刚; 王雅珏; 张卫; 林匡飞

    2015-01-01

    利用气质联用仪(GC-NCI-MS)对台州地区表层土壤和灰尘样品中PBDEs的含量进行检测,并分析了PBDE同系物的分布模式,比较了不同功能区域PBDEs的污染水平、分布特征及来源分析。结果显示:PBDEs在土壤和灰尘中的含量分别为227~8447 ng·g-1(均值2090 ng·g-1)和313~29787 ng·g-1(均值8723 ng·g-1);不同功能区域土壤和灰尘样品中均显示BDE-209是最主要的同系物,且土壤中BDE-209所占的比例高于灰尘;随着与污染源的距离增加,PBDEs总含量呈逐渐下降趋势。土壤和灰尘中特定BDE含量之间无显著相关,土壤TOC与所有PBDE同系物之间极显著相关(P<0.01),表明土壤TOC对PBDEs污染物在土壤中的分布、迁移转化等有重要的影响。主成分分析和聚类分析进一步表明,十溴工业品可能是当地PBDEs污染的主要来源之一。%Polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs)are flame-retardant chemicals commonly used in electronics. Therefore, e-waste recy-cling activities have caused PBDE pollution in the surrounding environment. In this study, PBDEs in surface soil and outdoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling areas in Taizhou were measured by GC-NCI-MS. The content of PBDEs was in the range of 227~8447 ng· g-1(mean value 2090 ng·g-1)and 313~29 787 ng·g-1(mean value 8723 ng·g-1)in soils and dusts, respectively. Of soil and dust samples collected from different functional regions, BDE-209 was the dominant congener, which was much higher in soils than in dusts. The total PBDEs content tended to decrease with the distance from the pollution sources. No apparent correlation between PBDEs content in soil and dust was found, but PBDE congeners was significantly correlated with soil TOC, indicating the significant influence of TOC on PBDEs dis-tribution, migration and transformation. Principal component and cluster analysis confirmed that the industrial products containing deca-BDE might

  7. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Taicheng; Zhang Delin; Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo

    2011-01-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m 3 and 27-2975 ng/m 3 at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ΣPBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: → On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. → The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. → Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  8. PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil from informal e-waste recycling sites and open dumpsites in India: Levels, congener profiles and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Nakamura, Masafumi; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bang, John J

    2018-04-15

    Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz., New Delhi (North), Kolkata (East), Mumbai (West) and Chennai (South). In the informal e-waste recycling sites, the range of Σ 26 PCBs (0.4-488ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (1.0-10.6ng/g) were higher than Ʃ 26 PCBs (0.3-21ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (0.15-7.3ng/g) from open dumpsites. In the e-waste sites, ƩPCDDs were found with increasing trend from ƩTetraCDD to OctaCDD, whereas ƩPCDFs showed a reverse trend. The dominance of PCDF congeners and maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for both PCDDs (17pg TEQ/g) and PCDFs (82pg TEQ/g) at Mandoli in New Delhi has been related to intensive precious metal recovery process using acid bath. Among dumpsites, highest TEQ for PCDD/Fs was observed at Kodangaiyur dumpsite of Chennai (CN DS -02, 45pg TEQ/g). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model identified distinct congener pattern based on the functional activities, such as e-waste dismantling, shredding, precious metal recovery and open burning in dumpsites. E-waste metal recovery factor was loaded with 86-91% of PCB-77, -105, -114, -118 and 30% of PCB-126, possibly associated with the burning of wires during the copper extraction process. Almost 70% of the Ʃ 26 PCB concentrations was comprised of the dioxin-like PCB congeners with a maximum concentration of 437ng/g at New Moore market in Chennai, followed by Wire Lane (102ng/g), in Mumbai. We speculate that PCB-126 might have resulted from combustion of plastic materials in e-waste stream and dumped waste

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in road and farmland soils from an e-waste recycling region in Southern China: Concentrations, source profiles, and potential dispersion and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yong; Luo Xiaojun; Lin Zhen; Chen Shejun; Liu Juan; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed road soils collected near the dismantling workshops of an e-waste recycling region in South China to determine the PBDE profiles. Farmland soils at a distance of about 2 km from the dismantling workshops were also collected to evaluate the potential dispersion and deposition of PBDEs in the surrounding environment. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 191 to 9156 ng/g dry weight in road soils and from 2.9 to 207 ng/g dry weight in farmland soils, respectively. Three PBDE source profiles were observed from the road soils by principal component analysis, and were compared with the congener patterns in different technical products. Elevated abundances of octa- and nona-congeners were found in the 'deca-' derived PBDEs as compared with the deca-BDE products. The results in this study suggest that debromination of BDE 209 may have occurred during the use of electric and electronic equipment and/or another technical formulation (Bromkal 79-8DE) was also likely the source of octa- and nona-congeners in e-wastes. Comparison of the PBDE patterns in road and farmland soils implied that the PBDEs in farmland soils have been subject to complex environmental processes

  10. E- Waste Disposal in Tanzania: The Implications for Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of its fast growth, the ICT industry has generated volumes and volumes of 'e - waste', which in turn, requires mechanisms and skills for disposal, notwithstanding, the necessity to explore means of using the same as a business for income generation. The study set out to investigate the existing practices and levels ...

  11. 40 CFR 60.35e - Waste management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management guidelines. 60.35e... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators § 60.35e Waste management guidelines. For approval, a State...

  12. Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    research design adopted for this study was a cross-sectional study sample survey using questionnaire. ... technology and rates of obsolescence (average life cycle) also ... the e-waste to the safe disposal site, appropriate infrastructure .... Printer+cat ridges. VCD/DVD/. CD player. Headset/ea rphones. Batteries. Electric fan.

  13. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  14. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration - learning from the Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetriwal, Deepali Sinha; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Widmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    E-waste, a relatively recent addition to the waste stream in the form of discarded electronic and electric equipment, is getting increasing attention from policy makers as the quantity being generated is rising rapidly. One of the most promising policy options to address this issue is to extend the producers responsibility for their products beyond the point of sale, until end-of-product-life. This paper briefly introduces the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and its applicability in the area of the end-of-life management of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE). It then examines the decade-long experience of Switzerland in using EPR to manage its e-waste, elaborating on the experience of the Swiss system in overcoming specific issues, and finally wrapping up with a synopsis of the lessons for policy makers. We consider each issue as an enquiry of questions confronting a policy maker and the choices that may present themselves. The five issues discussed are: (i) the challenges in getting an EPR based system started; (ii) securing financing to ensure a self-sustaining and smooth functioning system; (iii) organising a logistics network for the take back and collection of the e-waste; (iv) ensuring compliance of the various actors involved; and finally (v) reducing the threat of monopolistic practices.

  16. Visualization of a dismantling environment for an evaluation of a worker's dose during the decommissioning of KRR-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seong; Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun; Jin, Seong Il

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a basis for an optimization of a dismantling process of a research reactor and nuclear facility. An optimization of a dismantling process should be at the beginning of a study for an evaluation of the radioactivity inventory and the safety of the workers. Many countries have conducted an optimization to achieve a shortened dismantling schedule, a reduction of the amount of waste, and cut down on the decommissioning by using computer graphics such as animation, simulation, and virtual reality. In the present study, we propose methods for identifying the existence of radioactivity which is contained in the dismantled objects and for evaluating a worker's dose through a simulation. To evaluate a worker's external dose under a virtual dismantling environment generated by computer graphics, the shape of the thermal column horizontal door was created by 3D CAD and the radiation dose surrounding the door was calculated by using MCNP-4C. An animation that can demonstrate a dismantling procedure according to a dismantling scenario was produced. For matching the radiation dose, which was calculated by MCNP-4C with an area where workers are dismantling a door, a simulation module was developed which could show a worker's external dose in real-time. The result from the distribution of the radioactivity enables us to specify where the most contaminated part of the dismantling objects is. In the animation, a virtual worker demonstrated a dismantling activity procedure as a chosen scenario. In the simulation, a worker's exposure dose rate in real-time has been evaluated

  17. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  18. Study on treatment of dust by dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    1987-01-01

    In dismantling of nuclear reactors, various kinds of treatment of dust generated by cutting or dismantling concrete structures of components of reactors are evaluated for safety, cost, and performance comparing the work in air with water. A method of dust treatment for work in air is discussed. The dry method has an easy operation in practice and a good performance in the equipment, but has problem on the prevention from radioactive contamination by diffusion of dust in air. For the purpose of advancing the strong points and eliminating the weak points in dry method, an improved venturi scrubber system is proposed for dismantling work as a dust collecting system. The system consists of dust absorbing pipe, dust collector, separator of dust and water and dust transfer equipment to a storage of waste. This system would be expected to have better performance and lower operating cost in decommissioning nuclear reactors, especially, the number of dust filters, for example, HEPA filters, will be considerably saved

  19. Vandellos-I Dismantling nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armada, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Spain is witnessing the phase-out of a nuclear power plant. It is a unique experience in our country and therefore the dismantling work has been watched closely, not only from here but also from abroad. The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) is in charge of managring the dismantling and decommissioning work of the Vandellos-1 nuclear power plant, located in the municipally of l' Hospitalet de l'Infant (Tarragona). The work began five years ago and has been executed on schedule. The appearance of what was one of the first Spanish commercial nuclear power plants has been changed radically to leave premises suitable for any other activity. (Author)

  20. Economical dismantling of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallok, J.; Andermann, H.

    1999-01-01

    The dismantling of nuclear power stations requires a high degree of security and economic efficiency due to the strong contamination of components and the close spatial conditions. In order to protect involved staff from radiation, modern remote-controlled technology is applied in sectors with heavy radioactive contamination such as reactor pressure vessels. The article shows, that the dismantling of reactor pressure vessels using a remote-controlled milling machine developed by the Siemens subsidiary Mechanik Center Erlangen GmbH, can be done in a secure and efficient way. (orig.) [de

  1. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  2. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias

    2010-12-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  3. DECISION ANALYSIS SCIENCE MODELING FOR APPLICATION AND FIELDING SELECTION APPLIED TO EQUIPMENT DISMANTLEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dismantlement of radioactively contaminated process equipment is a major concern during the D and D process. There are an estimated 1,200 buildings in the DOE-EM complex that will require the dismantlement of equipment and various metal structures. As buildings undergo the D and D process, this metallic equipment contaminated with radionuclides such as uranium and plutonium must be size-reduced before final disposal. A single information source comparing dismantlement technologies in the areas of safety, cost, and performance is needed by DOE managers and is not currently available. The selection of the appropriate technologies to meet the dismantlement objectives for a given site is a difficult process in the absence of comprehensive and comparable data. Choosing the wrong technology could result in increased exposure of personnel to contaminants and an increase in D and D project costs. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate commercially available and innovative technologies for equipment dismantlement and provide a comprehensive source of information to the D and D community in the areas of technology performance, cost, and health and safety

  4. Experience in dismantling and packaging of pressure vessel and core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillokat, Peter; Bruhn, Jan Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Company AREVA is proud to look back on versatile experience in successfully dismantling nuclear components. After performing several minor dismantling projects and studies for nuclear power plants, AREVA completed the order for dismantling of all remaining Reactor Pressure Vessel internals at German Boiling Water Reactor Wuergassen NPP in October '08. During the onsite activities about 121 tons of steel were successfully cut and packed under water into 200l- drums, as the dismantling was performed partly in situ and partly in an underwater working tank. AREVA deployed a variety of different cutting techniques such as band sawing, milling, nibbling, compass sawing and water jet cutting throughout this project. After successfully finishing this task, AREVA dismantled the cylindrical part of the Wuergassen Pressure Vessel. During this project approximately 320 tons of steel were cut and packaged for final disposal, as dismantling was mainly performed by on air use of water jet cutting with vacuum suction of abrasive and kerfs material. The main clue during this assignment was the logistic challenge to handle and convey cut pieces from the pressure vessel to the packing area. For this, an elevator was installed to transport cut segments into the turbine hall, where a special housing was built for final storage conditioning. At the beginning of 2007, another complex dismantling project of great importance was acquired by AREVA. The contract included dismantling and conditioning for final storage of the complete RPV Internals of the German Pressurized Water Reactor Stade NPP. Very similar cutting techniques turned out to be the proper policy to cope this task. On-site activities took place in up to 5 separate working areas including areas for post segmentation and packaging to perform optimized parallel activities. All together about 85 tons of Core Internals were successfully dismantled at Stade NPP until September '09. To accomplish the best possible on

  5. Present status of refining and conversion facility dismantling. Progress in first half of 2010FY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Kazumi; Sugitsue, Noritake; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Ikegami, Sohei; Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tokuyasu, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    The Refining and Conversion Facility located in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center had the natural uranium conversion process and reprocessed uranium conversion process. The construction of this facility was started in 1979 and completed in October 1981. Dismantling of equipments in radiation controlled area of this facility was started from 2008, and all equipments in radiation controlled area will be dismantled by the 2011 fiscal year. This report describes the master plan of this decommissioning and shows as the progress in first half year of 2010FY, the actual time schedule, the method of decommissioning, the decommissioning progress appearance with photographs, work rates of each room / each worker class, and the quantity of dismantled materials and secondary wastes. (author)

  6. Present status of refining and conversion facility dismantling. Progress in first half of 2009FY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Kazumi; Sugitsue, Noritake; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Ikegami, Sohei; Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tokuyasu, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    The Refining and Conversion Facility located in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center had the natural uranium conversion process and reprocessed uranium conversion process. The construction of this facility was started in 1979 and completed in October 1981. Dismantling of equipments in radiation controlled area of this facility was started from 2008, and all equipments in radiation controlled area will be dismantled by the 2011 fiscal year. This report describes the master plan of this decommissioning and shows as the progress in first half year of 2009FY, the actual time schedule, the method of decommissioning, the decommissioning progress appearance with photographs, work rates of each room / each worker class, and the quantity of dismantled materials and secondary wastes. (author)

  7. Present status of refining and conversion facility dismantling. Progress in latter half of 2008FY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Kazumi; Sugitsue, Noritake; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Ikegami, Sohei; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tokuyasu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The Refining and Conversion Facility located in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center had the natural uranium conversion process and reprocessed uranium conversion process. The construction of this facility was started in 1979 and completed in October 1981. Dismantling of equipments in radiation controlled area of this facility was started from 2008, and all equipments in radiation controlled area will be dismantled by the 2011 fiscal year. This report describes the master plan of this decommissioning and shows as the progress in latter half year of 2008FY, the actual time schedule, the method of decommissioning, the decommissioning progress appearance with photographs, work rates of each room/each worker class, and the quantity of dismantled materials and secondary wastes. (author)

  8. The WAK decommissioning and dismantling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiben, K.; Fritz, P.

    1995-01-01

    After an extensive rinsing of the reprocessing equipment the operation in the plant was terminated in 1991 following the principal political decision to abolish reprocessing of nuclear fuel in Germany. Since July 1991 only the safety relevant units are still in operation including the waste storage facilities for 80 m 3 of high active waste concentrate (HAWC). The decommissioning and dismantling will be achieved in six steps taking into account that some of the reprocessing equipment can be dismantled before and the rest only after the HAWC has been vitrified approximately by mid 2000. So far two licenses for decommissioning have been granted. An application for the dismantling of twelve systems in the process building including headend and tailend facilities will be licensed in 1995. The remote dismantling of equipment from the hot cells in the process building is being planned and will be executed between 1998--2001. New remote handling equipment will be cold tested in a test facility scheduled to start in the middle of this year. The final task is the green meadow after demolishing of the building and remediation of the site which is scheduled for 2005

  9. Method and apparatus for dismantling mechanical anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovskiy, Yu P; Chendev, F S; Gritsayuk, B I; Gubin, N I; Osipov, S P

    1982-01-01

    This apparatus is designed to reduce the amount of labor required to dismantle mechanical anchors while at the same time lowering expenditures for lumber. Longwall beams and timber skips are used to support the cap and any fractured rock faces. The apparatus itself has grooves, vertical guides, and a drive system to position the longwall beams.

  10. Method of dismantling nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assemblies of the kind comprising fuel pins in dimpled cellular grids are freed from the grids to aid dismantling of the assemblies by causing a rotary sleeve to pass concentrically over the pins to remove the dimples in the grids and thereby increase the freedom of the pins in the cells of the grids. (author)

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of electronic waste (e-waste, which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-processing village in northern Vietnam. The WHO-TEQs (Toxic equivalents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs in soils collected in January 2012 ranged from 0.29 to 310 pg/g (median 2.9 pg/g, n = 32, and the WHO-TEQs in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 58 pg/g (median 4.4 pg/g, n = 8. Dioxin-like activities (CALUX-TEQs [2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent] in soils collected in January 2012, 2013, and 2014 ranged from <30 to 4300 pg/g (median <30 pg/g, n = 96, and the activities in sediments ranged from <30 to 4000 pg/g (median 33 pg/g, n = 24. Dioxin-like compounds accumulated in samples collected around e-waste-processing areas such as open-burning sites and e-waste-processing workshops, and the compounds may be transported from their sources to surrounding areas over the course of several years. Some of the CALUX-TEQs, but not WHO-TEQs, values were higher than the maximum acceptable WHO-TEQs promulgated by various authorities, indicating that all dioxin-like compounds should be evaluated in samples collected from e-waste-processing areas. Our findings suggest that open burning and open storage of e-waste should be prohibited and that wastewater treatment should be implemented at each workshop to reduce contamination by dioxin-like compounds from e-waste.

  12. The flow of E-waste material in the Asian region and a reconsideration of international trade policies on E-waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkuma, Takayoshi; Nguyen Thi Minh Huong

    2009-01-01

    End-of-life home appliances discarded in Japan are reused in Southeast Asia; end-of-life computers are reused in China. E-waste scrap generated in Asia is recycled in China, especially in Guangdong Province. The informal sector in that province has been recycling E-waste scrap and its improper recycling methods have caused serious pollution. In response to this problem, there is wide support for a total ban on E-waste trade, including secondhand items and E-waste scrap. Alternatively, we recommend the establishment of an alternative proper recycling system in Asia that needs cooperation among all Asian countries. First, China is urged to promote proper domestic recycling activities by providing a subsidy for proper recycling. Second, Japan, as a main exporter of E-waste, should establish a traceability system that ensures E-waste scrap exported from Japan will be recycled at proper recycling facilities in China

  13. Dismantling of alpha contaminated obsolete installations and glove boxes on the IRMM site in Geel (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretskens, Pieter; Lenie, Koen; Melis, Gustaaf

    2007-01-01

    At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (European commission, Joint Research Centre, IRMM) a dismantling campaign of obsolete installations and glove boxes has been carried out in 2005. There were various reasons for their removal. Some large installations did not meet modern safety standards, other installations were worn out and expected to cause a radioactive contamination risk in the future. The main goal was to create as less waste as possible by extensive contamination checks and by decontamination if necessary. For the glove boxes, decontamination was not possible. A controlled area was set up around the installation to be dismantled in order to prevent spreading of contamination from dust and dirt. This was only possible for the 'minor' contaminated installations. The dismantling campaign of the glove boxes was carried out by using tents of two types depending the contamination inside the glove boxes. The most common glove boxes were dismantled in a tent constructed with hard surfaced polycarbonate plates (ventilated cell). For glove boxes with higher contamination, the same principle was used but with a second 'glove box tent' inside (ventilated glove tent). The purpose of this project was to learn from the experience of this campaign which gave the ability to make estimates of future radioactive waste or classic waste that could be expected from dismantled installations. (authors)

  14. Cleansing and dismantling of CEA-Saclay nuclear licensed facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Delaire, Isabelle; Glevarec, Rebecca; Mandard, Lionel; Martin, Jean-Louis; Serrano, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This summary presents the cleansing and dismantling operations currently realized on the CEA center of Saclay (CEA-Saclay). It was initiated at the beginning of the 2000 years a cleansing and dismantling program of the old Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF). Currently this program relates the dismantling operations to the Hot Laboratories (Laboratoires de Haute Activite: LHA) and the old workshops of the Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (Station des Effluents Liquides: STEL), the dismantling preparation of Ulysse reactor and the dismantling studies to the Solid Waste Management Plant (SWMP; Zone de Gestion des Dechets Solides) and the Osiris reactor. (authors)

  15. In-situ dismantling of plutonium-contaminated glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Koji; Watanabe, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Hisashi; Miyo, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Katsuyuki

    1980-01-01

    A plutonium-contaminated glove box was dismantled along with the development of the treatment techniques for plutonium-bearing wastes. The objectives of this in-situ dismantling of the glove box are to reuse the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility more efficiently, to reduce the volume of wastes generated during the dismantling, and to acquire dismantling techniques for decommissioning the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility in the future. Prior to the dismantling works, a greenhouse for decontamination was installed, and the decontamination with surfactants was performed. Unremovable contamination was coated with paint. After this greenhouse was removed, the main greenhouse for dismantling and three greenhouses for contamination control were assembled. The main workers wearing protective devices engaged in dismantling works in the greenhouse. As the protective devices, anorak type PVC suits with air line masks, Howell type pressurized suits, and respirators were used. The tools used for the dismantling are a plasma cutter, an electric nibbler, an electric disk grinder, an electric circular saw and an electric jig saw. The results of the dismantling in-situ were compared with two previous cases of dismantling carried out by different procedures. In the case of in-situ dismantling, the volume of wastes was 1.6 - 1.8 m 3 /m 3 of glove box, and considerable reduction was realized. (Kako, I.)

  16. Reactor vessel dismantling at the high flux materials testing reactor Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tas, A.; Teunissen, G.

    1986-01-01

    The project of replacing the reactor vessel of the high flux materials testing reactor (HFR) originated in 1974 when results of several research programs confirmed severe neutron embrittlement of aluminium alloys suggesting a limited life of the existing facility. This report describes the dismantling philosophy and organisation, the design of special underwater equipment, the dismantling of the reactor vessel and thermal column, and the conditioning and shielding activities resulting in a working area for the installation of the new vessel with no access limitations due to radiation. Finally an overview of the segmentation, waste disposal and radiation exposure is given. The total dismantling, segmentation and conditioning activities resulted in a total collective radiation dose of 300 mSv. (orig.) [de

  17. Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1997-01-01

    OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D and D activities beginning in 1997

  18. Supervision of execution of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.

    2015-01-01

    Enresa create and organizational structure that covers various areas involved in effective control of Decommissioning Project. One area is the Technical Supervision of Works Decommissioning Project, as Execution Department dependent Technical Management. In the structure, Execution Department acts as liaison between the project, disciplines involved in developing and specialized companies contracted work to achieve your intended target. Equally important is to ensure that such activities are carried out correctly, according to the project documentation. (Author)

  19. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  20. [Heavy Metal Contamination in Farmland Soils at an E-waste Disassembling Site in Qingyuan, Guangdong, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-lian; Ding, Jiang-feng; Lu, Gui-ning; Dang, Zhi; Yi, Xiao-yun

    2015-07-01

    Crude e-waste dismantling activities have caused a series of environmental pollution problems, and the pollutants released from the dismantling activities would finally pose high risks to human health by means of the accumulation through food chains. To explore the contamination status of heavy metals to the surrounding farmland soils in Longtang and Shijiao Town, Qingyuan, Guangdong, China, 22 farmland soil samples were collected and analyzed for the contents, spatial distributions and chemical forms of 6 heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr and Ni). The results showed that the 6 heavy metals exhibited obvious accumulations when compared to the corresponding background values in Guangdong Province. According to farmland environmental quality evaluation standard for edible agricultural products HJ 332-2006, the pollution severity of heavy metals was evaluated by monomial pollution index and Nemerow synthetic pollution index methods, the results indicated that 72. 7% of the soil samples contained one or more kinds of heavy metals with higher concentrations than the corresponding standard values, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were the main metals in the polluted soils, and for the proportion of contaminated soil samples in all the 22 samples, Cd was the highest, followed by Cu, and finally Pb and Zn. Nemerow synthetic pollution index further revealed that 68. 2% of soil samples were contaminated, and among them 53. 3% of samples were heavily contaminated. Most of the heavy metals were well correlated with each other at the 0. 05 or 0. 01 level, which indicated that primitive e-waste recycling activities were an important source of the heavy metal contamination in Longtang and Shijiao Town. The contents of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in surface soils were higher than those of other soil layers, and the contents of these 4 metals in deep soils (20- 100 cm) did not show significant decreases with the increasing depths. The contents of Cr and Ni maintained constant, and exhibited no statistical

  1. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

    2014-06-14

    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. Copyright © 2014 McAllister, Magee. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  2. Failure prevention with stress measurement for dismantling of nuclear facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komber, T.; Reimche, W.; Bach, F.W.

    2003-07-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities is in progress since 20 years in Germany. Practical experiences in decommissioning have shown, that problem can occur during dismantling operations caused by release of residual stresses. In this case cutting parts or cutting tools get jammed if mechanical cutting techniques are used. The aim of this research work was to develop measuring techniques for the determination of the stress state in RPV, to predict the deformation during dismantling operations. This can serve as additional base for improved decommissioning planning and for time optimised dismantling. For determination of the stress state in components two small and inexpensive measuring techniques were new designed, for remote-controlled on-site use in atmosphere and under water. For the nondestructive determination of the directional stress state, based on the magnetostriction and the Harmonic-Analysis of alternating magnetic fields, a new developed rotating sensor is in use with a principal magnetisation direction. Because of the mainly isotropic material properties and the directional stresses, measured Harmonic values are influenced mainly by the stress state in the surface areas. In this way it is possible to determine the stress state qualitatively and the direction of principal stresses in the surface areas of the component. As an alternative to the established wire strain gauge, which remote-controlled application is still not possible under water, a new slot jet cutting strain control technique was designed. This technique detects the deformation in the surface after stresses are cut free by a water jet. So the stress state could be determined quantitatively in the surface and assessed in the depth. With the help of these two measuring techniques it is possible to characterize the stress state along a planned cutting line. The use of an adapted FEM simulation enables to calculate and determine the deformation of the cutting gap beforehand. These information

  3. Elevated biomarkers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activity linked to e-waste air pollutant exposure in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaowei; Xu, Xijin; Xu, Long; Li, Minghui; Xu, Cheng; Qin, Qilin; Huo, Xia

    2018-06-01

    Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year. Air pollution data, over the 4-months before the health examination, was also collected. Environmental PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate of the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than for the non-e-waste recycling area. However, there was no difference in plasma norepinephrine and heart rate between native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area and non-native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 data, over the 30-day and the 4-month average of pollution before the health examination, showed a positive association with plasma norepinephrine level. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO concentrations, over the 24 h of the day of the health examination, the 3 previous 24-hour periods before the health examination, and the 24 h after the health examination, were related to increase in heart rate. At the same time, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate on children in the high air pollution level group (≤50-m radius of family-run workshops) were higher than those in the low air pollution level group. Our results suggest that air pollution exposure in e-waste recycling areas could result in an increase in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine, implying e-waste air pollutant exposure

  4. Decommissioning and dismantling reactors and managing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensoussan, E.; Reicher-Fournel, N.

    2005-01-01

    In the early forties/fifties, a number of countries launched the first developments in the field of nuclear power. Some of them now have large numbers of nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants which have met, and continue to meet, the objectives for which they were designed and built. Other plants, including nuclear fuel production and enrichment plants, experimental reactors or research reactors, will have to be dismantled and demolished in the near future. These activities are handled differently in different countries as a function of specific energy policies, advanced development plants, current financial resources, the availability of qualified engineers and specialized industries able to handle projects of this kind, as well as other factors. All dismantling and demolition projects serve the purpose of returning the respective sites to green-field conditions. (orig.)

  5. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Zhuang, Xiaochun; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2011-01-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: → Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. → E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. → Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  6. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiangyang, E-mail: bixy@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Zhuang, Xiaochun [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Zhixuan [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Wenlin [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: {yields} Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. {yields} E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. {yields} Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  7. SGDES: Management system dismantling of ENRESA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian, A. de; Fernandez, M.; Vidaechea, S.

    2013-01-01

    ENRESA, the Spanish public company responsible for managing radioactive waste and nuclear facilities decommissioning, has developed a management information system (SGDES) for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Dismantling activities require a rigorous operations control within highly specialized, process systematization and safety framework, both under human and technological point of view. SGDES system is capable of responding to the mentioned operational needs, efficiently and safely.

  8. Features of rotary pump diagnostics without dismantling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev K. О.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In ship power plants, rotor pumps have become very popular providing the transfer of various viscous fluids: fuels, oils, etc. Like all ship's mechanisms, pumps need proper maintenance and monitoring of technical condition. The most expedient is maintenance and repair carried out according to the results of dismantling diagnosis. The methods of vibrodiagnostics are mostly widespread for the diagnosis of pumps. Vibrodiagnosis of rotary pumps has a number of features due to the nature and condition of pumped fluids. The norms of the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping are used for setting standards of vibration and diagnostics of the rotary pumps' technical condition. To clarify the features of vibration diagnostics of rotary pumps some measurements have been made on a special bench that simulates various modes of ship's pumps' operation: different pressure in the system and temperature of the pumped medium. As a result of measurements one-third octave and narrow-band vibration spectra of pumps have been obtained at various developed pressures and temperatures of the pumped fluid. The performed analysis has shown that the RMRS norms for diagnostics of ship rotary pumps have insufficient informative value inasmuch they do not take into account the dependence of the vibrational signal spectrum on the developed pressure and temperature of the pumped fluid. The nature of the received signals shows that the levels of a third-octave spectrum of the vibration velocity depend significantly on the temperature of the pumped fluids, this fact must be taken into account when applying the RMRS norms. The fluid temperature has a great influence on the nature of the narrow-band vibration acceleration spectrum in the area of medium frequencies, less influence – on the nature of the vibration velocity spectrum. The conclusions have been drawn about the advisability of using the narrow-band vibration spectra and the envelope spectra of the high

  9. Nuclear safety training program (NSTP) for dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretskens, Pieter; Lenie, Koen; Mulier, Guido

    2014-01-01

    European Control Services (GDF Suez) has developed and is still developing specific training programs for the dismantling and decontamination of nuclear installations. The main topic in these programs is nuclear safety culture. We therefore do not focus on technical training but on developing the right human behavior to work in a 'safety culture' environment. The vision and techniques behind these programs have already been tested in different environments: for example the dismantling of the BN MOX Plant in Dessel (Belgium), Nuclear Safety Culture Training for Electrabel NPP Doel..., but also in the non-nuclear industry. The expertise to do so was found in combining the know-how of the Training and the Nuclear Department of ECS. In training, ECS is one of the main providers of education in risky tasks, like elevation and manipulation of charges, working in confined spaces... but it does also develop training on demand to improve safety in a certain topic. Radiation Protection is the core business in the Nuclear Department with a presence on most of the nuclear sites in Belgium. Combining these two domains in a nuclear safety training program, NSTP, is an important stage in a dismantling project due to specific contamination, technical and other risks. It increases the level of safety and leads to a harmonization of different working cultures. The modular training program makes it possible to evaluate constantly as well as in group or individually. (authors)

  10. LEP Dismantling Reaches Half-Way Stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    LEP's last superconducting module leaves its home port... Just seven months into the operation, LEP dismantling is forging ahead. Two of the eight arcs which form the tunnel have already been emptied and the last of the accelerator's radiofrequency (RF) cavities has just been raised to the surface. The 160 people working on LEP dismantling have reason to feel pleased with their progress. All of the accelerator's 72 superconducting RF modules have already been brought to the surface, with the last one being extracted on 2nd May. This represents an important step in the dismantling process, as head of the project, John Poole, explains. 'This was the most delicate part of the project, because the modules are very big and they could only come out at one place', he says. The shaft at point 1.8 through which the RF cavity modules pass is 18 metres in diameter, while each module is 11.5 metres long. Some modules had to travel more than 10 kilometres to reach the shaft. ... is lifted up the PM 1.8 shaft, after a m...

  11. Remote tool development for nuclear dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, G.; Ferlay, J.C.; Ieracitano, F.

    2003-01-01

    Remote tool systems to undertake nuclear dismantling operations require careful design and development not only to perform their given duty but to perform it safely within the constraints imposed by harsh environmental conditions. Framatome ANP NUCLEAR SERVICES has for a long time developed and qualified equipment to undertake specific maintenance operations of nuclear reactors. The tool development methodology from this activity has since been adapted to resolve some very challenging reactor dismantling operations which are demonstrated in this paper. Each nuclear decommissioning project is a unique case, technical characterisation data is generally incomplete. The development of the dismantling methodology and associated equipment is by and large an iterative process combining design and simulation with feasibility and validation testing. The first stage of the development process involves feasibility testing of industrial tools and examining adaptations necessary to control and deploy the tool remotely with respect to the chosen methodology and environmental constraints. This results in a prototype tool and deployment system to validate the basic process. The second stage involves detailed design which integrates any remaining technical and environmental constraints. At the end of this stage, tools and deployment systems, operators and operating procedures are qualified on full scale mock ups. (authors)

  12. SGN's Dismantling and Decommissioning engineering, projects experience and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destrait, L.

    1998-01-01

    Its experience in waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal, its cooperation with CEA and COGEMA Group in license agreements give SGN expertise in the decommissioning field. SGN's experience and background in all areas of nuclear facility decommissioning, such as chemical and mechanical cells, nuclear advanced reactors, reprocessing facilities result in fruitful references to the customers. The poster is presenting different achievements and projects with SGN's participation such as: - The decommissioning of Windscale Advanced Gas cooled Reactors (WAGR), in particular providing methodology and equipment to dismantle the Pressure and Insulation Vessel of the reactor. - The decommissioning plan of Ignalina (Lithuania) and Paldiski (Estonia), defining strategies, scenarios, necessary equipments and tools and choosing the best solutions to decommission the site under different influencing parameters such as cost, dose rate exposure, etc... - Th One Site Assistance Team (OSAT) at Chernobyl regarding the preparation works for the waste management and decommissioning of the plant. - The decommissioning of French nuclear facilities such as reprocessing (UP1) and reactor (EL4) plants. The important experience acquired during the facility management and during the first dismantling and decommissioning operations is an important factor for the smooth running of these techniques for the future. The challenge to come is to control all the operations, the choice of strategies, the waste management, the efficiency of tools and equipments, and to provide nuclear operators with a full range of proven techniques to optimise costs and minimize decommissioning personnel exposure. (Author)

  13. WEEE directive application: vitrification of e-waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.C.; Pidone, L.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the WEEE directive is the electrical and electronic equipment waste (e-waste) mitigation and reduce life-cycle-end environmental impact of the this kind of equipment. Currently applied to electrical and electronic equipment manufacturers and distributors in European Union, it's Pigovian principle based, where the person that place potentially polluting products at the environment, is also legal and financial responsible for the resultant life-cycle-end pollution. This policy is a worldwide trend, and implies a growing demand in the search for new proper waste disposal technological solutions. In this context of broad spectrum, are also entered the medical equipment that make use of electronic devices. This study aims to obtain glasses which can be used as a product of commercial value containing up to 40% by mass of hospital apparatus e-waste. The residues were previously crushed and calcined. Copper and iron aventurine glass were prepared through the modification of the basic composition of soda-lime-borosilicate glass. After the melting temperature of 1300°C, the glasses were characterized by FT-IR and XRD. The chemical stability was evaluated by hydrolytic attack test. The glasses showed a high chemistry and environmental stability, like commercial soda-lime glass, in addition the obtained material present attractive appearance, allowing its use in decoration or architecture products. (author)

  14. E-waste: impacts, issues and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    The present electronic era has seen massive proliferation of electrical and electronic equipment especially during the last two decades. These gadgets have become indispensable components of human life. The gravity of this sensitive 21st century problem is being felt by relevant stakeholders from the community to global level. Consequently, the annual global generation of e-waste is estimated to be 20-50 million tons. According to the Basel Action Network, 500 million computers contain 287 billion kilograms (kg) plastics; 716.7 million kg lead; and 286,700 kg mercury. These gadgets contain over 50 elements from the periodic table. The lethal components include heavy metals (like cadmium, mercury, copper, nickel, lead, barium, hexavalent chromium and beryllium); phosphor; plastics; and brominated flame retardants. These are persistent, mobile, and bioaccumulative toxins that remain in the environment but their forms are changed and are carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens. The ensuing hazardous waste has created deleterious impacts on physical, biological and socioeconomic environments. The lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere of Earth are being gravely polluted. Human beings and other biodiversity face fatal diseases, such as cancer, reproductive disorders, neural damages, endocrine disruptions, asthmatic bronchitis, and brain retardation. Marginal populations of developing countries living in squatter/slums are most vulnerable. Numerous issues are associated with uncontrolled generation, unscientific and environmentally inappropriate recycling processes for the extraction of heavy and precious metals (e.g., gold, platinum, and silver), illegal transboundary shipments from advanced to developing countries and weak conventions/legislations at global and national levels. Although the Basel Convention has been ratified by most countries, illicit trading/trafficking of hazardous substances remains unchecked, sometimes "disguised" as donations. The fact

  15. Decontamination and partial dismantling of the Eurochemic plant. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.; Geens, L.; Hild, W.; Klonk, W.

    1980-09-01

    A description is given of the partial dismantling of the dissolver used for fuel elements of up to 1.6 wt % 235 U enrichment, and of the total dismantling of the dissolver for highly enriched fuel elements. The corresponding head-end cells have been decontaminated, allowing prolonged interventions, either in view of refurbishing or complete dismantling. An assessment of required manpower, dose commitments, material consumption, and waste production for all operations is given. (author)

  16. Achievements and prospects of robotics in dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Goetghebeur, S.; Ravera, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    After a definition of 'robotic systems' (poly functionality is the main concept), the nuclear facilities that have used robotic systems for their dismantling are reviewed; the various robot intervention domains in dismantling, the different types of machines and the work carried out by robots are presented. Difficulties arising from robot utilization for reactor dismantling, robot design considerations, reliability, personnel training needs, tooling and costs are discussed. Applicability criteria are derived concerning radio protection, hard working conditions, task complexity, multiplicity and quality, and costs

  17. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p < 0.01). Trophic magnification was observed for migratory bird species but not for resident, which was attributed to high heterogeneity of SCCP in e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C10 and C11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remote dismantling of the French Brennilis nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studenski, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the remote dismantling of the decommissioned EL4 prototype power plant Brennilis in France. The block contains the reactor pressure vessel including internals and biological shield, the piping and the control systems. The authors describe the general operation principle of the reactor to illustrate the peculiarities of the dismantling concept and the concept-related challenges. Detailed information is given concerning the following issues: creation of an access to the reactor block, the used remote technology, dismantling of the coolant piping and the axial shield, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and the lateral shield. Special attention is given on the minimization of the produced radioactive waste.

  19. Remote dismantling of the French Brennilis nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studenski, Joerg [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The paper deals with the remote dismantling of the decommissioned EL4 prototype power plant Brennilis in France. The block contains the reactor pressure vessel including internals and biological shield, the piping and the control systems. The authors describe the general operation principle of the reactor to illustrate the peculiarities of the dismantling concept and the concept-related challenges. Detailed information is given concerning the following issues: creation of an access to the reactor block, the used remote technology, dismantling of the coolant piping and the axial shield, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and the lateral shield. Special attention is given on the minimization of the produced radioactive waste.

  20. Clean-up and dismantling, Dismantling - legacy of the past, prospects for the future: CEA, a pioneer in the dismantling process, nuclear dismantling, research and innovation dedicated to dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorec, Amelie

    2016-01-01

    France - a world leader in the whole nuclear power cycle - is also responsible for the clean-up and dismantling of its end-of-life nuclear facilities. Here, the CEA is considered to be a pioneer both in the project ownership of work sites and in the R and D for optimising the timescales, costs and safety of those work sites. Its responsibilities range from defining the most appropriate scenario, characterising the radiological state of equipment and decontaminating premises, carrying out dismantling and optimising the resulting waste. With this wide range of skills and the diversity of its facilities, the CEA Nuclear Energy Division is developing innovative solutions which are already the subject of industrial transfers. Two-thirds of France's end-of-life nuclear facilities belong to the CEA - a situation connected with its history. This implies setting up clean-up and dismantling work sites which have unprecedented scientific, human and financial challenges. Every regulated nuclear installation (INB) (nuclear reactors, laboratories, etc.) has a limited operating life. When it stops being used, it is first cleaned up (removal of radioactive substances), then dismantled (disassembly of components) in accordance with the baseline safety requirements, and finally decommissioned so that it can be used for other purposes or be demolished. Cleanup and dismantling operations concern all the facility's components, such as hot (shielded) cells which can be found in some laboratories. As the owner of its clean-up and dismantling projects, the CEA also devotes a significant amount of R and D to reducing the timescales, costs and waste from current and future programmes, while improving their safety. The resulting innovations often lead to industrial transfers. (authors)

  1. Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, Neal A.

    2003-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D and D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D and D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and

  2. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  3. Capacitive tool standoff sensor for dismantlement tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Liu, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A capacitive sensing technology has been applied to develop a Standoff Sensor System for control of robotically deployed tools utilized in Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) activities. The system combines four individual sensor elements to provide non-contact, multiple degree-of-freedom control of tools at distances up to five inches from a surface. The Standoff Sensor has been successfully integrated to a metal cutting router and a pyrometer, and utilized for real-time control of each of these tools. Experiments demonstrate that the system can locate stationary surfaces with a repeatability of 0.034 millimeters

  4. Decommissioning and dismantling policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, J.

    2004-01-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling nuclear installations is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators, industries and civil society. There are many aspects that have to be carefully considered and planned, in many cases well in advance when they really need to be implemented. In my speech I am going to focus on policy-making considerations. Firstly I will go briefly over the current Spanish strategy on D and D, discussing the know-how we have gained from past experience. Then I will review the challenges that we will have to face in the near future, suggesting possible alternatives and approaches. I will finish talking a little bit about the international scene. (author)

  5. E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brett H

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  6. E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Brett H., E-mail: brett.robinson@lincoln.ac.nz [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury (New Zealand)

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  7. E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Brett H.

    2009-01-01

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  8. Decontamination before dismantling a fast breeder reactor primary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Antoine, P.; Gauchon, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The large-scale decontamination of FBR sodium loops is a novel task, as only a limited number of laboratory-scale results are available to date. The principal objective of this work is to develop a suitable decontamination procedure for application to the primary loops of the RAPSODIE fast breeder reactor as part of decommissioning to Stage 2. After disconnecting the piping from the main vessel, the pipes were treated by circulating chemical solutions and the vessels by spraying. The dose rate in the areas to be dismantled was divided by ten. A decontamination factor of about 300 was obtained, and should allow austenitic steel parts to be melted in special furnaces for unrestricted release. (author)

  9. Special Report: E-Waste Management in the United States and Public Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberger, Jessica; Grandhi, Radhika; Kim, Stephani S; Mase, William A; Reponen, Tiina; Ho, Shuk-mei; Chen, Aimin

    2016-10-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) generation is increasing worldwide, and its management becomes a significant challenge because of the many toxicants present in electronic devices. The U.S. is a major producer of e-waste, although its management practice and policy regulation are not sufficient to meet the challenge. We reviewed e-waste generation, current management practices and trends, policy challenges, potential health impact, and toxicant exposure prevention in the U.S. A large amount of toxic metals, flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants exist in e-waste or can be released from the disposal of e-waste (e.g., landfill, incineration, recycling). Landfill is still a major method used to dispose of obsolete electronic devices, and only about half of the states have initiated a landfill ban for e-waste. Recycling of e-waste is an increasing trend in the past few years. There is potential, however, for workers to be exposed to a mixture of toxicants in e-waste and these exposures should be curtailed. Perspectives and recommendations are provided regarding managing e-waste in the U.S. to protect public health, including enacting federal legislation, discontinuing landfill disposal, protecting workers in recycling facilities from toxicant exposure, reducing toxicant release into the environment, and raising awareness of this growing environmental health issue among the public.

  10. Modelling the correlations of e-waste quantity with economic increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Li, Jinhui; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio; Wei, Guoyin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2018-02-01

    Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is regarded as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and is becoming an emerging issue owing to adverse consequences on the natural environment and the human health. This research article reveals the presence of a strong linear correlation among global e-waste generation and Gross Domestic Product. The obtained results indicate that the best fit for data can be reached by comparing e-waste collected volumes and GDP PPS. More in detail, an increase of 1000 GDP PPS means an additional 0.27kg of e-waste collected and 0.22kg of e-waste reused/recycled. Furthermore, for each additional citizen, there will be an increase of 7.7kg of e-waste collected and 6.2kg of e-waste reused/recycled. The better collection of e-waste acts an important role concerning the circular economy, and it can be an advantageous approach. Therefore, e-waste could be considered as an opportunity for recycling or recovery of valuable metals (e.g., copper, gold, silver, and palladium), given their significant content in precious metals than in mineral ores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A roadmap for development of sustainable E-waste management system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wath, Sushant B.; Vaidya, Atul N.; Dutt, P.S.; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2010-01-01

    The problem of E-waste has forced Environmental agencies of many countries to innovate, develop and adopt environmentally sound options and strategies for E-waste management, with a view to mitigate and control the ever growing threat of E-waste to the environment and human health. E-waste management is given the top priority in many developed countries, but in rapid developing countries like India, it is difficult to completely adopt or replicate the E-waste management system in developed countries due to many country specific issues viz. socio-economic conditions, lack of infrastructure, absence of appropriate legislations for E-waste, approach and commitments of the concerned, etc. This paper presents a review and assessment of the E-waste management system of developed as well as developing countries with a special emphasis on Switzerland, which is the first country in the world to have established and implemented a formal E-waste management system and has recycled 11 kg/capita of WEEE against the target of 4 kg/capita set by EU. And based on the discussions of various approaches, laws, legislations, practices of different countries, a road map for the development of sustainable and effective E-waste management system in India for ensuring environment, as well as, occupational safety and health, is proposed.

  12. Remotely-Controlled Shear for Dismantling Highly Radioactive Tools In Rokkasho Vitrification Facility - 12204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Takashi; Sawa, Shusuke; Sadaki, Akira; Awano, Toshihiko [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Cole, Matt [S.A. Technology Inc, 3985 S. Lincoln Ave., Ste. 100, Loveland CO 80537 (United States); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    A high-level liquid waste vitrification facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) is right in the middle of hot commissioning tests toward starting operation in fall of 2012. In these tests, various tools were applied to address issues occurring in the vitrification cell. Because of these tools' unplanned placement in the cell it has been necessary to dismantle and dispose of them promptly. One of the tools requiring removal is a rod used in the glass melter to improve glass pouring. It is composed of a long rod made of Inconel 601 or 625 and has been highly contaminated. In order to dismantle these tools and to remotely put them in a designated waste basket, a custom electric shear machine was developed. It was installed in a dismantling area of the vitrification cell by remote cranes and manipulators and has been successfully operated. It can be remotely dismantled and placed in a waste basket for interim storage. This is a very good example of a successful deployment of a specialty remote tool in a hot cell environment. This paper also highlights how commissioning and operations are done in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (authors)

  13. Hearing loss in children with e-waste lead and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Wei, Xiaoqin; Wu, Wengli; Wu, Xianguang; Xu, Xijin

    2018-05-15

    Environmental chemical exposure can cause neurotoxicity and has been recently linked to hearing loss in general population, but data are limited in early life exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) especially for children. We aimed to evaluate the association of their exposure with pediatric hearing ability. Blood Pb and urinary Cd were collected form 234 preschool children in 3-7years of age from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and a reference area matched in Shantou of southern China. Pure-tone air conduction (PTA) was used to test child hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8kHz. A PTA≥25dB was defined as hearing loss. A higher median blood Pb level was found in the exposed group (4.94±0.20 vs 3.85±1.81μg/dL, phearing loss (28.8% vs 13.6%, phearing thresholds at average low and high frequency, and single frequency of 0.5, 1 and 2kHz were all increased in the exposed group. Positive correlations of child age and nail biting habit with Pb, and negative correlations of parent education level and child washing hands before dinner with Pb and Cd exposure were observed. Logistic regression analyses showed the adjusted OR of hearing loss for Pb exposure was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.029, 1.486). Our data suggest that early childhood exposure to Pb may be an important risk factor for hearing loss, and the developmental auditory system might be affected in e-waste polluted areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Dismantling of Nuclear Installations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, P.

    2011-01-01

    As we saw in the previous article by Pierre Bonnaure, though it has long been decried for the dangers inherent in its production structures and the very long-lived waste that it generates, nuclear power may yet recover its credibility, particularly in France. However, on close examination, we see that the nuclear industry is beset by a number of unresolved questions, beginning with the dismantling of installations that have become obsolete or are set to become so. Nuclear power took off after the Second World War, but several generations of technology have been developed since then, and most currently functioning power-stations - mainly second-generation installations - are theoretically nearing the end of their useful lives, at least in terms of what was said when they were being built. The problem therefore arises of their dismantling and the clean-up of the sites on which they were built, a thorny question on which Pierre Bonnaure casts light in this article (prospects, strategies, financing, management of waste etc.). Unfortunately, it emerges that in France nothing has really been resolved, that public debate on the matter is decidedly limited and that investment (both financial investment and research) is not commensurate with the needs of a sector which is, after all, the source of three quarters of national electricity production. (author)

  15. Decontamination and dismantlement plan for international reviewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.B.; Earle, O.K.; Klepikov, A.Kh.

    2000-01-01

    When developing a decommissioning plan, several factors need to be included. First and foremost is the issue of outline and scope. Specific to the BN-350, are issues related to short term tasks required to support the safe storage of the reactor for the next 50 years, and long term tasks required to dismantle the reactor, leaving some sort of final state, (brown field, green field, etc.) In addition, issues such as personnel and physical safety as well as environmental concerns must be addressed to ensure the shut down and dismantlement of the reactor is done in a safe manner, both for personnel and the environment. In addition to being the base document in which to support work, a D and D plan can also be utilized to obtain financial resources necessary to complete the plan, as is the case for the BN-350 Reactor located in Aktau, Kazakhstan. By providing a clear and complete D and D plan, which includes costs and schedules for each item, it is anticipated that donor countries will have the ability to review, approve, and provide financial support to complete the work described in the plan

  16. Monitoring of organic micropollutants in Ghana by combination of pellet watch with sediment analysis: E-waste as a source of PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Junki; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Akita, Lailah Gifty; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pellet watch was conducted in Ghanaian coast, including capital city, Accra. • PCBs concentrations in pellets near Accra were higher than global background. • Sedimentary PCBs were higher at a location down e-waste scrapyard in Accra. • Triphenylbenzene, an indicator of plastic combustion, was abundant near the dump site. • The importance of e-waste as source of PCBs in Ghana was elucidated. - Abstract: Plastic resin pellets collected at 11 beaches covering the whole Ghanaian coastline were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB concentrations (∑13 congeners) were higher in Accra, capital city, and Tema (39–69 ng/g-pellets) than those in rural coastal towns (1–15 ng/g-pellets) which are close to global background, indicating local inputs of PCBs. River sediments were also analyzed for PCBs together with molecular markers. Sedimentary PCBs concentrations were highest at a site (AR02) downstream of an electronic waste (e-waste) scrapyard. At the site (AR02), concentration of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), a marker of municipal wastewater, was lower than another site (AR03) which is located at the downstream of downtown Accra. This result suggests that PCBs are introduced more to the river from the e-waste site than from activities in downtown Accra. PAHs concentrations were relatively higher in urban areas with strong petrogenic signature. Abundance of triphenylbenzenes suggested plastic combustion near e-waste scrapyard

  17. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  18. Shielded Cells D ampersand D and Dismantlement System Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the basis for the development of the System for Highly Radioactive Equipment Dismantlement or SHRED. It is the result of a thorough investigation into current and past dismantlement practices at shielded cell facilities around the DOE complex. This information has been used to formulate the development requirements for the SHRED

  19. Abrasive water jet cutting technique for biological shield concrete dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, T.; Narazaki, T.; Yokota, M.; Yoshida, H.; Miura, M.; Miyazaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing the abrasive-water jet cutting system to be applied to dismantling the biological shield walls of the JPDR as a part of the reactor dismantling technology development project. This is a total system for dismantling highly activated concrete. The concrete biological shield wall is cut into blocks by driving the abrasive-water jet nozzle, which is operated with a remote, automated control system. In this system, the concrete blocks are removed to a container, while the slurry and dust/mist which are generated during cutting are collected and treated, both automatically. It is a very practical method and will quite probably by used for actual dismantling of commercial power reactors in the future because it can minimize workers' exposure to radioactivity during dismantling, contributes to preventing diffusion of radiation, and reduces the volume of contaminated secondary waste

  20. STMI: several years of experience in nuclear plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, when STMI performed its first dismantling operation, the Company appreciably improved in that field through important operations: the dismantling of the calciothermy and fluoration metal Pu preparation facility, in La Hague reprocessing plant; the dismantling of the slag treatment chain, associated to calciothermy and fluoration processes, in La Hague reprocessing plant; and the cleaning of EL4 cell in Marcoule. To perform these operations, STMI's operating teams, on top of decontamination and dismantling technologies, strived to improve handling and transportation technologies, and to nuclearize many equipments. In order to increase its technical efficiency, STMI signed a cooperation agreement with FRAMATOME company. Therefore, the union between the operational know-hows of STMI and the design experience of TECHNICATOME allow the needs of any customs facing a dismantling case to be satisfied [fr

  1. Cutting techniques for facilities dismantling in decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cycle related activities were accomplished in IPEN-CNEN/SP in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years. During the operational activities in the decommissioning of old nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the personnel involved in the task had to face several problems. In old facilities, the need of large components dismantling and material removal use to present some difficulties, such as lack of available and near electricity supply. Besides this, the spread out of the superficial contamination in the form of dust or aerosols and the exposure of workers should be as much as possible avoided. Then, the selection and availability of suitable tools for the task, mainly those employed for cutting and segmentation of different materials is of significant importance. Slight hand tools, mainly those powered by rechargeable batteries, facilitate the work, especially in areas where the access is difficult. Based on the experience in the dismantling of some old nuclear facilities of IPEN-CNEN/SP, some tools that would have facilitated the operations were identified and their availability could have improved the quality and efficiency of different individual tasks. In this paper different cutting problems and techniques, as well as some available commercial hand tools, are presented as suggestion for future activities. (author)

  2. Cutting and decontamination technologies for nuclear facility dismantling; Technologien zur Zerlegung und zur Dekontamination von kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Felix; Grone, Georg von; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-03-15

    The German Government's decision to phase-out nuclear power will lead to a substantial increase of the number of nuclear decommissioning and dismantling projects. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must meet the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance. This study deals with the decontamination and dismantling technologies available to meet radiation protection requirements. The aim of this study is to determine the state of the art in the field of decommissioning and dismantling technologies. Furthermore, future trends in the development and application of such technologies should be identified. A detailed study of current literature provides an overview of established decommissioning technologies. Moreover, experts were consulted in order to facilitate a practical assessment. The experts' statements indicate that (apart from the chemical decontamination of the primary circuit) the use of mechanical methods is generally preferred. Abrasive methods are rated as particularly efficient. According to the experts, the development of new decontamination technologies may allow a more efficient decontamination. However, the success of a new technology will be subject to its application costs. Mechanical technologies are preferred for the dismantling of nuclear facilities. The band saw has been identified as a standard tool in nuclear dismantling. The survey has concluded that there is no need for new dismantling technologies. The potential lies in the optimization of existing processes and techniques. With regard to remotely operated systems, experts' opinions vary on whether the use of these systems will increase in future. Most areas inside a nuclear facility have low radiation levels that allow the use of human labour for the dismantling. However, there is a need for an improvement in the allocation and management of decommissioning projects.

  3. Simulation for preparation of dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrere, J.M.; Idasiak, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    New applications of 3D models are still emerging. At first, simulation of dismantling operations has been used to illustrate the proposed scenarios, with 3D views or animated films, for: - internal and external communication; - technical reviews; - presentation to Safety Authorities. It helps a lot to explain the structure of the facility to dismantle, the proposed solutions, to convince people that the study is detailed enough. But 3D modelling is an investment in time and money. A lot of time is spent in collecting the drawings, and checking them with pictures, videos, interviews of operators, new measurements. This investment can be much more exploited, during all the life time of the decommissioning project, to avoid problems during operations, and so to save a lot of money. It is possible to have navigation or even immersion inside 3D models of facilities to dismantle, so that the project team or the operators can be familiar with the configuration of rooms, of accesses, with the location of equipment. A 3D model can hardly be as detailed as the real facility. Some simplifications have to be done, to avoid having too heavy models. But in a training process, 3D-models help to have rapidly an overview of complex environments. Dose uptake simulation is becoming also a tool for decommissioning projects. It is possible to compute either off line, or even in real time, the dose uptake of the operators, and to compare easily different options for the ALARA principle: decontamination or not, use of shielding or not. It requires to have not only the geometrical model, but also a radiological model of the facility, but with the use of gamma camera and spectrometry, it becomes easier. 3D-models can be used to integrate in an user-friendly way all the knowledge of a facility to decommission, and to update that knowledge during operations: reports on construction, on exploitation, on shut-down, physical and radiological measurements, traceability of wastes. Progress are

  4. Residents' behaviors, attitudes, and willingness to pay for recycling e-waste in Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2012-09-15

    Large quantities of e-waste are presently being generated in Macau, but since recycling facilities and laws on e-waste still need to be developed, most e-waste cannot currently be properly treated. Moreover, little is known about residents' behaviors, attitudes, and their willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling e-waste. These issues are discussed in this study, based on a questionnaire survey on household electronic product usage. In 2010, "Life span completed" was the primary reason respondents abandoned their electronic products, accounting for about 37.97% of responses; the main disposal methods of e-waste in Macau were "Retailers retrieve from consumer" and "Sale to a recycling corporation." While having little understanding of e-waste disposal issues, most residents were still willing to hand their e-waste into the government for centralized collection. In addition, the respondents gave "telephone reservation" as their preferred collection method. Finally, the residents' WTP in Macau was estimated by the logistic regression method. It was found that education level, age and household income were the significant factors affecting residents' WTP. The monthly mean WTP was 20.03MOP (2.50 US dollar) per household, and the annual WTP was approximately 40,185,067 MOP (5,023,133 US dollar) for all of Macau. The results of our study can help managers develop more effective environmental management policies for e-waste disposal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations : A Growing Global Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol B; Asante, Kwadwo A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bergman, Ake L; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A

    BACKGROUND: Electronic waste (e-waste) is produced in staggering quantities, estimated globally to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014. Informal e-waste recycling is a source of much-needed income in many low- to middle-income countries. However, its handling and disposal in underdeveloped countries is

  6. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  7. Challenges of E-Waste pollution to soil environments in Nigeria - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of E-Waste pollution to soil environments in Nigeria - A Review. ... of ewaste on the environment (including the soil fauna and flora) especially in Nigeria. ... Possible e-waste management strategies will also be highlighted on soil ...

  8. E-waste environmental contamination and harm to public health in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Boezen, H. Marike; Huo, Xia

    The adverse effects of electronic waste (e-waste) on the human body have stirred up concern in recent years. China is one of the countries that confront serious pollution and human exposure of e-waste, and the majority of the population is exposed to potentially hazardous substances that are derived

  9. The e-waste conundrum: Balancing evidence from the North and on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-waste is currently the fastest-growing waste stream, posing major global management challenges. One of the unintended outcomes of this growth in the developing world is the increasing presence of informal e-waste recyclers, providing livelihood opportunities, albeit under elevated health-threatening risks and limited ...

  10. E-waste Management and Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP) Model for Refurbishment Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, N G; Fasila, K A

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for establishing a standard methodology to manage and refurbish e-waste called E-waste Management And Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP), which can be adapted by refurbishing industries in order to improve their performance. Waste management, particularly, e-waste management is a serious issue nowadays. Computerization has been into waste management in different ways. Much of the computerization has happened in planning the waste collection, recycling and disposal process and also managing documents and reports related to waste management. This paper proposes a computerized model to make predictions for e-waste refurbishment. All possibilities for reusing the common components among the collected e-waste samples are predicted, thus minimizing the wastage. Simulation of the model has been done to analyse the accuracy in the predictions made by the system. The model can be scaled to accommodate the real-world scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention-intervention strategies to reduce exposure to e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Michelle; Trottier, Brittany; Adhikary, Sharad; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Basu, Nil; Brune, Marie-Noel; Caravanos, Jack; Carpenter, David; Cazabon, Danielle; Chakraborty, Paromita; Chen, Aimin; Barriga, Fernando Diaz; Ericson, Bret; Fobil, Julius; Haryanto, Budi; Huo, Xia; Joshi, T K; Landrigan, Philip; Lopez, Adeline; Magalini, Frederico; Navasumrit, Panida; Pascale, Antonio; Sambandam, Sankar; Aslia Kamil, Upik Sitti; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter; Suk, Ann; Suraweera, Inoka; Tamin, Ridwan; Vicario, Elena; Suk, William

    2018-05-11

    As one of the largest waste streams, electronic waste (e-waste) production continues to grow in response to global demand for consumer electronics. This waste is often shipped to developing countries where it is disassembled and recycled. In many cases, e-waste recycling activities are conducted in informal settings with very few controls or protections in place for workers. These activities involve exposure to hazardous substances such as cadmium, lead, and brominated flame retardants and are frequently performed by women and children. Although recycling practices and exposures vary by scale and geographic region, we present case studies of e-waste recycling scenarios and intervention approaches to reduce or prevent exposures to the hazardous substances in e-waste that may be broadly applicable to diverse situations. Drawing on parallels identified in these cases, we discuss the future prevention and intervention strategies that recognize the difficult economic realities of informal e-waste recycling.

  12. Method of dismantling cylindrical structure by cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Minoru; Mitsuo, Kohei; Yokota, Isoya; Nakamura, Kenjiro.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a method of cutting and removing cylindrical structures, for example, iron-reinforced concrete materials such as thermal shielding walls in BWR type power plants into block-like form. That is, in a method of cutting and removing the cylindrical structure from the side of the outer wall, the structural material is cut from above to below successively in the axial direction and the circumferential direction by means abrasive jet by remote operation and cut into blocks each of a predetermined size. The cut out blocks are successively taken out. Cutting of the material from above to below by remote operation and taking out of small blocks causes no hazards to human body. Upon practicing the present invention, it is preferred to use a processing device for slurry and exhaust gases for preventing scattering of activated dismantled pieces or powdery dusts. (K.M.)

  13. Prefiltration of gaseous effluents in plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Pourprix, M.

    1991-01-01

    The dismantling techniques and mainly the thermal cutting tools can create large amounts of airbone dust, possibly contaminated in the case of the cutting of radioactive materials. Among the secondary solid emissions, the aerosols constitute the most mobile part which can disseminate contamination in the cell where the cutting operation takes place and in the ventilation ducts up to the HEPA filters. An optimised prefiltration coupled with a captation device at the aerosol generating source allows to avoid the dissemination of the contamination, to increase the life of HEPA filters and thus to reduce the amount of solid wastes. The object in this work was to select one or several cleaning devices, selection that can be done from the knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of the gas and aerosols to deal with, the available cleaning devices and the implied facility

  14. The Grenoble CEA Center: dismantled and rehabilitated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The denuclearization program of the CEA center in Grenoble was launched in 2001. It involves 6 nuclear facilities (3 research reactors: Melusine, Siloette, and Siloe, and 1 laboratory (LAMA) and 2 units for processing wastes). The dismantling works were finished at the end of 2012 and the 2013 program concerns: the demolition of the buildings homing Melusine and Siloe reactors, the final rehabilitation of the Siloe raft, and the final rehabilitation of the laboratory and of the waste processing units. The budget is 117*10 6 euros for Siloe, 28*10 6 euros for Melusine, 6*10 6 euros for Siloette, 70*10 6 euros for the LAMA, and 90*10 6 euros for the 2 waste processing units. (A.C.)

  15. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng, E-mail: fwang@unu.edu [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Huisman, Jaco [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Stevels, Ab [Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Baldé, Cornelis Peter [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Statistics Netherlands, Henri Faasdreef 312, 2492 JP Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste

  16. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste

  17. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  18. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xijin; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Pi; Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng; Lin, Stanley L.; Huo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure

  19. Dismantling of nuclear facilities: the industrial know-how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellament, R.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous nuclear facilities in laboratories or research reactors have been decommissioned and dismantled over the 2 last decades throughout the world. The valuable feedback experience has allowed nuclear industry to design, upgrade and test specific techniques for dismantling. These techniques are efficient although they have been validated on a reduced number of nuclear power plants. In France only 3 power units have been dismantled: Chinon A1, A2 and Brennilis (EL4) and they are not representative of the real park of EDF'reactors. 6 PWR-type reactors have already been dismantled in the Usa. The results of a survey concerning 26 countries shows that the dismantling cost is around 320 dollars/kWe, it represents 15% of the construction cost which is far from being excessive as it is often read in the media. The dismantling costs can be broken into: - de-construction (25-55%), - wastes from dismantling (17-43%), - security and monitoring (8-13%), - site reclamation (5-13%), and - engineering and project management (5-24%). (A.C.)

  20. Flame retardant emission from e-waste recycling operation in northern Vietnam: Environmental occurrence of emerging organophosphorus esters used as alternatives for PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Suzuki, Go; Someya, Masayuki; Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs), eight monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils and river sediments around the e-waste recycling area in Bui Dau, northern Vietnam. Around the e-waste recycling workshops, 1,3-phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TBBPA, and PBDEs were dominant among the investigated flame retardants (FRs). The respective concentrations of PBDPP, BPA-BDPP, TPHP, TBBPA and the total PBDEs were 6.6–14000 ng/g-dry, < 2–1500 ng/g-dry, 11–3300 ng/g-dry, < 5–2900 ng/g-dry, and 67–9200 ng/g-dry in surface soils, and 4.4–78 ng/g-dry, < 2–20 ng/g-dry, 7.3–38 ng/g-dry, 6.0–44 ng/g-dry and 100–350 ng/g-dry in river sediments. Near the open burning site of e-waste, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP), (2-ethylhexyl)diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), TPHP, and the total PBDEs were abundantly with respective concentrations of < 2–190 ng/g-dry, < 2–69 ng/g-dry, < 3–51 ng/g-dry and 1.7–67 ng/g-dry in surface soils. Open storage and burning of e-waste have been determined to be important factors contributing to the emissions of FRs. The environmental occurrence of emerging FRs, especially o-PFRs, indicates that the alternation of FRs addition in electronic products is shifting in response to domestic and international regulations of PBDEs. The emissions of alternatives from open storage and burning of e-waste might become greater than those of PBDEs in the following years. The presence and environmental effects of alternatives should be regarded as a risk factor along with e-waste recycling. - Highlights: • Open storage and burning of e-waste contributed to emission of FRs. • Types of FRs currently in emission are shifting in response to regulations of PBDEs. • Emerging PFRs were detected in soils and sediments around e-waste

  1. Flame retardant emission from e-waste recycling operation in northern Vietnam: Environmental occurrence of emerging organophosphorus esters used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Tue, Nguyen Minh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Suzuki, Go [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Someya, Masayuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna Koto, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs), eight monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils and river sediments around the e-waste recycling area in Bui Dau, northern Vietnam. Around the e-waste recycling workshops, 1,3-phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TBBPA, and PBDEs were dominant among the investigated flame retardants (FRs). The respective concentrations of PBDPP, BPA-BDPP, TPHP, TBBPA and the total PBDEs were 6.6–14000 ng/g-dry, < 2–1500 ng/g-dry, 11–3300 ng/g-dry, < 5–2900 ng/g-dry, and 67–9200 ng/g-dry in surface soils, and 4.4–78 ng/g-dry, < 2–20 ng/g-dry, 7.3–38 ng/g-dry, 6.0–44 ng/g-dry and 100–350 ng/g-dry in river sediments. Near the open burning site of e-waste, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP), (2-ethylhexyl)diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), TPHP, and the total PBDEs were abundantly with respective concentrations of < 2–190 ng/g-dry, < 2–69 ng/g-dry, < 3–51 ng/g-dry and 1.7–67 ng/g-dry in surface soils. Open storage and burning of e-waste have been determined to be important factors contributing to the emissions of FRs. The environmental occurrence of emerging FRs, especially o-PFRs, indicates that the alternation of FRs addition in electronic products is shifting in response to domestic and international regulations of PBDEs. The emissions of alternatives from open storage and burning of e-waste might become greater than those of PBDEs in the following years. The presence and environmental effects of alternatives should be regarded as a risk factor along with e-waste recycling. - Highlights: • Open storage and burning of e-waste contributed to emission of FRs. • Types of FRs currently in emission are shifting in response to regulations of PBDEs. • Emerging PFRs were detected in soils and sediments around e-waste

  2. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for 'complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,' or 'CVID.' It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times

  3. E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Nowrouz, Parviz; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Nazari, Jalil; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in Iran, owing to an increase in consumption of electrical and electronic equipment. Nevertheless, as is the case in some other countries, E-waste management has not received sufficient attention. For the successful implementation of any waste management plan (including an E-waste management plan), the availability of sufficient and accurate information on the quantities and composition of the waste generated and on current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. At present, in Iran, there is no available and accurate information that describes the characteristics and generation rate of E-waste or the actual practice of management and handling of the waste. For this initial study, eight electronic products were selected for the determination of their E-waste generation rate in the country, and two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessment of the current condition of E-waste management. The study found that the amount of E-waste generation in the country for the eight selected electronic items alone was 115,286, 112,914 and 115,151 metric tons in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Of the types of electronic items included in the study, televisions, with an average of 42.42%, and PCs, with an average of 32.66% accounted for the greatest proportions of the total mass of E-waste generated during 2008-2010. Currently, despite the fact that primary legislation for E-waste management (as part of general waste legislation) exists in Iran, this primary legislation has not yet been implemented. In practical terms, there is no definite policy or plan for the allocation of funds to prepare suitable equipment and facilities for the management and recycling of E-waste at the end of the products' useful life. Proposed improvements in current conditions are identified, first by considering other countries' experiences and then suggesting specific practical policies, rules, and regulations that should be

  4. Monitoring of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel in placenta from an e-waste recycling town in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yongyong; Huo, Xia; Li, Yan; Wu, Kusheng; Liu, Junxiao; Huang, Jingrong; Zheng, Guina; Xiao, Qiongna; Yang, Hui; Wang, Yuanping; Chen, Aimin; Xu, Xijin

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of lead and other heavy metals levels in placenta. We aimed to investigate concentrations of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in placenta from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Two hundred and twenty human placentas were collected from Guiyu (n = 101) and the control area (n = 119). The placenta concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni (PCPb, PCCd, PCCr, and PCNi) were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Risk factors of high exposure and correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed using Spearman correlation analyses. PCPb from Guiyu ranged from 6.51 to 3465.16 ng/g with a median of 301.43 ng/g, whereas PCPb from the control area ranged from 4.53 to 3176.12 ng/g with a median of 165.82 ng/g (P = 0.010). We also observed that in Guiyu, 41.6% of women (42/101) had PCPb > 500 ng/g wt (wet weight), compared with 24.4% of women (29/119) in the control area (P = 0.006). No significant differences of PCCd and PCCr were found between the two groups. In contrast, PCNi was higher in samples from the control area (median 14.30, range 1.76-593.70 ng/g) than in Guiyu samples (median 7.64, range 1.19-1108.99 ng/g) (P = 0.000), and a negative correlation between PCNi and gestational age was found in this study (P = 0.017). Spearman correlation analyses showed that there was correlation between PCPb and residence in e-waste recycling area. Environmental pollution, resulted from unregulated e-waste recycling activities, may contribute to elevated PCPb in neonates born in Guiyu and threaten their health.

  5. The dismantling of nuclear installations: The dismantling of nuclear installations at the CEA's Directorate for nuclear energy; The CEA's sanitation and dismantling works: example of one of the Marcoule UP1 program lots; Research and innovation in sanitation-dismantling; Global optimisation of the management of dismantling radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Piketty, Laurence; Moitrier, Cyril; Blanchard, Samuel; Soulabaille, Yves; Georges, Christine; Dutzer, Michel; Legee, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which addresses issues related to the dismantling of nuclear installations in France, notably for the different involved actors such as the CEA and the ANDRA. The authors more particularly address the issue and the general strategy of dismantling within the Directorate for nuclear energy of the CEA; comment the example of one of the Marcoule UP1 program lots to highlight sanitation and dismantling works performed by the CEA; discuss current research and innovation activities within the CEA regarding sanitation and dismantling; and comment how to globally optimise the management of radioactive wastes produced by dismantling activities

  6. Decontamination and radioactivity measurement on building surfaces related to dismantling of Japan power demonstration reactor (JPDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Mutsuo; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Yanagihara, Satoshi

    1997-12-01

    In the final stage of dismantling activities for decommissioning a nuclear power plant, building structures have to be demolished to release the site for unrestricted use. Since building structures are generally made from massive reinforced concrete materials, it is not a rational way to treat all concrete materials arising from its demolition as radioactive waste. Segregation of radioactive parts from building structures is therefore indispensable. The rational procedures were studied for demolition of building structures by treating arising waste as non-radioactive materials, based on the concept established by Nuclear Safety Commission, then these were implemented in the following way by the JPDR dismantling demonstration project. Areas of the JPDR facilities are categorized into two groups : possibly contaminated areas, and possibly non-contaminated areas, based on the document of the reactor operation. Radioactivity on the building surfaces was then measured to confirm that the qualitative categorization is reasonable. After that, building surfaces were decontaminated in such a way that the contaminated layers were removed with enough margin to separate radioactive parts from non-radioactive building structures. Thought it might be possible to demolish the building structures by treating arising waste as non-radioactive materials, confirmation survey for radioactivity was conducted to show that there is no artificial radioactive nuclides produced by operation in the facility. This report describes the procedures studied on measurement of radioactivity and decontamination, and the results of its implementation in the JPDR dismantling demonstration project. (author)

  7. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournebize, Frederic; Bordet, Didier; Charlety, Philippe; Gore, Thierry; Estrade, Jerome; Lemaire, Hermine; Ginet, Annick; Fabrier, Lionel; Evrard, Lydie; Furois, Timothee; Butez, Marc; Dutzer, Michel; Faure, Vincent; Billarand, Yann; Menuet, Lise; Lahaye, Thierry; Pin, Alain; Mougnard, Philippe; Charavy, Sylvain; Poncet, Philippe; Moggia, Fabrice; Dochy, Arnaud; Benjamin, Patrick; Poncet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beneteau, Yannick; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Pellenz, Gilles; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Gerard, Stephane; Denissen, Luc; Davain, Henri; Duveau, Florent; Guyot, Jean-Luc; Ardellier, Luc

    2012-11-01

    The oldest French nuclear facilities, built for some of them in the 1950's for research or power generation purposes, have reached more or less the end of their life. More than 30 facilities have entered the shutdown or dismantling phase, among which 8 reactors of the very first generations of Electricite de France (EdF) reactors. The aim of this two-days conference is to take stock of the present day status and perspectives of the dismantling activity, to approach the question of the management of the wastes produced, and to share experience about large scale operations already carried out. This document gathers the available presentations given during this conference: 1 - the 'Passage' project (F. Tournebize); 2 - CEA-Grenoble: from Louis Neel to key enabling technologies (D. Bordet); 3 - Dismantling actions in France (L. Evrard); 4 - Securing control of long-term charges funding (T. Furois); 5 - Waste disposal projects and their contribution to the management of dismantling wastes (M. Butez); 6 - Specificities linked with dismantling activities (Y. Billarand); 7 - Dismantling safety: the ASN's point of view (L. Evrad); 8 - Labor Ministry viewpoint about the dismantling related questions (T. Lahaye); 9 - Consideration of organizational and human factors in dismantling operations: a new deal in the operators-service providers relation (L. Menuet); 10 - Diploma and training experience (A. Pin); 11 - Glove-boxes dismantling at La Hague plant - status and experience feedback (P. Mougnard); 12 - Dismantling of Siloe reactor (CEA-Grenoble): application of the ALARA approach (P. Charlety); 13 - BR3 - a complex dismantling: the neutron shield tank (NST) in remote operation and indirect vision (L. Denissen); 14 - Cleansing and dismantling of the Phebus PF containment (S. Charavy); 15 - Integration of dismantling at the design and exploitation stages of nuclear facilities (P. Poncet); 16 - Consideration during the design and exploitation stages of dispositions aiming at

  8. Evaluation formulas of manpower needs for dismantling of equipment in FUGEN-3. Dismantling process of the condenser removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi; Koda, Yuya; Nanko, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the PRODIA code which supports to make decommissioning plan and has been preparing evaluation formulas. Manpower needs for the dismantling of the condenser that had conducted from 2010 to 2012 was analyzed and compared with existing evaluation formulas. Applicability of evaluation formulas for a large scale reactor facility was confirmed in dismantling of the heat insulating materials and reliability of unit productivity factor was improved. The evaluation formula of work for clearance was made in dismantling of pipes and supports. Unit productivity factor of dismantling of feed water heaters which is applicable for a large scale reactor facility was derived. For derivation of unit productivity factor, statistically meaningful data was provided from the dismantling of the condenser. Manpower needs for dismantling of the condenser has positive correlation to the weight of equipment and can be described in linear expression. Reliability of each unit productivity factor will be improved with accumulating actual dismantling data in future. (author)

  9. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The volume of e-waste is growing around the world, and, increasingly, it is being disposed of by export from developed to developing countries. This is the situation in Ghana, and, in this paper we address the potential consequences of such e-waste disposal. Herein, we describe how e-waste is processed in Ghana, and what the fate is of e-waste-chemical contaminants during recycling and storage. Finally, to the extent it is known, we address the prospective adverse effects of e-waste-related contaminants on health and aquatic life downstream from a large e-waste disposal facility in Accra, Ghana.In developing countries, including Ghana, e-waste is routinely disassembled by unprotected workers that utilize rudimentary methods and tools. Once disassembled,e-waste components are often stored in large piles outdoors. These processing and storage methods expose workers and local residents to several heavy metals and organic chemicals that exist in e-waste components. The amount of e-waste dumped in Ghana is increasing annually by about 20,000 t. The local aquatic environment is at a potential high risk, because the piles of e-waste components stored outside are routinely drenched or flooded by rainfall, producing run-off from storage sites to local waterways. Both water and sediment samples show that e-waste-related contaminant shave entered Ghana's water ways.The extent of pollution produced in key water bodies of Ghana (Odaw River and the Korle Lagoon) underscores the need for aquatic risk assessments of the many contaminants released during e-waste processing. Notwithstanding the fact that pollutants from other sources reach the water bodies, it is clear that these water bodies are also heavily impacted by contaminants that are found in e-waste. Our concern is that such exposures have limited and will continue to limit the diversity of aquatic organisms.There have also been changes in the abundance and biomass of surviving species and changes in food chains. Therefore

  10. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-05

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities.

  11. Assessing resident awareness on e-waste management in Bangalore, India: a preliminary case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Li, Jinhui

    2018-04-01

    The generation of e-waste has increased significantly in India, and the informal recycling of e-waste has adverse effects on environment and public health. In this article, the E-waste management is evaluated in accordance from the resident's awareness perspective in Bangalore city, India. The survey data revealed that about 58% male and 42% female responded and 35% of the participants belong to age range between 18 and 25 years. About 60% of respondent's education level was either graduate or post graduate, 27% high school to higher school, 10% higher educated (> post graduate), and 3% primary to middle. Only 30% of the respondents were confident with e-waste rules and regulation, while 39% of the respondents were of very little information. Indian e-waste management has been improving for the last few years and it continues to develop. Therefore, the findings can be valuable for better understanding the resident's awareness for e-waste management and also need to promote the environmentally sound management of e-waste in Bangalore, India.

  12. Dismantling of nuclear facilities. From a structural engineering perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Carsten; Henkel, Fritz-Otto; Bauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The paper summarizes some important aspects, requirements and technical boundary conditions that need to be considered in dismantling projects in the nuclear sector from a structural engineering perspective. Besides general requirements regarding radiation protection, occupational safety, efficiency and cost effectiveness it is important to take into account other conditions which have a direct impact on technical details and the structural assessment of the dismantling project. These are the main aspects highlighted in this paper: - The structural assessment of dismantling projects has to be based on the as-built situation. - The limitations in terms of available equipment and space have to be taken into account. - The structural assessments are often non-standardized engineering evaluations. A selection of five dismantling projects illustrates the various structural aspects. (orig.)

  13. Dismantling and decontamination of the PIVER prototype vitrification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PIVER facility was dismantled for replacement by a new continuous pilot plant. The more important operation concerns the vitrification cell, containing equipments of the process, for complete disposal and maximum decontamination, requiring dismantling, cutting, conditioning and removal of equipment inside the cell. Manipulators, handling and cutting tools were used. Activity of removed material and irradiation of personal are followed during the work for matching intervention means to operation conditions [fr

  14. Dismantling and waste management: CEA's strategy and research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, C.

    2012-01-01

    There are 3 main dismantling operations in CEA. First, the dismantling of the UP1 facility in the Marcoule site. UP1 was a reprocessing plant of nuclear fuels that operated from 1958 to 1997 and is now the biggest dismantling operation in the world. Its dismantling operation follows a 6-step scheme that will end in 2050. Secondly, the Passage project on the Grenoble site that concerns the dismantling of 3 research reactors (Siloette, Melusine and Siloe), of a laboratory dedicated to the analysis of active materials (Lama) and of a station for the processing of waste (Sted). Thirdly the Aladin project that concerns the installations of the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. The dismantling operations are complex because all the first research programs on high activity chemistry and on transuranium elements were performed in Fontenay-aux-Roses facilities and because ancient activities have to leave a clean place to be replaced by new ones. The radioactive waste produced by CEA enter the flow of waste that is normally processed and managed by ANDRA. Only high-activities waste have not yet a definitive solution, they are stored in waiting the opening of a geological repository. CEA leads research programs on the separation and transmutation of minor actinides and on the long-term behaviour of waste packages put in deep geological layers. (A.C.)

  15. Technology and costs for dismantling a Swedish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    Various estimates concerning the costs of decommissioning a redundant nuclear power reactor to the green fields state are given in the literature. The purpose of this study is to provide background material for the Swedish nuclear power utilities to estimate the costs and time required to dismantle an ASEA-ATOM Boiling Water Reactor. The units Oskarshamn II and Barsebeck 1, both with an installed capacity of approximately 600 MW, serve as reference plants. The time of operation before final shutdown is assumed to be 40 years. Dismantling operations are initiated one year after shutdown. When the dismantling of the plant is finished, the site is to be released for unrestricted use. The costs for dismantling and subsequent final disposal of the radioactive waste are estimated at approximately SEK 500 million (approximately US dollars 120 million) in terms of 1979 prices. The sum includes 25% contingency. The dismantling cost is equivalent to 10-15% of the installation cost of an equivalent new nuclear power plant. The exact percentage is dependent on the interest rate during the construction period. It is shown in the study that a total dismantling can be accomplished in less than five years. This report is a compilation of studies performed by ASEA-ATOM and VBB based on premises given by KBS. The reports from these studies are presented in appendices. (Auth.)

  16. Decontamination and remote dismantling tests in the Itrec reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelieri, T.; Gerardi, A.; Soffietto, G.

    1993-01-01

    The scope of this research is to evaluate the advantages of the rack removal system in the dismantling of reprocessing installations. The objective of this work is to verify experimentally the possibility of the decontamination of any particular module and the capability of the remote dismantling of components installed in the mobile rack. In particular, the main objective is to develop remotely operated equipment for the dismantling of centrifugal contactors. The decontamination of the equipment which represents the most important preliminary phase of the decommissioning operation, allowed to obtain low-level radioactivity. A supporting programme has been performed in order to collect sufficient data for the project and design of the remote dismantling machine. On the basis of technological cold test results, the project of the dismantling machine's construction has been optimized. Positive results obtained during the hot dismantling operations on the Rack 6 bis attested the effectiveness of the rack removal system as an original design which facilitates decommissioning of reprocessing plants. 2 tabs., 18 figs

  17. Decontamination of the HFR dismantling cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloes, K.; Husmann, K.; Hardt, P. von der.

    1976-05-01

    The Commission of the European Communities operates in the Petten Establishment of the Joint Research Centre (EURATOM), a 45 MW light-water cooled materials testing reactor, the HFR. Inside the reactor containment building, on top of a side wing of the main pool, a hot cell had been constructed for the dismantling, of irradiated equipment, and brought into active service in July 1966. Early in 1973, the cell was contaminated by 0.1 to 1 Ci of Po 210 , originating from an irradiation capsule containing Bi impregnated graphite specimens. Due to the elevated radiotoxicity of this isotope, and to numerous potential ways of spreading out the contamination it was decided to stop routine operation of the cell until a satisfactory degree of decontamination had been reached. Two years have been spent for preparation of specialized equipment and thorough clean-up and overhaul work of the cell. It went back into normal operation on February 21st, 1975 and has since then been working very successfully

  18. Method of dismantling a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Masato; Hashimoto, Osamu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid and simple positioning for a plasma arc torch disposed to the inside of a nuclear reactor main body. Method: After removing the upper semi-spherical portion, fuel portion and control rod portion of a nuclear reactor, a rotary type girder is placed on the upper edge of a cylindrical portion remained after the removal of the upper semi-spherical portion. Then, the upper portion of a supporting rod provided with a swing arm having a plasma arc torch at the top end is situated at the center of the reactor main body. Then, the top end of the support rod is inserted to fix in the housing of control rod drives. Then, the swing arm is actuated to situate the plasma arc torch to a desired position to be cut, whereafter cutting is initiated while rotating the rotary type girder. Thus, plasma arc torch is moved horizontally along an arcuate trace, whereby pipeways, accessories or the likes disposed to the inside of the main body are at first cut and then the cylindrical portion constituting the main body is cut to dismantle the reactor. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, J.; Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes two technologies that are viable solutions for facility D ampersand D

  20. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R. [RedZone Robotics, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of. The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes a mobile workstation termed ROSIE, which provides remote work capabilities for D&D activities.

  1. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J R; Danneels, J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W D [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C J; Chesser, R K [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  2. Cleaning of dismantled metals by electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.Y.; Chung, Z.J.; Lu, D.L.; Hsieh, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A project of cleaning dismantled metals is going on at INER. The test work has been performed. Results showed that the activity decreased from 45 microSv/h to background level after 20 minutes electrolytic polishing. These cleaned metals could be reused through melting and fabricating. These metals could also be classified as BRC waste to facilitate the waste management if they can pass the identification and be admitted by the government authority. In order to achieve the planned target, some electro-decontamination facilities have been established. An automatic electropolishing facility with six cells was designed to clean the contaminated metals in plate type with dimensions less than 50 cm x 50 cm. Another automatic electropolishing facility was specially designed for treating the contaminated pipes. In addition, mobile electropolishing facilities were also established for large pieces of metal and some fixed equipment. In this cleaning project, a practical recycling and treatment method for electrolyte has been developed in order to comply with the requirement of secondary waste minimization

  3. Dismantling method for nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Shuji; Kato, Akihiro; Yoshida, Masafumi.

    1993-01-01

    An upper nozzle is detached from a control rod guide tube and an instrumentation tube. Subsequently, slots (slits) having a predetermined width are formed longitudinally at enlarged diameter portions of the control rod guide tube and the instrumentation tube. Then, the control rod guide tube and the instrumentation tube are separated from a lower nozzle, and pulled out from the lattice space of each of the support lattices. Thereafter, a predetermined key is inserted to a key insertion window formed at each of the support lattices, to distort a spring and take the fuel rod out of the lattice space of each of the support lattices. With such procedures, when the control rod guide tube and the instrumentation tube are pulled out of the lattice space of the support lattice, the enlarged diameter portion is narrowed to reduce the diameter, thereby enabling to take them out easily. Accordingly, since the space for inserting the key can be ensured, the nuclear fuel assemblies can easily be dismantled. In addition, fuel rods can be taken out smoothly and in an intact state. (I.N.)

  4. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlayel, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for proper e-waste handling using Jordan as a case study. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was employed to evaluate five advanced management systems represent state-of-the-art treatment technologies, including sanitary landfilling; proper recycling of metals, materials, and precious metals (PMs); and incineration of plastic and the hazardous portion of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Six e-waste products that contribute the most to the e-waste in Jordan were included in the assessment of each scenario, which resulted in 30 total cases of e-waste management. The findings indicated that landfills for the entire components of the e-waste stream are the worst option and should be avoided. The most promising e-waste management scenario features integrated e-waste processes based on the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), including recycling materials such as non-PMs and PMs, incinerating plastic and the hazardous content of PCBs using the energy recovered from incineration, and using sanitary landfills of residues. For this scenario, the best environmental performance was obtained for the treatment of mobile phones. Incineration of the portion of hazardous waste using energy recovery is an option that deserves attention. Because scenario implementation depends on more than just the environmental benefits (e.g., economic cost and technical aspects), the study proposes a systematic approach founded on the IWM concept for e-waste management scenario selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote Sensing Combined with Field Spectroscopy for the Detection and Monitoring of Heavy Metal Contamination from Informal E-waste Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, L. R.; Garb, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams. Made up of discarded electronics, e-waste disposal is complex. However, e-waste also provides economic opportunity through the processing and extraction of precious metals. Sometimes referred to as "urban mining," this recycling operates informally or illegally and is characterized by dangerous practices such as, open-pit burning, acid leaching, and burning of low value wastes. Poorly controlled e-waste recycling releases dangerous contaminants, especially heavy metals, directly to the surface environment where they can infiltrate water resources and spread through precipitation events. Despite growing recognition of the prevalence of unregulated e-waste processing, systematic data on the extent and persistence of the released contamination is still limited. In general, contamination is established through techniques that provide only a snapshot in time and in a limited geographic area. Here we present preliminary results from attempts to combine field, laboratory, and remote sensing studies toward a systematic remote sensing methodology for e-waste contamination detection and monitoring. The ongoing work utilizes a tragic "natural experiment," in which over 500 e-waste burn sites were active over more than a decade in a variety of agricultural, residential, and natural contexts. We have collected over 100 soil samples for which we have both XRF and ICP-AES measurements showing soil Pb concentrations as high as 14000 ppm. We have also collected 480 in-situ reflectance spectra with corresponding soil samples over 4 field transects of areas with long-term burn activity. The most heavily contaminated samples come from within the burn sites and are made up of ash. Field spectra of these samples reflect their dark color with low overall reflectance and shallow spectral features. These spectra are challenging to use for image classification due to their similarity with other low-reflectance parts

  6. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emission of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in use of electric/electronic equipment and recycling of e-waste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2014-02-01

    The emission rates of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from electric/electronic products during their use and disposal were estimated. E-wastes, including televisions and refrigerators, gathered at recycling centers were also analyzed to estimate their emissions. The average concentrations of PBDEs in TV rear covers produced before and after the year 2000 were 145,027 mg/kg and 14,049 mg/kg, respectively. The PBDEs concentration in TV front covers was lower than the concentration in TV rear covers. The concentration in the components of the refrigerator samples ranged from ND to 445 mg/kg. We estimated the atmospheric emissions of PBDEs based on the concentrations. The annual emissions from TV rear covers produced before 2000 were calculated to be approximately 162.1 kg and after 2000, the annual emissions were 18.7 kg. Refrigerators showed the lowest annual emissions of PBDEs (0.7 kg). The atmospheric concentrations were also measured to calculate emissions generated during the recycling process. The highest concentration was 16.86 ng/m(3) emitted from the TV sets during the dismantling process. The concentrations of PBDEs generated in the plastic processing field ranged from 2.05 to 5.43 ng/m(3) depending on the products, and ambient air in open-air yards showed concentrations in the range of 0.32 to 5.55 ng/m(3). Emission factors for the recycling process were calculated using the observed concentrations. The estimated emissions according to the emission factors ranged from 0.3×10(-1) to 90.3 kg/year for open-air yards and from 0.1×10(-1) to 292.7 kg/year for the dismantling and crushing processes of TV set, depending on the production year. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tools and tool application for the dismantling of the nuclear power plant Brennilis in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienia, Harald; Welbers, Philipp; Krueger, Peter; Noll, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The EL-4 reactor in the NPP Brennilis in France is a CO2 cooled heavy water moderated test reactor with net power of 70 MW, the reactor started operation in 1967 and was decommissioned in 1985. Due to the construction features it was not necessary to enter the reactor area during operation, therefore the reactor pressure vessel and the surrounding piping systems are built in a very compact way. The dismantling procedures are therefore different from German BWR or PWR systems, the remote cutting and handling tools have to be adapted to the different features. Because of the high local dosage rate in the reactor hall it is also necessary to perform the erection of the dismantling equipment by robot systems. For cutting of the piping system a new plasma cutting technique, the hot wire method will be used. Other mechanical cutting techniques have to be used for instance for zircaloy containing components due to fire prevention purposes. The required time for tool and manipulator changes, including wearing part replacements constitute a significant part of the dismantling schedule. The suction/exhaust system for radioactive dust removal allowed a reduction of the total personal dose by one third of the allowed dose.

  9. Taking into account dismantling and decommissioning waste management in conception and operation phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Managing waste during the Dismantling and Decommissioning (D and D) phase is quite specific and different from what it was during the operation phase. Indeed, waste generated during dismantling could present some analogy especially with regards to the radionuclides spectrum and contents. However waste from dismantling and cleanup could actually presents a lower level of radiologic activity but produced in much larger quantities, which requires new solutions. Moreover the characteristics and quantities of waste to be managed during D and D are highly depending on the way the facility was designed and also how it was actually operated during its life time. Taking future D and D into consideration in the early design as well as during the operation of new facilities is becoming more and more mandatory. It is now an explicit requirement set by safety authorities, to provide - in the license application for news plants - a description of design provisions and future plans for D and D as well as anticipated technical and financial impacts,. Two major aspects are driving the cost and complexity of future D and D operations: waste volumes by categories and occupational exposure while performing the work. To reduce such impacts, key approaches are to maintain areas clean, segregate the waste types and provide appropriate provisions in the design. The paper's first part describes the related design and operation concepts derived from lessons learned, and illustrations by examples are presented in a second part. (author)

  10. Place of the final disposal of short lived dismantling waste; Plats foer slutfoervaring av kortlivat rivningsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    This report deals with the short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which will mainly arise from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants, but also the dismantling of other nuclear facilities. For these installations to be dismantled, there must be the capacity to receive and dispose of dismantling waste. SKB plans to expand the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR) in Forsmark for this purpose. The legislation requires alternatives to the chosen location. The alternate location for the disposal of decommissioning waste SKB has chosen to compare with is a location in the Simpevarp area outside Oskarshamn. There are currently Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and SKB between stock 'CLAB'. The choice of Simpevarp as alternative location is based on that it's one of the places in the country where data on the bedrock is available to an extent that allows an assessment of the prospects for long-term security, such an assessment is actually showing good potential, and that the location provide realistic opportunities to put into practice the disposal of decommissioning waste. At a comparison between the disposal of short-lived decommissioning waste in an extension of SFR with the option to build a separate repository for short-lived decommissioning waste in Simpevarp, the conclusion is that both options offer potentially good prospects for long-term security. The differences still indicated speaks to the Forsmark advantage. Similar conclusions were obtained when comparing the factors of environment, health and social aspects.

  11. Rosie: A mobile worksystem for decontamination and dismantlement operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.R.; Conley, L.

    1996-01-01

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. and Carnegie Mellon University's Field Robotics Center have undertaken a contract to develop a next-generation worksystem for decommissioning and dismantlement tasks in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, the authors are closing the second phase of this three phase effort and have completed the design and fabrication of the worksystem: Rosie. Rosie includes a locomotor, heavy manipulator, control center, and control system for robot operation. The locomotor is an omni-directional platform with tether management and hydraulic power capabilities. The heavy manipulator is a high-payload, long-reach system intended to deploy tools into the work area. The heavy manipulator is capable of deploying systems such as the Dual-Arm Work Module--a five degree-of-freedom platform supporting two highly dexterous manipulators--or a single manipulator for performing simpler, less dexterous tasks. Rosie is telerobotic to the point of having servo-controlled motions which can be operated and coordinated through the control center

  12. Rosie: A mobile workstation for decontamination and dismantlement operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. and Carnegie Mellon University's Field Robotics Center have undertaken a contract to develop a next-generation worksystem for decommissioning and dismantlement tasks in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, the authors are in the second phase of this three phase effort and are completing the design of the worksystem. Within this project RedZone is designing and fabricating a worksystem: Rosie. Rosie will include a locomotor, heavy manipulator, control center, and control system for robot operation. The locomotor is an omni-directional platform with tether management and hydraulic power capabilities. The heavy manipulator is a high-payload, long-reach system to deploy tools into the work area. The heavy manipulator will be capable of deploying systems such as the Dual-Arm Work Module--a five degree-of-freedom platform supporting two highly dexterous manipulators--or a single manipulator for performing simpler, less dexterous tasks. Rosie will be telerobotic to the point of having servo-controlled motions which can be operated and coordinated through the control center. This report describes the design of the systems. In phase three Rosie will be radiation-hardened and perform a demonstration in a contaminated facility

  13. From dismantling to current scenario in Galician mano commun mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Quiroga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common mountains are, like seeds, folklore or free software, good examples of commons. They all count on a community to autonomously manage a good in a collaborative manner by establishing rules to guarantee its sustainability. Common mountains in Galicia represent a property modality and goods management breaking the classic dichotomy of pubic against private, by introducing a collective property alternative. The specificity of these mountains is determined by the fact that the holders of the property right are the regular inhabitants of the land; besides, it is important to stress how these communities have been able to create the rules to guarantee the sustainability of this good. Despite the inherent importance of this modality of commons, a process of dismantling has taken place for a long time with the goal of privatizing these goals. This process was reflected in the shortening of the area of these 18.000 mountains from between 1.8 and 2 millions of hectares in Galicia to the current 640.000 hectares. With the analysis of the commons we can understand how communities can assume co responsibility in the sustainability of goods and how this modality is perfectly viable. The study of these goods brings us closer to the idea of new models in social relations and mutual support networks are possible.

  14. Dismantling the Curriculum in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The higher education curriculum in the global North is increasingly co-opted for the production of measurable outcomes, framed by determinist narratives of employability and enterprise. Such co-option is immanent to processes of financialisation and marketisation, which encourage the production of quantifiable curriculum activities and tradable academic services. Yet the university is also affected by global socio-economic and socio-environmental crises, which can be expressed as a function of a broader crisis of social reproduction or sociability. As the labour of academics and students is increasingly driven by a commodity-valuation rooted in the measurement of performance, the ability for academics and students to respond to crises from inside the university is constrained by the market. This article argues that in understanding the relationship between the university and society, and in responding to a crisis of sociability, revealing the bounded nature of the curriculum is central. One possible way to address this crisis is by re-imagining the university through the co-operative practices of groups like the Dismantling the Masters House community and the Social Science Centre. Such an exploration, rooted in the organising principles of the curriculum, asks educators to consider how their curriculum reproduces an on-going colonisation by Capital. It is argued that such work enables a re-imagination of higher education that is rooted in a co-operative curriculum, and which might enable activist-educators to build an engaged curriculum, through which students and academics no longer simply learn to internalise, monitor and manage their own alienation.

  15. Dismantling at the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division: strategy and programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, C.; Prunele, D. de; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Tallec, M.

    2008-01-01

    The CEA's Nuclear Energy Division (DEN) nuclear facilities currently include seventeen reactors and thirty six other miscellaneous facilities, particularly laboratories, fuel processing units and facilities specific to waste management. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. At CEA, the first nuclear facility dismantling operations go back several dozen years and involve numerous and varied facilities. The first operations of any significance took place in the 1960's and 1970's and covered, for example, the first plutonium plant at Fontenay-aux-Roses (total dismantling) and small research reactors or critical models - CESAR and PEGGY at Cadarache and MINERVE at Fontenay-aux Roses (civil engineering cleaned up and kept). At La Hague, the dismantling of AT1, a pilot workshop used by the CEA during the 1970's to process irradiated fuels from fast neutron reactors, was completed in March 2001 (IAEA former stage 3, excluding civil engineering demolition). On the other hand, during this period of first dismantling, the intermediate-sized reactors (G1, Rapsodie) were only partially dismantled after shut down, mainly due to the lack of graphite and sodium waste management routes at the time. About twenty facilities were thus dealt with up to 2001, in other words about half of all the nuclear facilities shut down permanently before this date. (authors)

  16. From Centralized Disassembly to Life Cycle Management: Status and Progress of E-waste Treatment System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Yang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    China is now facing e-waste problems from both growing domestic generation and illegal imports. Many stakeholders are involved in the e-waste treatment system due to the complexity of e-waste life cycle. Beginning with the state of the e-waste treatment industry in China, this paper summarizes the latest progress in e-waste management from such aspects as the new edition of the China RoHS Directive, new Treatment List, new funding subsidy standard, and eco-design pilots. Thus, a conceptual model for life cycle management of e-waste is generalized. The operating procedure is to first identify the life cycle stages of the e-waste and extract the important life cycle information. Then, life cycle tools can be used to conduct a systematic analysis to help decide how to maximize the benefits from a series of life cycle engineering processes. Meanwhile, life cycle thinking is applied to improve the legislation relating to e-waste so as to continuously improve the sustainability of the e-waste treatment system. By providing an integrative framework, the life cycle management of e-waste should help to realize sustainable management of e-waste in developing countries.

  17. Informal E-waste recycling in developing countries: review of metal(loid)s pollution, environmental impacts and transport pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackah, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Crude or primitive recycling practices are often adopted in material resource recovery from E-waste in developing nations. Significant human health and environmental impacts may occur because of such practices. Literature on metal(loid)s pollution during E-waste processing is fragmented. Here, I review the health and environmental impacts of E-waste recycling operations and transport pathways of metal(loid)s, dispersed during operations. This paper is organised into five sections. Section 1 relates to the background of global E-waste generation and legal/illegal trade, citing specific cases from Ghana and other developing nations. Section 2 provides a brief information on sources of metal(loid)s in E-waste. Section 3 describes characteristics of informal E-waste recycling operations in developing nations. Section 4 examines the health and environmental impacts in E-waste recycling while section 5 evaluates major transport pathways of metal(loid)s contaminants.

  18. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. POLICIES FOR GREEN COMPUTING AND E-WASTE - THE ROMANIAN CASE -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEGAROIU CARINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computers today are an integral part of individuals’ lives all around the world; but unfortunately these devices are toxic to the environment given the materials used, their limited battery life and technological obsolescence. Individuals are concerned about the hazardous materials ever present in computers, even if the importance of various attributes differs, and that a more environment‐friendly attitude can be obtained through exposure to educational materials. In this paper, we aim to delineate the problem of e-waste in Romania and highlight a series of measures and the advantage they herald for our country and propose a series of action steps to develop in these areas further. It is possible for Romania to have an immediate economic stimulus and job creation while moving quickly to abide by the requirements of climate change legislation and energy efficiency directives. The costs of implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures are minimal as they are not cash expenditures but rather investments paid back by future, continuous energy savings.

  20. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  1. Development of multi-functional telerobotic systems for reactor dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Usui, Hozumi; Shinohara, Yoshikuni

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes technological features of advanced telerobotic systems for reactor dismantling application developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Taking into consideration the special environmental conditions in reactor dismantling, major effort was made to develop multifunctional telerobotic system of high reliability which can be used to perform various complex tasks in an unstructured environment and operated in an easy and flexible manner. The system development was carried out through constructing three systems in seccession; a light-duty and a heavy-duty system as a prototype system for engineering test in cold environment, and a demonstration system for practical on-site application to dismantling highly radioactive reactor internals of an experimental boiling water reactor JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). Each system was equipped with one or two amphibious manipulators which can be operated in either a push-button manual, a bilateral master-slave, a teach-and-playback or a programmed control mode. Different scheme was adopted in each system at designing the manipulator, transporter and man-machine interface so as to compare their advantages and disadvantages. According to the JPDR decommissioning program, the demonstration system was successfully operated to dismantle a portion of the radioactive reactor internals of the JPDR, which used underwater plasma arc cutting method and proved the usefulness of the multi-functional telerobotic system for reducing the occupational hazards and enhancing the work efficiency in the course of dismantling highly radioactive reactor components. (author)

  2. Overall strategy of Creys Malville power station dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphonse, P.

    2002-01-01

    The power station was stopped by a government decision following the elections in 1997. This shutdown was then made official by a letter dated April 1998 and the decree of December 1998. This was a non-technical shutdown and as such had not been envisaged; there has been no early warning. Current dismantling strategy: The studies leading to shutdown and then dismantling were engaged in 1998 based on a scenario with a status corresponding to IAEA level 2 until 2046. In 2001, EDF management made the decision to dismantle all the first generation power stations and Creys Malville between now and 2025. It should be noted that the presence of strongly irradiated stellite in the Creys Malville reactor would still require remote systems for working in the reactor block after 2046. The sequence of operations dictated by the dismantling strategy is as follows: eliminate the risks as soon as possible and in particular the risk related to the sodium, 3300 tonnes of which is kept in liquid form in the reactor vessel; dismantle the most active parts which are too radioactive to be sent to the existing or planned storage centres. This may lead to on-site storage to allow decay to occur before sending to a storage centre; planning of the work interventions in order to limit the costs

  3. Dismantling and waste managing benefit from digital technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moitrier, C.

    2017-01-01

    Dismantling is a very important challenge for nuclear industry as its success will prove the ability of the industry to deal with all the stages of a nuclear power plant from design to the end. A dismantling project is constraint by costs, time, feasibility, safety and environment protection and all of this implies a perfect knowledge of both the initial state of the facility at the beginning of the dismantling and the supply chain to avoid delays and extra-costs. Digital tools have a very important role to play as a provider of a 3-dimensional digital twin of the facility. This digital model allows: a remote preparation of the dismantling actions, to assess and optimize the radiation exposure during the intervention, to simulate various scenarios and select the most adequate, to ease collaborative work between various teams, to assess the volume and kind of waste at a very early stage of the dismantling, and to train operators and workers for x. (A.C.)

  4. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances

  5. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Ming [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Naidu, Ravi [Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments (CRC CARE), University of South Australia (Australia); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances.

  6. Development of telerobotic manipulators for reactor dismantling work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Usui, Hozumi; Fujii, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the amphibious electrical manipulators JARM-10, JART-25, JART-100 and JARM-25 which were developed in the program of reactor decommissioning technology development carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. They are multi-functional telerobotic light-duty (10 and 25 daN) and heavy-duty (100 daN) Manipulators which can be used in hostile environments in reactor dismantling work such as high radiation, underwater work and electrical noise. Each manipulator can be operated in either a bilateral master-slave, a teach-and-playback or a programmed control mode. By combining these modes appropriately, it is possible to perform complex tasks of remote handling. The usefulness of the telerobotic systems for dismantling nuclear reactors has been demonstrated by successful application of the JARM-25 for remote underwater dismantlement of highly radioactive reactor internals of complex form of an experimental nuclear power reactor. (author)

  7. Evaluation of worker's dose on a virtual dismantling environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seong; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Byung Suk; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2007-01-01

    The motivation of this study is to provide a basis for a minimization of worker's dose during dismantling activities. In the present study, we proposed methods for identifying an existence of radioactivity which is contained in the dismantling objects and for evaluating a worker's dose under a virtual dismantling environment. To evaluate a worker's external dose, the shape of the exposure room in the KRR 2(Korean Research Reactor TRIGA MARK III) by 3D CAD was created and the radiation dose surrounding the facility by using MCNP- 4C(Monte Carlo N-Particle-4C) was calculated. The radiation field of the exposure room was visualized three dimensionally by using the radiation dose that was obtained by the code

  8. REUSE OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS FROM DISMANTLED END OF LIFE VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr NOWAKOWSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of recycling end of life automotive vehicles is serious worldwide. It is one of the most important streams of waste in developed countries. It has big importance as recycling potential of raw materials content in automotive vehicles is valuable. Different parts and assemblies after dismantling can also be reused in vehicles where replacement of specific component is necessary. Reuse of the components should be taken into consideration in selecting the vehicles dismantling strategy. It also complies with European Union policy concerning end of life vehicles (ELV. In the paper it is presented systematic approach to dismantling strategies including disassembly oriented on further reuse of components. It is focused on decision making and possible benefits calculation from economic and environmental point of view.

  9. Can Small Countries Benefit from the E-waste Global Value Chain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meine Pieter, Dijk van

    2016-01-01

    E-waste is a term used to cover items of all types of electrical and electronic equipment and its parts that have been discarded by the owners as waste without the intention of re-use, because this equipment has ceased to be of any value to its owners. E-waste is one of the fastestgrowing waste streams globally. Since the Rio Summit Earth summit organized by the United Nations in 1992, the concept of sustainability extends to rendering basic services such as Solid Waste Management and dealing with e-waste. People are afraid of e-waste because of its possible negative effects on health and because it could pollute the environment. Indicators of unsustainable service provision concerninge-waste include irregular collection, open dumping, burning of solid and e-waste in open spaces. Often collection covers a small part of the country, cost recovery is limited or not existent, and one notes poor utilization of available resources with no or very limited reuse and recycling

  10. Investigations of trace element profiles in e-waste by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Polumi; Kale, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) which means loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or electronic devices is good source of toxins in atmosphere. Environmental groups claim that the informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems. Some electronic scrap components, contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame retardants. Activists claim that even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals. Scrap industry and USA EPA officials agree that materials should be managed with caution, but that environmental dangers of unused electronics have been exaggerated by groups which benefit from increased regulation. To solve this debatable issue we have carried out EDXFR of e-waste for trace elemental profile investigations. E-waste from IT industry in the form of powder was analyzed by 109 Cd induced Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Elements such as Ca, Fe, Br, Sr and Zr were seen. The trace element significance of e-waste and its correlation to environmental toxicity is being looked into

  11. E-waste environmental contamination and harm to public health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Boezen, H Marike; Huo, Xia

    2015-06-01

    The adverse effects of electronic waste (e-waste) on the human body have stirred up concern in recent years. China is one of the countries that confront serious pollution and human exposure of e-waste, and the majority of the population is exposed to potentially hazardous substances that are derived from informal e-waste recycling processes. This study reviews recent reports on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g., inhalation and ingestion) and several toxicities of human (e.g., endocrine system, respiratory system, reproductive system, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and genetic toxicity). Pieces of evidence that associate e-waste exposure with human health effects in China are assessed. The role of toxic heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, and nickel) and organic pollutants (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), bisphenol A (BPA)) on human health is also briefly discussed.

  12. Can Small Countries Benefit from the E-waste Global Value Chain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meine Pieter, Dijk van, E-mail: mpvandijk@iss.nl [UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Erasmus University in Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-09

    E-waste is a term used to cover items of all types of electrical and electronic equipment and its parts that have been discarded by the owners as waste without the intention of re-use, because this equipment has ceased to be of any value to its owners. E-waste is one of the fastestgrowing waste streams globally. Since the Rio Summit Earth summit organized by the United Nations in 1992, the concept of sustainability extends to rendering basic services such as Solid Waste Management and dealing with e-waste. People are afraid of e-waste because of its possible negative effects on health and because it could pollute the environment. Indicators of unsustainable service provision concerninge-waste include irregular collection, open dumping, burning of solid and e-waste in open spaces. Often collection covers a small part of the country, cost recovery is limited or not existent, and one notes poor utilization of available resources with no or very limited reuse and recycling.

  13. State-of-the-art of recycling e-wastes by vacuum metallurgy separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-16

    In recent era, more and more electric and electronic equipment wastes (e-wastes) are generated that contain both toxic and valuable materials in them. Most studies focus on the extraction of valuable metals like Au, Ag from e-wastes. However, the recycling of metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and organics has not attracted enough attentions. Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) processes can reduce pollution significantly using vacuum technique. It can effectively recycle heavy metals and organics from e-wastes in an environmentally friendly way, which is beneficial for both preventing the heavy metal contaminations and the sustainable development of resources. VMS can be classified into several methods, such as vacuum evaporation, vacuum carbon reduction and vacuum pyrolysis. This paper respectively reviews the state-of-art of these methods applied to recycling heavy metals and organics from several kinds of e-wastes. The method principle, equipment used, separating process, optimized operating parameters and recycling mechanism of each case are illustrated in details. The perspectives on the further development of e-wastes recycling by VMS are also presented.

  14. Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) dismantling experience review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Reorganization and dismantling have been part of the CEA's facility renewal process for more than twenty years now. Many facilities have already been downrated or will be in the near future. The strategy developed so far is founded on acquired experience, on the basis of which it may be said that: nuclear facilities are reversible in full and strict compliance with safety and security rules; a field of competence has been developed that will help French industries to land on their feet when the time comes on the dismantling market; public opinion has been informed as to the soundness of the energy alternatives chosen

  15. Radiation protection aspects of dismantling and decommissioning of Uranium Mining of Andujar (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Ramis, M.T.; Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Martin Palomo, N.

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzes the radiation protection aspects during the decommissioning and dismantling of uranium mining in Andujar (Spain). The application during dismantling's mining, the transfer factor of natural radioactive isotopes and the application during the sterile movements are presented

  16. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other...

  17. Chooz A, First Pressurized Water Reactor to be Dismantled in France - 13445

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucau, Joseph [Westinghouse Electric Company, 43 rue de l' Industrie, Nivelles (Belgium); Mirabella, C. [Westinghouse Electric France, Orsay (France); Nilsson, Lennart [Westinghouse Electric Sweden, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Kreitman, Paul J. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Lake Bluff, IL 60048 (United States); Obert, Estelle [EDF - DPI - CIDEN, Lyon (France)

    2013-07-01

    Nine commercial nuclear power plants have been permanently shut down in France to date, of which the Chooz A plant underwent an extensive decommissioning and dismantling program. Chooz Nuclear Power Station is located in the municipality of Chooz, Ardennes region, in the northeast part of France. Chooz B1 and B2 are 1,500 megawatt electric (MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) currently in operation. Chooz A, a 305 MWe PWR implanted in two caves within a hill, began operations in 1967 and closed in 1991, and will now become the first PWR in France to be fully dismantled. EDF CIDEN (Engineering Center for Dismantling and Environment) has awarded Westinghouse a contract for the dismantling of its Chooz A reactor vessel (RV). The project began in January 2010. Westinghouse is leading the project in a consortium with Nuvia France. The project scope includes overall project management, conditioning of the reactor vessel (RV) head, RV and RV internals segmentation, reactor nozzle cutting for lifting the RV out of the pit and seal it afterwards, dismantling of the RV thermal insulation, ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) forecast to ensure acceptable doses for the personnel, complementary vacuum cleaner to catch the chips during the segmentation work, needs and facilities, waste characterization and packaging, civil work modifications, licensing documentation. The RV and RV internals will be segmented based on the mechanical cutting technology that Westinghouse applied successfully for more than 13 years. The segmentation activities cover the cutting and packaging plan, tooling design and qualification, personnel training and site implementation. Since Chooz A is located inside two caves, the project will involve waste transportation from the reactor cave through long galleries to the waste buffer area. The project will end after the entire dismantling work is completed, and the waste storage is outside the caves and ready to be shipped either to the ANDRA (French

  18. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  19. Topical Session on the Decommissioning and Dismantling Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Set up by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), the WPDD brings together senior representatives of national organisations who have a broad overview of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) issues through their work as regulators, implementers, R and D experts or policy makers. These include representatives from regulatory authorities, industrial decommissioners from the NEA Cooperative Programme on Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information on Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD), and cross-representation from the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and the RWMC. The EC is a member of the WPDD and the IAEA also participates. This ensures co-ordination amongst activities in these international programmes. Participation from civil society organisations is considered on a case by case basis, and has already taken place through the active involvement of the Group of Municipalities with Nuclear Installations at the first meeting of the WPDD At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the safety case. The topical session was meant to provide an exchange of information and experience on the following issues: What topics should be included in a safety case? Of what should it consist? Is there sufficient and complete guidance nationally and internationally? How do practices differ internationally? Main boundary condition to this session was that it would deal with plants where spent fuel has been removed. Also the topical sessions was kept at a level that makes the most of the varied constituency of the WPDD. Namely, interface issues are important, and issue-identification and discussion was the immediate goal. There was less interest in examining areas where variability amongst national

  20. Decontamination and dismantlement of the old hot laundry, CFA-669. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Perry, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) of the old hot laundry, located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Central Facilities Area (CFA). The report describes the site before and after D ampersand D, processes used, cost and duration, and waste volume generated. In addition, lessons learned are presented. Pre-D ampersand D characterization indicated gross alpha concentrations in the building ranged from 6 to 310 pCi/g and gross beta measurements from 6 to 15,000 pCi/g. Gamma spectrum analysis identified cobalt-60, cesium-137, antimony-125, europium-152, europium-154, and niobium-94

  1. Nuclear and non-nuclear safety aspects in nuclear facilities dismantling. The example of a PWR pilot decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Deboodt, P.; Dadoumont, J.; Valenduc, P.; Denissen, L.

    2002-01-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities, and in particular of nuclear power plants, involves new challenges for the nuclear industry. Although the dismantling of various activated and contaminated components is nowadays considered as almost industrial practice, the safety aspects of decommissioning bring some specific features which are not always taken into account in the operation of the plants. Moreover, most of the plants and facilities currently decommissioned are rather old and were never foreseen to be decommissioned. The operations involved in dismantling and decontamination, often imply new or unforeseen situations. On the nuclear, or radiological side, the radioprotection optimisation of the operations involved often requires to model the environment and to analyse different scenarios to tackle the operation. Recent 3-D software (like the Visiplan software) allowing representation of the actual environment and the influence of the various sources present, is really needed to be able to minimise the radiological impact on the operators. The risk of contamination spread, by opening loops and components or by the dismantling process itself, is also an important aspect of the radiological protection study. Nevertheless, the radiological aspects of the safety approach are not the only ones to be dealt with when decommissioning nuclear facilities. Indeed, classical industrial safety aspects are also important: the dismantling can bring handling and transporting risk (heavy loads, difficult ways, uneasy access, etc.) but also the handling of toxic or hazardous materials. For instance, the removal of asbestos in contaminated areas can lead to additional hazard; the presence of alkali metals (like Na or NaK), of toxic metals (like e.g. Beryllium) or of corrosive fluids (acid,...) have to be tackled often in unstructured environment, and sometimes with limited knowledge of the actual situation. This leads to approach the operations following the ASARA principle (As

  2. The further development and evaluation of an automatic dismantler of short staple ring-spun yarns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fassihi, A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Information System (AFIS) single fiber length tests, the fibers from automatically dismantled ring-spun cotton yarns are very similar in their properties to those dismantled by hand (manually). It was also found that, at a speed of 2 m/min, the yarn dismantler...

  3. Provisions for the dismantling of nuclear facilities are sufficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union has assessed the provisions made by the nuclear plant operators to face the future costs of dismantling. The United-Kingdom and the Netherlands are the single E.U. members to have provisions covering the whole of the expenses (respectively 100% and 94%). The figure for France is very low 33% (far below the European average of 56%). According to French authorities the provisions for the dismantling of nuclear facilities are strictly defined by law: they must be made progressively till the decommissioning and they must be composed by dedicated assets. The costs of the dismantling is regularly re-assessed for taking into account technological progress and changes in regulation. Furthermore the French system limits the period in which provisions are made to the initial operating life of the plant: mostly 40 years which is a prudent measure. In other E.U. members like Germany, the provisions are not covered by dedicated assets which might endanger the capacity of the operator to face the future costs. The progressiveness of the French systems of provision-making is fair because the dismantling costs are spread equally over the entire operating period of the facility. (A.C.)

  4. Advanced robotic remote handling system for reactor dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Usui, Hozumi; Fujii, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    An advanced robotic remote handling system equipped with a multi-functional amphibious manipulator has been developed and used to dismantle a portion of radioactive reactor internals of an experimental boiling water reactor in the program of reactor decommissioning technology development carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. (author)

  5. Dismantling Racial and Hegemonic Boundaries for an Inclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... expressed experiences of hostile institutional cultures, untransformed curricula that are largely based on European traditions and norms and a general atmosphere that is tilted towards white supremacy. The article also gives specifi c attention to the formation of a unifying organisational culture, requisite for dismantling

  6. Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC, a subsidiary of Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., for alleged violations at its facilities at 8012 East Truman Rd., Kansas C

  7. Dismantling of JPDR begins: to demonstrate advanced technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    The first dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR, BWR, 90 MWt, 12.5 MWe) began on December 4, 1986, claiming the attention of nuclear interests in Japan and overseas. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute undertook the project as the second phase of the six year program for dismantling the JPDR at the Tokai Research Establishment. It is the demonstration of the technology developed in the first phase of the program from 1981 to 1986, aiming at establishing a total system for dismantling commercial nuclear power plants in the furture. At the ceremony for the beginning of dismantling held on December 4 at the site, a special switch was operated to fire a gas burner, and cutting of the upper head of the reactor pressure vessel on the service floor of the reactor building began. The long term program on the development and utilization of nuclear energy in 1982 decided the basic policy on reactor decommissioning. Under this policy, in July, 1984, the nuclear subcommittee of the Advisory Committee for Energy set up the guideline for standardized decommissioning suitable to the actual situation in Japan. The schedule of the program, the development of eight fundamental techniques, disassembling techniques, decontamination, measurement and robotics are described. (Kako, I.).

  8. Technicians dismantle the inner section of L3

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The technicians are dismantling the forward tracking chamber located at the heart of the L3 detector. This formed part of the hadronic calorimeter, which is used for measuring particle energies. L3 was an experiment at the LEP collider that ran from 1989 to 2000.

  9. Dismantling the silicon microstrip detector on L3

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The silicon microstrip detector is located at the heart of the detector and must be kept cool to prevent thermal noise. The work shown here is the removal of the cooling system. L3 was dismantled as part of the closure of the entire LEP accelerator in 2000 to make way for the new LHC.

  10. Decontamination and dismantling of large plutonium-contamined glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draulans, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work performed in the frame of two C.E.C. - Contracts FI1D-002400-B Decommissioning of very large glove boxes and FI1D-0058 Decommissioning of a complex glove box structure to be dismounted partially on place. Detailed information is given about each glove box. The selection of the solution Transportation of the glove boxes to a specialized dismantling plant is justified. The necessary contacts inside the BELGONUCLEAIRE MOX plant and between the latter and other organizations are explained. The problems of manipulating large gloves are listed and the retained solution of building a so called Stiffening frame around each glove box is described. Furthermore information is given concerning required operators time for cleaning, manipulating, packing and dismantling together with received doses and quantities of waste produced. Concerning the glove box unit partially to be dismounted on place, detailed information is given about the way the glove boxes have been treated prior to this partial dismantling on place and about the way this partial dismantling has been performed. From these results one can conclude that such a delicate task can be performed without major difficulties. Finally information is given of the decontamination test of a highly Pu contaminated glove box with freon with rather poor results and of the preliminary CO 2 blasting tests on non active samples

  11. Decommissioning, Dismantling and Disarming: a Unique Information Showroom Inside the G2 Reactor at Marcoule Centre (France) - 12068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volant, Emmanuelle [CEA DAM, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Garnier, Cedric [CEA DEN, Marcoule (France)

    2012-07-01

    a future national storage facility for irradiated graphite waste. Then, the paper recalls communication events and official visits hosted in Pierrelatte and Marcoule, following a formal invitation from the French President Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy. These visits, which were organized in order to illustrate the irreversibility of these dismantling operations, allowed visitors to discovers places that used to be former highly classified areas. Three official visits were organized in 2008 and 2009 for representatives of the Conference on Disarmament Member States, non-governmental experts and journalists. All participants visited the dismantled uranium enrichment plant in Pierrelatte, the G2 reactor and the UP1 plant in Marcoule. The visits were successful and visitors were especially impressed by the G2 reactor and its massive industrial architecture, symbolic of the early ages of nuclear history. In late 2010, this feedback convinced CEA Military Application Directorate (CEA DAM) that a permanent showroom could be installed inside the reactor, making it possible to preserve the cultural value of this historical landmark, and to continue its ongoing effort of communication and outreach. The paper explains the design of this concept: the museography project with a professional designer, the communication material conception and the features of such an original place. (authors)

  12. Dismantling and decommissioning of Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    With the start of the dismantling works at the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant now in sight, this is an appropriate moment to look back and consider recent history. The first time that the issue of nuclear power plant dismantling was dealt with was in 1975, at a conference in Paris entitled Nuclear Energy Maturity. Up until then the entire question had been one of design, construction and operation, but since that moment and it has been quite a while since that conference dismantling has begun to be seen as just another activity in the nuclear cycle, a final activity that will sooner or later affect all the facilities, an activity different from its predecessors and with the ultimate objective of restoring the sites for whatever use might be determined. During the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of nuclear power plants was widespread across the entire world. It was the baby boom of nuclear energy and now, forty or fifty years later, we are seeing the arrival of the end of the service lifetime of these plants and are faced with the corresponding general process of dismantling these installations. The dismantling of nuclear power plants has ceased to be an emerging issue and is now consolidated as a regular activity in the nuclear industry, albeit an activity that lacks adequate financing or specific regulation in certain countries. Fortunately this is not the case in Spain, since economic provisions have been planned and the regulatory framework developed. In view of the above, the dismantling of the nuclear power plants is an industrial activity involving specific technologies that implies new professional and business opportunities that should be absorbed and seized by society. In Spain the path followed in this direction has been a long one, as is underlined by the experiences of dismantling the Argos (Barcelona, 1998- 2004) and Arbi (Bilbao, 2002-2005) research reactors, the Andujar Uranium Mill (Jaen, 1991-1995), the Vandellos I nuclear power plant

  13. Waste management concept during dismantling of KKS NPP in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacmeister, Georg U.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives an overview on the waste management of NPP Stade during dismantling. The general idea is to reduce the radioactive waste to about three percentage of the complete dismantling mass. The NPP Stade in Germany was shut down in November 2003. After a transient phase the license for dismantling was given in 2005. In the following 8 years about 20.000 tones of steel and 120.000 tones of concrete will be put out by the dismantling. The yearly output of steel will by about 100 times higher than during the running time of the NNP. For this a new processes for waste management had to be installed. The waste management during dismantling focus on free release (about 97%). Beside some minor exception, the rest is deemed to be radioactive waste. This will be collected in 1000 packages, which are ready to be sent to a final storage. As until now in Germany no final storage is open (and sending of radioactive waste to another country is forbidden), the NNP Stade build an intermediate storage, where the packages may by saved for longest 40 years. The clearance procedure in Germany is regulated in the radiation protection ordinances. It is based on a nuclide specific set of clearance levels. To fulfil these demands the NNP Stade chose a semi automated system for characterization and documentation, which we develop in accordance to our release license. It guaranties a most accurate determination of the relevant nuclides for a set of dismantling material (some 10 to 100 tones). After the characterization only the gamma-activity of the material is measured in boxes of about 500 kg. A short comparison of the chosen procedure with other options, possible in Germany will be given and the decision from the collaboration with the NPP in Barsebaeck, Sweden, will be withdrawn. Beside the free release different options are used for waste management, like incineration, sending to landfill or reuse in nuclear industry. The waste management of the NNP Stade take

  14. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y. [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  15. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling; Lau, Andy T.Y.; Xu, Xijin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  16. Evaluating the treatment of E-waste a case study of discarded refrigerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jian-jun; WEN Xue-feng; ZHAO Yue-min

    2008-01-01

    Disassembly and recycling of E-waste creates a series of environmental problems. The selection of a technologically reliable, environmentally friendly, economically affordable and socially acceptable recycling technology for E-waste is a significant question. This study establishes a Monte-Carlo mathematical model of cost minimization, given the constraints of environmentally sound handling of the e-waste, in the context of Crystal Ball risk assessment and evaluation software. By following the streams of the different treatment processes, which consist of various technologies including disassembly, recycling and disposal, the econom-ics of various possibilities were identified and the optimal recycling technology proposed. The key factors of the proposed scenarios were determined by using sensitivity analysis. The results of this study show that, for discarded refrigerators, the operating life span plays the key role. The model supports maintenance and resale of the short lived refrigerators. For the longer lived refrigerators material recycling is recommended by the model. Sensitivity analysis shows that purchase cost, plastic sale price, condenser sale price and disassembly costs are the main effects. This study provides a significant technical support for policy making in E-waste management.

  17. Generation of and control measures for, e-waste in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Shanshan; Lau Kayan; Zhang Chan

    2011-01-01

    While accurately estimating electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) generation is important for building appropriate infrastructure for its collection and recycling, making reliable estimates of this kind is difficult in Hong Kong owing to the fact that neither accurate trade statistics nor sales data of relevant products are available. In view of this, data of e-products consumption at household level was collected by a tailor-made questionnaire survey from the public for obtaining a reasonable e-waste generation estimate. It was estimated that on average no more than 80,443 tonnes (11.5 kg/capita) of waste is generated from non-plasma and non-liquid crystal display televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and personal computers each year by Hong Kong households. However, not more than 17% of this is disposed as waste despite a producer responsibility scheme (PRS) not being in place because of the existence of a vibrant e-waste trading sector. The form of PRS control that can possibly win most public support is one that would involve the current e-waste traders as a major party in providing the reverse logistics with a visible recycling charge levied at the point of importation. This reverse logistic service should be convenient, reliable and highly accessible to the consumers.

  18. Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables near an e-waste processing site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunling; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Fangbai; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2011-02-15

    Environmental pollution due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities has been reported in a number of locations of China. In the present study, metal pollution to the surrounding environment from a primitive e-waste processing facility was investigated. Soils at sites where e-waste is burned in the open air, those of surrounding paddy fields and vegetable gardens, as well as common vegetable samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that the soils of former incineration sites had the highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn with mean values of 17.1, 11,140, 4500, and 3690 mg kg(-1), respectively. The soils of nearby paddy fields and vegetable gardens also had relatively high concentrations of Cd and Cu. In the edible tissues of vegetables, the concentrations of Cd and Pb in most samples exceeded the maximum level permitted for food in China. Sequential leaching tests revealed that the Cu, Pb, and Zn were predominantly associated with the residual fraction, followed by the carbonate/specifically adsorbed phases with the exception of Cd, which was mainly in the extractable form in paddy fields and vegetable soils. The data showed that uncontrolled e-waste processing operations caused serious pollution to local soils and vegetables. The cleaning up of former incineration sites should be a priority in any future remediation program. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of e-waste: an inventory from households and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of e-waste: an inventory from households and the recycling sector in south eastern Nigeria. ... This proffers stakeholders, more especially the regulatory agencies, with a guide in predicting seasonally generated WEEE as well as appropriate approaches adopted as sustainable management strategies.

  20. Study of Material Flow of End-of-Life Computer Equipment (e-wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a material flow model for the analysis of e-waste generation from computer equipment in Kaduna and Abuja in Nigeria has been developed and compared with that of Lagos which has been studied earlier. Data used to develop the models are the sales data from major distributors of electronics in the study ...

  1. Safe dismantling of the SVAFO research reactors R2 and R2-0 in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARNOLD, Hans-Uwe; BROY, Yvonne; Dirk Schneider

    2017-01-01

    The R2 and R2-0 reactors were part of the Swedish government's research program on nuclear power from the early 1960's. Both reactors were shut down in 2005 following a decision by former operator Studsvik Nuclear AB. The decommissioning of the R2 and R2-0 reactors is divided into three phases. The first phase - awarded to AREVA - involved dismantling of the reactors and associated systems in the reactor pool, treatment of the disassembled components as well as draining, cleaning and emptying the pool. In the second phase, the pool structure itself will be dismantled, while removal of remaining reactor systems, treatment and disposal of materials and clean-up will be carried out in the third stage. The entire work is planned to be completed before the end of this decade. The paper describes the several steps of phase 1 - starting with the team building, followed by the dismantling operations and covers challenges encountered and lessons learned as well. The reactors consist of 5.400 kg aluminum, 6.000 kg stainless steel restraint structures as well as, connection elements of the mostly flanged components (1.000 kg). The most demanding - from a radiological point of view - was the R2-0 reactor that was limited to ∼ 1 m"3 construction volumes but with an extremely heterogeneous activation profile. Based on the calculated radiological entrance data and later sampling, nuclide vectors for both reactors depending on the real placement of the single component and on the material (aluminum and stainless steel) were created. Finally, for the highest activated component from R2 reactor, 85 Sv/h were measured. The dismantling principles - adopted on a safety point of view - were the following: The always protected base area of the ponds served as a flexible buffer area for waste components and packaging. Specific protections were also installed on the walls to protect them from mechanical stress which may occur during dismantling work. A specific work platform was

  2. Dismantling techniques for plutonium-contaminated gloveboxes: experience from first year of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, R.; Faber, P.

    2003-01-01

    At the mixed-oxide (MOX) processing facility formerly operated by ALKEM GmbH in Hanau, Germany - which was taken over to Siemens in 1988 and renamed Siemens' Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant, MOX facility - around 8500 kg of plutonium were processed to make MOX fuel rods and fuel assemblies since production started in 1965. After shutdown of the facility by the authorities in mid-1991 for political reasons, the remaining nuclear fuel materials were processed during the subsequent ''cleanout'' phase starting in 1997 into rods and assemblies suitable for long-term storage. The last step in cleanout consisted of ''flushing'' the production equipment with depleted uranium and thoroughly cleaning the gloveboxes. During cleanout around 700 kg of plutonium were processed in the form of mixed oxides. The cleanout phase including the subsequent cleaning and flushing operations ended on schedule in September 2001 without any significant problems. Starting in mid-1999, the various glovebox dismantling techniques were tested using uncontaminated components while cleanout was still in progress and then, once these trials had been successfully completed, further qualified through use on actual components. The pilot-phase trials required four separate licenses under Section 7, Subsection (3) of the German Atomic Energy Act. Thanks to detailed advance planning and experience from the pilot trials the individual dismantling steps could be described in sufficient detail for the highly complex German licensing procedure. The first partial license for decommissioning the MOX facility under Sec. 7, Subsec. (3) of the Atomic Energy Act was issued on May 28, 2001. It mainly covers dismantling of the interior equipment inside the gloveboxes a well as the gloveboxes themselves. Actual decommissioning work inside the former production areas of the MOX facility started on a large scale in early September 2001. (orig.)

  3. Data analysis on work activities in dismantling of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Sukegawa, Takenori; Yanagihara, Satoshi

    1998-03-01

    The safe dismantling of a retired nuclear power plant was demonstrated by completion of dismantling activities for the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR), March, 1996, which had been conducted since 1986. This project was a flag ship project for dismantling of nuclear power plants in Japan, aiming at demonstrating an applicability of developed dismantling techniques in actual dismantling work, developing database on work activities as well as dismantling of components and structures. Various data on dismantling activities were therefore systematically collected and these were accumulated on computer files to build the decommissioning database; dismantling activities were characterized by analyzing the data. The data analysis resulted in producing general forms such as unit activity factors, for example, manpower need per unit weight of component to be dismantled, and simple arithmetic forms for forecasting of project management data to be applied to planning another dismantling project through the evaluation for general use of the analyzed data. The results of data analysis could be usefully applied to planning of future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan. This report describes the data collection and analysis on the JPDR dismantling activities. (author)

  4. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring of organic micropollutants in Ghana by combination of pellet watch with sediment analysis: e-waste as a source of PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Junki; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Akita, Lailah Gifty; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-09-15

    Plastic resin pellets collected at 11 beaches covering the whole Ghanaian coastline were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB concentrations (∑13 congeners) were higher in Accra, capital city, and Tema (39-69 ng/g-pellets) than those in rural coastal towns (1-15 ng/g-pellets) which are close to global background, indicating local inputs of PCBs. River sediments were also analyzed for PCBs together with molecular markers. Sedimentary PCBs concentrations were highest at a site (AR02) downstream of an electronic waste (e-waste) scrapyard. At the site (AR02), concentration of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), a marker of municipal wastewater, was lower than another site (AR03) which is located at the downstream of downtown Accra. This result suggests that PCBs are introduced more to the river from the e-waste site than from activities in downtown Accra. PAHs concentrations were relatively higher in urban areas with strong petrogenic signature. Abundance of triphenylbenzenes suggested plastic combustion near e-waste scrapyard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proposed radiation hardened mobile vehicle for Chernobyl dismantlement and nuclear accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, M.S.; Holliday, M.A.; Karpachov, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers are developing a radiation hardened, Telerobotic Dismantling System (TDS) to remediate the Chernobyl facility. To withstand the severe radiation fields, the robotic system, will rely on electrical motors, actuators, and relays proven in the Chernobyl power station. Due to its dust suppression characteristics and ability to cut arbitrary materials the authors propose using a water knife as the principle tool to slice up the large fuel containing masses. The front end of the robot will use a minimum number of moving parts by locating most of the susceptible and bulky components outside the work area. Hardened and shielded video cameras will be designed for remote control and viewing of the robotic functions. Operators will supervise and control robot movements based on feedback from a suite of sensory systems that would include vision systems, radiation detection and measurement systems and force reflection systems. A gripper will be instrumented with a variety of sensors (e.g. force, torque, or tactile), allowing varying debris surface properties to be grasped. The gripper will allow the operator to manipulate and segregate debris items without entering the radiologically and physically dangerous dismantlement operations area. The robots will initially size reduce the FCM's to reduce the primary sources of the airborne radionuclides. The robot will then remove the high level waste for packaging or decontamination, and storage nearby

  7. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries. - We present a baseline study on e-waste in Pakistan which could guide or facilitate more detailed studies in the future and ultimately lead to improve control strategies.

  8. Modelling the cooling and partial dismantling of the Febex in-situ test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Gens, A.; Guimaraes, L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many designs for radioactive waste disposal the space between the canister and the cavity surface is filled by an engineered barrier made up of compacted expansive clay. Engineered barrier and adjacent host rock will be submitted to the heating effect of the nuclear waste as well as to associated hydraulic and mechanical phenomena that interact in a complex way. In order to achieve a safe and robust repository design, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the processes that occur in the near field and their evolution over time. To this end, properly instrumented full scale in situ tests provide essential information. The in-situ test operated at full scale and under natural conditions at the underground laboratory managed by NAGRA (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) at the Grimsel test site in Switzerland. Two 4300 W heaters were placed in the axis of the horizontal drift in the natural rock (granite). The heaters were 4.54 m long and 0.90 m in diameter, and were intended to simulate the release of heat by nuclear waste. The space between the rock surface and the heaters was backfilled using blocks of compacted bentonite. The test area was sealed with a 2.7 m long concrete plug. The test was heavily instrumented, including 632 sensors that were installed in the clay barrier and in the rock with measurements of temperatures, relative humidity (equivalent to total suction), pore pressures, displacements, and stresses. The heaters were symmetrically placed in relation to the central section of the test. The power of the heaters was adjusted to maintain a 100 deg. C temperature at the interface between heaters and bentonite barrier. The test was run in this way for five years when one of the heaters was switched off and dismantled. Dismantling data provided extremely valuable information about the state of the barrier at the end of the experiment and a useful benchmark for

  9. Dismantling of civilian nuclear powered fleet technical support vessels. engineering solutions - 59386

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, Konstantin N.; Nizamutdinov, Rinat A.; Abramov, Andrey N.

    2012-01-01

    At the present time six nuclear technical support vessels are operated and maintained by Atomflot. Two of them (Volodarsky FTB (floating technical base) and Lepse FTB) were taken out of service for decommissioning and are stored afloat. One more vessel Lotta FTB should be decommissioned during next two years. The nuclear technological support ships carrying spent nuclear fuel (SNF), liquid and solid radioactive wastes (LRW and SRW) appear to be a possible radiation contamination of Murmansk region and Kola Bay because the Ship long-term storage afloat has the negative effect on hull's structures technical condition. As a result of this in the context of the Federal Program 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety' (2008-2015) NIPTB Onega OAO was engaged by state corporation Rosatom to develop the dismantling procedure for Volodarsky FTB and Lotta FTB. Before developing of nuclear technological support ships decommissioning projects the technical and economic assessment of decommissioning/dismantling was carried out. The following options were examined: - formation of module as one-piece Ship's hull for long-term storage at Saida Bay; - formation of separated modules for long-term storage at Saida Bay; - complete dismantling of hull's structures, systems and equipment with packing all generated SRW into certified long-term storage containers. This paper contains description of options, research procedure, comparative analysis of options of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) of nuclear technological support ships and its difference with dismantling of nuclear submarine. On the basis of the technical and economic assessment of FTB D and D options the least expensive on the first D and D stage and the least duration option is the option 1 (Formation of module as one-piece Ship's hull for long-term storage at Saida Bay). By the implementation of the given option there will be the need of large areas for modules storage at Saida Bay. It was not considered while working out

  10. Radiochemistry Lab Decommissioning and Dismantlement. AECL, Chalk River Labs, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally founded in the mid 1940's to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas under the Canadian Defense Department. In the mid 50's The Canadian government embarked on several research and development programs for the development of the Candu Reactor. AECL was initially built as a temporary site and is now faced with many redundant buildings. Prior to 2004 small amounts of Decommissioning work was in progress. Many reasons for deferring decommissioning activities were used with the predominant ones being: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantlement, 2. Development of a long-term solution for the management of radioactive wastes in Canada, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities shutdown that would require decommissioning funds and the absence of an approved funding strategy. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that is all inclusive of AECL's current and legacy liabilities. Canada does not have a long-term disposal site; therefore waste minimization becomes the driving factor behind decontamination for decommissioning before and during dismantlement. This decommissioning job was a great learning experience for decommissioning and the associated contractors who worked on this project. Throughout the life of the project there was a constant focus on waste minimization. This focus was constantly in conflict with regulatory compliance primarily with respect to fire regulations and protecting the facility along with adjacent facilities during the decommissioning activities. Discrepancies in historical documents forced the project to treat every space as a contaminated space until proven differently. Decommissioning and dismantlement within an operating site adds to the complexity of the tasks especially when it is being conducted in the heart of the plant. This project was very successful with no lost time accidents in over one hundred

  11. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid

  12. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  13. Evolution of radiation protection of overall decommissioning and Dismantling of a Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M. T.; Ondaro, M.; Irun, I.; Just, J.

    2000-01-01

    From the point of view of Radiological Protection, the overall Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) Plan of a Nuclear Power Plant cannot be considered in isolation without considering the evolution of the radiological characteristics of the installation and the site itself from previous, during and final states. This experience of D and D is the first in Spain and in other European countries due to several aspects: 1) the reference reactor technology, 2) total grass power, and 3) management of a great amount of materials to be released. Three decommissioning alternatives were studied: Indefinite maintenance in shutdown state, Stage 1. Stage 2 for the defuelled reactor vessel and contents, with decontamination of most of the rest of the site. Immediate dismantling to Stage 3. Stage 2 was the alternative selected with the release of 80% of the site, keeping the remaining 20% of the site as a regulated area, housing the reactor vessel in a new structure and removing the radioactive waste. The above, along with the fact that this is a specific type of natural uranium-graphite-gas plant (NUGG) and that ownership of the facility has been transferred for dismantling (from HIFRENSA to ENRESA), implies a series of preliminary considerations that, for the purposes of this article, are compiled in the following aspects: a) Preliminary phase prior to transfer, b) Preparatory phase, and c) Dismantling phase. This paper describes aspects under the D and D experiences at CN-V1 NPP, now in progress, from the point of view of the radiological aspects in relation with the continuous updating of the source term. Operative Radiological nuclide vectors, applicable in the Radiation Protection tasks, are also commented to prevent and evaluate several risks during the execution of the works. Finally, there is a description of the results obtained from the work performed to decay the three actual nuclide vectors, to evaluate and obtain activity calculations for the release of the

  14. Long range manipulator development and experiments with dismantling tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.

    1993-01-01

    An existing handling system (EMIR) was used as a carrier system for various tools for concrete dismantling and radiation protection monitoring. It combined the advantages of long reach and high payload with highly dexterous kinematics. This system was enhanced mechanically to allow the use of different tools. Tool attachment devices for automatic tool exchange were investigated as well as interfaces (electric, hydraulic, compressed air, cooling water and signals). The control system was improved with regard to accuracy and sensor data processing. Programmable logic controller functions for tool control were incorporated. A free field mockup of the EMIR was build that allowed close simulation of dismantling scenarios without radioactive inventory. Aged concrete was provided for the integration tests. The development scheduled included the basic concept investigation; the development of tools and sensors; the EMIR hardware enhancement including a tool exchange; the adaption of tools and mockup and the final evaluation of the system during experiments

  15. Liver Damage Risk Assessment Study in Workers Occupationally Exposed to E-waste in Benin City, South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaretin God Igaro Igaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    Large volumes of mostly irreparable electronic waste (e-waste are shipped to Africa on a monthly basis, of which Nigeria receives the largest share. E-waste management practices in Nigeria have remained completely primitive until date; and e-waste workers have little or no occupational safety knowledge and devices. The thousands of chemicals in e-waste have been reported to be toxic to human health in any degree of exposure. The present study has assessed the risk of liver damage in workers occupationally exposed to e-waste in Benin City, South-south Nigeria in 2014. Serum activities of liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]; and levels albumin (ALB, total bilirubin (T/Bil and conjugated bilirubin (C/Bil were determined using standard colorimetric methods. Serum Alpha fetoprotein (AFP was determined using ELISA in Nigerian e-waste workers (n=63 and in age-matched unexposed participants (n=41 in Benin City. The results showed significantly raised activities of enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT in the e-waste group compared with the unexposed participants. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALB, T/Bil and C/Bil between exposed and unexposed participants. AFP levels in e-waste workers (3.56 ± 0.34 ng/mL were significantly different compared with the unexposed group (2.14 ± 0.80 ng/mL (P< 0.045. The significantly elevated cancer risk biomarker (AFP and the enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage observed in the Nigerian e-waste workers studied may be associated with occupational exposure to known carcinogens and hepatotoxic metals in e-waste

  16. Process Concepts for Semi-automatic Dismantling of LCD Televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...

  17. Decontamination and dismantlement of Plant 7 at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Borgman, T.; Zebick, B.

    1994-01-01

    Decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) tasks have been successfully completed on Plant 7 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The seven story facility was radiologically, chemically, and biologically contaminated. The work involved the D ampersand D work beginning with safe shutdown and gross decontamination, and ended with removal of the structural steel. A series of lessons learned were gained which include use of explosives, bidding tactics, safe shutdown, building decontamination and lockdown, use of seam climbers, etc

  18. Dismantling of the rooms 82 to 100 at Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiol, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dismantling of the rooms 82 to 100 at Marcoule is up to now, the most important decommissioning operation. The COGEMA Marcoule had the responsibility of studying and organizing the operation. On the works site the work was performed by STMI. The construction of a complete nuclear waste processing system was necessary, to protect against Pu contamination. Moreover, the efficiency of the work, was improved by the development and use of large special cutting tools [fr

  19. Contaminated Metal Components in Dismantling by Hot Cutting Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, Franco G.; Conforti, Gianmario; Rogante, Massimo; Giostri, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    During the preparatory dismantling activities of Caorso's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), an experimental campaign using plasma and oxyacetylene metal cutting processes has been performed and applied to plates and tubes exposed to the coolant steam of the reactor. The plant (Boiling Water Reactor, 870 MWe) was designed and built in the 70's, and it was fully operating by 1981 to 1986 being shut down after 1987 Italy's poll that abrogated nuclear power based on U235 fission. The campaign concerns no activated materials, even if the analyses have been performed of by use contaminated components under the free release level, not yet taking into account radioactivity. In this paper, the parameters related to inhalable aerosol, solid and volatile residuals production have been, studied during hot processes which applies the same characteristics of the cutting in field for the dismantling programs of Caorso NPP. The technical parameters such as cutting time and cutting rate vs. pipe diameter/thickness/schedule or plate thickness for ferritic alloys and the emissions composition coming from the sectioning are also reported. The results underline the sort of trouble that can emerge in the cutting processes, in particular focusing on the effects comparison between the two cutting processes and the chemical composition of powders captured by filtering the gaseous emission. Some preliminary considerations on methodology to be used during the dismantling have been presented. (authors)

  20. Dismantling of the 50 MW steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Onojima, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Isozaki, T.; Gunji, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have been dismantling the 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility (50MWSGTF). The objectives of the dismantling are reuse of sodium components to a planned large scale thermal hydraulics sodium test facility and the material examination of component that have been operated for long time in sodium. The facility consisted of primary sodium loop with sodium heater by gas burner as heat source instead of reactor, secondary sodium loop with auxiliary cooling system (ACS) and water/steam system with steam temperature and pressure reducer instead of turbine. It simulated the 1 loop of the Monju cooling system. The rated power of the facility was 50MWt and it was about 1/5 of the Monju power plant. Several sodium removal methods are applied. As for the components to be dismantled such as piping, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), air cooled heat exchangers (AC), sodium is removed by steam with nitrogen gas in the air or sodium is burned in the air. As for steam generators which material tests are planned, sodium is removed by steam injection with nitrogen gas to the steam generator. The steam generator vessel is filled with nitrogen and no air in the steam generator during sodium removal. As for sodium pumps, pump internal structure is pulled out from the casing and installed into the tank. After the installation, sodium is removed by the same method of steam generator. As for relatively small reuse components such as sodium valves, electromagnet flow meters (EMFs) etc., sodium is removed by alcohol process. (author)

  1. Dismantlement and destruction of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    The safe destruction and dismantling of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons is of fundamental importance to the security of all countries represented in this volume. Expertise in the field is not confined to one country or organisation: all can benefit from each other. There is an ever present danger of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: approximately two dozen countries have ongoing programmes to develop or acquire such weapons, and many are also gaining the capability to build air-surface delivery systems. But much can be done to prevent proliferation by reducing leakage of materials and know-how and by solving the problems of the destruction of surplus weapons systems, which has now come to be a key issue. In 13 sessions of the workshop attention was paid to (1) Dismantlement and Destruction of Chemical, Nuclear and Conventional Weapons; (2) Status of Implementation of Arms Control Treaties and Voluntary Commitments; (3) National Perspectives on Cooperation in Disarmament; (4) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Chemical Weapons; (5) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Nuclear Weapons; (6) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Conventional Weapons. Session; (7) Experience with Currently Employed Chemical Destruction Technologies; (8) Alternative Chemical Destruction Technologies; (9) Deactivation, Dismantlement and Destruction of Delivery Systems and Infrastructure for Nuclear Weapons; (10) Storage, Safeguarding and Disposition of Fissile Materials; (11) Technologies for Conversion and Civil Use of Demilitarized Materials; (12) International Organizations; and (13) Environmental Challenges Posed by Chemical and Nuclear Disarmament

  2. A Study on Dismantling and Verifying North Korea's Nuclear Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jae; Cheon, Seong Whun

    2007-10-01

    North Korea's nuclear weapon development is a serious threat to South Korea's national security and can become a trigger to change the status quo in the Korean peninsula. Having prevailed security dynamics in Northeast Asia last 20 years, the North Korea's nuclear problem faced a key turning point when Pyongyang tested its first nuclear weapon on October 9, 2006. Despite this test, however, diplomatic efforts to resolve the nuclear issue were never given up, resulting in a so-called, initial agreement signed at the Six-Party Talks in February 2007. With the Six-Party Talks being held more than four years, the six countries have had sufficient time to discuss principal and political matters regarding the dismantlement of North Korea's nuclear weapons. Under the circumstances, this report is going to study practical and detail issues related with dismantling the North's nuclear weapons. Specifically, in light of historical experiences, the report will investigate possible problems to be faced in the course of dismantlement and propose policy measures to overcome these problems

  3. Dismantling and decontamination of Piver prototype vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Roudil, S.; Thomas, F.

    1991-01-01

    The PIVER prototype was targeted for dismantling in order to install a new pilot facility for the french continuous vitrification process. Most of the work involved the vitrification cell containing the process equipments, which had to be cleared out and thoroughly decontaminated; this implied disassembling, cutting up, conditioning and removing all the equipment installed in the cell. Remote manipulation, handling and cutting devices were used and some prior modifications were implemented in the cell environment. The dismantling procedure was conducted under a detailed programme defining the methodology for each operation. After equipment items and active zones were identified, the waste materials were removed, and several liquid decontamination operations were implemented. Removed activity, levels of irradiation in the cell and doses integrated by personnel were monitored to control progress and to adapt procedures to the conditions encountered. At the end of December 1989, the PIVER cleanup programme was at 87% complete and the total activity removed was 2.11 X 10 14 Bq (5712 Ci). The objective now is to obtain suitable working conditions in order to allow operators to enter the cell to remove items that are inaccessible or which cannot be dismantled by remote manipulators and to complete the decontamination procedure

  4. Has the question of e-waste opened a Pandora's box? An overview of unpredictable issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Gravel, Sabrina; Ceballos, Diana; Flynn, Michael A; Zayed, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box. Thus, a review of prevailing e-waste management practices reveals complex and often intertwined gaps, issues and challenges. These include the absence of any consistent definition of e-waste to date, a prevalent toxic potential still involving already banned or restricted hazardous components such as heavy metals and persistent and bioaccumulative organic compounds, a relentless growth in e-waste volume fueled by planned obsolescence and unsustainable consumption, problematic e-recycling processes, a fragile formal e-recycling sector, sustained and more harmful informal e-recycling practices, and more convoluted and unpredictable patterns of illegal e-waste trade. A close examination of the e-waste legacy contamination reveals critical human health concerns, including significant occupational exposure during both formal and informal e-recycling, and persistent environmental contamination, particularly in some developing countries. However, newly detected e-waste contaminants as well as unexpected sources and environmental fates of contaminants are among the emerging issues that raise concerns. Moreover, scientific knowledge gaps remain regarding the complexity and magnitude of the e-waste legacy contamination, specifically, a comprehensive characterization of e-waste contaminants, information on the scale of legacy contamination in developing countries and on the potential environmental damage in developed countries, and a stronger body

  5. Development of decommissioning engineering support system for fugen. Development of support system during actual dismantlement works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masanori Izumi; Yukihiro Iguchi; Yoshiki Kannehira

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Reactor, Fugen Nuclear Power Station was permanently shut down in March 2003, and is now preparing for decommissioning. We have been developing Decommissioning Engineering Support System (DEXUS) aimed at planning optimal dismantlement process and carrying out dismantlement work safely and precisely. DEXUS consists of 'decommissioning planning support system' and 'dismantling support system'. The dismantling support system is developed aiming at using during actual dismantling work. It consists of three subsystems such as 'Worksite Visualization System', 'Dismantling Data Collection System' and 'Generated Waste Management System'. 'Worksite Visualization System' is a support system designed to provide the necessary information to workers during actual dismantlement works. And this system adopts AR (Augmented Reality) technology, overlapping calculation information into real world. 'Dismantling Data Collection System' is to collect necessary data for improving accuracy of decommissioning planning by evaluating work content and worker equipage, work time for dismantlement works. 'Generated Waste Management system' is a system recording necessary information by attaching the barcode to dismantled wastes or the containers. We can get the information of generated waste by recording generation place, generated time, treatment method and the contents. These subsystems enable to carry out reasonable and safe decommissioning of Fugen. In addition, we expect that those systems will be used for decommissioning of other nuclear facilities in the future. (authors)

  6. Environmental impact of ICT and implications for e-waste management in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina TARTIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Information and communications technology (ICT, as core of the digital economy, presents contradictory effects on the environment. The paper presents the main perspectives of environmental impact of ICT, especially in relation with waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, e-waste, as they result from the approaches found in literature and the reports of official international and national bodies. The analysis of impact on environment and e-waste is done on two levels: the impact of ICT sectors and the impact of electronic applications (including the electronic commerce. The article ends with customizing the characteristics of the digital economy in Romania. Particular attention is paid to WEEE generated from the development of the digital economy and the significant challenges which the systems of collection, treatment and disposal must meet the environmental requirements.

  7. E-Waste Supply Chain in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Cruz-Sotelo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste is a widespread environmental problem. From all waste streams, e-waste is registering one of the largest growing rates (between 3% and 5%. In Mexico, the e-waste recovery system comprises a mix of formal and informal sectors not well known to date. The goal of this article was to analyze electronic waste in Mexico through the active actors in the recovery chain. This article presents the evolution of studies on electronic waste in Mexico. The legal regulations and public policies were analyzed, as were the existing practices of electronic waste handling, and some challenges facing this country for waste flow management. A management model is proposed which highlights components that must be considered in the model and the opportunities and challenges to transition from an unbundled handling, which still has practices that lack environmental and technical support, to sustainable management.

  8. Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants in workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Meihuan; Zheng, Jing; Xu, Rongfa; Zhuang, Xi; Lin, Ying; Ren, Mingzhong

    2018-06-01

    Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in workers from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and an incineration plant, in order to assess the PFR exposure risks of workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were the most frequently detected chemicals (82-93%). The median concentrations of BCEP, BDCIPP, and DPHP were 1.77, 0.23, and 0.70 ng/mL, and 1.44, 0.22, and 0.11 ng/mL in samples from the e-waste site and the incineration plant, respectively. Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) was detected in all samples from the incineration plant, with a median level of 0.30 ng/mL. The concentrations of BDCIPP (r = -0.31, p waste site. Negative and significant correlations were also observed between the concentrations of BCEP (r = -0.42, p incineration plant. No gender differences were observed in levels of PFR metabolites in urine samples (p > 0.05). Concentrations of BDCIPP in female were significantly correlated with occupational exposure time (r = -0.507, p  0.05). Overall, the workers with occupational exposure to PFRs had different profiles of urinary PFR metabolites. The age, occupational exposure time, and gender seemed not to be main factors mediating the exposure to PFRs for workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced bioleaching efficiency of metals from E-wastes driven by biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuhua; Zheng, Yue; Yan, Weifu; Chen, Lixiang; Dummi Mahadevan, Gurumurthy; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic wastes (E-wastes) contain a huge amount of valuable metals that are worth recovering. Bioleaching has attracted widespread attention as an environment-friendly and low-cost technology for the recycling of E-wastes. To avoid the disadvantages of being time-consuming or having a relatively low efficiency, biochar with redox activity was used to enhance bioleaching efficiency of metals from a basic E-waste (i.e., printed circuit boards in this study). The role of biochar was examined through three basic processes: Carbon-mediated, Sulfur-mediated and Iron-mediated bioleaching pathways. Although no obvious enhancement of bioleaching performance was observed in the C-mediated and S-mediated systems, Fe-mediated bioleaching was significantly promoted by the participation of biochar, and its leaching time was decreased by one-third compared with that of a biochar-free system. By mapping the dynamic concentration of Fe(II) and Cu(II), biochar was proved to facilitate the redox action between Fe(II) to Fe(III), which resulted in effective leaching of Cu. Two dominant functional species consisting of Alicyclobacillus spp. and Sulfobacillus spp. may cooperate in the Fe-mediated bioleaching system, and the ratio of these two species was regulated by biochar for enhancing the efficiency of bioleaching. Hence, this work provides a method to improve bioleaching efficiency with low-cost solid redox media.

  10. Enhanced bioleaching efficiency of metals from E-wastes driven by biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhua; Zheng, Yue; Yan, Weifu; Chen, Lixiang; Dummi Mahadevan, Gurumurthy; Zhao, Feng

    2016-12-15

    Electronic wastes (E-wastes) contain a huge amount of valuable metals that are worth recovering. Bioleaching has attracted widespread attention as an environment-friendly and low-cost technology for the recycling of E-wastes. To avoid the disadvantages of being time-consuming or having a relatively low efficiency, biochar with redox activity was used to enhance bioleaching efficiency of metals from a basic E-waste (i.e., printed circuit boards in this study). The role of biochar was examined through three basic processes: Carbon-mediated, Sulfur-mediated and Iron-mediated bioleaching pathways. Although no obvious enhancement of bioleaching performance was observed in the C-mediated and S-mediated systems, Fe-mediated bioleaching was significantly promoted by the participation of biochar, and its leaching time was decreased by one-third compared with that of a biochar-free system. By mapping the dynamic concentration of Fe(II) and Cu(II), biochar was proved to facilitate the redox action between Fe(II) to Fe(III), which resulted in effective leaching of Cu. Two dominant functional species consisting of Alicyclobacillus spp. and Sulfobacillus spp. may cooperate in the Fe-mediated bioleaching system, and the ratio of these two species was regulated by biochar for enhancing the efficiency of bioleaching. Hence, this work provides a method to improve bioleaching efficiency with low-cost solid redox media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic waste (e-waste): Material flows and management practices in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi; Osibanjo, Oladele

    2008-01-01

    The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue

  12. Enhanced bioleaching efficiency of metals from E-wastes driven by biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuhua; Zheng, Yue; Yan, Weifu; Chen, Lixiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Dummi Mahadevan, Gurumurthy [CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Zhao, Feng, E-mail: fzhao@iue.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Electronic wastes (E-wastes) contain a huge amount of valuable metals that are worth recovering. Bioleaching has attracted widespread attention as an environment-friendly and low-cost technology for the recycling of E-wastes. To avoid the disadvantages of being time-consuming or having a relatively low efficiency, biochar with redox activity was used to enhance bioleaching efficiency of metals from a basic E-waste (i.e., printed circuit boards in this study). The role of biochar was examined through three basic processes: Carbon-mediated, Sulfur-mediated and Iron-mediated bioleaching pathways. Although no obvious enhancement of bioleaching performance was observed in the C-mediated and S-mediated systems, Fe-mediated bioleaching was significantly promoted by the participation of biochar, and its leaching time was decreased by one-third compared with that of a biochar-free system. By mapping the dynamic concentration of Fe(II) and Cu(II), biochar was proved to facilitate the redox action between Fe(II) to Fe(III), which resulted in effective leaching of Cu. Two dominant functional species consisting of Alicyclobacillus spp. and Sulfobacillus spp. may cooperate in the Fe-mediated bioleaching system, and the ratio of these two species was regulated by biochar for enhancing the efficiency of bioleaching. Hence, this work provides a method to improve bioleaching efficiency with low-cost solid redox media.

  13. E-waste management and sustainability: a case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Luís Peres; da Silva Araújo, Fernando Gabriel; Lagarinhos, Carlos Alberto Ferreira; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2017-11-01

    The advancement of technology and development of new electronic and electrical equipment with a reduced life cycle has increased the need for the disposal of them (called Waste of Electric and Electronic Equipment or simply e-waste) due to defects presented during use, replacement of obsolete equipment, and ease of acquisition of new equipment. There is a lack of consumer awareness regarding the use, handling storage, and disposal of this equipment. In Brazil, the disposal of post-consumer waste is regulated by the National Solid Waste Policy, established by Law No. 12305 and regulated on the 23rd December 2010. Under this legislation, manufacturers and importers are required to perform a project for the Reverse Logistics of e-waste, though its implementation is not well defined. This work focuses on the verification of the sustainability of reverse logistics suggested by the legislation and the mandatory points, evaluating its costs and the possible financial gain with recycling of the waste. The management of reverse logistics and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment, or simply recycling of e-waste, as suggested by the government, will be the responsibility of the managing organization to be formed by the manufacturers/importers in Brazil.

  14. E-Waste In Bangladesh: Evaluating The Situation, Legislation And Policy And Way Forward With Strategy And Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventory, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  15. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EDF decommissioning and dismantling policy a global commitment to safety, environment and cost efficiency of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, J.

    2001-01-01

    Until recently, EDF's policy regarding the dismantling of its decommissioned nuclear power plants was to reach 'level 2' (release of non-nuclear facilities) and to postpone final dismantling for another 30-40 years. Today, some studies suggest that a full deconstruction program of the first generation NPPs (9 units) could be optimized over the period 2000 - 2025. EDF has acquired during the last ten years an unique experience, both as an operator and as an engineering company, in the frame of the decommissioning programme of its own NPPs. Many types of reactors, including graphite moderated one, PWR, are at varying stages of the dismantling process.Plant operation quality is at the core of a satisfactory control of releases. Over the last decade, as a result of the efforts of all operating sites associated with good in-house operating practice feedback, the overall release volume has been divided by two, and the release activity by one hundred. Another issue given increased attention is radiological cleanliness. EDF-DPN launched a 'radiological cleanliness' action plan revolving around two main themes: increased monitoring of nuclear-related transportations, site entrance and access to controlled areas, along with on-site radiological cleanliness, particularly during maintenance work tasks. Progress is already apparent in several points at issue and the overall objective of the action plan should be attained. (author)

  17. Towards the creation of an industrial sector dedicated to nuclear dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    In next decades the business of nuclear dismantling is expected to grow exponentially due to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities that will have reached the end of their operating life. Dismantling has 2 main features: dismantling operations on a same site can span decades and dismantling is a new activity in which innovations are likely to appear and may benefit other sectors. In France regional authorities have promoted public-private partnerships in order to make working together small enterprises very specialized in sectors like robotic, laser cutting, waste processing, remote operations... with public laboratories dedicated to nuclear research, and with graduate schools to include dismantling in curriculum and with major industrial operators of the nuclear industry. The aim is the creation of jobs and the building of an industrial sector able to win market shares in the worldwide business of nuclear dismantling. (A.C.)

  18. Analysis of dismantling possibility and unloading efforts of fuel assemblies from core of WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.; Dobrov, V.; Semishkin, V.; Vasilchenko, I.

    2006-01-01

    The computation methods of optimal dismantling sequence of fuel assemblies (FA) from core of WWER after different operating periods and accident conditions are considered. The algorithms of fuel dismantling sequence are constructed both on the basis of analysis of mutual spacer grid overlaps of adjacent fuel assemblies and numerical structure analysis of efforts required for FA removal as FA heaving from the core. Computation results for core dismantling sequence after 3-year operating period and LB LOCA are presented in the paper

  19. Status of the Digital Mock-up System for the dismantling of the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seoung; Kim, S. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. J.

    2004-12-01

    The database system have already developed is impossible to solve a quantitative evaluation about a various situation from the dismantle activities of the reactor had contaminated with radioactivity. To satisfy the requirements for safety and economical efficiency among a major decommissioning technologies, it need a system that can evaluate and estimate dismantling scheduling, amount of radioactive waste being dismantled, and decommissioning cost. We have review and analyzed status of the digital mock-up system to get a technical guide because we have no experience establishment of one relation to dismantling of research reactor and nuclear power plant

  20. User Interface Technology to Reduce Mental Transformations for Tangible Remote Dismantling Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dongjun; Kim, Ikjune; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Geun-Ho; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    High-level radiation of the major components restricts access by human workers, and makes an accident or outage during the dismantling process more difficult to deal with. Since unexpected situations causes waste of budget and an aggravation of safety, the preliminary verification of the dismantling processes and equipment by the tangible remote dismantling simulator is very important. The design optimization of the dismantling processes and equipment is one of the most important objectives of the tangible remote dismantling simulator, as well. This paper proposes a user interface technology to reduce mental transformations for the tangible remote dismantling simulator. At the dismantling process simulation using the tangible remote dismantling simulator, the most difficult work is the remote operation handling the high degrees-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator due to complex mental transformations. The proposed user interface technology reduces mental transformations with constraints using the point projection and direction projection. The test result of the cutting process over the closure head of the RPV demonstrates that the proposed mental transformation reduction technology is operated successfully in the tangible remote dismantling simulator, and lets the operator be easy to control the high DOF manipulator even in the most difficult operation by reducing DOFs to be controlled manually.

  1. Development of project management data calculation models relating to dismantling of nuclear facilities. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukegawa, Takenori; Ohshima, Soichiro; Shiraishi, Kunio; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Department of Decommissioning and Waste Management, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Labor-hours necessary for dismantling activities are generally estimated based on experience, for example, as a form of unit productivity factors such as the relationship between labor-hours and weight of components dismantled which were obtained by actual dismantling activities. The project management data calculation models together with unit productivity factors for basic dismantling work activities were developed by analyzing the data obtained from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling project, which will be applicable to estimation of labor-hours in various dismantling conditions. Typical work breakdown structures were also prepared by categorizing repeatable basic dismantling work activities for effective planning of dismantling activities. The labor-hours for dismantling the JPDR components and structures were calculated by using the code system for management of reactor decommissioning (COSMARD), in which the work breakdown structures and the calculation models were contained. It was confirmed that the labor-hours could be easily estimated by COSMARD through the calculations. This report describes the labor-hour calculation models and application of these models to COSMARD. (author)

  2. Reserves for shutdown/dismantling and disposal in nuclear technology. Theses and recommendations on reform options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    The study on reserves for shutdown, dismantling and disposal of nuclear facilities covers the following topics: cost for shutdown, dismantling and disposal and amount and transparency of nuclear reserves, solution by y stock regulated by public law for long-term liabilities, and improvement of the protection in the event of insolvency for the remaining EVU reserves for short- and intermediate-term liabilities. The appendix includes estimations and empirical values for the cost of shutdown and dismantling, estimation of disposal costs, and a summary of Swiss studies on dismantling and disposal and transfer to Germany.

  3. User Interface Technology to Reduce Mental Transformations for Tangible Remote Dismantling Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Dongjun; Kim, Ikjune; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Geun-Ho; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    High-level radiation of the major components restricts access by human workers, and makes an accident or outage during the dismantling process more difficult to deal with. Since unexpected situations causes waste of budget and an aggravation of safety, the preliminary verification of the dismantling processes and equipment by the tangible remote dismantling simulator is very important. The design optimization of the dismantling processes and equipment is one of the most important objectives of the tangible remote dismantling simulator, as well. This paper proposes a user interface technology to reduce mental transformations for the tangible remote dismantling simulator. At the dismantling process simulation using the tangible remote dismantling simulator, the most difficult work is the remote operation handling the high degrees-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator due to complex mental transformations. The proposed user interface technology reduces mental transformations with constraints using the point projection and direction projection. The test result of the cutting process over the closure head of the RPV demonstrates that the proposed mental transformation reduction technology is operated successfully in the tangible remote dismantling simulator, and lets the operator be easy to control the high DOF manipulator even in the most difficult operation by reducing DOFs to be controlled manually

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    OpenAIRE

    Go Suzuki; Masayuki Someya; Hidenori Matsukami; Nguyen Minh Tue; Natsuyo Uchida; Le Huu Tuyen; Pham Hung Viet; Shin Takahashi; Shinsuke Tanabe; Abraham Brouwer; Hidetaka Takigami

    2016-01-01

    The management of electronic waste (e-waste), which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-proces...

  5. Downregulation of placental S100P is associated with cadmium exposure in Guiyu, an e-waste recycling town in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingying; Zhou, Taimei [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Xu, Xijin; Guo, Yongyong [Analytic Cytology Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhu, Min [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Li, Weiqiu [Analytic Cytology Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Yi, Deqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China)

    2011-12-01

    Excessive release of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), results from primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities in Guiyu, China, and has adverse effects on the health of local infants and pregnant women. We investigated the expression of placental S100P, a Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein, as a biological indicator of heavy-metal environmental pollution in pregnant women involved in these activities and constantly exposed to Cd and Pb. We included 105 pregnant women in the study: 55 from Guiyu and 50 from Shantou, an area not involved in e-waste recycling. The placental concentrations of Cd and Pb (PCCd, PCPb) after birth were measured by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. S100P mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. S100P protein expression was examined by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The expression of metallothionein (MT), previously found upregulated after heavy metal contamination, was used for comparison. Placentas from Guiyu women showed 62.8% higher Cd concentrations, higher MT levels, and lower S100P protein levels than placentas from Shantou women. Furthermore, PCCd was negatively correlated with S100P protein expression and positively with MT expression, with no correlation between PCPb and S100P or MT expression. The PCCd-associated downregulation of S100P in placentas from Guiyu women suggests that S100P might be an effective biological indicator in the placental response to Cd toxicity in areas of e-waste recycling.

  6. Downregulation of placental S100P is associated with cadmium exposure in Guiyu, an e-waste recycling town in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingying; Zhou, Taimei; Xu, Xijin; Guo, Yongyong; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhu, Min; Li, Weiqiu; Yi, Deqing; Huo, Xia

    2011-01-01

    Excessive release of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), results from primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities in Guiyu, China, and has adverse effects on the health of local infants and pregnant women. We investigated the expression of placental S100P, a Ca 2+ -binding protein, as a biological indicator of heavy-metal environmental pollution in pregnant women involved in these activities and constantly exposed to Cd and Pb. We included 105 pregnant women in the study: 55 from Guiyu and 50 from Shantou, an area not involved in e-waste recycling. The placental concentrations of Cd and Pb (PCCd, PCPb) after birth were measured by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. S100P mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. S100P protein expression was examined by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The expression of metallothionein (MT), previously found upregulated after heavy metal contamination, was used for comparison. Placentas from Guiyu women showed 62.8% higher Cd concentrations, higher MT levels, and lower S100P protein levels than placentas from Shantou women. Furthermore, PCCd was negatively correlated with S100P protein expression and positively with MT expression, with no correlation between PCPb and S100P or MT expression. The PCCd-associated downregulation of S100P in placentas from Guiyu women suggests that S100P might be an effective biological indicator in the placental response to Cd toxicity in areas of e-waste recycling.

  7. CRITICALITY CONTROL DURING THE DISMANTLING OF A URANIUM CONVERSION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LADURELLE, Laurent; LISBONNE, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Within the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in the Cadarache Research Center in southern France, the production at the Enriched Uranium Treatment Workshops started in 1965 and ended in 1995. The dismantling is in progress and will last until 2006. The decommissioning is planned in 2007. Since the authorized enrichment in 235U was 10% in some parts of the plant, and unlimited in others, the equipment and procedures were designed for criticality control during the operating period. Despite the best previous removing of the uranium in the inner parts of the equipment, evaluation of the mass of remaining fissile material by in site gamma spectrometry measurement shows that the safety of the ''clean up'' operations requires specific criticality control procedures, this mass being higher than the safe mass. The chosen method is therefore based on the mapping of fissile material in the contaminated parts of the equipment and on the respect of particular rules set for meeting the criticality control standards through mass control. The process equipment is partitioned in separated campaign, and for each campaign the equipment dismantling is conducted with a precise traceability of the pieces, from the equipment to the drum of waste, and the best final evaluation of the mass of fissile material in the drum. The first results show that the mass of uranium found in the dismantled equipment is less than the previous evaluation, and they enable us to confirm that the criticality was safely controlled during the operations. The mass of fissile material remaining in the equipment can be then carefully calculated, when it is lower than the minimal critical mass, and on the basis of a safety analysis, we will be free of any constraints regarding criticality control, this allowing to make procedures easier, and to speed up the operations

  8. Recycling of concrete generated from Nuclear Power Plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hideo; Nawa, Toyoharu; Ishikura, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Reactor decommissioning required various technologies such as dismantling of facilities, decontamination, radioactivity measurement and recycling of dismantling wastes. This article discussed recycling of demolished concrete wastes. Dismantling of reactor building of large one unit of nuclear power plants would generate about 500 K tons of concrete wastes, about 98% of which was non-radioactive and could be used as base course material or backfill material after crushed to specified particle size. Since later part of 1990s, high quality recycled aggregate with specified limit of bone-dry density, water absorptivity and amount of fine aggregate had been developed from demolished concrete with 'Heat and rubbing method', 'Eccentric rotor method' and 'Screw grinding method' so as to separate cements attached to aggregate. Recycled aggregates were made from concrete debris with 'Jaw crusher' to particle size less than 40 mm and then particle size control or grinded by various grinding machines. Recycled fine aggregates made from crushing would have fragile site with cracks, air voids and bubbles. The author proposed quality improvement method to selectively separate fragile defects from recycled aggregates using weak grinding force, leaving attached pastes much and preventing fine particle generation as byproducts. This article outlined experiments to improve quality of recycled fine aggregates and their experimental results confirmed improvement of flow ability and compressive strength of mortal using recycled fine aggregates using 'Particle size selector' and 'Ball mill' so as to remove their fragile parts less than 2%. Mortal made from recycled fine aggregate could also prevent permeation of chloride ion. Recycled aggregate could be used for concrete instead of natural aggregate. (T. Tanaka)

  9. On the effectiveness of a license scheme for E-waste recycling: The challenge of China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkuma, Takayoshi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that China and India have been recycling centers of WEEE, especially printed circuit boards, and that serious environmental pollution in these countries has been generated by improper recycling methods. After the governments of China and India banned improper recycling by the informal sector, improper recycling activities spread to other places. Then, these governments changed their policies to one of promoting proper recycling by introducing a scheme, under which E-waste recycling requires a license issued by the government. In this paper, the effectiveness of that license scheme is examined by means of an economic model. It can be shown that the license scheme can work effectively only if disposers of E-waste have a responsibility to sell E-waste to license holders. Our results run counter to the idea that international E-waste trade should be banned and provide an alternative solution to the problem.

  10. Foam decontamination of large nuclear components before dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Sahut, C.

    1998-01-01

    Following some simple theoretical considerations, the authors show that foam compositions can be advantageously circulated them for a few hours in components requiring decontamination before dismantling. The technique is illustrated on six large ferritic steel valves, then on austenitic steel heat exchangers for which the Ce(III)/Ce(IV) redox pair was used to dissolve the chromium; Ce(III) was reoxidized by ozone injection into the foam vector gas. Biodegradable surfactants are sued in the process; tests have shown that the foaming power disappears after a few days, provided the final radioactive liquid waste is adjusted to neutral pH, allowing subsequent coprecipitation of concentration treatment. (author)

  11. Implementing robotics in the Department of Energy Dismantlement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, as our nuclear stockpile has decreased, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been working rapidly to safely dismantle weapons returned by the military. In order to be retired, weapons must be returned to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. There they are reduced to their component parts. Although many of these parts are not hazardous, some, including certain explosive assemblies and radioactive materials, are sufficiently hazardous so that special handling systems are necessary. This paper will describe several of these systems developed by Sandia for Pantex and their technical basis

  12. Conception of dismantling cell for glove box with alpha contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, D.

    1987-01-01

    The new dismantling cell of Valduc treats particularly alpha glove boxes. This cell is conceived to reduce the intervention inside for man with ventilated clothes and to reduce the volume of alpha wastes by utilization of manipulators and appropriate tools. The respect of low level norms (0.1 Ci/ton) for storage of alpha wastes conductes us to make a first decontamination, to ameliorate the detection in quantity of plutonium in the wastes and for wastes with a level upper the norm to make studies on decontamination by Freon 113 [fr

  13. Metal Radioactive Waste Recycling from the Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajt, B.; Prah, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the dismantling process of nuclear power plants a large amount of metal residues are generated. The residues of interest are stainless steel, copper and aluminium and can be reprocessed either for restricted or unrestricted use. Although there are many questions about the further use of these materials it should be convenient to recycle them. This paper discusses the complexity of the management of these metals. The radiation protection requirements are the most important principles. For these purposes great efforts in the decontamination have to be made. Regulatory aspects, clearance levels as well as characteristic of steel recycling industry, radiological impact and new developments are discussed. (author)

  14. Cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2012-01-01

    As for any large and complex project, the basis for cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is established with the development of the project. Just as its construction, dismantling of a nuclear power plant is similarly demanding. Daily changing situations due to the progress of construction - in the present case progress of dismantling - result in significant logistical challenges for project managers and site supervisors. This will be aggravated by the fact that a considerable amount of the removed parts are contaminated or even activated. Hence, not only occupational health, safety and environmental protection is to be assured, employees, public and environment are to be adequately protected against the adverse effect of radioactive radiation as well. Work progress and not least expenses involved with the undertaking depend on adherence to the planned course of actions. Probably the most frequent cause of deviation from originally planned durations and costs of a project are disruptions in the flow of work. For being enabled to counteract in a timely and efficient manner, all required activities are to be comprehensively captured with the initial planning. The effect initial activities may have on subsequent works until completion must particularly be investigated. This is the more important the larger and more complex the project actually are. Comprehensive knowledge of all the matters which may affect the progress of the works is required in order to set up a suitable work break-down structure; such work break-down structure being indispensable for successful control and monitoring of the project. In building the related organizational structure of the project, all such stakeholders not being direct part of the project team but which may potentially affect the progress of the project are to be considered as well. Cost effective and lost time injury free dismantling of decommissioned nuclear power plants is based on implementing

  15. Decommissioning and dismantling of the Rossendorf Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahnert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    After just over 40 years of production operation 2000, the operation of the Rossendorf Isotope Production was finally stopped. In the last few years of production already sections of the Rossendorf Isotope Production have been decommissioned. With the end of the isotope production the decommissioning of the entire complex started. In the two-part report, the decommissioning and dismantling of the Rossendorf Isotope production is presented. In part 1 (atw 5/2016) mainly the authorisation procedures and the realised decommissioning concept are presented. Part 2 (atw 6/2016) deals with special selected aspects of the implementation of the decommissioning programme.

  16. Latest expertise investigations in nuclear dismantling and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallozzi Ulmann, Adrien; Chazalet, Julien; Couturier, Pierre; Touzain, Etienne; Amgarou, Khalil; Menaa, Nabil

    2013-06-01

    During the last decades, CANBERRA has developed know-how, expertise and intervention strategies based on its feedback experiences in many countries. This document covers a wide range of applications involving nuclear characterization, for which CANBERRA is able to provide measurement set-up and results, activity characterization and radioactive source localization, as well as to guarantee safety or process thresholds corresponding to the customer's needs. To improve processes best-in-class methodology, know-how and tools have been used in complex examples described in this paper. CANBERRA has demonstrated its ability to better and efficiently prepare for and execute decontamination and dismantling activities. (authors)

  17. Some steps of the dismantling of the hot cell ATTILA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrasson, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the dismantling, during 2 years and just finished now, of a large hot cell (11.6 m x 5.90 m x 5.80 m) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France) characterised by an importand irradiation and contamination mean dose rate 7 rads/hr, in some places 20 rads/hr, coming at 98 % from Cesium 137 (beta decay radioisotope). Put into operation in March 1967, the Attila cell was used for spent fuel processing using halogenides [fr

  18. Fabrication of mixed oxide fuel using plutonium from dismantled weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, H.T.; Chidester, K.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A very brief summary is presented of experimental studies performed to support the use of plutonium from dismantled weapons in fabricating mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for commercial power reactors. Thermal treatment tests were performed on plutonium dioxide powder to determine if an effective dry gallium removal process could be devised. Fabrication tests were performed to determine the effects of various processing parameters on pellet quality. Thermal tests results showed that the final gallium content is highly dependent on the treatment temperature. Fabrication tests showed that the milling process, sintering parameters, and uranium feed did effect pellet properties. 1 ref., 1 tab

  19. High levels of PAH-metabolites in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt, Torsten, E-mail: feldt@bni-hamburg.de [Clinical Research Unit, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht Str. 74, 20359 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Fobil, Julius N., E-mail: jfobil@ug.edu.gh [Department of Biological, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG13, Legon (Ghana); Wittsiepe, Jürgen [Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Wilhelm, Michael, E-mail: wilhelm@hygiene.rub.de [Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Till, Holger, E-mail: holger.till@giz.de [GIZ — Regional Coordination Unit for HIV and TB (GiZ-ReCHT), 32 Cantonment Crescent, Cantonments, Accra (Ghana); Zoufaly, Alexander [Department of Medicine, Section Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Burchard, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.burchard@bni-hamburg.de [Clinical Research Unit, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht Str. 74, 20359 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Medicine, Section Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Göen, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.goeen@ipasum.med.uni-erlangen.de [Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schillerstr. 25/29, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The informal recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in Africa. Among other toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major health concern for exposed individuals. In a cross-sectional study, the levels of PAH metabolites in the urine of individuals working on one of the largest e-waste recycling sites of Africa, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities, were investigated. Socioeconomic data, basic health data and urine samples were collected from 72 exposed individuals and 40 controls. In the urine samples, concentrations of the hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAH) 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OH-phenanthrene), the sum of 2- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (2-/9-OH-phenanthrene), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-phenanthrene), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OH-phenanthrene) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene), as well as cotinine and creatinine, were determined. In the exposed group, median urinary concentrations were 0.85 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-phenanthrene, 0.54 μg/g creatinine for 2-/9-OH-phenanthrene, 0.99 μg/g creatinine for 3-OH-phenanthrene, 0.22 μg/g creatinine for 4-OH-phenanthrene, and 1.33 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-pyrene, all being significantly higher compared to the control group (0.55, 0.37, 0.63, 0.11 and 0.54 μg/g creatinine, respectively). Using a multivariate linear regression analysis including sex, cotinine and tobacco smoking as covariates, exposure to e-waste recycling activities was the most important determinant for PAH exposure. On physical examination, pathological findings were rare, but about two thirds of exposed individuals complained about cough, and one quarter about chest pain. In conclusion, we observed significantly higher urinary PAH metabolite concentrations in individuals who were exposed to e-waste recycling compared to controls who were not exposed to e-waste recycling activities. The impact of e-waste recycling on exposure to

  20. High levels of PAH-metabolites in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, Torsten; Fobil, Julius N.; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Till, Holger; Zoufaly, Alexander; Burchard, Gerd; Göen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The informal recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in Africa. Among other toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major health concern for exposed individuals. In a cross-sectional study, the levels of PAH metabolites in the urine of individuals working on one of the largest e-waste recycling sites of Africa, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities, were investigated. Socioeconomic data, basic health data and urine samples were collected from 72 exposed individuals and 40 controls. In the urine samples, concentrations of the hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAH) 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OH-phenanthrene), the sum of 2- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (2-/9-OH-phenanthrene), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-phenanthrene), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OH-phenanthrene) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene), as well as cotinine and creatinine, were determined. In the exposed group, median urinary concentrations were 0.85 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-phenanthrene, 0.54 μg/g creatinine for 2-/9-OH-phenanthrene, 0.99 μg/g creatinine for 3-OH-phenanthrene, 0.22 μg/g creatinine for 4-OH-phenanthrene, and 1.33 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-pyrene, all being significantly higher compared to the control group (0.55, 0.37, 0.63, 0.11 and 0.54 μg/g creatinine, respectively). Using a multivariate linear regression analysis including sex, cotinine and tobacco smoking as covariates, exposure to e-waste recycling activities was the most important determinant for PAH exposure. On physical examination, pathological findings were rare, but about two thirds of exposed individuals complained about cough, and one quarter about chest pain. In conclusion, we observed significantly higher urinary PAH metabolite concentrations in individuals who were exposed to e-waste recycling compared to controls who were not exposed to e-waste recycling activities. The impact of e-waste recycling on exposure to

  1. Evaluation of the secondary radiation impact on personnel during the dismantling of contaminated nuclear equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankunas Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a numerical analysis of the secondary radiation contribution to the total radiation affecting the operational personnel during the dismantling activities of the contaminated equipment at a nuclear power plant. This study considers a widely applicable Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX and real Ignalina nuclear power plant records. A simplified albedo method is investigated in order to analyze the selected geometrical design cases. Additionally, the impact of the secondary radiation on the personnel dose was analyzed. The numerical MCNPX simulation allowed ascertaining the optimal distance between the source and the wall for the working personnel in closed rooms with contaminated equipment. The developed dose rate maps of the secondary radiation showed cross-sectional distribution of the dose rate inside the enclosed area.

  2. Wasting the Future: The Technological Sublime, Communications Technologies, and E-waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebine Label

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literally speaking, e-waste is the future of communications. E-waste is the fastest growing waste stream in the world, much of it communications technologies from cell phones to laptops, televisions to peripherals. As a result of policies of planned obsolescence working computers, cell phones, and tablets are routinely trashed. One of the most powerful and enduring discourses associated with emerging technologies is the technological sublime, in which technology is seen as intellectually, emotionally, or spiritually transcendent. It comprises a contradictory impulse that elevates technology with an almost religious fervor, while simultaneously overlooking some of the consequences of industrialism, as well as ignoring the necessity of social, economic, and governmental infrastructures necessary to the implementation and development of new technologies. The idea that a new technology will not pollute or harm the environment is a persistent, though often quickly passed over, theme in the technological sublime, echoed in discourses about emerging technologies such as the silicon chip, the internet, and other ICTs. In this paper, I make connections between the discourse of newness, the practice of planned obsolescence, and the mountains of trashed components and devices globally. Considering the global context demonstrates the realities of the penetration of ICTs and their enduring pollution and negative implications for the health of humans and nonhumans, including plants, animals, waterways, soil, air and so on. I use the discourse of the technological sublime to open up and consider the future of communications, to argue that this discourse not only stays with us but also contains within it two important and related components, the promise of ecological harmony and a future orientation. I argue that these lingering elements keep us from considering the real future of communications – e-waste – and that, as communications scholars, we must also

  3. Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao [IHI Inspection and Instrumentation Co., Ltd, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

  4. Dismantling method for reactor shielding wall and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1995-01-01

    A ring member having an outer diameter slightly smaller than an inner diameter of a reactor shielding wall to be dismantled is lowered in the inside of the reactor shielding wall while keeping a horizontal posture. A cutting device is disposed at the lower peripheral edge of the ring member. The cutting device can move along the peripheral edge of the circular shape of the ring member. The ring member is urged against the inner surface of the reactor shielding wall by using an urging member to immobilize the ring member. Then, the cutting device is operated to cut the reactor shielding wall into a plurality of ring-like blocks at a plurality of inner horizontal ribs or block connection ribs. Then, the blocks of the cut reactor shielding wall are supported by the ring member, and transported out of the reactor container by a lift. The cut blocks transported to the outside are finely dismantled for every block in a closed chamber. (I.N.)

  5. Method of freezing type dismantling for wasted reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Toshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to operate a cutting device in the air by placing a working table on ice while utilizing the ice as radiation shielding materials thereby prevent the diffusion of air contaminations. Method: Upon dismantling a BWR type reactor, ice is packed into a reactor container and a pressure vessel and frozen state is maintained by cooling coils disposed to the outer circumference of the pressure vessel. Then, an airtight hood is covered over the pressure vessel and a working table is rotatably disposed therein. Upon working, when the upper layer ice is melted by a heat pump and discharged, the airtight hood is lowered to a predetermined level. After freezing the melted portion again at the lowered level, cutting work is conducted by an operator in the hood. The cut pieces are conveyed after hoisting the airtight hood by a crane. The pressure vessel is dismantled by repeating the foregoing procedures. In this way, cut pieces can be recovered without falling them to the reactor bottom as in the conventional work in water. In addition, since the procedures are conducted while covering the airtight hood, diffusion of air contaminations can be prevented. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. A Study on Dismantling of Westinghouse Type Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo-Tae; Lee, Sang-Guk

    2014-01-01

    KHNP started a research project this year to develop a methodology to dismantle nuclear reactors and internals. In this paper, we reviewed 3D design model of the reactor and suggested feasible cutting scheme.. Using 3-D CAD model of Westinghouse type nuclear reactor and its internals, we reviewed possible options for disposal. Among various options of dismantling the nuclear reactor, plasma cutting was selected to be the best feasible and economical method. The upper internals could be segmented by using a band saw. It is relatively fast, and easily maintained. For cutting the lower internals, plasma torch was chosen to be the best efficient tool. Disassembling the baffle and the former plate by removing the baffle former bolts was also recommended for minimizing storage volume. When using plasma torch for cutting the reactor vessel and its internal, installation of a ventilation system for preventing pollution of atmosphere was recommended. For minimizing radiation exposure during the cutting operation, remotely controlled robotic tool was recommended to be used

  7. The UK's National Programme for IT: Why was it dismantled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinia, Taghreed

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the UK's National Programme for IT (NPfIT), which was an ambitious programme launched in 2002 with an initial budget of some £6.2 billion. It attempted to implement a top-down digitization of healthcare in England's National Health Service (NHS). The core aim of the NPfIT was to bring the NHS' use of information technology into the 21st century, through the introduction of an integrated electronic patient record systems, and reforming the way that the NHS uses information, and hence to improve services and the quality of patient care. The initiative was not trusted by doctors and appeared to have no impact on patient safety. The project was marred by resistance due to the inappropriateness of a centralized authority making top-down decisions on behalf of local organizations. The NPfIT was officially dismantled in September 2011. Deemed the world's largest civil IT programme, its failure and ultimate demise sparked a lot of interest as to the reasons why. This paper summarises the underlying causes that lead to dismantling the NPfIT. At the forefront of those circumstances were the lack of adequate end user engagement, the absence of a phased change management approach, and underestimating the scale of the project.

  8. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities in Switzerland: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibundgut, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Paul Scherrer Institute is the largest research institute for natural and engineering science in Switzerland. It operated various nuclear facilities from 1960 to 2011: Research reactors DIORIT, SAPHIR and PROTEUS, and an incineration plant for low and medium level radioactive waste. Concerning SAPHIR research reactor: in operation from 1958 to 1993, planning of decommissioning from 1998 to 2000. Decommissioning work started in 2004. Finishing is planned for 2019. Concerning DIORIT research reactor: operation as DIORIT I (20 MWth) from 1960 to 1967, then reconstruction to DIORIT II (30 MWth) and operation from 1970 until 1977. Planning of decommissioning from 1992 to 1994. Decommissioning work started in 1994 and was finished in 2012. Concerning PROTEUS research reactor: in operation from 1966 to 2011. Planning of decommissioning from 2013 to 2014. Starting of decommissioning work is planned for 2017, finishing is planned for the end of 2018 Incineration plant: In operation from 1974 to 2002. Planning of decommissioning from 2011 to 2012. Starting of decommissioning work in 2016. Finishing planned for end of 2019. Treatment of various material categories from dismantling: Concerning aluminum: because of the production of H_2 during solidification in concrete, it was necessary to minimize the surface area. When dismantling research reactors, the aluminum removed was melted in an induction furnace and poured into a 4.5 m"3 concrete container to solidify. Cutting the metal and handling it was largely accomplished remote control, using conventional technology. Concerning Steel/Cast-iron: the storage containers to be filled determined the method used for reducing the size of these materials, and the technique used for handling them. The goal was to optimize the packing density to reduce repository costs. The selected method of reducing the size of components is to cut them up using diamond-tipped tools, like saw blades. Concerning Graphite: for graphite, grinding was the

  9. Dismantling of the research reactor RTS-1 Galileo Galilei in Pisa (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Martinez, J. t.; Farella, G.; Cimini, E.; Russo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about the most relevant aspects of the first phase of the dismantling, removal of the water in the pool, prior treatment through evaporation, the dismantling of all the submerged activated elements and other activated or contaminated elements that have been part of the nuclear facility. (Author)

  10. Know History, Know Self: Art Therapists' Responsibility to Dismantle White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Cassie; Byma, Christine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we call on white art therapists to assume responsibility for dismantling white supremacy in the field of art therapy, in personal as well as political-structural arenas. We respond to calls from scholars and writers of color for white people to assume increased responsibility for dismantling white supremacy in white communities…

  11. A treaty more alarming than efficient. The dismantled warheads will not be destroyed. Danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, P.; Despic-Popovic, H.; Nougayrede, N.

    2002-01-01

    This political analysis presents the new treaty of nuclear weapons dismantling between Russia and Usa. In fact the warheads will not be completely dismantling but only stocked, leading to a possible recovery by terrorists. It underlines the real interests of this agreement which are more economic than peaceful. (A.L.B.)

  12. Note n. SD3-DEM-01 regulations procedures relative to the based nuclear installations dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This note aims to define the regulations procedures relative to the safety of based nuclear installations dismantling defined by the decree of the 11 december 1963 modified. The first part describes the two main phases of a based nuclear installation life, the operating and the dismantling phase. The second part is devoted to the procedures. (A.L.B.)

  13. Dismantling of an alpha contaminated hot cell at the Marcoule Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachon, M.

    1988-01-01

    For the remodeling of Marcoule Pilot Plant, the cell 82: old unit for plutonium solution purification by extraction, was dismantled. About 42 tons of wastes were evacuated. Some wastes wen decontaminated by mechanical means other wastes with higher residual activity were stored for subsequent processing. The operation shows that dismantling of a hot cell is possible even if incorporated in an operating plant [fr

  14. Decontamination and dismantling at the CEA; L'assainissement et le demantelement au CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the dismantling policy at the CEA (French Research Center on the atomic energy), the financing of the decontamination and the dismantling, the regulatory framework, the knowledge and the technology developed at the CEA, the radiation protection, the environment monitoring and the installations. (A.L.B.)

  15. Process for the dismantling of buried equipment, with a contamination risk and eventually irradiating, and intervention enclosure for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Saublet, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Dismantling of buried equipment, for instance abandoned effluent pipes,is made by unitary sections under mobile enclosure with a self-supporting structure and a floor provided with a long central aperture giving access to the section to dismantle

  16. Study on applicability of evaluation model of manpower needs for dismantling of equipments in FUGEN-1. Dismantling process in 3rd/4th feedwater heater room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibahara, Yuji; Izumi, Masanori; Nanko, Takashi; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Ishigami, Tsutomu

    2010-10-01

    Manpower needs for the dismantling process on the dismantling of equipments in FUGEN 3rd/4th feedwater heater room was calculated with the management data evaluation system (PRODIA Code), and it was inspected whether the conventional evaluation model had applicability for FUGEN or not. It was confirmed that the conventional evaluation model for feedwater heater had no applicability. In comparison of the calculated value with the actual data, we found two difference: 1) the calculated value were significantly larger than the actual data, 2) the actual data for the dismantling of 3rd feedwater heater was twice larger than that of 4th feedwater heater, though these equipments were almost same weight. It was found that these were brought 1) by the difference in the work descriptions of dismantling between JPDR and FUGEN, and 2) by that in the cutting number between 3rd feedwater heater and 4th one. The manpower needs for the dismantling of both feedwater heaters were calculated with a new calculation equation reflecting the descriptions of dismantling, and it was found that these results showed the good agreement with the actual data. (author)

  17. Characteristics of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Released from Thermal Treatment and Open Burning of E-Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yu; Zhou, Jun-Feng; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2018-04-17

    Primitive processing of e-waste potentially releases abundant organic contaminants to the environment, but the magnitudes and mechanisms remain to be adequately addressed. We conducted thermal treatment and open burning of typical e-wastes, that is, plastics and printed circuit boards. Emission factors of the sum of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑ 39 PBDE) were 817-1.60 × 10 5 ng g -1 in thermal treatment and nondetected-9.14 × 10 4 ng g -1 , in open burning. Airborne particles (87%) were the main carriers of PBDEs, followed by residual ashes (13%) and gaseous constituents (0.3%), in thermal treatment, while they were 30%, 43% and 27% in open burning. The output-input mass ratios of ∑ 39 PBDE were 0.12-3.76 in thermal treatment and 0-0.16 in open burning. All PBDEs were largely affiliated with fine particles, with geometric mean diameters at 0.61-0.83 μm in thermal degradation and 0.57-1.16 μm in open burning from plastic casings, and 0.44-0.56 and nondetected- 0.55 μm, from printed circuit boards. Evaporation and reabsorption may be the main emission mechanisms for lightly brominated BDEs, but heavily brominated BDEs tend to affiliate with particles from heating or combustion. The different size distributions of particulate PBDEs in emission sources and adjacent air implicated a noteworthy redisposition process during atmospheric dispersal.

  18. Experience of partial dismantling and large component removal of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1987-01-01

    Not any of the French PWR reactors need to be decommissioned before the next decade or early 2000. However, feasibility studies of decommissioning have been undertaken and several dismantling scenarios have been considered including the dismantling of four PWR units and the on-site entombment of the active components into a reactor building for interim disposal. In addition to theoretical evaluation of radwaste volume and activity, several operations of partial dismantling of active components and decontamination activities have been conducted in view of dismantling for both PWR and BWR units. By analyzing the concept of both 900 and 1300 MWe PWR's, it appears that the design improvements taken into account for reducing occupational dose exposure of maintenance personnel and the development of automated tools for performing maintenance and repairs of major components, contribute to facilitate future dismantling and decommissioning operations

  19. Development of an augmented reality based simulation system for cooperative plant dismantling work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Man, Zhiyuan; Yan, Weida; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    An augmented reality-based simulation system for cooperative plant dismantling work has been developed and evaluated. In the system, behaviors of virtual objects such as the dismantling target, chain blocks, and trolleys are physically simulated. Their appearance is superimposed on camera images captured with cameras on users' tablet devices. The users can manipulate virtual objects cooperatively via touch operation. They can cut the dismantling targets, lift them on the trolleys using chain blocks, and convey them through narrow passages to ascertain whether the dismantling targets can be conducted without colliding with the passages. During the simulation, collisions between the virtual objects and real work environment are detected based on their three-dimensional shape data measured in advance. The collided parts are visualized using augmented reality superimposition. Four evaluators assessed the simulation system. Results show that the simulation system can be useful for prior examination of dismantling works, but some points were also found to need improvement. (author)

  20. Decision support system for the dismantling of building in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiher, M.

    2009-01-01

    In case of decommissioning and dismantling the complex structure of nuclear facilities requires a thorough selection of dismantling methods and a detailed operations planning. The decision for an appropriate technology with respect to economic, environmental and radiation protection aspects has to take into account that the different procedural steps are coordinated. Component specific boundary conditions and process parameters have to be considered. A data base was established that includes the process parameters for different dismantling methodologies. The next step is the determination of specific requirements of plant operators and engineers in order to identify the tasks in the frame of the dismantling process. The authors describes the decision support algorithm that allows to enhance the dismantling efficiency.

  1. Transparency in nuclear warhead dismantlement -- Limited chain of custody and warhead signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiernan, G.; Percival, M.; Bratcher, L.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the US Safeguards, Transparency, and Irreversibility (STI) initiative is the development of a series of transparency measures that provide confidence that nuclear warheads are actually being dismantled and that the fissile material being removed from these dismantled weapons is not recycled into new production. A limited chain of custody (LCC) would follow a warhead from the time it is declared excess until it is actually dismantled and the fissile materials are stored. Measurement of warhead signatures is an option in LCC using radiation detection techniques to confirm that a warhead has been dismantled, without intrusive inspections within the dismantlement facility. This paper discusses LCC and warhead signatures as well as indicate first results of laboratory measurements related to warhead signatures

  2. Mock-up test of remote controlled dismantling apparatus for large-sized vessels (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myodo, Masato; Miyajima, Kazutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Okane, Shogo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedures for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various date was obtained in the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF. (author)

  3. Chooz A: a model for the dismantling of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    The specificity of Chooz-A, the first French pressurized water reactor (PWR), is that the reactor and its major components (pumps, exchangers and cooling circuits) are installed in 2 caves dug out in a hill slope. Chooz-A was operating from 1967 to 1991, in 1993 the fuel was removed and in 2007 EDF received the authorization to dismantle the reactor. In 2012, EDF completed the dismantling of the cave containing the elements of the cooling circuit, a cornerstone was the removing of the four 14 m high steam generators. The dismantling of the pressure vessel began in march 2017, it is the same tools and the same processes that were used for the dismantling of the pressure vessel of the Zorita plant (Spain) in 2016. The end of the Chooz-A dismantling is expected in 2022. The feedback experience will help to standardize practices for the French fleet of PWRs. (A.C.)

  4. Evaluation methodology of a manipulator actuator for the dismantling process during nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongwon; Kim, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Kyung-min; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jeikwon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to evaluate actuators of a dismantling manipulator. • Evaluation criteria for choosing the most suitable actuator type. • A mathematical evaluation model for evaluation. • The evaluation method is expected to be used for determining other manipulators. - Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to evaluate actuators of a manipulator for dismantling nuclear power plants. Actuators are the most dominant components because a dismantling manipulator relies heavily on the actuator type used. To select the most suitable actuator, evaluation criteria are presented in four categories based on the nuclear dismantling environment. A mathematical model is presented and evaluation results are calculated with weights and scores for each criterion. The proposed evaluation method is expected to be used for determining other aspects of the design of dismantling manipulators.

  5. Mock-up test of remote controlled dismantling apparatus for large-sized vessels (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myodo, Masato; Miyajima, Kazutoshi; Okane, Shogo

    2001-03-01

    The Remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedures for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various date was obtained in the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF. (author)

  6. S.T.M.I.: Several years of experience in nuclear plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1977, when STMI performed its first dismantling operation, the Company appreciably improved in that field through important operations: the dismantling of the calciothermy and fluoration metal Pu preparation facility, in La Hague reprocessing plant, the dismantling of the slag treatment chain, associated to calciothermy and fluoration processes, in La Hague reprocessing plant, the cleaning of EL4 cell in Marcoule. To perform these operations, STMI's operating teams, on top of decontamination and dismantling technologies, strived to improve handling and transportation technologies, and to nuclearize many equipments. In order to increase its technical efficiency, STMI signed a cooperation agreement with TECHNICATOME company. Therefore, the union between the operational know-hows of STMI and the design experience of TECHNICATOME allow the needs of any customs facing a dismantling case to be satisfied [fr

  7. Heavy metals distribution and risk assessment in soil from an informal E-waste recycling site in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isimekhai, Khadijah A; Garelick, Hemda; Watt, John; Purchase, Diane

    2017-07-01

    Informal E-waste recycling can pose a risk to human health and the environment which this study endeavours to evaluate. The distribution of a number of heavy metals in soil from an informal recycling site in the largest market for used and new electronics and electrical equipment in West Africa was investigated. The potential bioavailability of heavy metals, extent of contamination, potential risk due to the recycling activities and impact of external factors such as rainfall were also assessed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals tested were higher in the area where burning of the waste occurred than at the control site, suggesting an impact of the recycling activities on the soil. The order of total metal concentrations was Cu > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Sb > Cr > Cd for both the dry and wet seasons. The total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were all significantly higher (p  Sb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. When the risk was assessed using the Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI), Cu was found to contribute the most to the potential ecological risk and Cd gave rise to the greatest concern due to its high toxic-response factor within the study site. Similarly, utilising the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) suggested that Cd posed the most risk in this site. This research establishes a high level of contamination in the study site and underscores the importance of applying the appropriate chemical speciation in risk assessment.

  8. Decreased vaccine antibody titers following exposure to multiple metals and metalloids in e-waste-exposed preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinjiang; Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Long; Zeng, Zhijun; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    We explored acquired immunity resulting from vaccination in 3 to 7-year-old children, chronically exposed to multiple heavy metals and metalloids, in an e-waste recycling area (Guiyu, China). Child blood levels of ten heavy metals and metalloids, including lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and seven vaccine antibodies (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, polio, measles) were measured. The exposed group had higher levels of blood Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr compared to the reference group (P 10 μg/dL) and high blood Cu and Zn (upper median value of each group) to be inversely associated with seven antibody titers. Antibody titers increased with age, BMI, high blood Mn (>15 μg/L), and high blood Cd and Ni (upper median value of each group). Results suggest multiple heavy metal and metalloid exposure, especially to Pb, Zn and Cu, may be a risk factor inhibiting the development of child immunity, resulting in decreased child antibody levels against vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dechlorane Plus (DP) in air and plants at an electronic waste (e-waste) site in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shejun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian Mi; Wang Jing; Shi Tian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Yong [Guangdong Forestry Survey and Planning Institute, Guangzhou 510520 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai Bixian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Air and foliage samples (Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were collected from e-waste and reference sites in South China and analyzed for Dechlorane Plus (DP) and two dechlorinated DPs. DP concentrations in the air were 13.1-1794 pg/m{sup 3} for the e-waste site and 0.47-35.7 pg/m{sup 3} for the reference site, suggesting the recycling of e-waste is an important source of DP to the environment. Plant DP, with concentrations of 0.45-51.9 ng/g dry weight at the e-waste site and 0.09-2.46 ng/g at the reference site, exhibited temporal patterns similar to the air DP except for pine needle at the reference site. The air-plant exchange of DP could be described with the two-compartment model. Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. The ratios of anti-Cl{sub 11} DP to anti-DP in the air and plants may indicate the preferential uptake of dechlorinated DP by plant compared with DP. - Highlights: > Dechlorane Plus was widely present in the air and plants in South China. > Temporal patterns of the plant DP could be described with the two-compartment model. > Plant uptake can efficiently reduce air DP concentration at the reference site. > Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. - E-waste recycling in South China results in wide occurrence of DP in the air and plant.

  10. On-site disposal of decontaminated and dismantled (D and D) materials: A management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.S.; Davis, M.J.; Picel, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a federal facility located near Cincinnati, Ohio that is being remediated. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) of the FEMP consists of 232 buildings and other structures that formerly housed various uranium and thorium metallurgical and chemical processes. The buildings are constructed primarily of steel and concrete, with transite siding. The structures are being decontaminated and dismantled using an interim remedial action approach. The disposition of the debris and other waste materials generated by the interim action is being addressed by the final remedial action for the operable unit. The preferred alternative is disposal of most of the material in an engineered disposal cell located on the FEMP property. This is complicated by the fact that the FEMP is located in an environmentally sensitive area and by the complex nature of the materials. The principal aquifer located beneath the site, the Great Miami Aquifer, is designated as a sole-source aquifer under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Disposal of any wastes at the FEMP must be protective of the aquifer. Dismantlement of OU3 structures will result in a very heterogeneous waste stream, both in terms of types of materials and levels of contamination. Wastes to be managed also include contaminated production equipment and drummed materials associated with former production activities, as well as structural materials. All of these factors complicate the management of OU3 materials. This paper discusses the approach proposed by the FEMP for the management of materials resulting from the interim remedial action. The components of the management approach being used to address disposal of the heterogeneous wastes from OU3 in an environmentally sensitive manner are discussed, followed by some conclusions

  11. 48 CFR 52.249-3 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). 52.249-3 Section 52.249-3... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). As prescribed in 49.502(b)(2), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling...

  12. Dismantling of Evaporators by Laser Cutting Measurement of Secondary Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, Guy; Fauvel, Sylvain; Gosse, Xavier; De Dinechin, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    In order to dismantle the evaporators of an obsolete reprocessing plant in Marcoule, studies were carried out by IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) / DSU/SERAC in cooperation with CEA (power laser group) on the laser cutting of steel structures, on the request of COGEMA (now AREVA NC) /Marcoule (UP1 dismantling project manager) and CEA/UMODD (UP1 dismantling owner). The aim of these studies was: - to quantify and to characterize the secondary emissions produced by Nd-YAG laser cutting of Uranus 65 steel pieces representative of UP1 evaporator elements and to examine the influence of different parameters, - to qualify a pre-filtration technique and particularly an electrostatic precipitator, - to compare the Nd-YAG used with other cutting tools previously studied. The experiments, which took place in a 35 m 3 ventilated cutting cell, allow to underline the following points: for the Uranus 65 steel, the sedimented dross, the deposits on the walls of the cutting cell and the aerosols drawn in the ventilation exhaust duct (∼ 275 m 3 /h), represent respectively between 92% and 99%, between 0.01% and 0.25% and between 1% and 8% of the total collected mass, the attached slag varies much from one configuration to the other and can sometimes amount to a relatively important fraction of the total mass, the kerves vary from 2 mm up to 7 mm for the Uranus 65 steel plates (thickness: 13.8 mm for the single plate and 12.8 + 3.5 mm for the double plate), the exhausted aerosol mass per cut length (g/m) decreases with the cutting speed, varies neither with the stand-off nor with the gas pressure, is dependent upon the gas nature (for the double plate), increases with the laser power, is strongly affected by the nature of the steel (stainless steel or mild steel) and is independent upon the plate position, the size distribution of aerosols is multimodal with a main mode often around 0.45 μm, the electrostatic precipitator has been a satisfactory prefilter

  13. Experience acquired by EDF in implementation of its dismantling programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeyle, S.; Dalmas, R.; Davoust, M. [EDF - Centre d' Ingenerie Deconstruction Environnement (CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2008-07-01

    EDF decided in 2001 to implement immediate dismantling of its first generation nuclear plants. Seven years after this decision, the physical progress of the programme is 24% and is due to reach 50 % by 2013. This paper presents the experiences acquired in the fields of organization, project and programme management, purchasing strategies and waste management. Until now, the principal works involve Brennilis (Heavy water), ChoozA (PWR) and Creys Malville (fast breeder reactor). The detailed pre-project concerning the first of the six gas graphite reactors is complete and the call for bids process has been launched. The organization to manage projects, established at the De-construction and Environment Engineering Center (CIDEN), is effective and productive. Estimates of costs and expenses are coherent, which makes the forecasts put together to finance the programme secure. CIDEN has carried out significant engineering work over the last six years, making it possible to apply for the administrative authorizations which have now been obtained or are in the process of being obtained. Technical specifications are prepared at an optimized level of detail according to a contractual policy adapted to the complexity of the operations and the sharing of risk with manufacturers. The ChoozA contractualization process has been launched and the first dismantling work has begun in the nuclear auxiliary part. The main Brennilis contract will be completed in mid- 2008 and dismantling works will restart after renewal of the decree which was cancelled in mid-2007. Treatment of sodium from Creys Malville is about to begin, leading to elimination of the sodium risk by 2013. The very low activity waste (TFA) and low to medium activity waste (FA-MA) removal chains are operational. The intermediate activity/long lived (MA-VL) waste will be stored in a facility which will be brought into operational service in 2012. The graphite storage center is due to open between 2017 and 2019

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  15. Ecological effects of combined pollution associated with e-waste recycling on the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; He, Xiao-Xin; Lin, Xue-Rui; Chen, Wen-Ce; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Nan

    2015-06-02

    The crude processing of electronic waste (e-waste) has led to serious contamination in soils. While microorganisms may play a key role in remediation of the contaminated soils, the ecological effects of combined pollution (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) on the composition and diversity of microbial communities remain unknown. In this study, a suite of e-waste contaminated soils were collected from Guiyu, China, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analysis. Our data revealed significant differences in microbial taxonomic composition between the contaminated and the reference soils, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes dominating the e-waste-affected communities. Genera previously identified as organic pollutants-degrading bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Alcanivorax, were frequently detected. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that approximately 70% of the observed variation in microbial assemblages in the contaminated soils was explained by eight environmental variables (including soil physiochemical parameters and organic pollutants) together, among which moisture content, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), and copper were the major factors. These results provide the first detailed phylogenetic look at the microbial communities in e-waste contaminated soils, demonstrating that the complex combined pollution resulting from improper e-waste recycling may significantly alter soil microbiota.

  16. Method and jig for dismantling nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumi; Watahiki, Minoru.

    1989-01-01

    The object of the present inention is to extract a fuel element from a lower tie plate safely and at high efficiency by a remote control operation. That is, a forked top end of a lever of a dismantling jig is inserted between the tapered portion of a lower end plug and a lower tie plate. Then, a load is applied to the counter-lower end side of the lever by a motor. This exerts an elevating force to the fuel elements to easily release fixture between the lower end plug and the lower tie plate. Since the fuel can of fuel elements is not applied with a force by this mehtod, operation safety can be improved. (I.J.)

  17. The Dismantling of the Japanese Model in Consumer Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens; Holm Olesen, Michael; Kjær, Jonas

    This paper addresses an issue of great importance for the future organization of the consumerelectronics industry: the "battle" of control over component-based digitization. We are now witnessing the dismantling of the Japanese Model that has prevailed in consumer electronicsover the past 30 years....... Specialized and large-scale component suppliers have taken the lead inmost component-based innovations and have obtained increasingly powerful positions in thevalue chain of consumer electronics. This paper provides an in-depth study of the strategic andstructural ramifications of one such component...... technology. Aframework is developed to explain the reluctance of most of the large consumer electronicsgiants in developing/adopting this new technology.Key words: Consumer electronics, Industrial dynamics, Open InnovationJEL Codes: L6, L68, O32...

  18. Method and apparatus for dismantling and disposing of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.; Schulties, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to apparatus and a method for dismantling, shearing, and compacting a fuel assembly frame skeleton. It uses an apparatus capable of hanging or being supported in the transfer canal of the spent fuel pit of the fuel handling building. This apparatus includes a bottom nozzle shear which is held under water to shear off the bottom nozzle and convey it to a scrap transfer bin. Then the remaining portion is brought to a skeleton compactor and shear, also held under water. The compacted skeleton is sheared into a number of smaller portions. After compacting and shearing, the individual portions are fed to the scrap transfer bin. The compacted and sheared skeleton assembly may be placed into a container that is adapted to hold four skeletons for off-site removal

  19. Decommissioning and Dismantling of the Floating Maintenance Base 'Lepse' - 13316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, D.; Mizen, K.

    2013-01-01

    The Lepse was built in Russia in 1934 and commissioned as a dry cargo ship. In 1961 she was re-equipped for use as a nuclear service ship (NSS), specifically a floating maintenance base (FMB), to support the operation of the civilian nuclear fleet (ice-breakers) of the USSR. In 1988 Lepse was taken out of service and in 1990 she was re-classified as a 'berth connected ship', located at a berth near the port of Murmansk under the ownership of Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) Atomflot. Lepse has special storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies (SFA) that have been used to store several hundred SFAs for nearly 40 years. High and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is also present in the spent nuclear fuel assembly storage channels, in special tanks and also in the SFA cooling circuit. Many of the SFAs stored in Lepse are classified as damaged and cannot be removed using standard procedures. The removal of the SFA and LRW from the Lepse storage facilities is a hazardous task and requires specially designed tools, equipment and an infrastructure in which these can be deployed safely. Lepse is a significant environmental hazard in the North West of Russia. Storing spent nuclear fuel and high-level liquid radioactive waste on board Lepse in the current conditions is not acceptable with respect to Russian Federation health, safety and environmental standards and with international best practice. The approved concept design for the removal of the SFA and LRW and dismantling of Lepse requires that the ship be transported to Nerpa shipyard where specialist infrastructure will be constructed and equipment installed. One of the main complexities of the Project lies within the number of interested stakeholders involved in the Project. The Lepse project has been high focus on the international stage for many years with previous international efforts failing to make significant progress towards the objective of decommissioning Lepse. The Northern

  20. Outsourcing and "dismantling" of steady jobs at hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Saragor de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To relate hospitals' organizational structure as the core of a web of outsourced services and flexible employment bonds among healthcare professionals in the context of finance capitalism, analyzing work arrangements based mainly on the type of employment bond. METHOD Qualitative research through ethnography, interviews, data analysis, and case studies. The case studies were concentrated in 3 hospitals located in the São Paulo metropolitan region under different management types: public administration; outsourced administration via a healthcare social organization (HSO; and private administration. RESULTS This study highlights a trend in outsourcing, dismantling of steady jobs, and shaping working relations asymmetrically in terms of healthcare professions. CONCLUSION These aspects are characteristic of contemporary capitalism and post-Fordist work organization. In this context, the state under sponsorship cripples the very existence of an effective human resources policy, creating a favorable environment for outsourcing and flexibility of employment bonds among healthcare workers.

  1. The Dismantling Project for the Large Electron Positron (LEP) Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, John

    2002-01-01

    The LEP accelerator was installed in a circular tunnel 27 km in length with nine access points distributed around the circumference in the countryside and villages which surround CERN's sites. The dismantling project involved the removal in less than 15 months of around 29000 tonnes of equipment from the accelerator itself and a further 10000 tonnes from the four experiments - all of which were located at an average depth of 100 m below ground level. There was no contamination risk in the project and less than 3% of the materials removed were classified as radioactive. However, the materials which were classified as radioactive have to be temporarily stored and they consume considerable resources. The major difficulties for the project were in the establishment of the theoretical radiological zoning, implementation of the traceability systems and making appropriate radiation measurements to confirm the zoning. The absence of detailed guidelines from the French authorities, having no threshold levels for relea...

  2. Large components dismantlement flow chart in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The beginning steps are identical for large or regular components. The starting point of this flowchart assumes that it has already been determined the component has been categorized as waste. The first step is to make sure that all components are handled safely, that ALARA is followed, that any security concerns are managed, and that the dismantlement cost or any other cost is constantly reviewed. After this, the process knowledge and acceptable knowledge should be reviewed; this will help in the following step which is characterization with non-destructive assay. At this point, the project manager is presented with the first three alternatives which will determine the path to follow: Low level waste (LLW) disposal flowchart, part 1 to 3 , Transuranic waste (TRU) disposal flowchart, part 1 and 2 , or High level waste (HLW) disposal flowchart

  3. Mock-up-CZ: dismantling of the experiment - Geotechnical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Vasicek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The issue of the disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most pressing challenges of our age, for which, in most countries, the deep repository concept is generally considered to be the most suitable final solution. In order to make such a repository both safe and reliable, intensive research is underway worldwide. The construction of physical models is one approach to the study of the engineered barriers for deep geological repositories; one such experiment, Mock-Up-CZ, has been performed at the Centre of Experimental Geotechnics, CTU in Prague. The Mock-Up-CZ experiment simulated the vertical placement of a container with radioactive waste, an approach that is in line with the Swedish KBS-3 system. The physical model consisted of a barrier made up of bentonite blocks, powdered bentonite backfill, a heater and hydration and monitoring systems. The whole experiment was enclosed in a cylindrical box, whose construction was able to withstand high pressure due to bentonite swelling. A number of sensors (monitoring changes in temperature, pressure and moisture) were placed inside the bentonite barrier. The basic material used in the experiment consisted of a mixture of Czech bentonite from the Rokle deposit (85%), quartz sand (10%) and graphite (5%). The first phase of the experiment commenced on 7 May 2002, during which the heater was switched on, with no water input. After 6 months the second phase commenced in which water was introduced through the hydration system. This phase ended on 2nd January 2006 when the heater was switched off. After allowing time for cooling, the dismantling phase commenced (30 January 2006). After a further one and a half months (17 March 2006) the dismantling of the experimental vessel was completed. Post-decommissioning analysis continued until the end of 2007. Dismantling and post-decommissioning analysis were carried out according to a very detailed plan which included not only

  4. E-waste collection in Italy: Results from an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Grassetti, Luca

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at the performance of household electrical and electronic waste (WEEE) collection in 20 Italian regions from 2008 to 2015. The impact of several explicative variables on the results of e-waste collection is evaluated. The independent variables are socio-economic and demographic ones (age, gender, household size, education level, migration and income) along with technical-organisational variables (population density, presence of metropoles, macro regions, characteristics of the territory, percentage of household waste collected separately and number of e-waste collection points). The results show that the presence of collection points, the percentage of household waste collected separately and the percentage of females are positively correlated with the kg collected per inhabitant per year. For example, a variation of 1% of input (presence of collection points) corresponds to a 0.25% variation in the output (collection results) while 1% difference in the percentage of females in the population corresponds to a 7.549% difference in the collection rate. Population density, instead, is negatively correlated. It is interesting to note that there is a discrepancy between the Southern regions and the Centre regions (the former have an outcome 0.66 times lower than the latter) while the Northern regions perform similarly to the Centre ones. Moreover, the first year (2008) had a very low performance compared to the following years when the scheme constantly improved, mainly due to the additional collection points available. The Stochastic Frontier Model allows for the identification of the optimal production function among the 20 Italian regions. The best performing region is Tuscany (in the Centre), followed by Sardinia and Sicily (in the South). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Optimized phases for reactor dismantling – an efficient and sustainable concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, S.; Winter, J.

    2013-01-01

    D&D projects are driven by costs, to implement an optimization process from the very beginning is key. Optimized strategy and sequencing of the dismantling (hot to cold) will provide serious economical savings . Larger dismantling packages will reduce interfaces and ease the coordination efforts on site. Early usage of mobile systems will ease the large-scale release for dismantling Social transition has to be addressed with priority and to be planned at an early phase in the D&D planning Concept, Planning & Project Management will influence the success of the project much more than the used technique

  7. Clearance of radioactive materials during reactor dismantling. Permanent enclosure instead of demolition and renaturation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    During reactor dismantling besides high-level radioactive wastes a large amount of low-level contaminated steel and concrete has to be disposed. In case that radioactivity falls below defined dose limits (10 micro Sv/person and year) these materials may be disposed in domestic waste landfill or in municipal incineration facilities. The issue is discussed in detail including the fact that many power plants are dismantled at the same time so that the contaminated materials might accumulate. Another issue is the occupational safety of contract workers during dismantling. The permanent enclosure could avoid this environmental contamination of decommissioned power plants might also be less expensive.

  8. Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the advance used in C.E.A. to realize dismantling operations in the best technical and economical conditions. Particularly, for low-level radioactive waste management CEA's advance defines, first, the final destination of dismantling materials: - recycling in public lands for level activity inferior to 1 Bq/g; directly or after transformation (melting, calcination, extrusion) - storage in a ground disposal, after compacting, encapsulation or drumming. Two examples are given: - Marcoule G2 - G3 reactor dismantling - Gaseous diffusion plants demolition (COGEMA Pierrelatte)

  9. NucLab Marcoule. A laboratory facility dedicated to support dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, O.; Houssin, A.; Pierre, D.; Bec-Espitalier, L.

    2013-06-01

    Formerly dedicated to plutonium production support, NucLab was renovated to perform a wide range of analyses for dismantling, plant operation and process development activities mainly on Marcoule site but also outside (Veurey, Fontenay aux Roses). The Laboratory is under a CEA AREVA partnership as a CEA entity operated by AREVA employees. It provides services to several industrial operators (nuclear process and power plant) in the fields of analytical chemistry, radioactivity measurements, in situ nuclear measurements, decontamination processes and industrial chemistry processes, waste treatments to meet the following analysis requirements. NucLab today is able to support research, production and dismantling activities in all part of dismantling operations. (authors)

  10. System approach as a tool for optimization of the dismantling technological process of NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bylkin, B.K.; Shpitser, V.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of NPP unit decommissioning has been considered. Special attention was paid to the stage of dismantling of NPP unit equipment. Employment of systematic approach as a tool for optimization of dismantling processes permits formalizing manipulations with certified indices of quality and it permits an objective assessment of the dismantling technology level attained during designing as compared with the basic one. It seems appropriate to develop a basic project of NPP unit decommissioning as a technical means of planning, predicting and evaluating ecological and social aftereffects

  11. Report of working group for technical standard of cutting and melting works in Glovebox dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asazuma, Shinichiroh; Takeda, Shinsoh; Tajima, Shoichi

    2004-11-01

    In order to prevent spread of contamination, glovebox dismantling activity is usually performed in a confined enclosure with personal radioactive protective equipment. Since large potion of these materials is made of vinyl acetate, there exist potential risks of fire, damage and injury to the environment and workers during the dismantling (cutting or melting) operation. It is therefore important to establish standard for proper use of equipment and hazard controls in such a specific environment. Working Group composed of Tokai Works and Oarai Works has examined and developed the operational standard for cutting work in glovebox dismantlement. The result is reflected to the Tokai Works Safety Operational Standard. (author)

  12. Utilization of External Capacities as an Integral Component of Concepts for Residues and Dismantling Using the Example of the CARLA Plant. National and International Experiences in Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, nuclear industry has impressively demonstrated that decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations are technologically feasible tasks. From numerous projects, already concluded as well as still in process, substantial experiences could be gained which shall find their way into future strategies for decommissioning and dismantling. The overhasty and uncoordinated change in national energy policy, willingly called 'energy turnaround', will inevitably lead to a real wave of decommissioning projects. Mastering these will only be possible by consistently implementing the available pool of experiences. Future dismantling strategies will have to design the interaction between dismantling and treatment of residues in a much more flexible way in order to perform the whole dismantling process more efficiently. The more intensive utilization of external capacities for the treatment of residues can make a relevant essential contribution. By the CARLA plant Siempelkamp offers such a safe and reliable component for every dismantling project, based on a proven and tested past while continuously developing for the future. Until today, more than 28,000 tons of radioactive metals could be processed in the CARLA plant and subsequently could be harmlessly recycled to a large extent. Over the time, the offered scope of service has constantly been expanded. In the separation and cutting area components with dimensions of up to the size of a 40' container can be treated by thermal as well as mechanical separation methods. The outside storage area for containers with a capacity of approx. 150 pieces of 20' containers along with the authorized storage period for delivered material of 3 years enables us to react very flexibly to all project situations and by buffer storage customer specific campaigns of sufficient size can be arranged. In April 2012, the decontamination capacity could be clearly extended by commissioning of a new decontamination

  13. Digital Autoradiography as a novel complementary technique for the investigation of radioactive contamination in nuclear facilities under dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haudebourg, Raphael; Fichet, Pascal; Goutelard, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The detection (location and quantification) of nuclear facilities to be dismantled possible contamination with low-range particles emitters ( 3 H, other low-energy β emitters, a emitters) remains a tedious and expensive task. Indeed, usual remote counters show a too low sensitivity to these non-penetrating radiations, while conventional wipe tests are irrelevant for fixed radioactivity evaluation. The only method to accurately measure activity levels consists in sampling and running advanced laboratory analyses (spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, pyrolysis...). Such measurements generally induce sample preparation, waste production (destructive analyses, solvents), nuclear material transportation, long durations, and significant labor mobilization. Therefore, the search for the limitation of their number and cost easily conflicts with the necessity to perform a dense screening for sampling (to maximize the representativeness of the samples), in installations of thousands of square meters (floors, wells, ceilings), plus furniture, pipes, and other wastes. To overcome this contradiction, Digital Autoradiography (D. A.) was re-routed from bio molecular research to radiological mapping of nuclear installations under dismantling and to waste and sample analysis. After in-situ exposure to the possibly-contaminated areas to investigate, commercial reusable radiosensitive phosphor screens (of a few 100 cm 2 ) were scanned in the proper laboratory device and sharp quantitative images of the radioactivity could be obtained. The implementation of geostatistical tools in the data processing software enabled the exhaustive characterization of concrete floors at a rate of 2 weeks / 100 m 2 , at lowest costs. Various samples such as drilled cores, or tank and wood pieces, were also successfully evaluated with this method, for decisive results. Thanks to the accurate location of potential contamination spots, this approach ensures relevant and representative sampling

  14. On evaluation of assessments of accruals of future dismantling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labor, Bea [B D Projects 2013, Gdansk (Poland); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Solna (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    A major prerequisite in order for civilian commercial nuclear energy production to qualify as sustainable energy production is that systems for the management of the nuclear waste legacy are in operation. These waste types are present in a range from very low short lived waste (VLLW) to long lived high level waste (HLW) (including the used nuclear fuel). The second prerequisite is that financial responsibilities or other constraints must not be passed on to coming generations. The first condition for qualification corresponds to the Polluters Pays Principle (PPP) which demands that the responsibility for the waste management rests solely with the polluter. The second qualification corresponds to the principle of fairness between generations and thus concerns the appropriate distribution of responsibilities between the generations. It is important to note that these two conditions must be met simultaneously, and that compliance with both is a necessary prerequisite in order for commercial use of nuclear power to qualify as a semi-sustainable energy source. Financial and technical planning for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear installations cannot be regarded as successful unless it rests upon a distinctive way to describe and explain the well-founded values of different groups of stakeholders. This cumbersome task can be underpinned by transparent and easy to grasp models for calculation and estimation of future environmental liabilities. It essential that a systematic classification is done of all types of costs and that an effort is done to evaluate the precision level in the cost estimates. In this paper, a systematic and transparent way to develop a parametric approach that rest upon basic accounting standards is combined with data about younger stakeholder's values towards decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installation. The former entity rests upon theoretical and practical methods from business administration, whilst the latter is based

  15. On evaluation of assessments of accruals of future dismantling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labor, Bea; Lindskog, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    A major prerequisite in order for civilian commercial nuclear energy production to qualify as sustainable energy production is that systems for the management of the nuclear waste legacy are in operation. These waste types are present in a range from very low short lived waste (VLLW) to long lived high level waste (HLW) (including the used nuclear fuel). The second prerequisite is that financial responsibilities or other constraints must not be passed on to coming generations. The first condition for qualification corresponds to the Polluters Pays Principle (PPP) which demands that the responsibility for the waste management rests solely with the polluter. The second qualification corresponds to the principle of fairness between generations and thus concerns the appropriate distribution of responsibilities between the generations. It is important to note that these two conditions must be met simultaneously, and that compliance with both is a necessary prerequisite in order for commercial use of nuclear power to qualify as a semi-sustainable energy source. Financial and technical planning for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear installations cannot be regarded as successful unless it rests upon a distinctive way to describe and explain the well-founded values of different groups of stakeholders. This cumbersome task can be underpinned by transparent and easy to grasp models for calculation and estimation of future environmental liabilities. It essential that a systematic classification is done of all types of costs and that an effort is done to evaluate the precision level in the cost estimates. In this paper, a systematic and transparent way to develop a parametric approach that rest upon basic accounting standards is combined with data about younger stakeholder's values towards decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installation. The former entity rests upon theoretical and practical methods from business administration, whilst the latter is based

  16. LEAR, shown here dismantled, will live to see another golden era as LEIR starting in 2005.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) experiment has now been dismantled. Only the dipoles remain for use in the future LEIR (Low Energy Ion Ring) experiment, the new ring which will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments.

  17. Deliberated opinion of the Environment Authority concerning the dismantling of the Ulysse reactor (CEA Saclay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As the Ulysse reactor of Saclay is about to be dismantled, this report discusses the content of a request made by the CEA to definitely stop and dismantle this reactor. After having recalled the origin of this dismantling project and its regulatory framework, it describes the actual works which are planned, and outlines the main challenges to be faced. It discusses the content of the environmental report or impact study, notably the analysis of the initial condition, the analysis of direct and indirect effects of the project on the environment and health, and of the envisaged measures (waste management, liquid and gaseous effluent management, risk management, radiological exposure of workers in charge of this dismantling, and transports). Recommendations are formulated for a rewriting of the provided documents

  18. Cutting Method of the CAD model of the Nuclear facility for Dismantling Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ikjune; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Jeong, KwanSeong; Kim, GeunHo; Lee, Jonghwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current methods for process simulation cannot simulate the cutting operation flexibly. As is, to simulate a cutting operation, user needs to prepare the result models of cutting operation based on pre-define cutting path, depth and thickness with respect to a dismantle scenario in advance. And those preparations should be built again as scenario changes. To be, user can change parameters and scenarios dynamically within a simulation configuration process so that the user saves time and efforts to simulate cutting operations. This study presents the methodology of cutting operation which can be applied to all the procedure in the simulation of dismantling of nuclear facilities. We developed the cutting simulation module for cutting operation in the dismantling of the nuclear facilities based on proposed cutting methodology. We defined the requirement of model cutting methodology based on the requirement of the dismantling of nuclear facilities. And we implemented cutting simulation module based on API of the commercial CAD system.

  19. Sites with nuclear facilities in the state of dismantling and their future from the public perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretz, Simon Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The thesis on the public perspective at sites of nuclear facility dismantling covers the following issues: the change of German energy landscapes under social and political points of view, theoretical frame of the work, combination of empirical studies and the theoretical approaches in a space concept, action model and hypotheses on the situation and development in communities with nuclear facilities in the state of dismantling, description of the interviewees, and the empirical results of the interviews.

  20. Management system information of characterization of the dismantling project of Jose Cabrera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimeno Blesa, M. E.; Martin Palomo, N.; Gomez Rodriguez, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    In the proposed dismantling and decommissioning of the Jose Cabrera NPP is designed and implemented a database of physical and radiological inventory, which provides a powerful tool to optimize the storage, monitoring and control of the characterization data. The database is a useful and reliable management system characterization information that facilitates access and information processing, and ensures their integrity and traceability along of the dismantling project.

  1. Parameters of Dismantling Techniques Related to Costs for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwanseong; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Byungseon

    2012-01-01

    Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning operation. Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning planning. Alternative technologies may be evaluated and compared on their efficiency and effectiveness, and measured against a baseline cost as to the feasibility and benefit derived from the technology. This principle ensures that the cost consideration is economically sound and practical for funding. This paper provides a list with basic review of cutting and dismantling techniques, including some typical characteristics if available, as well as aspects of implementation, parameters of cutting and dismantling techniques in decommissioning costing. This paper gives an overview of the principles of the unit factor approach and its implementation in costing in relation to dismantling activities. In general, proper evaluation of decommissioning costs is important for following issues and relevant measures for achieving the listed aspects are: · Selection of a decommissioning strategy and activities: several decommissioning options should be evaluated: · Support to a cost-benefit analysis to ensure that the principle of optimization and reasonably practicable measures are applied: the extent of evaluated decommissioning options should cover all possible scenarios for dismantling activities; · Estimate of required financial resources for the selected strategy: the selected option should involve the dismantling activities in a structure and extent relevant to real procedure of dismantling activities; · Preparation of the project schedule, workforce requirements and phased funding needs: dismantling activities should be structured according to the tasks of the decommissioning schedule; · Definition of measures for proper management and maintenance of resources for safe and timely decommissioning: the time distribution and safety related parameters of dismantling activities should be known

  2. Multi-criteria group decision making for evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Santoso; Deng, Hepu

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria group decision making approach for effectively evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty in an organization. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used for adequately representing the subjective and imprecise assessments of the decision makers in evaluating the relative importance of evaluation criteria and the performance of individual e-waste recycling programs with respect to individual criteria in a given situation. An interactive fuzzy multi-criteria decision making algorithm is developed for facilitating consensus building in a group decision making environment to ensure that all the interest of individual decision makers have been appropriately considered in evaluating alternative e-waste recycling programs with respect to their corporate sustainability performance. The developed algorithm is then incorporated into a multi-criteria decision support system for making the overall performance evaluation process effectively and simple to use. Such a multi-criteria decision making system adequately provides organizations with a proactive mechanism for incorporating the concept of corporate sustainability into their regular planning decisions and business practices. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach in evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs in organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  4. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The influence of e-waste recycling on the molecular ecological network of soil microbial communities in Pakistan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longfei; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Dayi; Song, Mengke; Wang, Yujie; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2017-12-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling releases large amounts of organic pollutants and heavy metals into the environment. As crucial moderators of geochemical cycling processes and pollutant remediation, soil microbes may be affected by these contaminants. We collected soil samples heavily contaminated by e-waste recycling in China and Pakistan, and analyzed the indigenous microbial communities. The results of this work revealed that the microbial community composition and diversity, at both whole and core community levels, were affected significantly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, and Pb). The geographical distance showed limited impacts on microbial communities compared with geochemical factors. The constructed ecological network of soil microbial communities illustrated microbial co-occurrence, competition and antagonism across soils, revealing the response of microbes to soil properties and pollutants. Two of the three main modules constructed with core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were sensitive to nutrition (total organic carbon and total nitrogen) and pollutants. Five key OTUs assigned to Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Nitrospirae in ecological network were identified. This is the first study to report the effects of e-waste pollutants on soil microbial network, providing a deeper understanding of the ecological influence of crude e-waste recycling activities on soil ecological functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health physics aspects of the Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator dismantling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.W.; Holeman, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    A program for the disassembly of the Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator was initiated January 1, 1975. The object of the disassembly was to render the accelerator complex free of radioactive contamination in order that the area may be used for other University purposes. In addition, any salvage of metal parts was a desirable goal of the dismantling procedure. A systematic removal of all contaminated material began immediately. Portable survey instruments, swipe surveys, and sodium iodide gamma ray spectra were used as indicators of contamination. Apparatus in the direct beam line seemed to pose the most significant hazard to personnel. As beam components were eliminated, radioactive contamination was significantly reduced. Certain accelerator parts had to be machined in order to salvage non-contaminated metal, and the health physics aspects of this procedure are described. Isotopes found in the surveys included 22 Na, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn and 75 Se, which were predominately beam activation products of accelerator components. Final surveys indicated the area free of radioactive contamination

  7. Method of processing dismantled products of radiation-contaminated equipments and transportation container therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, Shiro; Heki, Hideaki.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of decontaminating dismantled products of radiation-contaminated equipments removed at nuclear power facilities and classifying the dismantled products depending on their remaining radioactivity levels measured at a processing facility, the dismantled products are contained in a transportation container, to which decontamination liquids are injected and they are transferred to the processing facility. The decontaminated liquid wastes are drained from the transportation container, the dismantled products are washed while being contained in the transportation container as they are. Then, they are transferred to a step for measuring their remaining radioactivity level. This can shorten the time from the containment of the dismantled products to the transportation container to the completion of the decontamination, to improve the efficiency for the decontamination processing. Further, by separately containing the dismantled products on every kind of materials to respective containers, the processing time can be appropriately controlled respectively even if the dissolving efficiency to the decontamination liquids is different depending on the materials. (T.M.)

  8. Evaluation of decontamination during dismantling of plutonium-contaminated glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Manabu; Taguchi, Seigi; Ohzeki, Satoru; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Kashima, Sadamitsu

    1981-01-01

    The dismantling work of plutonium-contaminated glove boxes was carried out. These glove boxes had been used for the R and D of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuel for 15 years. The work was carried out in a pressure-controlled greenhouse, and the contamination of air in the greenhouse was monitored continuously. In order to reduce the contamination of air during dismantling, the decontamination and fixation of loose contaminants on the surfaces of glove boxes were very important. The correlation between decontamination and the contamination of air regarding dismantling is reported in this paper. The surface contamination density of the glove boxes was measured utilizing the smear method before and after the decontamination, and the decontamination effects were estimated. The contamination of air during dismantling was continuously measured with a plutonium dust monitor. It was found that loose contamination exponentially decreased by the decontamination process. When the so-called wet glove boxes, which contained wet recovery and waste disposal apparatus, were dismantled, the contamination of air did not exceed 500 (MPC) a. However, the contamination of air exceeded 500 (MPC) a several times in the present work of dismantling the so-called dry glove boxes which had been used for the fabrication of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide pellets. (Kato, T.)

  9. DIRECT DISMANTLING OF REPROCESSING PLANT CELLS THE EUREX PLANT EXPERIENCEe2d12c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.; Troiani, F.; Risoluti, P.

    2003-01-01

    After finishing the reprocessing campaigns in 1970-1983, the EUREX pilot reprocessing plant of ENEA Saluggia Research Center started into a new phase, aiming to materials and irradiated fuel systemation and radioactive wastes conditioning. In 1997 the project ''CORA'' for a vitrification plant for the high and intermediate liquid radioactive wastes started. The ''CORA'' plant will be hosted in some dismantled cells of the EUREX plant, reusing many of the EUREX plant auxiliary systems, duly refurbished, saving money and construction time and avoiding a new nuclear building in the site. Two of the cells that will be reused were part of the EUREX chemical process (solvent recovery and 2nd extraction cycle) and the components were obviously internally contaminated. In 2000 the direct (hands-on) dismantling of one of them started and has been completed in summer 2002; the second one will be dismantled in the next year and then the ''CORA'' plant will be assembled inside the cells. Special care w as taken to avoid spread of contamination in the cells, where ''CORA'' installation activities will start in the next years, during the dismantling process The analysis of data and results collected during the dismantling of the first cell shows that direct dismantling can be achieved with careful choice of tools, procedures and techniques, to reduce volumes of wastes to be disposed and radiological burden

  10. The Blue Lady Case and the International Issue of Ship Dismantling - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pelsy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the decision of the Supreme Court of India to allow the dismantling of the Blue Lady (ex France in Alang. The first part underlines that the Supreme Court of India is prioritising the commercial interest of the dismantling companies over the social and environmental concerns of the workers and the communities living in Alang. It argues that such decision goes against its 2003 judgement on ship-dismantling. It then demonstrates that the Supreme Court of India is distorting the concept of sustainable development. The second part analyses the Blue Lady case from an international perspective since most of the ships that are dismantled in India come from developed countries. It provides an overview of the Basel Convention on ship dismantling issues and a study of the Clemenceau case before the French Conseil d'Etat. It then concludes that a better control of end-of-life ships in OECD countries and a new international convention on ship-dismantling would be necessary in order to prevent environmental and social disasters in Alang.

  11. Dismantling, conditioning and repatriation of disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, S.L.; Miranda, C.A.; Saire, A.E.; Ontiveros, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    In Bolivia sealed radioactive sources for medical, industrial and research applications are used; radioactive sources containing a wide range of radionuclides and have different levels of activity and half-lives, they generated a problem when they stop being used. At the end of its useful life these sources are considered obsolete. However, residual levels of radioactivity, which have these sources can be high constituting a potential hazard to personnel and applies to those who benefit from its use and the general public. The aim of this work has been focused mainly on safety issues in the safe handling and management of disused sealed sources. Assignments listed below: 1. Dismantling; 2. Packaging; 3. Return of disused sealed radioactive sources. The actions taken were carried out by the technical teams of the Bolivian Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (IBTEN) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANS) which supports the program 'Global Threat Reduction Initiative's' (GTRI) in the implementation of 'Off -site Source Recovery Program' (OSRP). [es

  12. Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries' military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities

  13. Disposal of fissionable material from dismantled nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction in tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union has improved the prospects for nuclear disarmament, making it more likely that significant numbers of nuclear warheads will be dismantled by the United States and USSR in the foreseeable future. Thus, the question becomes more urgent as to the disposition of the weapons materials, highly enriched uranium and plutonium. It is timely, therefore, to develop specific plans for such disposal. The overall process for disposal of weapons materials by the burnup option involves the following steps: (1) removing the weapons material from the warheads, (2) converting the material to a fuel form suitable for power reactors, (3) burning it up as a power reactor fuel, and (4) removing the spent fuel and placing it in a permanent repository. This paper examines these four steps with the purpose of answering the following questions. What facilities would be appropriate for the disposal process? Do they need to be dedicated facilities, or could industrial facilities be used? What is the present projection of the economics of the burnup process, both the capital investment and the operating costs? How does one assure that fissionable materials will not be diverted to military use during the disposal process? Is the spent fuel remaining from the burnup process proliferation resistant? Would the disposal of spent fuel add an additional burden to the spent fuel permanent repository? The suggested answers are those of the author and do not represent a position by the Electric Power Research Institute

  14. Gaukang and White Coup: Dismantling of Traditional Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Sastrawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of power adhered to by the South Sulawesi community and explains the power struggle which had occurred both in the past and present. The South Sulawesi community’s conceptiontraditional power on power signifies a strong, transcendental relationship between themselves and supernatural powers, wherein all objects possessing certain peculiarities are inseparable from the stable and unchanging cosmic world. Thus, gaukang holds a significant position in the life of the South Sulawesi community, particularly pertaining to matters of power struggle. The waxing and waning of traditional power in South Sulawesi is determined by at least three factors: firstly, a change in power patterns with the emergence of new elites having a commoner background; secondly, incessant resistance to feudalistic rule; and lastly, the application of modern bureaucratic model. The general conclusion of this paper emphasizes the position of gaukang as a central point affecting the various power struggles that occurred throughout the history of the South Sulawesi community. The enactment of Regional Regulation (Perda No. 5 year 2016 on the Organization of Gowa Regency Local Cultural and Customary Institution provides a peek at how bureaucratic power had dismantled traditional power in Gowa Regency, which included, consequently, the transfer of authority over the royal heirlooms or gaukang of the Gowa Kingdom.

  15. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  16. Dismantling method for reactor pressure vessel and system therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Enomoto, Kunio; Kurosawa, Koichi; Saito, Hideyo.

    1994-01-01

    Upon dismantling of a reactor pressure vessel, a containment building made of concretes is disposed underground and a spent pressure vessel is contained therein, and incore structures are contained in the spent pressure vessel. Further, a plasma-welder and a pressing machine are disposed to a pool for provisionally placing reactor equipments in the reactor building for devoluming the incore structures by welding and compression. An overhead-running crane and rails therefor are disposed on the roof and the outer side of the reactor building for transporting the pressure vessel from the reactor building to the containment building. They may be contained in the containment building after incorporation of the incore structures into the pressure vessel at the outside of the reactor building. For the devoluming treatment, a combination of cutting, welding, pressing and the like are optically conducted. A nuclear power plant can be installed by using a newly manufactured nuclear reactor, with no requirement for a new site and it is unnecessary to provide a new radioactive waste containing facility. (N.H.)

  17. Management of wastes from dismantled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The problems associated with the management of radioactive wastes encountered in the dismantling of a 1200MWe PWR reactor are considered. It is possible to extend all the conclusions reached in these studies to BWR's or other reactors of the same type using light water as a coolant and moderator. The studies performed established the specific characteristics of these wastes: a gamma activity due essentially to 60 Co (after some fifty years this radioisotope will have decayed sufficiently to enable it to be stored without shielding); the presence of 63 Ni and 59 Ni (these long half-life beta emitting radioisotopes need to be stored over a long or even indefinite period of time); contaminated components (60% of the overall wastes), the reselling of these components involving costly decontamination processes. Extensive studies have been conducted on the management and handling of these wastes: packaging, transport, processing, storage and a great many techniques have been developed. However, further developments in concentration methods (fusion, crushing, cryogenics etc) and the selection of storage sites for this type of waste are necessary. Depending on the solutions chosen, the global cost of the wastes coming from a 1200 MW PWR reactor can vary between 10 and 20 million BFR

  18. Product Family Approach in E-Waste Management: A Conceptual Framework for Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Parajuly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the need for a more circular model is being increasingly pronounced, a fundamental change in the end-of-life (EoL management of electrical and electronic products (e-products is required in order to prevent the resource losses and to promote the reuse of products and components with remaining functionality. However, the diversity of product types, design features, and material compositions pose serious challenges for the EoL managers and legislators alike. In order to address these challenges, we propose a framework that is based on the ‘product family’ philosophy, which has been used in the manufacturing sector for a long time. For this, the product families can be built based on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of e-products as well as of the EoL management system. Such an approach has the potential to improve the current EoL practices and to support designers in making EoL thinking operational during the product design stage. If supported by a better EoL collection, presorting and testing platform, and a family-centric approach for material recovery, such a framework carries the potential to avoid the losses occurring in today’s e-waste management system. This, in turn, could facilitate a smooth transition towards a circular model for the electrical and electronic industry.

  19. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure-manual gathering of metals-and based paint (r = 0.23; P source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A production-theory-based framework for analysing recycling systems in the e-waste sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Modern approaches in the production theory of business and management economics propose that objects (e.g. materials) be divided into good, bad or neutral. In transformation processes such as occur in production or recycling this makes it possible to distinguish stringently between the economic revenue of a process and the economic and ecological expenditures for it. This approach can be transferred to entire systems of processes in order to determine the system revenue and the system expenditure. Material flow nets or graphs are used for this purpose. In complex material flow systems it becomes possible to calculate not only the costs, but also the direct and indirect environmental impacts of an individual process or a system revenue (for example a product or the elimination of waste) consistently. The approach permits a stringent analysis as well as different analysis perspectives of a material flow system. It is particularly suitable for closed-loop economic systems in which material backflows occur. With the aid of an example developed jointly with Hewlett Packard Europe, the paper outlines how this approach can be employed in the field of e-waste management

  1. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: COGEMA expertise devoted to UP1 reprocessing plant dismantling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last past decades, the French nuclear industry has acquired a great experience and know-how in the field of dismantling. Today this experience amounts to more than 200,000 hours. The fundamental aims within dismantling strategy are the same as for all nuclear facilities: minimising doses received by workers, minimising waste volume and adapting waste management to radioactivity levels, minimising costs. French experience is based on technologies which are currently used in nuclear maintenance facilities. Dismantling is a dynamic process especially in the field of decontamination (chemical and mechanical), cleaning, robotics and remote control operations. The strategy for the dismantling of former UP1 reprocessing plant is based on the feedback of experience gained through the dismantling of other facilities such as the AT1 workshop at La Hague. This workshop, a pilot plant for reprocessing of fast-breeder reactor fuels (Rapsodie and Phenix) has to be dismantled to IAEA level 3 (unrestricted site use), excluding civil works structures. Currently conducted by trained shifts, this dismantling project should end in 1999. The experience already acquired proves that chemical rinsings with the use of specific reagents is sufficient to decontaminate the hot cells and that the use of remote operations or robotics is not as important as previously envisaged. The UP1 reprocessing plant of Marcoule operated from 1958 to 1997. End of the operation was pronounced on the 31st of December 1997. 20,000 tons of spent fuels were reprocessed at UP1. The cleaning and dismantling operations at the Marcoule site depend upon the CEA, EDF and COGEMA. The Defence and Industry Ministries asked for a specific structure to be set up. An economic interest group called CODEM was created in May 1996. CODEM decides, finances and supervises dismantling operations, while respecting the constraints of nuclear safety, environmental protection and cost-effectiveness. The cleaning operations of

  2. Multiparameter optimisation of dismantling activities and waste management at a research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research centre for natural sciences and technology. The institute is active in solid-state physics, materials sciences, elementary particle physics, life sciences, nuclear and non-nuclear energy research, and energy-related ecology. PSI develops and operates complex research installations such as nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. These produce ionising radiation and major quantities of radioactive materials. The optimal handling of decommissioning and dismantling projects and radioactive waste treatment at PSI represents a complex management task, and is determined by many parameters that are only partially identical to those in the energy producing industry. Some of the major issues are addressed below. Management: The research community often requires rapid changes of experimental equipment. This necessitates that the four steps of decommissioning, removal, dismantling and conditioning of waste are spatially and temporally separated. The availability of a great scientific knowledge pool is instrumental for innovative solutions for the complex problems encountered. The accessibility of a modem hardware park (instruments, workshops etc.), sophisticated computer systems and modelling know how can facilitate the work considerably. The lack of a dedicated pool of decommissioning funds and the need for rapid response (see above) necessitate flexibility of the decommissioning crew and constant coordination and optimisation of the work packages with the institute's top management. The product of a research centre in general is not a tradable commodity and does not result in a direct return of money. Financial mechanisms such as the accumulation of funds for future liabilities are not an option. Since PSI - as probably most research institutes - is funded on a yearly basis, long term cost optimisations processes are in competition with legitimate short-term research needs. The benefits of

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on transite decontamination dismantlement and recycle/disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On February 3--4, 1993, a workshop was conducted to examine issues associated with the decontamination, dismantlement, and recycle/disposal of transite located at the US Department of Energy Fernald site near Cincinnati, OH. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a Superfund Site currently undergoing remediation. A major objective of the workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of transite remediation, and generate concepts that could be useful to the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO) for remediation of transite. Transite is a building material consisting of asbestos fiber and cement and may be radioactively contaminated as a result of past uranium processing operations at the FEMP. Many of the 100 buildings within the former uranium production area were constructed of transite siding and roofing and consequently, over 180,000 m 2 of transite must be disposed or recycled. Thirty-six participants representing industry, academia, and government institutions such as the EPA and DOE assembled at the workshop to present their experience with transite, describe work in progress, and address the issues involved in remediating transite

  4. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D ampersand D) characterization surveys performed by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. (EG ampersand G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D ampersand D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ''hot'' and ''cold'' laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D ampersand D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D ampersand D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D ampersand D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination

  5. Further studies on melting of radioactive metallic wastes from the dismantling of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diepenau, H.; Seidler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Melting of radioactive waste metal from the dismantling/refurbishing of nuclear installations is an acceptable way for nuclear waste recycling. This material can be used for the casting of qualified products such as type A- and type B-waste containers. The results of the melting facility -TAURUS- were used to build the industrial scale melting facility -CARLA- at Siempelkamp. The test results and the longterm-behaviour of the facility showed that the licensing conditions can be respected. The radiation exposure of workers was in the range of the admissible limit for non-exposed people. The radiation exposure of the environment is far below the value of the German Radiation Protection Law. The activity distribution within the product is homogeneous, so that its activity can be measured exactly before it is sent back in the nuclear area. By melting waste copper it is possible to respect the specific limits for unrestricted reuse, whereas for brass the limit for conditioned reuse in the industrial field was reached. Radioactive carbon can only be bound in form of small graphite lamellas or nodules in the cast iron; i.e. radioactive carbon can only be added to the melt as crushed material. During the research programme 2000 Mg of waste steel was melted at industrial scale and mainly products such as shielding blocks and waste containers were produced. 12 figs., 27 tabs., 6 refs

  6. Radiological survey techniques for decontamination and dismantlement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruesink, G.P.; Stempfley, D.H.; Pettit, P.J.; Warner, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is engaged in an aggressive Program to remove all above ground structures as part of the Fernald sites final remediation remedy. Through the complete removal of major facilities such as Plant 7, Plant 4, and Plant 1, the FEMP has developed radiological survey approaches that are effective for the different phases of the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D ampersand D) process. Some of the most pressing challenges facing the FEMP are implementing effective, low cost methods for the D ampersand D of former process buildings while minimizing environmental effects. One of the key components to ensure minimal impact on the environment is the collection of radiological contamination information during the D ampersand D process to facilitate the decision making process. Prior to the final demolition of any structure, radiological surveys of floors, walls, and ceilings must take place. These surveys must demonstrate that contamination levels am below 5000 dpm removable beta/gamma for non-porous surfaces and below 1000 dpm removable-beta/gamma for all porous surfaces. Technique which can perform these activities in a safe, effective, and cost efficient manner are greatly desired. The FEMP has investigated new approaches to address this need. These techniques include sampling approaches using standard baseline methodology as well as innovative approaches to accelerate final radiological clearance processes. To further improve upon this process, the FEMP has investigated several new technologies through the Fernald Plant 1 Large Scale Technology Demonstration Project. One of the most promising of these new technologies, Laser Induced Fluorescence, may significantly improve the radiological clearance survey process. This paper will present real world experiences in applying radiological control limits to D ampersand D projects as well as relate potential productivity and cost improvements with the

  7. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

  8. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasko, Marek

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

  9. Recycling of concrete waste generated from nuclear power plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hideo; Nagase, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nawa, Toyoharu

    2012-01-01

    Non-radioactive concrete waste generated from dismantling of a standard large nuclear power plant is estimated to be about 500,000 tons in weight. Using such waste as recycled aggregate within the enclosure of the plant requires a new manufacturing technology that generates a minimal amount of by-product powder. Recycled aggregate has brittle parts with defects such as cracks, pores, and voids in residual paste from original concrete. This study presents a method of selectively removing the defective parts during manufacture to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate. With this selective removal method used, the amount of by-product powder can be reduced by half as compared to that by a conventional method. The influences of the characteristics of the recycled fine aggregate on the flowability and strength of the mortar using recycled fine aggregate were evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. The results clearly showed that the flowability was primarily affected by the filling fraction of recycled fine aggregate, while the compressive strength of mortar was primarily affected by the fraction of defects in the aggregate. It was also found that grains produced by a granulator have more irregularities in the surfaces than those produced by a ball mill, providing an increased mortar strength. Using these findings from this study, efforts are also being made to develop a mechanical technology that enables simultaneous processing of decontamination and recycling. The granulator under consideration is capable of grinding the surfaces of irregularly shaped particles and may be used successfully, under optimal conditions, for the surface decontamination of concrete waste contaminated with radioactive materials. (author)

  10. The inherent advantages of delayed dismantling of decommissioning nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liederman, J.M.; Saroudis, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies in Canada pertaining to the decommissioning of the CANDU 600 MW(e) reactor have led to the development of the option of a ''static state'' condition. This alternative is based on judging risk and benefit to society considering the greatly reduced potential radiation exposure to personnel after 30 to 80 years have elapsed, following the final shutdown of the reactor. After approximately 80 to 120 years have elapsed, the decay in all systems and components (with the exception of the reactor assembly) would be such that radiation fields would be at background levels producing an environment that would be acceptable for Stage 3 decommissiong. This philosophy is based on the current engineering judgement that: - All systems, components, and structures which were associated with the nuclear processes and are radioactive, can be put into a static or storage state, and a containment function maintained at low cost for prolonged periods of between 80 to 120 years. - Between 80 to 120 years after shutdown, most of the radioactivity, except for some long lived radionuclides in the reactor vessel itself and its vault, will have naturally decayed to near releasable limits without any external intervention. - There is a lower overall risk to society in this approach, than dismantling and transporting radioactive materials prematurely. This philosophy is developed taking into consideration radiation protection, financial and risk assessment issues. The Canadian concept of dry storage of spent fuel is part of this philosophy and may be of interest to decommissioned nuclear plants of other types. 4 tables, 5 graphs

  11. Shutdown, dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities in France - Guide no. 6 - Update of 30/08/2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context and references, this guide addresses the strategy for an immediate dismantling of an installation, the dismantling planning, the different phases of the end of life of nuclear base installations, the authorization of definitive stop and dismantling, the preliminary phase preparing the definitive stop (regulatory context, technical aspects), the dismantling phase (regulatory context, technical aspects for the concerned operations, the security functions, hardware important for security, taking ageing into account), and the final status of installations (downgrading, constraints)

  12. Expertise of the Oeko-Institute on the application to obtain permission to partially dismantle the Niederaichbach nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This expertise gives an overview on the problems associated with the decommissioning and dismantling of the Niederaichbach nuclear power plant, considering technical and legal aspects. It wants to prove that the dismantling of this reactor cannot serve as evidence to prove the general feasibility of reactor dismantling. Much space is dedicated to the discussion about where the borderline should be drawn between radioactive and non-radioactive materials according to the ordinance on radiation protection. The reasons for rejecting the partial dismantling application are given. (DG) [de

  13. State of dismantling of reactor facilities (JPDR) in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (fiscal year 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As to this dismantling work, the contents of the notice on the dismantling and the policy of administration offices to deal with it were reported to the Nuclear Safety Commission beforehand, and after the approval was obtained, it has been executed. Based on the talk of the chairman of Nuclear Safety Commission on January 6, 1983, the state of dismantling is reported. In fiscal year 1986, the second stage dismantling was begun in December, and it was confirmed that the works were carried out safety. In order to ensure the place required for dismantling and removing in-core structures and the pressure vessel, the pressure vessel upper cover and its heat insulator were removed from the third story of the containment vessel. A part of the facilities installed on the second and third stories of the containment vessel was also dismantled and removed. In order to utilize as the place for the temporary preservation and decontamination of dismantled things, a part of the facilities installed in the dump condenser building was dismantled and removed. The control building was reconstructed for smoothly carrying out the entrance control of workers. 36 spent fuel assemblies were carried away for reprocessing. The exposure dose of workers was below the detectable limit of film badges. The dismantled wastes were about 171 t of metals and 34 t of concrete. (Kako, I.)

  14. Evaluation formulas of manpower needs for dismantling of equipments in uranium refining and conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Kubota, Shintaro; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2014-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed PROject management data evaluation code for DIsmantling Activities (PRODIA) to make an efficient decommissioning for nuclear facilities. PRODIA is a source code which provides estimated value such as manpower needs, costs, etc., for dismantling by evaluation formulas according to the type of nuclear facility. Evaluation formulas of manpower needs for dismantling of equipments about reprocessed uranium conversion in Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant (URCP) have been developed in this report. In the result, evaluation formulas of manpower needs for dismantling of equipment were derived based on the classifications of equipment's functions or work items. These evaluation formulas are widely applicable to the estimation of the manpower needs for dismantling the other nuclear facilities, in particular uranium handling facilities. It was confirmed that some of these evaluation formulas with the same applicable condition could be unified to some inclusive evaluation formulas. It turned out that all steel equipment contaminated by uranium could be evaluated by one evaluation formula. (author)

  15. Processing of LLW arising from dismantling activities in a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.G.; Geens, L.P.; Vandeven, I.

    1990-01-01

    The Eurochemic reprocessing facility, at the Mol-Dessel site in Belgium was in active operation from July 1966 until January 1975. In total, about 210 Mg of various types of irradiated nuclear fuels were processed. After the shut-down the plant has been partially decontaminated in view of recommissioning. When the recommissioning option was abandoned, the decision was taken in 1986 to dismantle the plant. A 2 years study resulted in the start of a pilot project: the dismantling of two smaller buildings, previously used for storage of uranyl nitrate and used solvent. The minimization of radioactive waste generation was also one of the major goals of this project. The report deals with the different steps in the minimization of radioactive waste generation during the dismantling activities. First, an estimation of the amounts of radioactive waste, expected to be generated, was made. In a second step the actual waste production during dismantling operations was minimized and compared with the estimations. Finally, a large part of the primary radioactive dismantling waste has been completely decontaminated, resulting in much lower amounts of nuclear waste generated. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Experience with Dismantling of the Analytic Cell in the JRTF Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annoh, Akio; Nemoto, Koichi; Tajiri, Hideo; Saito, Keiichiro; Miyajima, Kazutoshi; Myodo, Masato

    2003-01-01

    The analytic cell was mainly used for process control analysis of the reprocessing process and for the measurement of fuel burn up ratio in JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The analytic cell was a heavy shielded one and equipped with a conveyor. The cell was alpha and beta(gamma)contaminated. For dismantling of analytic cells, it is very important to establish a method to remove the heavy shield safely and reduce the exposure. At first, a green house was set up to prevent the spread out of contamination, and next, the analytic cell was dismantled. Depending on the contamination condition, the workers wore protective suits such as air ventilated-suits for prevention of internal exposure and vinyl chloride aprons, lead aprons in order to reduce external exposure. From the work carried out, various data such as needed manpower for the activities, the collective dose of workers by external exposure, the amount of radioactive wastes and the relation between the weight of the shield and its dismantling efficiency were obtained and input for the database. The method of dismantling and the experience with the dismantling of the analytic cell in the JRTF, carried out during 2001 and 2002, are described in this paper

  17. Taking into account of dismantling constraints in the design of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouhier, E.; Moitrier, C.; Girones, P.; Pitrou, Y.; Poncet, P.; O'Sullivan, P.

    2014-01-01

    The taking into account of dismantling constraints in the design of nuclear facilities allows the reduction of the dosimetry during the dismantling operations, the reduction of the amount of wastes to manage and the saving of time and money by foreseeing an adequate and simple solution for each component. It is to notice that the strategy of life-extension strengthens that of dismantling because life-extension implies the possibility for any component of the reactor except the pressure vessel to be replaced. The feedback experience capitalized on various types of nuclear facilities have enabled IAEA and OECD to publish recommendations to facilitate dismantling. For instance, pipes and ventilation ducts must be designed to minimize the deposit of dust and residues, the natural porosity of concrete must be limited through the use of polishing products or a metal liner, the type and concentrations of impurities present in the structure materials must be controlled to limit radioactivation, the documentation describing the facility must be kept up to date, or the history of contamination events must be recorded all along the life of the facility. The integration of the dismantling constraints in the design stage is illustrated with 3 examples: the Georges Besse 2 enrichment fuel plant, new reactors (EPR, ASTRID and RJH), and ITER. (A.C.)

  18. Applying Technology Management concepts in analyzing e Waste, sustainability and technology development in Mobile Industry: A conceptual perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Agnihothri, Subodh; Lugmayr, Artur

    2013-01-01

    In the highly globalized, competitive and technocrat world, mobile industry is heavily focused on making itself sustainable. In order to achieve this focus should be on improving the e waste management in the industry. Currently the industry is advanced beyond market demand in delivery services to customers in terms of ICT and smart phones. This research paper is trying to conceptualize the aspect of technology management by comparing technology advancement of mobile phone technology and the ...

  19. Occurrence, profiles, and toxic equivalents of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in E-waste open burning soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Chiya; Horii, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Ballesteros, Florencio; Viet, Pham Hung; Itai, Takaaki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this study to assess the occurrence, profiles, and toxicity of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Br-PAHs) in e-waste open burning soils (EOBS). In this study, concentrations of 15 PAHs, 26 Cl-PAHs and 14 Br-PAHs were analyzed in EOBS samples. We found that e-waste open burning is an important emission source of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs as well as PAHs. Concentrations of total Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in e-waste open burning soil samples ranged from 21 to 2800 ng/g and from 5.8 to 520 ng/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the mean of total Cl-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples in this study was higher than that of electronic shredder waste, that of bottom ash, and comparable to fly ash from waste incinerators in Korea and Japan. The mean of total Br-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples was generally three to four orders of magnitude higher than those in incinerator bottom ash and comparable to incinerator fly ash, although the number of Br-PAH congeners measured differed among studies. We also found that the Cl-PAH and Br-PAH profiles were similar among all e-waste open burning soil samples but differed from those in waste incinerator fly ash. The profiles and principal component analysis results suggested a unique mechanism of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH formation in EOBS. In addition, the Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs showed high toxicities equivalent to PCDD/Fs measured in same EOBS samples when calculated based on their relative potencies to benzo[a]pyrene. Along with chlorinated and brominated dioxins and PAHs, Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs are important environmental pollutants to investigate in EOBS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. E-Waste Recycling Systems and Sound Circulative Economies in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Systems in Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-cheol Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to review and compare E-waste management systems operating in East Asian countries in efforts to identify future challenges facing the circulative economies in the region. The first topic of this paper is cost sharing (physical and financial as applied to the various stakeholders, including producers, consumers, local governments and recyclers, in the E-waste management systems. The second topic is the environmental and economical impacts of these E-waste management systems on recycling technology, trans-boundary movement of E-wastes and Design for Environment (DfE. The final topic is the possibility for international cooperation in the region in terms of E-waste management systems. The authors’ preliminary result is that the E-waste management systems operating in these East Asian countries have contributed to extended producer responsibility and DfE to some extent, but many challenges remain in their improvement through proper cost sharing among the stakeholders. It is also clear that the cross-border transfer of E-wastes cannot be resolved by one nation alone, and thus international cooperation will be indispensable in finding a suitable solution.

  1. Outsourcing and "dismantling" of steady jobs at hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Helton Saragor de; Mendes, Áquilas Nogueira

    2016-04-01

    To relate hospitals' organizational structure as the core of a web of outsourced services and flexible employment bonds among healthcare professionals in the context of finance capitalism, analyzing work arrangements based mainly on the type of employment bond. Qualitative research through ethnography, interviews, data analysis, and case studies. The case studies were concentrated in 3 hospitals located in the São Paulo metropolitan region under different management types: public administration; outsourced administration via a healthcare social organization (HSO); and private administration. This study highlights a trend in outsourcing, dismantling of steady jobs, and shaping working relations asymmetrically in terms of healthcare professions. These aspects are characteristic of contemporary capitalism and post-Fordist work organization. In this context, the state under sponsorship cripples the very existence of an effective human resources policy, creating a favorable environment for outsourcing and flexibility of employment bonds among healthcare workers. Relacionar a estrutura organizativa dos hospitais como núcleo de uma rede de serviços subcontratados e a flexibilização dos vínculos contratuais dos profissionais de saúde no contexto de capitalismo financeirizado, analisando os regimes de trabalho condicionados centralmente pelo vínculo empregatício. Pesquisa qualitativa através de etnografia, realização de entrevistas, análise de dados e utilização de estudo de caso. Os estudos de caso concentram-se em três hospitais localizados Região Metropolitana de São Paulo com gestões distintas: administração pública; administração terceirizada para Organização Social de Saúde (OSS); e administração privada. Destacamos a tendência da terceirização, do desmonte do emprego estável e a conformação de relações trabalhistas assimétricas para as profissões em saúde. Esses aspectos são característicos do período do capitalismo

  2. Vandellos 1 NPP. Dismantling at the level 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, E.; Perez Pallares, J.

    1998-01-01

    . The radiological protection during dismantling activities took care of α contamination. The plant safety is always surveyed by the Regulatory Authority (CSN) which required to revise the Technical Specifications several times, according to the nuclear evolution of the site. (author)

  3. Present status of refining and conversion facility dismantling. Progress in 2008 first half of the fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Kazumi; Sugitsue, Noritake; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Ikegami, Sohei; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tokuyasu, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    The Refining and Conversion Facility located in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. Process of natural uranium conversion facility (PNC Process) and reprocessed uranium conversion facility (two-stage dry fluorination system) is in a Refining and Conversion Facility. This building started construction in 1979 and was completed in October 1981. The PNC process operated from March 1982 to March 1991. As a result, uranium hexafluoride of about 385 tonU was manufactured. Also, the reprocessed uranium conversion process operated from December 1982 to July 1999. As a result, uranium hexafluoride of about 338 tonU was manufactured. The demonstration of the demolition method was done using the PNC process after the end of operation. The schedule which will finish dismantling of all equipment in a radiation controlled area is by the 2011 fiscal year. This report summarized the present situation by the first half of the 2008 fiscal year of a Refining and Conversion Facility decommissioning. (author)

  4. Drafting of the dismantling operations of the MAR 200 workshop with the help of virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabal, C.; Soulabaille, Y.; Garnier, T.; Callixte, O.

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimize future dismantling operations of nuclear installations virtual reality allows the validation of predefined scenarios and their adequacy with the environment. CEA uses an immersion and interactive room to validate maintenance and dismantling operations. The equipment of this room is composed of a video wall that gives a 3-dimensional view of the virtual environment, and of a system for motion capture. For the simulation of handling operations a haptic interface has been designed, it allows the user to receive a tactic and effort-feeling feed back. The immersion is completed by a phonic ambience that creates sounds for virtual operations. The use of the immersion room for optimizing the dismantling of a spent fuel dissolver (MAR 200) used in hot cell is presented. (A.C.)

  5. Manually-Operated Crate Dismantlement System for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffitte, John; Lagos, Leo; Morales, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory currently possesses between 500 and 800 fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates that contain hazardous materials that need to be decontaminated. To access the hazardous material, a system is needed to dismantle the crate. Currently, crates are dismantled by workers using hand-held tools. This technique has numerous disadvantages. One disadvantage is that it is difficult for a worker to hold the tool for an extended period of time in the awkward angles and positions necessary to fully size-reduce the crate. Other disadvantages of using hand tools include managing power cords and vacuum hoses, which become entangled or can act as tripping hazards. In order to improve the crate opening and size-reduction task, Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) is developing a manually operated crate dismantlement system. This versatile system is expected to greatly increase worker efficiency while decreasing fatigue and the possibility of accidents. (authors)

  6. Deregulation in the field of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, A.

    1994-05-01

    The report comprises two articles covering current topics of the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities. In the first article written by Kurz, the legal standards are listed together with conclusions and proposals regarding their implementation for the further development of this field of law. The article by Baumgaertel is aimed at evaluating the regulations governing nuclear technology as regards their applicability to the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities. These articles shall contribute to the discussions taking place in this field at the moment. As a result, an appropriate and project-specific application of the legal provisions and not legally binding (technical) regulations in the field of nuclear technology (deregulation) in the licensing procedures required for the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities is requested by the authors. (orig.) [de

  7. International Cooperation for the Dismantling of Chooz A Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenouillet, J.J.; Posivak, E.

    2009-01-01

    Chooz A is the first PWR that is being decommissioned in France. The main issue that is conditioning the success of the project is the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) segmentation. Whereas Chooz A is the first and unique RPV and RVI being dismantled in France, there are many similar experiences available in the world. Thus the project team was eager to cooperate with other teams facing or being faced with the same issue. A cooperation programme was established in two separate ways: - Benefiting from experience feedback from completed RPV and RVI dismantling projects, - Looking for synergy with future RPV dismantling projects for activities such as segmentation tools design, qualification and manufacturing for example. This paper describes the implementation of this programme and how the outcome of the cooperation was used for the implementation of Chooz-A RPV and RVI segmentation project. It shows also the limits of such a cooperation. (authors)

  8. Radioactivity, radiation protection and monitoring during dismantling of light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, L.; Zech, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the radioactivity inventory in the systems and components of light-water reactors observed during operation, the impact of actions during plant emptying after the conclusion of power operation and possible subsequent long-term safe enclosure concerning the composition of the nuclide inventory of the plant to be dismantled will be described. Derived from this will be the effects on radioactivity monitoring in the plant, physical radiation protection monitoring, and the measured characterization of the residual materials resulting from the dismantling. The impact of long-term interim storage will also be addressed in the discussion. The talk should provide an overview of the interrelationships between source terms, decay times and the radioactivity monitoring requirements of the various dismantling concepts for commercial light-water reactors. (orig.)

  9. Stage 2: dismantling of reactor case of the experimental F.B.R. Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document defines the main objectives of stage 2 dismantling of the Rapsodie experimental fast neutron reactor and specifies its time schedule. The work already in progress consists in containing the reactor vessel and its internal equipment, as well as the neutron protection concrete, inside the two leak-tight barriers, and in dismantling all the systems and equipment systems contaminated by sodium. This work, which includes the destruction of 37 metric tons of contaminated sodium from the primary system, was begun in 1987 and will be completed in 1994. The duration of the waiting period for complete dismantling (stage 3) has not been defined. However, the containment and monitoring means implemented should allow a safe waiting period of several decades. (author). 4 figs

  10. Remote dismantlement tasks for the CP5 reactor: Implementation, operations, and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a developer's perspective on lessons learned from one example of the integration of new prototype technology into a traditional operations environment. The dual arm work module was developed by the Robotics Technology Development Program as a research and development activity to examine manipulator controller modes and deployment options. It was later reconfigured for the dismantlement of the Argonne National Laboratory Chicago Pile number-sign 5 reactor vessel as the crane-deployed dual arm work platform. Development staff worked along side operations staff during a significant part of the deployment to provide training, maintenance, and tooling support. Operations staff completed all actual remote dismantlement tasks. At the end of available development support funding, the Dual Arm Work Platform was turned over to the operations staff, who is still using it to complete their dismantlement tasks

  11. Development of equipments for remote dismantling of joule heated ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgujar, Kiran T.; Usarkar, Sachin G.; Kumar, Binu; Nair, K.N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Joule Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) technology has been adopted for industrial scale vitrification of high level liquid waste (HLLW) at Tarapur and Kalpakkam. The melter installed at Advanced Vitrification System (AVS), Tarapur has immobilized 175 m 3 of HLLW in 113 canisters containing 11533Kg of Vitrified Waste Product (VWP). The melter has been in operation for 3 years before shutdown. It is intended to demonstrate the complete procedure of dismantling of Joule Melter in 1:1 scale prior to going in for actual dismantling in the hot cell. The Melter consists of an assembly of Inconel/SS pipes and plates, fuse cast refractories, thermal insulations of various types inside a SS casing and possibly some glass which is left over in the melter. Dismantling of melter involves remote cutting of the outer casing, pipe connections, electrical connections and removal, sizing and packing of internals in a sequential manner to minimise generation of secondary waste. The challenge involves development of remotely operated multi-degrees of freedom fixtures, modification and performance testing of standard industrial cutting and breaking tools and adapting them for remote operations. The work also involves development of equipments for collection of waste generated during the dismantling operation and packaging thus in special packages. Remotely actuated fixtures have been developed for remote top plate and side electrodes cutting. Remotely operated grab has been developed for handling of loose material and grippers have been developed for handling of refractory blocks. Industrial vacuum suction device has been modified into split units to en